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George Prejula Palada, RCE

Instructor, CE 19
In this lecture, we will…

a. Identify loads on shallow foundations


b. Calculate depths of shallow foundations
c. Determine the ideal location of shallow
foundations.
d. Calculate safe bearing capacity of soils.
e. Calculate size of footings.
f. Estimate total and differential settlements of
shallow foundations to satisfy bearing capacity
and settlement criteria.
George Prejula Palada, RCE
You will use the following concepts learned from
previous chapters and from your courses in
mechanics:

a. Statics
b. Stresses in soils
c. Consolidation
d. Shear strength

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Foundation normally refers to something that
supports a structure, such as a column or wall,
along with the loads carried by the structure.

Foundations may be characterized as shallow or


deep. Shallow foundations are located just below
the lowest part of the superstructures they
support; deep foundations extend considerably
down into the earth.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


In the case of shallow foundations, the means of
support is usually either a footing, which is often
simply an enlargement of the base of the column
or wall that it supports, or a mat or raft foundation,
in which a number of columns are supported by a
single slab.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
For deep foundations, the means of support is
usually either a pier, drilled shaft, or group of piles.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
For purposes of analysis, a footing such as this
may be thought of as a simple flat plate or slab,
usually square in plan, acted on by a concentrated
load (the column) and a distributed load (soil
pressure).

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
The enlarged size of the footing (compared with
the column it supports) gives an increased contact
area between the footing and the soil; the
increased area serves to reduce pressure on the
soil to an allowable amount, thereby preventing
excessive settlement or bearing failure of the
foundation.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Sometimes one large footing may support two or
more columns. This is known as a combined
footing.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


A footing extended in one direction to support a
long structure such as a wall is called a continuous
footing, or wall footing.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Two or more footings joined by a beam (called a
strap) are called a strap footing.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


A large slab supporting a number of columns not
all of which are in a straight line is called a mat or
raft foundation.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


1. Calculate the loads acting on the footing.
2. Obtain soil profiles along with pertinent field and
laboratory measurements and testing results.
3. Determine the depth and location of the footing.
4. Evaluate the bearing capacity of the supporting soil.
5. Determine the size of the footing.
6. Compute the footing’s contact pressure and check
its stability against sliding and overturning.
7. Estimate the total and differential settlements.
8. Design the footing structure.
George Prejula Palada, RCE
Adjacent structures and property lines often affect
the horizontal location of a footing.

Existing structures may be damaged by


construction of new foundations nearby, as a
result of vibration, shock resulting from blasting,
undermining by excavation, or lowering of the
water table.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


After new foundations have been constructed, the
(new) load they place on the soil may cause
settlement of previously existing structures as a
result of new stress patterns in the surrounding
soil.

Because damage to existing structures by new


construction may result in liability problems, new
structures should be located and designed very
carefully.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


In general, the deeper the new foundation and the
closer to the old structure, the greater will be the
potential for damage to the old structure.

Accordingly, old and new foundations should be


separated as much as is practical. This is
particularly true if the new foundation will be lower
than the old one.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


A general rule is that a straight line drawn
downward and outward at a 45° angle from the
end of the bottom of any new (or existing) higher
footing should not intersect any existing (or new)
lower footing.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The presence of groundwater within soil
immediately around a footing is undesirable for
several reasons.

1. Footing construction below groundwater level


is difficult and expensive. Generally, the area
must be drained prior to construction.
2. Groundwater around a footing can reduce the
strength of soils by reducing their ability to
carry foundation pressures.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


3. Groundwater around a footing may cause
hydrostatic uplift problems.
4. In locations where subzero conditions exist,
frost action may increase.
5. If groundwater reaches a structure’s lowest
floor, waterproofing problems are encountered.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The conventional method of designing foundations
is based on the concept of bearing capacity.

Bearing capacity refers to the ability of a soil to


support or hold up a foundation and structure.

The ultimate bearing capacity (qult) of a soil refers


to the loading per unit area that will just cause
shear failure in the soil.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The allowable bearing capacity (qa) refers to the
loading per unit area that the soil is able to support
without unsafe movement. It is the “design”
bearing capacity.

The allowable load is equal to allowable bearing


capacity multiplied by area of contact between
foundation and soil.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The allowable bearing capacity is equal to the
ultimate bearing capacity divided by the factor of
safety.

A factor of safety of 2.5 to 3 is commonly applied


to the value of qult.

Care must be taken to ensure that a footing design


is safe with regard to foundation failure (collapse)
and excessive settlement.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The basic principles governing bearing capacity
theory as developed by Terzaghi.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The following equations for calculating ultimate
bearing capacity were developed by Terzaghi
(Terzaghi and Peck, 1967):

Continuous/Strip footings:

𝑞𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 𝑐𝑁𝑐 + 𝑞𝑁𝑞 + 0.5𝛾𝐵𝑁𝛾

George Prejula Palada, RCE


For SQUARE footings:

𝑞𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 1.3𝑐𝑁𝑐 + 𝑞𝑁𝑞 + 0.4𝛾𝐵𝑁𝛾

Where:
c’ = cohesion of the soil
q = surcharge (unit weight of soil × depth of foundation)
γ = unit weight of the soil
B = dimension of the footing

George Prejula Palada, RCE


For CIRCULAR footings:

𝑞𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 1.3𝑐𝑁𝑐 + 𝑞𝑁𝑞 + 0.3𝛾𝐵𝑁𝛾

Where:
c’ = cohesion of the soil
q = surcharge (unit weight of the soil × depth of foundation)
γ = unit weight of the soil
B = diameter of the footing

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The terms Nc, Nq, and Nγ are called the bearing-
capacity factors.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The bearing capacity equations are applicable for
both cohesive and cohesionless soils.

Dense sand and stiff clay produce what is called


general shear, whereas loose sand and soft clay
produce what is called local shear.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


In the latter case (loose sand and soft clay), the term c
(cohesion) in all of the equations presented is replaced
by c’ which is equal to 2/3c’.

In addition, the terms Nc, Nq, and Nγ are replaced by


where the latter are obtained from a modified ϕ value (
ϕ' )given by the following:


2
𝑐 = 𝑐
3

′ −1
2
𝜙 = tan tan 𝜙
3
George Prejula Palada, RCE
With cohesive soils, shear strength is most critical
just after construction or as the load is first
applied, at which time shear strength is assumed
to consist of only cohesion. In this case, ϕ is taken
to be zero.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


There are several means of evaluating cohesion c.
One is to use the unconfined compression test for
ordinary sensitive or insensitive normally
consolidated clay.

In this test, c is equal to half the unconfined


compressive strength or

1
𝑐 = 𝑞𝑢
2

George Prejula Palada, RCE


In the case of cohesionless soils, the c term in the
qult equations is zero.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


1. A strip of wall footing 3.5 ft wide is supported in a
uniform deposit of stiff clay. Groundwater was not
encountered during soil exploration.Determine the (a)
ULTIMATE bearing capacity of the footing and (b)
ALLOWABLE wall load using FS = 3.0. Use Nc = 5.14,
Nq = 1, Nγ = 0

George Prejula Palada, RCE


2. Determine the size of the square footing below. Use
FS = 3.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


3. Calculate the allowable bearing capacity of the
foundation. Use FS = 3.0. Assume general shear
condition. Use Nc = 5.14, Nq = 1, Nγ = 0
.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


4. Find the total allowable load (column load, weight of
footing, and weight of soil surcharge already included)
that the footing can carry, using a factor of safety of 3.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


5. From the footing shown below, calculate the
factor of safety against bearing capacity failure.
The soil has ϕ = 36°.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


In the previous examples, it has been assumed
that the water table was way below the footings
and thus did not affect the soil’s bearing capacity.

This is not always the case, however. Depending


on where the water table is located, two terms in
the bearing capacity equation, may require
modification, specifically in the second and third
terms. (the q and γ part).

George Prejula Palada, RCE


If the GWT is located at a
distance “D” above the
bottom of the footing, the
magnitude of “q” in the
second term of the
equation should be
calculated as:

Also, the value of γ in the


third term should be γ'.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


If the GWT coincides with
the bottom of the footing,
the magnitude of “q” in the
second term is equal to γDf .

Also, the value of γ in the


third term should be γ'.

George Prejula Palada, RCE



When the groundwater table
is at a depth D below the
bottom of the footing, and
that D ≤ B, q = γDf on the
second term.

The magnitude of γ in the


third term of the bearing
capacity equations should be
replaced by:

George Prejula Palada, RCE


>
When the groundwater
table is at a depth D below
the bottom of the footing,
and that D > B, q = γDf on
the second term.

The unit weight however will


remain unchanged.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


1. A square footing is 1.5 m x1.5 m in plan. The
soil has ϕ' = 20°, and c' = 15.2 kN/m2. The unit
weight of soil is 17.8 kN/m3. Determine the
allowable gross load on the footing with FS = 4. If
Df = 1 m, and general shear failure occurs,
determine:

a. The gross load, Q, in kN.


b. If the GWT is located 1 m below the bottom of
the footing, determine qall. Use FS = 3 and
𝛾𝑠𝑎𝑡 = 19 kN/m3.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


2. Following local shear condition, calculate Qall.
Use FS = 3.0

George Prejula Palada, RCE


A square footing is shown below. Unit weight of soil is
102 lb/ft3 and ϕ = 32°. The soil is medium dense sand.
Find the allowable design load. Use FS = 3.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The soil-bearing capacity equation for a strip
footing given by Terzaghi can be modified for
general use by incorporating the following factors:

Depth factor: to account for the shearing


resistance developed along the failure surface in
soil above the base of the footing.

Shape factor: To determine the bearing capacity of


rectangular and circular footings

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Inclination factor: to determine the bearing
capacity of a footing on which the direction of load
application is inclined at a certain angle to the
vertical.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Thus, the modified general ultimate bearing
capacity equation can be written as:

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
Calculate Qall. Use Meyerhof’s equation. The
foundation is square and use FS = 3.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


A square column foundation to be constructed on
a sandy soil has to carry a gross allowable total
load of 150 kN. The depth of the foundation is 0.7
m. the load will be inclined at an angle of 20° to
the vertical. The soil has a unit weight of 18 kN/m3.
determine the width of the foundation, B. Use
Meyerhof’s equation. Use FS = 3.

For the soil:


𝜙 = 30°
c=0
George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
Instructor
Mat foundations are shallow foundations. This type
of foundation, which is sometimes referred to as a
raft foundation, is a combined footing that may
cover the entire area under a structure supporting
several columns and walls.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Mat foundations are sometimes preferred for soils
that have low load-bearing capacities but that will
have to support high column and/or wall loads.

Under some conditions, spread footings would


have to cover more than half the building area,
and mat foundations might be more economical.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Mats may be supported by piles.

The piles help in reducing the settlement of a


structure built over highly compressible soil.

Where the water table is high, mats are often


placed over piles to control buoyancy.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The gross ultimate bearing capacity of a mat
foundation can be determined by the same
equation used for shallow foundations, or

Where B is the smallest dimension of the mat.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


The net ultimate bearing capacity 𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑢𝑙𝑡 is

𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 𝑞𝑢𝑙𝑡 − 𝑞
Mat foundations are usually utilized on poor soils.
For saturated clays with ϕ = 0 and vertical loading
condition,

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Also, since the angle of friction is zero, and that
the soil is saturated, the cohesion on the first term
of the equation will be changed to “undrained
cohesion”.

Some other terms on the Meyerhof’s equation will


change.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


For saturated clays:

𝐵 𝐷𝑓
𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑢𝑙𝑡 = 5.14𝑐𝑢 1 + 0.2 1 + 0.2
𝐿 𝐵

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Determine the net ultimate bearing capacity of a
mat foundation measuring 12 m by 8 m on a
saturated clay with:

cu = 80 kN/m2, ϕ = 0, and Df = 2 m.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
Instructor
Pile foundations are deep foundations used when
the site has a weak shallow bearing strata, making
it necessary to transfer load to a deeper strata
either by friction or end bearing principles.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


1. When the upper soil layer(s) is (are) highly
compressible and too weak to support the load
transmitted by the superstructure, piles are
used to transmit the load to underlying bedrock
or a stronger soil layer.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


2. When bedrock is not encountered at a
reasonable depth below the ground surface,
piles are used to transmit the structural load to
the soil gradually. The resistance to the applied
structural load is derived mainly from the
frictional resistance developed at the soil–pile
interface.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


3. When subjected to horizontal forces pile
foundations resist by bending while still
supporting the vertical load transmitted by the
superstructure. This situation is generally
encountered in the design and construction of
earth-retaining structures and foundations of
tall structures that are subjected to strong wind
and/or earthquake forces.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


4. In many cases, the soils at the site of a
proposed structure may be expansive and
collapsible. These soils may extend to a great
depth below the ground surface. Expansive
soils swell and shrink as the moisture content
increases and decreases, and the swelling
pressure of such soils can be considerable. If
shallow foundations are used, the structure
may suffer considerable damage. However, pile
foundations may be considered as an
alternative when piles are extended beyond the
active zone, which swells and shrink.
George Prejula Palada, RCE
5. The foundations of some structures, such as
transmission towers, offshore platforms, and
basement mats below the water table, are
subjected to uplifting forces. Piles are
sometimes used for these foundations to resist
the uplifting force.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


6. Bridge abutments and piers are usually
constructed over pile foundations to avoid the
possible loss of bearing capacity that a shallow
foundation might suffer because of soil erosion
at the ground surface.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


STEEL PILES

L = 15 – 60 m
Q = 300 – 1200 kN

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Steel piles generally are either pipe piles or rolled
steel H-section piles. Pipe piles can be driven into
the ground with their ends open or closed.

Wide-flange and I-section steel beams can also be


used as piles; however, H-section piles are usually
preferred because their web and flange thick-
nesses are equal.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Advantages:

a. Easy to handle with respect to cutoff and


extension to the desired length.
b. Can stand high driving stresses.
c. Can penetrate hard layers such as dense
gravel, soft rock.
d. High load-carrying capacity.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Disadvantages:

a. Relatively costly material.


b. High level of noise during pile driving.
c. Subject to corrosion.
d. H-piles may be damaged or deflected from the
vertical during driving through hard layers or
past major obstructions.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


CONCRETE PILES

L = 10 – 15 m
Q = 300 – 3000 kN

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Concrete piles may be divided into two basic
types: precast piles and cast-in-situ piles.

Precast piles can be prepared using ordinary


reinforcement, and they can be square or
octagonal in cross section. Reinforcement is provi-
ded to enable the pile to resist the bending
moment developed during pickup and transport-
tation, the vertical load, and the bending moment
caused by lateral load. The piles are cast to
desired lengths and cured before being transport-
ted to the work sites.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Cast-in-situ, or cast-in-place, piles are built by making
a hole in the ground and then filling it with concrete.

These piles may be divided into two broad categories:


cased and uncased. Both types may have a pedestal
at the bottom. Cased piles are made by driving a steel
casing into the ground with the help of a mandrel
placed inside the casing. When the pile reaches the
proper depth, the mandrel is withdrawn and the casing
is filled with concrete.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
Advantages:

a. Can be subjected to hard driving.


b. Corrosion resistant.
c. Can be easily combined with concrete
superstructure.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Disadvantages:

a. Difficult to achieve proper cutoff


b. Difficult to transport

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Timber piles are tree trunks that have had their
branches and bark carefully trimmed off. The
maximum length of most timber piles is 10 to 20
meters. To qualify for use as a pile, the timber
should be straight, sound, and without any
defects.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Timber piles cannot withstand hard driving stress;
therefore, the pile capacity is generally limited to
about 220 to 270 kN. Steel shoes may be used to
avoid damage at the pile tip (bottom). The tops of
timber piles may also be damaged during the
driving operation. To avoid damage to the pile top,
a metal band or cap may be used. The crushing of
the wooden fibers caused by the impact of the
hammer is referred to as brooming.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
Splicing of timber piles should be avoided,
particularly when they are expected to carry
tensile load or lateral load. However, if splicing is
necessary, it can be done by using pipe sleeves or
metal straps and bolts.

The length of the pipe sleeve should be at least


five times the diameter of the pile.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
Timber piles can stay undamaged indefinitely if
they are surrounded by saturated soil. However, in
a marine environment, timber piles are subject to
attack by various organisms and can be damaged
extensively in a few months.

When located above the water table, the piles are


subject to attack by insects. The life of the piles
may be increased by treating them with preser-
vatives such as creosote.
George Prejula Palada, RCE
George Prejula Palada, RCE
The ultimate load capacity, Qult, of a pile is
conventionally taken as consisting of two parts.

One part is due to friction called skin friction or


shaft friction or side shear, Qf, and the other is due
to end bearing at the base or tip of the pile or pile
toe, Qb.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


George Prejula Palada, RCE
If the skin friction is greater than about 80% of the
end bearing load capacity, the pile is deemed a
friction pile and, if the reverse, an end bearing pile.

If the end bearing is neglected, the pile is called a


floating pile.

George Prejula Palada, RCE


From statics:

where Wp is the weight of the pile. In many cases,


the weight of the pile is included in the dead load
or neglected for piles of small cross-sectional
areas (< 0.07 m2).

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Considering end bearing of the piles:

𝑄𝑏 = 𝑐𝑁𝑐 𝐴𝑡𝑖𝑝

c = cohesion
Nc = bearing capacity factor
Atip = Area of the tip of the pile driven to the ground

George Prejula Palada, RCE


Cohesion of the soil can be taken as one-half of
the unconfined compressive strength of the soil.

According to McCarthy (2002), Nc has a value of


around 9.

George Prejula Palada, RCE