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AMINES
Contents
Historical perspective
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Background
(MMA, DMA and TMA)

Stereochemistry and Structure

Reaction Mechanisms and Thermodynamics

CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION


Non-Zeolitic Catalysts for Amination
Mordinite (MOR) Catalysts for Amination
Zeolite Catalysts for Amination
AMINES
Contents
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Amines Production

Amines: Markets and Applications

Gas Separation

Conventional Amines Treating System

Amine System for Gas Sweetening

APPENDIX
Structures
Ethyleneamines Production
AMINES
Historical Perspective

Industrially the synthesis of methylamines in batch mode from


methanol and ammonia, using zinc chloride, was first reported
in 1884.

The first report of amination of alcohols in the gas phase was in 1909

Methylamines were first made commercially in the 1920s for use in


the tanning industry for the dehairing of animal skins by
Commercial Solvents Corporation in Terra Haute, Indiana.
AMINES
Historical Perspective

The process used at that time and the current


processes [are essentially the contact of gaseous
methanol and ammonia over dehydrating catalysts
(e.g. silica-alumina), followed by collection and
separation of the products.

For higher aliphatic amines, catalysts having hydrogenating and


dehydrogenating properties have also become important
Amines Background
(MMA, DMA and TMA)
Mono-methyamine (MMA)

Mono-methylamine is the organic compound


with the chemical formula CH3NH2.

This colorless gas is a derivative of ammonia,


but with one H atom replaced by a methyl
group.

It is the simplest primary amine.

It is sold as a solution in methanol, ethanol, and


water or as the anhydrous gas in pressurized
metal containers.
Di-methylamine (DMA)
Dimethylamine is an organic compound with the chemical
formula (CH3)2NH.

This secondary amine is a colorless, flammable liquefied gas


with an ammonia-like odor.

Dimethylamine is generally encountered as a solution in


water at concentrations up to around 40%.

Dimethylamine is a precursor to several industrially


significant compounds.

It reacts with carbon disulfide to give dimethyldithiocarbamate, a


precursor to a family of chemicals widely used in the vulcanization
of rubber.
Tri-methylamine (TMA)

Trimethylamine is an organic compound with the chemical


formula N(CH3)3.

This colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable tertiary amine


has a strong "fishy" odor in low concentrations and an
ammonia-like odor at higher concentrations.

It is a gas at room temperature but is usually sold in


pressurized gas cylinders or as a 40% solution in water.

Tri-methylamine is used in the synthesis of choline, tetramethylammonium


hydroxide, plant growth regulators, strongly basic anion exchange resins,
dye leveling agents and a number of basic dyes [1]. Gas sensors to test for
fish freshness detect trimethylamine.
Physical Properties of MMA, DMA and TMA
Stereochemistry
and Structure
The electron structure of amines
Reaction Mechanisms and
Thermodynamics
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Chemical reactions and catalysts
The reaction of ammonia and methanol in the presence of a solid
acid catalyst forms a mixture of mono-, di- and trimethylamine
(MMA, DMA and TMA, respectively).
Reactions and Thermodynamics
Alkylation of Ammonia with Alcohols

Table I shows the different classes of reactions that play a role in


the amination of alcohols over solid acid catalysts.
Reactions and Thermodynamics
Alkylation of Ammonia with Alcohols

The alkylation reactions are exothermic and are


regarded as Irreversible due to their high equilibrium
constant.

They proceed in sequential order to yield the mono-,


di- and tri-substituted amines.

The transalkylation reactions are regarded as being


reversible and are held responsible for the amine
product distribution at higher alcohol conversion.
Reactions and Thermodynamics
Alkylation of Ammonia with Alcohols

Dependence of the equilibrium amine distribution on (a) the NH


/MeOH ratio and Reaction temperature

(‫ )ם‬MMA, (Δ) DMA, (ο) TMA


Reactions and Thermodynamics
The equilibrium distribution of the reactants and products in
methanol and ethanol amination:
Dependence of the equilibrium product distribution on: (a) and (b)
NH3/EtOH ratio at 573 K and p=1 bar

(‫ )ם‬MEA, (Δ)DEA, (ο) TEA, (♦) ethene


Reactions and Thermodynamics
The equilibrium distribution of the reactants and products in
methanol and ethanol amination:
Dependence of the equilibrium product distribution on reaction
temperature at NH /EtOH=4 and p=1 bar
Bar.

(‫ )ם‬MEA, (Δ)DEA, (ο) TEA, (♦) ethene


Reactions and Thermodynamics
OBSERVATIONS

The equilibrium distribution of the reactants and


products in methanol and ethanol amination given in
the previous three slides suggest the following:

 The necessity to shift the reactions away from


equilibrium

 In ethylamine synthesis this need arises from the


necessity to avoid the formation of ethene and its
oligomerization products and thus to increase catalyst
and equipment lifetime
Synthesis of Secondary Amines
Synthesis of Tertiary Aliphatic Amines
Psychoactive Compounds I
Psychoactive Compounds II
CATALYSTS FOR
AMINATION
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Non-Zeolitic Catalysts for
Amination
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Non-Zeolitic Catalysts for Amination

Variety of catalysts for the vapor phase methanol-ammonia reaction


has been reported:

 Aluminas,

 Silicas,

 Zirconia,

 Thoria

 Phosphates.

*other materials that perform dehydration chemistry have


been used for methylamines synthesis
Non-Zeolitic Catalysts for Amination
Photocatalytic Pt/titania

Among the more exotic candidates are a


photocatalytic Pt/titania system where at
MeOH conversion of < 0.1% only TMA is
produced and a heteropoly acid catalyst
that suppresses TMA completely at 477°C
and N/C=2.

It was recognized early on that a high N/C ratio favored


MMA formation.

The temperature range employed was, as expected, large


250-500°C.
Non-Zeolitic Catalysts for Amination
Silica-alumina (SA)

Silica-alumina (SA) is currently the most widely used


catalyst for methylamines synthesis.

It is usually made by
coprecipitation.
Non-Zeolitic Catalysts for Amination
Silica-alumina (SA)

A SA (46.9 wt% SiOa) was compared to


a boron phosphate and an SA-boron
phosphate hybrid, SA was found to be
the preferred catalyst; it had a higher
selectivity to amines.

Reduced coking and improved rates are


obtained by using a high alumina
(94 wt%) content SA catalyst.

*at the same conditions, conversion and selectivity to amines


increased with increasing surface area and acidity.
MORDENITE (MOR) CATALYSTS
FOR AMINATION
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Mordenite (MOR) CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION

Among the zeolites seen suitable for shape selective alkylamine


synthesis, mordenite is industrially the most widespread applied.

Mordenite consists of a one dimensional system


of large channels (12-ring, 6.5 x 7.0 Å) lined with
so-called side pockets, which have an aperture of
approx. 4.8 x 3.7 Å [14,15], these side pockets are
separated by a restriction of 2.6 x 5.7 Å, as shown
in the Figure to the Right, in which the
accessibility of the MOR structure to ammonia is
represented (obtained using the Insight II
program from Biosym/MSI).
Mordenite (MOR) CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Mordenite (MOR) CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Mordenite (MOR) CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR
AMINATION
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION

The primary building blocks of zeolites are {SiO4}4- and


{AlO4}5- tetrahedra.

As a result of the difference


in charge between these
tetrahedra, the total
framework charge is
negative and hence must be
balanced by cations,
typically protons, alkali, or
alkaline earth metal ions.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION

Generally in the protonic or acid form, these materials


behave as solid acids and as such are excellent
candidates as catalysts for methylamines synthesis.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Zeolite Properties 1

 Zeolites have uniform pore systems of a size that is


comparable to a number of organic molecules.

 Zeolites are crystalline materials that are composed of a three


dimensional network of metal oxygen tetrahedral with:

- a one-dimensional channel system


- a two-dimensional channel system
- a three-dimensional channel system

* Depending on the way these tetrahedral are


linked together.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Zeolite Properties 1

Zeolites can be classified according to their largest pore size.

'Small pore' zeolites are those containing 8-membered ring


openings,

'medium' containing 10-membered rings and

'large' containing 12-membered rings

Zeolites of all three classes have been tested for amine synthesis.

The pore openings of these zeolites range from 3 to 7.5Å and


allow for exclusion of molecules based on their minimum kinetic
diameter and shape.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Zeolite Properties 1

Mechanistically, different reasons for the occurrence of


shape selectivity are distinguished:

(i) Reactant shape selectivity (a consequence of one


reactant being too large to pass through the zeolite
channel) and

(ii) Product selectivity (when only certain products are of


the proper size and shape are able to diffuse out of the
channels.

(iii)Transition state selectivity occurs when the


corresponding transition state of a certain reaction
requires more space than available in the framework of
the zeolite.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Zeolite Properties 2

Zeolites can contain high concentrations of localized acid


sites.

The acid sites of zeolites are an integral part of the


microporous structure resulting from an imbalance between
the metal oxygen stoichiometry and the formal charges of the
cations.

In zeolites the tetrahedral are based on silicon and oxygen. In


this network of tetrahedral a Si atom has a charge of +4, an O
atom of -2.

As every O atom belongs to two tetrahedral, a purely siliceous


lattice is neutral and possesses no acidity.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Zeolite Properties 2

Substituting part of the Si atoms by Al (+3), creates a negative charge


at the Al-O tetrahedra, which is balanced by a metal cation (Lewis
acid site) or a proton (Brønsted acid site).

Thus these acid sites are localized and their concentration is


proportional to the aluminum concentration in the lattice.

Due to their open structure, the accessibility of acid sites is much


larger than for amorphous materials of similar composition.

High surface concentration of reactants and longer residence times


of reactants in the pores generally additionally enhance the activity of
zeolites.
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Numerous zeolites have been tested as catalyst

 ZK-5

 Rho

 Chabazite

 Erionite

 Offretite

 ZSM-5

 Mordenite

ranging in size from 'small pore' to 'large pore' zeolites.


ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Large Pore zeolites

 Mordenite (MOR)

 Faujasite (FAU)

 Mazzite (MAZ)

 Beta (BEA)
ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR AMINATION
Zeolite structures, emphasizing the diameter of the 12-ring;
(a) BEA, (b) FAU, (c) MOR, and (d) MAZ.
Large Pore zeolites
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Amines Production
Amines Production
When ammonia is reacted with methanol, the products
MMA, DMA and TMA are formed in consecutive reactions.

The most widely used method for the production of


methylamines is the reaction of methanol with ammonia at
temperatures of about 400°C in the presence of acidic solid
catalysts.

These catalysts are capable of dehydrating and aminating


methanol.

These catalysts are capable of dehydrating and aminating


methanol. For example, modified γ-alumina, aluminosilicate
and thorium oxide catalysts.
Amines Production
Largest Producers of methylamines and their method of
production
Amines Production
Process Constraints

As a result of the increasing demand for DMA all major


producers and researchers are looking for a catalyst that
increases the yield of DMA.

Therefore, in many processes MMA and TMA are converted


into DMA by being recycled into the feedstock.

There are also byproducts that are produced during the


catalytic reaction and they include ethanol, ethylamine,
dimethylether, methane and etc.
Amines Production
Process Overview

Fresh methanol and ammonia feed are combined with


recycled ammonia and methylamines (mainly MMA and TMA)
are fed to a reactor containing a solid acid catalyst.

The amorphous silica alumina catalysts produced by


Albemarle are those most commonly used in the
methylamine production process.

These catalysts are highly active and stable but have no


specific product selectivity.

Various catalysts are available in the market under


commercial names.
Amines Production
Typical properties of KDC-6 catalyst
produced by Albemarle
AMINE PRODUCTION
PROCESSES
The Nitto Chemical Methylamines Process

Methylamines are produced conventionally by


reacting gaseous methanol and ammonia in the
presence of a catalyst such as silica-alumina.

The reaction products have the thermodynamic


equilibrium composition of monomethylamine,
dimethylamine, and trimethylamine.

To produce a product mix different from the


equilibrium composition, unwanted methylamines
recovered downstream must be recycled to the
reaction to suppress their formation.
AMINE PRODUCTION
PROCESSES
The Nitto Chemical Methylamines Process

Nitto Chemical (Japan) has developed a process


that can produce a non-equilibrium product mix
having a high dimethylamine content, e.g., 86%
dimethylamine and 7% each of mono- and
trimethylamines.

The process is based on zeolite-type catalysts.


A commercial methylamines plant based on it
has been in operation since 1984.
AMINE PRODUCTION
PROCESSES
The Nitto Chemical Methylamines Process

A conventional process to produce a product


mix consisting of 34wt% monomethylamine,
46wt% dimethylamine, and 20wt%
trimethylamine would require a total fixed
capital about 14%higher and a product value
about 7% higher than that of the Nitto Chemical
process.
AMINE PRODUCTION
PROCESSES
The Nitto Chemical Methylamines Process

To produce a product mix similar to the one


prescribed for the Nitto Chemical process, the
conventional process would be even more
costly, because larger portions of the
monomethylamine and trimethylamine product
streams must be recycled to the reactor to
suppress the formation of these two
methylamines.
Amines: Markets and
Applications
Amines: Markets and Applications
Amines: Markets and Applications
Amines: Gas Separation
Amines: Gas Separation

Solvents
Amine scrubbing technology was established over 60 years ago in the
oil and chemical industries, for removal of hydrogen sulfide and CO2
from gas streams Commercially, it is the most well established of the
techniques available for CO2 capture although practical experience is
mainly in gas streams which are chemically reducing, the opposite of
the oxidizing environment of a flue gas stream. and desorption
characteristics.
Amines: Gas Separation

Solvents

There are several facilities in which amines are used to capture CO2
from flue gas streams today, one example being the Warrior Run coal
fired power station in the USA where 150 t/d of CO2 is captured.

Mono-ethanolamine (MEA) is a widely used type of amine for CO2


capture. CO2 recovery rates of 98% and product purity in excess of
99% can be achieved. There are, however, questions about its rate of
degradation in the oxidizing environment of a flue gas and the amount
of energy required for
Regeneration.

Improved solvents could reduce energy requirements by as much as


40% compared to conventional MEA solvents. There is considerable
interest in the use of sterically-hindered amines which are claimed to
have good absorption and desorption characteristics.
Conventional Amines Treating
System
Amines: Gas Sweetening
Amines: Gas Sweetening
Amines: Gas Sweetening
Amines: Gas Sweetening
APPENDIX
Ethyleneamines Production
Ethyleneamines Production
US 7,626,058 Scheme1
Ethyleneamines Production
US 7,626,058 Scheme 2
Ethyleneamines Production
US 7,626,058 Scheme 3
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Typical Physical Properties
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Typical Physical Properties
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Typical Physical Properties
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Typical Physical Properties
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Ethyleneamine Profiles
Reactions of Ethyleneamine
Ethyleneamine: Reaction Notes
Ethyleneamine: Reaction Notes
Ethyleneamine: Reaction Notes
Ethyleneamine: Reaction Notes
Ethyleneamines Applications

Ethyleneamines are utilized in a wide variety of applications


because of their unique combination of reactivity, basicity,
and surface activity.

They are predominantly used as intermediates in the


production of functional products.

The following table lists the major end-use applications for


these versatile materials.
Ethyleneamine Profiles