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5 просмотров100 стр.Foundation requirements

Oct 25, 2019

Shallow Foundation

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Foundation requirements

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Shallow Foundation

Foundation requirements

© All Rights Reserved

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Instructor, CE 19

In this lecture, we will…

b. Calculate depths of shallow foundations

c. Determine the ideal location of shallow

foundations.

d. Calculate safe bearing capacity of soils.

e. Calculate size of footings.

f. Estimate total and differential settlements of

shallow foundations to satisfy bearing capacity

and settlement criteria.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

You will use the following concepts learned from

previous chapters and from your courses in

mechanics:

a. Statics

b. Stresses in soils

c. Consolidation

d. Shear strength

Foundation normally refers to something that

supports a structure, such as a column or wall,

along with the loads carried by the structure.

deep. Shallow foundations are located just below

the lowest part of the superstructures they

support; deep foundations extend considerably

down into the earth.

In the case of shallow foundations, the means of

support is usually either a footing, which is often

simply an enlargement of the base of the column

or wall that it supports, or a mat or raft foundation,

in which a number of columns are supported by a

single slab.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

For deep foundations, the means of support is

usually either a pier, drilled shaft, or group of piles.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

For purposes of analysis, a footing such as this

may be thought of as a simple flat plate or slab,

usually square in plan, acted on by a concentrated

load (the column) and a distributed load (soil

pressure).

George Prejula Palada, RCE

The enlarged size of the footing (compared with

the column it supports) gives an increased contact

area between the footing and the soil; the

increased area serves to reduce pressure on the

soil to an allowable amount, thereby preventing

excessive settlement or bearing failure of the

foundation.

Sometimes one large footing may support two or

more columns. This is known as a combined

footing.

A footing extended in one direction to support a

long structure such as a wall is called a continuous

footing, or wall footing.

Two or more footings joined by a beam (called a

strap) are called a strap footing.

A large slab supporting a number of columns not

all of which are in a straight line is called a mat or

raft foundation.

1. Calculate the loads acting on the footing.

2. Obtain soil profiles along with pertinent field and

laboratory measurements and testing results.

3. Determine the depth and location of the footing.

4. Evaluate the bearing capacity of the supporting soil.

5. Determine the size of the footing.

6. Compute the footing’s contact pressure and check

its stability against sliding and overturning.

7. Estimate the total and differential settlements.

8. Design the footing structure.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Adjacent structures and property lines often affect

the horizontal location of a footing.

construction of new foundations nearby, as a

result of vibration, shock resulting from blasting,

undermining by excavation, or lowering of the

water table.

After new foundations have been constructed, the

(new) load they place on the soil may cause

settlement of previously existing structures as a

result of new stress patterns in the surrounding

soil.

construction may result in liability problems, new

structures should be located and designed very

carefully.

In general, the deeper the new foundation and the

closer to the old structure, the greater will be the

potential for damage to the old structure.

separated as much as is practical. This is

particularly true if the new foundation will be lower

than the old one.

A general rule is that a straight line drawn

downward and outward at a 45° angle from the

end of the bottom of any new (or existing) higher

footing should not intersect any existing (or new)

lower footing.

The presence of groundwater within soil

immediately around a footing is undesirable for

several reasons.

is difficult and expensive. Generally, the area

must be drained prior to construction.

2. Groundwater around a footing can reduce the

strength of soils by reducing their ability to

carry foundation pressures.

3. Groundwater around a footing may cause

hydrostatic uplift problems.

4. In locations where subzero conditions exist,

frost action may increase.

5. If groundwater reaches a structure’s lowest

floor, waterproofing problems are encountered.

The conventional method of designing foundations

is based on the concept of bearing capacity.

support or hold up a foundation and structure.

to the loading per unit area that will just cause

shear failure in the soil.

The allowable bearing capacity (qa) refers to the

loading per unit area that the soil is able to support

without unsafe movement. It is the “design”

bearing capacity.

capacity multiplied by area of contact between

foundation and soil.

The allowable bearing capacity is equal to the

ultimate bearing capacity divided by the factor of

safety.

to the value of qult.

is safe with regard to foundation failure (collapse)

and excessive settlement.

The basic principles governing bearing capacity

theory as developed by Terzaghi.

The following equations for calculating ultimate

bearing capacity were developed by Terzaghi

(Terzaghi and Peck, 1967):

Continuous/Strip footings:

For SQUARE footings:

Where:

c’ = cohesion of the soil

q = surcharge (unit weight of soil × depth of foundation)

γ = unit weight of the soil

B = dimension of the footing

For CIRCULAR footings:

Where:

c’ = cohesion of the soil

q = surcharge (unit weight of the soil × depth of foundation)

γ = unit weight of the soil

B = diameter of the footing

The terms Nc, Nq, and Nγ are called the bearing-

capacity factors.

The bearing capacity equations are applicable for

both cohesive and cohesionless soils.

general shear, whereas loose sand and soft clay

produce what is called local shear.

In the latter case (loose sand and soft clay), the term c

(cohesion) in all of the equations presented is replaced

by c’ which is equal to 2/3c’.

where the latter are obtained from a modified ϕ value (

ϕ' )given by the following:

′

2

𝑐 = 𝑐

3

′ −1

2

𝜙 = tan tan 𝜙

3

George Prejula Palada, RCE

With cohesive soils, shear strength is most critical

just after construction or as the load is first

applied, at which time shear strength is assumed

to consist of only cohesion. In this case, ϕ is taken

to be zero.

There are several means of evaluating cohesion c.

One is to use the unconfined compression test for

ordinary sensitive or insensitive normally

consolidated clay.

compressive strength or

1

𝑐 = 𝑞𝑢

2

In the case of cohesionless soils, the c term in the

qult equations is zero.

1. A strip of wall footing 3.5 ft wide is supported in a

uniform deposit of stiff clay. Groundwater was not

encountered during soil exploration.Determine the (a)

ULTIMATE bearing capacity of the footing and (b)

ALLOWABLE wall load using FS = 3.0. Use Nc = 5.14,

Nq = 1, Nγ = 0

2. Determine the size of the square footing below. Use

FS = 3.

3. Calculate the allowable bearing capacity of the

foundation. Use FS = 3.0. Assume general shear

condition. Use Nc = 5.14, Nq = 1, Nγ = 0

.

4. Find the total allowable load (column load, weight of

footing, and weight of soil surcharge already included)

that the footing can carry, using a factor of safety of 3.

5. From the footing shown below, calculate the

factor of safety against bearing capacity failure.

The soil has ϕ = 36°.

In the previous examples, it has been assumed

that the water table was way below the footings

and thus did not affect the soil’s bearing capacity.

on where the water table is located, two terms in

the bearing capacity equation, may require

modification, specifically in the second and third

terms. (the q and γ part).

If the GWT is located at a

distance “D” above the

bottom of the footing, the

magnitude of “q” in the

second term of the

equation should be

calculated as:

third term should be γ'.

If the GWT coincides with

the bottom of the footing,

the magnitude of “q” in the

second term is equal to γDf .

third term should be γ'.

≤

When the groundwater table

is at a depth D below the

bottom of the footing, and

that D ≤ B, q = γDf on the

second term.

third term of the bearing

capacity equations should be

replaced by:

>

When the groundwater

table is at a depth D below

the bottom of the footing,

and that D > B, q = γDf on

the second term.

remain unchanged.

1. A square footing is 1.5 m x1.5 m in plan. The

soil has ϕ' = 20°, and c' = 15.2 kN/m2. The unit

weight of soil is 17.8 kN/m3. Determine the

allowable gross load on the footing with FS = 4. If

Df = 1 m, and general shear failure occurs,

determine:

b. If the GWT is located 1 m below the bottom of

the footing, determine qall. Use FS = 3 and

𝛾𝑠𝑎𝑡 = 19 kN/m3.

2. Following local shear condition, calculate Qall.

Use FS = 3.0

A square footing is shown below. Unit weight of soil is

102 lb/ft3 and ϕ = 32°. The soil is medium dense sand.

Find the allowable design load. Use FS = 3.

The soil-bearing capacity equation for a strip

footing given by Terzaghi can be modified for

general use by incorporating the following factors:

resistance developed along the failure surface in

soil above the base of the footing.

rectangular and circular footings

Inclination factor: to determine the bearing

capacity of a footing on which the direction of load

application is inclined at a certain angle to the

vertical.

Thus, the modified general ultimate bearing

capacity equation can be written as:

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Calculate Qall. Use Meyerhof’s equation. The

foundation is square and use FS = 3.

A square column foundation to be constructed on

a sandy soil has to carry a gross allowable total

load of 150 kN. The depth of the foundation is 0.7

m. the load will be inclined at an angle of 20° to

the vertical. The soil has a unit weight of 18 kN/m3.

determine the width of the foundation, B. Use

Meyerhof’s equation. Use FS = 3.

𝜙 = 30°

c=0

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Instructor

Mat foundations are shallow foundations. This type

of foundation, which is sometimes referred to as a

raft foundation, is a combined footing that may

cover the entire area under a structure supporting

several columns and walls.

Mat foundations are sometimes preferred for soils

that have low load-bearing capacities but that will

have to support high column and/or wall loads.

have to cover more than half the building area,

and mat foundations might be more economical.

Mats may be supported by piles.

structure built over highly compressible soil.

placed over piles to control buoyancy.

The gross ultimate bearing capacity of a mat

foundation can be determined by the same

equation used for shallow foundations, or

The net ultimate bearing capacity 𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑢𝑙𝑡 is

𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 𝑞𝑢𝑙𝑡 − 𝑞

Mat foundations are usually utilized on poor soils.

For saturated clays with ϕ = 0 and vertical loading

condition,

Also, since the angle of friction is zero, and that

the soil is saturated, the cohesion on the first term

of the equation will be changed to “undrained

cohesion”.

change.

For saturated clays:

𝐵 𝐷𝑓

𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 5.14𝑐𝑢 1 + 0.2 1 + 0.2

𝐿 𝐵

Determine the net ultimate bearing capacity of a

mat foundation measuring 12 m by 8 m on a

saturated clay with:

cu = 80 kN/m2, ϕ = 0, and Df = 2 m.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Instructor

Pile foundations are deep foundations used when

the site has a weak shallow bearing strata, making

it necessary to transfer load to a deeper strata

either by friction or end bearing principles.

1. When the upper soil layer(s) is (are) highly

compressible and too weak to support the load

transmitted by the superstructure, piles are

used to transmit the load to underlying bedrock

or a stronger soil layer.

2. When bedrock is not encountered at a

reasonable depth below the ground surface,

piles are used to transmit the structural load to

the soil gradually. The resistance to the applied

structural load is derived mainly from the

frictional resistance developed at the soil–pile

interface.

3. When subjected to horizontal forces pile

foundations resist by bending while still

supporting the vertical load transmitted by the

superstructure. This situation is generally

encountered in the design and construction of

earth-retaining structures and foundations of

tall structures that are subjected to strong wind

and/or earthquake forces.

4. In many cases, the soils at the site of a

proposed structure may be expansive and

collapsible. These soils may extend to a great

depth below the ground surface. Expansive

soils swell and shrink as the moisture content

increases and decreases, and the swelling

pressure of such soils can be considerable. If

shallow foundations are used, the structure

may suffer considerable damage. However, pile

foundations may be considered as an

alternative when piles are extended beyond the

active zone, which swells and shrink.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

5. The foundations of some structures, such as

transmission towers, offshore platforms, and

basement mats below the water table, are

subjected to uplifting forces. Piles are

sometimes used for these foundations to resist

the uplifting force.

6. Bridge abutments and piers are usually

constructed over pile foundations to avoid the

possible loss of bearing capacity that a shallow

foundation might suffer because of soil erosion

at the ground surface.

STEEL PILES

L = 15 – 60 m

Q = 300 – 1200 kN

Steel piles generally are either pipe piles or rolled

steel H-section piles. Pipe piles can be driven into

the ground with their ends open or closed.

used as piles; however, H-section piles are usually

preferred because their web and flange thick-

nesses are equal.

Advantages:

extension to the desired length.

b. Can stand high driving stresses.

c. Can penetrate hard layers such as dense

gravel, soft rock.

d. High load-carrying capacity.

Disadvantages:

b. High level of noise during pile driving.

c. Subject to corrosion.

d. H-piles may be damaged or deflected from the

vertical during driving through hard layers or

past major obstructions.

CONCRETE PILES

L = 10 – 15 m

Q = 300 – 3000 kN

Concrete piles may be divided into two basic

types: precast piles and cast-in-situ piles.

reinforcement, and they can be square or

octagonal in cross section. Reinforcement is provi-

ded to enable the pile to resist the bending

moment developed during pickup and transport-

tation, the vertical load, and the bending moment

caused by lateral load. The piles are cast to

desired lengths and cured before being transport-

ted to the work sites.

Cast-in-situ, or cast-in-place, piles are built by making

a hole in the ground and then filling it with concrete.

cased and uncased. Both types may have a pedestal

at the bottom. Cased piles are made by driving a steel

casing into the ground with the help of a mandrel

placed inside the casing. When the pile reaches the

proper depth, the mandrel is withdrawn and the casing

is filled with concrete.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Advantages:

b. Corrosion resistant.

c. Can be easily combined with concrete

superstructure.

Disadvantages:

b. Difficult to transport

Timber piles are tree trunks that have had their

branches and bark carefully trimmed off. The

maximum length of most timber piles is 10 to 20

meters. To qualify for use as a pile, the timber

should be straight, sound, and without any

defects.

Timber piles cannot withstand hard driving stress;

therefore, the pile capacity is generally limited to

about 220 to 270 kN. Steel shoes may be used to

avoid damage at the pile tip (bottom). The tops of

timber piles may also be damaged during the

driving operation. To avoid damage to the pile top,

a metal band or cap may be used. The crushing of

the wooden fibers caused by the impact of the

hammer is referred to as brooming.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Splicing of timber piles should be avoided,

particularly when they are expected to carry

tensile load or lateral load. However, if splicing is

necessary, it can be done by using pipe sleeves or

metal straps and bolts.

five times the diameter of the pile.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

Timber piles can stay undamaged indefinitely if

they are surrounded by saturated soil. However, in

a marine environment, timber piles are subject to

attack by various organisms and can be damaged

extensively in a few months.

subject to attack by insects. The life of the piles

may be increased by treating them with preser-

vatives such as creosote.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

George Prejula Palada, RCE

The ultimate load capacity, Qult, of a pile is

conventionally taken as consisting of two parts.

shaft friction or side shear, Qf, and the other is due

to end bearing at the base or tip of the pile or pile

toe, Qb.

George Prejula Palada, RCE

If the skin friction is greater than about 80% of the

end bearing load capacity, the pile is deemed a

friction pile and, if the reverse, an end bearing pile.

ﬂoating pile.

From statics:

the weight of the pile is included in the dead load

or neglected for piles of small cross-sectional

areas (< 0.07 m2).

Considering end bearing of the piles:

𝑄𝑏 = 𝑐𝑁𝑐 𝐴𝑡𝑖𝑝

c = cohesion

Nc = bearing capacity factor

Atip = Area of the tip of the pile driven to the ground

Cohesion of the soil can be taken as one-half of

the unconfined compressive strength of the soil.

around 9.

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