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The mastery of competencies the skills

students of SMK reviewed from the talent,


creativity and intrinsic motivation of
students
Cite as: AIP Conference Proceedings 1778, 030069 (2016); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4965803
Published Online: 26 October 2016

Ratri Martyasari, Hary Suswanto, and Sukarnati

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AIP Conference Proceedings 1778, 030069 (2016); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4965803 1778, 030069

© 2016 Author(s).
The Mastery of Competencies The Skills Students of SMK
Reviewed from The Talent, Creativity and Intrinsic
Motivation of Students
Ratri Martyasari1, a), Hary Suswanto2 , and Sukarnati3
1
Students of Vocational Education: Graduate, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
2
Electrical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
3
Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
a)
Corresponding author: chabbiez@gmail.com

Abstract. Competence of students consists of attitudes (affective), knowledge (cognitive), and skills (psychomotor).
Vocational secondary school (SMK) has a special purpose that to become a productive human being should have the
competence that corresponds to the field. Using the skills competency assessment performance through test practice,
project, and portfolio. Through practical work, it can be seen how the talent, creativity and intrinsic motivation of
students, so that it can be known how far a mastery of the competencies of the students. One package of skills that
correspond to this, namely Multimedia, Pengolahan Citra Digital skills competency.The contribution of independent
variables and the dependent intervening against knowable using path analysis. The talent is innate ability belonging to
students. Talent is an ability that is seen as an indication of how well an individual can learn certain knowledge or skills
through training and then practice it. In line with the creativity, can be improved through exercises continuously. The
talent and creativity that owned the learners will not be transferred if it does not have a motivation in itself. On the
package of multimedia skills learners not only sued to have the creativity in the face of challenges and competition but
also creativity in making interesting designs by incorporating new ideas to produce work or product that is different from
the others.The results of the analysis of the structure of sub 1:1) graphic design talent to contribute directly towards the
intrinsic motivation of 0.233 with the significance of 0.001; 2) creativity contributes directly towards the intrinsic
motivation of 0.533 with significance 0.000; graphic design flair and creativity contribute directly towards the intrinsic
motivation of 0.449. While the results of the substructure 2:1) graphic design talent to contribute directly towards the
competence of 0.286 with significance 0.000; 2) creativity contributes directly towards the competence of 0.223 with
0.015 significance; intrinsic motivation 3) contribute directly towards the competence of significance with 0.186 0.044. So
it can be inferred that each variable contributes to each other.

INTRODUCTION
SMK has a lot of expertise to customize a package with the needs of the world of work. In accordance with
the specific purpose of vocational secondary education according to Undang-undang No. 20 of 2003 setting up a
persistent have the competencelearnersin accordance with the chosen program and equip learners with the
knowledge, technology and the arts to develop themselves in later life. Based on the number 045
Permendiknas/U/2002 about the Core Curriculum of higher education on article 1 suggested about the intent of
competence is a set of intelligent action, full of responsibilities that belong to a person as a condition to be
considered capable of by the community in carrying out tasks in the field of a particular job.Article 2 paragraph 2
mention competency element consists of: (1) the Foundation of personality; (2) mastery of knowledge and skills;
(3) the ability to work; (4) the attitude and behaviour of the work according to skill levels based on knowledge
and skills possessed; and (5) understanding the rules of society live in accordance with the options expertise to
work.
According to Sudjimat [1] psychomotor competency is a competency which is demanding learners to use
tenancy, with or without equipment to achieve the goals that have been set. This isin accordance with the
competency of the Pengolahan Citra Digital expertise especially for Graphic Design materials. Through the

Proceedings of the International Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Education Conferences (IMEEEC 2016)
AIP Conf. Proc. 1778, 030069-1–030069-10; doi: 10.1063/1.4965803
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1440-2/$30.00

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manufacture of the product at the time of the practical work can indicate the quality of the learners. In making a
product need for talent, ideas and willpower within each individual.
Observations conducted September 2015 by researchers in five areas of the city and School District of
Malang, consisting of: 1) SMK Nasional Malang, (2) SMK Negeri 10 Malang, (3) SMK Negeri 5 Malang, (4)
SMK CindikaBangsa, and (5) SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Kepanjen, obtained average value lower crusts 77.4 if
standard competency Curriculum graduated in 2013 is a B-, but already categorized pass.
Based on real data obtained from observations of researchers early in September 2015 in five areas of the city
and School District of Malang, seen from the submitted statement of items there are problems regarding: (1) the
advantages in making design; (2) the benefits of the tool on the application Adobe Photoshop; (3) impersonate
object that becomes the reference for the practice; and (4) explain again.
Sometimes students don't realize the talent that is owned by, and the resulting object is visible from the more
prominent than learners who have less talent. Talent also owned not far from each individual's creativity.
According to Rowe. [2] creativity is seen as a reflection of creative intelligence. In the learning learners as
subjects learn to hold a leading role so that required the existence of a creativity that is embedded inside a person.
One way to increase creativity is through exercises continuously. But the problem arises based on data from
an initial observation results by researchers in the schools of the city and the counties mentioned above, there are
problems concerning: (1) efforts to develop a talent that owned; (2) understanding the function of the tool; and
(3) create the object without a tutorial. One of the characteristics of creativity i.e. learners always try new things
by making objects other than those provided by the teacher as well as looking for tutorials and practice as well as
having the high imaginative.
When learners are intrinsically motivated, they would have a lot more to learn, be creative, and prepare to
contribute with his/her ability. Preliminary observations the researcher has done shows 34.8% has less intrinsic
motivation and 23.7% very less. Some statements indicating the problems regarding the intrinsic motivation of
students, namely: (1) the students are less excited when experiencing errors in making objects; (2) students
assume that the delay in collecting duties is okay; and (3) are not trying to find learning resources in addition to
the given teacher.
Research needs to be done with the purpose of knowing the influence of talent, creativity, and intrinsic
motivation towards mastery of the competencies, skills, in General talent and creativity is very important to
nurture and develop skills primarily associated with graphic design talent.

STUDY OF LITERATURE

Talent
According to the great dictionary of Indonesian Language, the basic capabilities of the talent possessed human
from birth (cleverness, properties, and dispositions). Semiawan [3] expresses the opinion of Anastasia that talent
is usually translated as aptitude which comes from the aptus, show something that is inherent in a person and is
more widely known as a possibility rather than a potential capacity of nature or ability to learn or perform.
The talent possessed someone different between one another. There are some people who are gifted in the
arts, but not gifted in the field of sports, there is the talented field skills, but not gifted in the field of academics.
Talent is one of the factors that can affect a person's success in learning. But there is also a natural talent who
under since birth but not developed are usually referred to as latent talent. Some of these notions can be drawn the
conclusion that talent is a condition of the individual who has the innate ability to achieve a know-how,
knowledge and skills by getting a workout.
Semiawan [3] classify the kinds of special talents, neither of which was a potential or already embodied in
five areas, namely: (1) specific academic aptitude for example talent to work in numbers (numeric), logic,
language and the like; (2) creative talent – means productive talent in creating something new for example
produce a new architectural design, creating the latest technology and more; (3) the artistic talent for example
capable of arranging music and greatly admired, creating songs in just over 30 minutes, able to paint with very
beautiful in a short time and the like; (4) the kinaesthetic/psychomotor aptitude, such as talent in the field of
football, badminton, tennis, and the engineering skills; and (5) social talent for example is very adept at doing
negotiation, adept at communicating, and highly proficient in leadership.

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Creativity
Semiawan. [3] suggests that creativity is the ability to create something new (product) or create a new
combination based on facts, data, information or items – items. Product creation is not new, it should probably be
constructed or combinedofitems. According to Munandar [4] study conducted during these reproductive thinking
leads to more, memorizing and find one correct answer against the given problems and high thought process
including how creative thinking rarely drilled. But the creativity of students in school is the potential that must be
developed.

IntrinsicMotivation
A great curiosity for a student may encourage a willingness to continue to learn and practice, let alone if it
were applied to subjects there is practice. Motivation is the force that drives someone to do something for a
purpose. This power essentially stimulated by the presence of a wide range of needs, desires, behaviors, goals,
and feedback.
On learning activities, motivation can be said as the whole propulsion power within students that raises,
continuity and give direction and learning activities, so the expected objectives can be achieved. Students need
encouragement in him to perform a series of activities, so that his own desire is done consciously and without
coercion. Motivation is inside is called intrinsic motivation.
According to Schunk.[5] in accordance with the opinion of Jon, intrinsic motivation refers to motivation
involved in an activity because the value/benefits of the activity itself. Individuals who are intrinsically motivated
to exercise the duties because they found that the assignments fun. Viewed from the context of the activities
performed, intrinsic motivation can push students to achieve the goals of such activities. What can affect the
motivation to learn, when to learn, and how to learn. Motivated students will learn a topic tend to engage in
different activities that he believes will help him learn as paying attention to the lesson carefully, mentally
organizing and memorizing the material to be learned, nothing to facilitate learning activities, check the level of
understanding and ask for help when he does not understand such material.
Based on the opinion of some experts, then it can be inferred that intrinsic motivation is an urge from within
one's self with the increase or maintain as high as possible its ability to obtain the best results in accordance with
what is expected and that success depends on personal effort and capability. According to Hennessey. [6] in
intrinsic motivation is more conducive to creativity than extrinsic motivation are usually detrimental.

RESEARCH METHODS

DesignResearch
Draft research using quantitative approach with the types of empirical research that is associative research
explains the causal relationships between variables through hypothesis testing on the same data. This research
aims to clarify the relationship between theindependence variable,intervening variable, and dependence
variablesnamely graphic design talent (X_1), creativity (X_2), intrinsic motivation (Y), and the mastery of
competencies (Z), respectively.
Analytical techniques used in this research is the analysis of the path (path analysis). Path analysis (path
analysis) to analyze the patterns of relationships between variables with the aim to find out directly or indirectly
influence the set of free variables against the variable. Relationships between variables can be described in Fig. 1
below:

X1

Y Z

X2

FIGURE 1.Free Variable relation with variables Bound

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Description:
ܺଵ : Desain Graphic Of Talent
ܺଶ : Creativity
Y :Intrinsic Motivation
Z : the mastery of Competencies

PopulationsandSamples
Thepopulation in this study are students of Class XI Multimedia academic year 2015-2016 at SMK Negeri
Malang in the town which has a package of Multimedia expertise and accredited A, can be seen in table 1 below:

TABLE 1. Population Research

No School Address Total


1. SMK Negeri 5 Malang Jl. Ikan Piranha, KecamatanLowokwaru, 146
Kota Malang
2. SMK Negeri 10 Malang Jl. Raya Tlogowaru 120
3. SMK Negeri 11 Malang Jl. Pelabuhan Bakahuni 1, Sukun 90
Total Jumlah 356

Sample techniques used in this research is the technique of proportional random sampling techniques,
sampling is randomly by considering the proportion of the population. A sample of the research can be seen in
table 2:
TABLE 2. SampleResearch
No Nama Sekolah Jumlah Populasi JumlahSampel
1. SMK N 5 Malang 146 62
2. SMK N 10 Malang 120 58
3. SMK N 11 Malang 90 30
Jumlah 356 150

Data collection
Test instrument used for data retrieval on the variable talent. Tests of abstract reasoning and cognitive.
Question form is used for the variable of creativity and intrinsic motivation. The now compiled consisting of the
introduction containing the instructions now, part of the identity that contains the identity of the respondent, and
the latter part i.e. part contents question form which contains some statements. Competency documentation i.e.
data taken from the school in the form of a list of names of students and a list of practical value.

DATA ANALYSIS

The Descriptive Statistics Analysis


Used to describe the data that is obtained from the results of the research instrument that has been carried out
on the basis of the lowest score, highest score and average on each variable.

Test Precondition

a. Test of Normality
Normal distribution test is a test to measure whether data obtained has a normal distribution so that it can
be used in parametric statistics (statistics inferential). Calculation of test using SPSS with normality test

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of Komogrov-Smimov. Decision making for this test is if the significance then 0.05 > Gaussian data, if
data is Gaussian then 0.05 < is not normal.
b. Test ofLinieritas
The test linearity is one effort to fulfill one of the assumptions of linear regression requires the existence
of a relationship of free variables (exogenous) and variable (endogenous) with each other to form a linear
curve.
c. Test ofMulticollinearity
Multicollinearity test used to find out or no deviation classic assumption multicollinearity namely linear
relationship between the independent variables in the regression model. The prerequisites that must be
fulfilled in the regression model is the absence of multicollinearity. In General if the VIF is greater than
5, then the variable has problems with multicollinearity other free variables.
d. Test Heteroskedasticity
Heterokedastisitas used to test or no deviation classic heteroskedasticity assumption that is the existence
of a variant of the residual inequality for all observations in regression models. The prerequisites that
must be fulfilled in the regression model is the absence of symptoms of heteroskedasticity. In this study,
heteroskedasticity test data using a scatterplot with the help of SPSS software, which results in the form
of graphs. If there is a specific pattern on a scatterplot then going on the assumption heteroskedasticity.

Path Analysis
Path analysis techniques used in testing the magnitude of contribution (contribution) indicated by the
coefficient of the path on each line of the diagram of causal relationships between variables X_1, X_2, against Y
X_1, X_2, as well, and Y against z. in this research analysis techniques used are analysts path.

RESEARCH RESULTS

Test of Normality
Normality test results research data indicated as in Table 3.

TABLE 3. Results Of Test For Normality

X1 X2 Y Z
N 150 150 150 150
Normal Mean 60.75 67.00 68.44 80.74
Parametersa,b Std. Deviation 13.999 7.082 6.687 3.549
Absolute .095 .076 .068 .089
Most Extreme
Positive .064 .076 .036 .089
Differences
Negative -.095 -.073 -.068 -.074
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z 1.164 .930 .834 1.093
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .133 .353 .490 .183

Acquired graphic design talent 0.133 significance; creativity 0.353; intrinsic motivation 0.490; and
competence 0.183; It can be concluded that the data for each variable is normal (greater than 0.05).

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Test of multi-colinearity
Multi-colinearity test results research data indicated as in table 4.

TABLE 4. MultikolinieritasTestResults

Coefficients
Model Unstandardized Standardized t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
Coefficients Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta Tole- VIF
rance
(Constant) 62.099 2.667 23.287 .000
X1 .073 .020 .286 3.625 .000 .742 1.349
1
X2 .112 .045 .223 2.469 .015 .566 1.765
Y .099 .049 .186 2.030 .044 .551 1.816
Dependent Variable: Z

From the above results can be noted that the value of the second variable Tolerance more than 0.10 and VIF
are less than 10, then it can be concluded that the multi-collinearitydo not occur between the free variables.

Test of heteroskedasticity
Heteroskedastisitas test using SPSS program by looking at the graph of the Scatterplot, as in Fig. 2.

(1) (2)
FIGURE 2. Graph OfRegression Model Scatterplot Sub-StructureFirst (1) And Second (2)

The second image does not form the pattern so that it can be summed up not happening heteroskedasticity.
The basic criteria of decision-making that is if there is a clear pattern and dots spread above and below the 0 on
the Y axis, then it can be said to be not the case heteroskedasticity.

Analysis Path

An analysis of Sub-Structure 1

TABLE 5. Testing Sub-Structure 1 Simultaneously


ANOVAa
Model Sum of df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Regression 2993.721 2 1496.860 59.968 .000b
1 Residual 3669.239 147 24.961
Total 6662.960 149

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a. Dependent Variable: Y
b. Predictors: (Constant), X2, X1

On table 4 values 0.000 significance so it can be concluded that significant because < 0.05. Further testing is
done individually on a sub-1 structure as table 6.

TABLE 6. The Testing Sub-Structure 1 Individually


Coefficients
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients
Model Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 27.964 3.894 7.181 .000
1 X1 .111 .033 .233 3.406 .001
X2 .503 .065 .533 7.787 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Y
H1
X U‫ ͳݔͳݕ‬ൌ0,551

U‫ ͳݔͳݕ‬ൌ Ͳǡʹ͵͵
Y

U‫ ͳݔͳݕ‬ൌ0,533

X R2yx1x2= 0,449

FIGURE 3. Diagram Of The Path Of Sub-Structure 1

The result of the contributions of sub-structure 1 as follows:


1) Graphic design talent contributions (X 1) directly affect intrinsic motivation (Y) of 0.2332 = 0.054 or
5.4%.
2) Contributions of creativity (X 2) directly affect intrinsic motivation (Y) of 0.5332 = 0.284 or 28.4%.
3) Graphic design talent contributions (X 1) and creativity (X 2) directly affect intrinsic motivation (Y) by
0.449 Rsquare = 44,9%.

An analysis of Sub-Structure 2
Pengujian secara simultan sub-struktur 2 dapat dilihat pada Tabel 7.

TABLE 7. Testing Sub-2 Structure Simultaneously


ANOVAa
Model Sum of df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Regression 611.748 3 203.916 23.533 .000b
1 Residual 1265.112 146 8.665
Total 1876.860 149
a. Dependent Variable: Z
b. Predictors: (Constant), Y, X1, X2

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On the significance of values 0.000 5 Tables so that it can be concluded that significant because< 0.05.
Further testing is done individually on a sub-2 structure as table 8.

TABLE 8. Testing Sub-2 Structure Of Individually

Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 62.099 2.667 23.287 .000
X1 .073 .020 .286 3.625 .000
1
X2 .112 .045 .223 2.469 .015
Y .099 .049 .186 2.030 .044
a. Dependent Variable: Z

FIGURE 4. Diagrams the line Sub-Structure 2

The result of the contributions of sub-2 structure as follows:


Some of the direct and indirect influence is outlined as follows:
a) The direct influence of variable talent desaian graphics (X 1) directly affect the attainment of
competencies (Z) of 0.286. The influence of variable X 1 not directly against Z through Y 0.286 (0.233 x
0.186) = 0.043 0.286 = 0.329
b) The direct influence of the variable of creativity (X 2) directly affect the attainment of competencies (Z)
of 0.223. The influence of variable X 2 is not directly against Z through Y 0.223 (0.533 x 0.186) = 0.223
0.099 = 0.322.
c) Graphic design talent Contributions (X 1) directly affect the attainment of competencies (Z) of 0.2862 =
0.081 or 8.1%.
d) Contributions of creativity (X 2) directly affect the attainment of competencies (Z) of 0.2232 = 0.049 or
4.9%.
e) Contribution of intrinsic motivation (Y) directly affect the attainment of competencies (Z) of 0.1862 =
0.034 or 3.4%.
f) Graphic design talent contributions (X 1), creativity (X 2), and intrinsic motivation (Y) directly affect the
attainment of competencies (Z) of 0.326 Rsquare or 32,6%.

DISCUSSION
Graphic Design Talent contributions towards intrinsic motivation
The results of the analysis of data obtained coefficients 0.233 with the value significance of 0.001. Thus
accepted, meaning there are Hectares contribute significant positive directly between graphic design talent
towards intrinsic motivation. Students have talents that are different from each other.
As with Dirasuggests that there is a contribution of artistic talent against the results of studying the practice of
karawitan SMK Negeri 3 Sukawati, Gianyar with contributions amounting to 32.2%. The contribution of the
other talents in students has also been researched by Jayantika. [7] are direct contributions to numerical aptitude

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toward math learning achievements of 2.5% and indirect contributions to numerical aptitude toward math
learning achievements of 1.6% so that the contribution of a total of 4.1%.

The contribution of Creativity towards intrinsic motivation


Based on the results of the analysis of the obtained coefficient value 0.533 with value significance 0.000.
Thus accepted, meaning there are Hectares contribute significant positive directly between the creativity of
students towards intrinsic motivation. Develop creativity in every practical work, or of activities requires a strong
urge within him. According to Hennessey. [6] in intrinsic motivation is more conducive to creativity.
As with any advanced by Subandriyoresults correlation product moment of rxy = 0.295 with p = 0.017 (p <
0.05), it means there is a significant positive relationship between motivation of students with creativity with the
effective contribution of 8.7%. It is also reinforced by Gunawan. where his research results mentions that there is
a positive relationship between the motivation of students with creativity.
Creativity is required in a given learning activity. The ability to give a new touch on existing products or
create new products, allowing the student to step further.Because according to Wahyudin creativity is the
dynamics of the process, dynamic and continuously, without stopping.So that what is gained in school would be
armed when the future of society.

Graphic Design Talent contributions towards Competency Skills in Digital image processing
According to Semiawan the concept is predicated on how the talents that contribute to others who can
produce a creative, meaningful, isdynamic and deal with reality. Talent can continue to be dug and developed
exercise continuously.
The results of the analysis of the obtained coefficient value significance 0.000 0.286. Thus accepted, meaning
there are Hectares contribute significant positive directly between graphic design talent against the competencies.
In line with the findings of Subowo that there is a direct contribution to talent and competence of students with
the highest correlation 0.262 on a significant extent 0.000 with mechanical talent contributions toward
competence i.e. 6.9%.

The contribution of Creativity against the competency of skills in Digital image processing
The results of the analysis of the obtained coefficient value 0.233 with value the significance of 0.015. Thus
accepted, meaning there are Hectares contribute significant positive directly between graphic design talent
against the competencies. The findings by Widiana that creativity learning contributes 42% against the learning
outcomes of students. Students requires creativity in making a product so that it can meet the competencies.
Creativity is one of the ways to support the achievement of competence, because students who are creative
will be looking for new things. Creativity focuses on ways of thinking and the desire to achieve something new or
different. Semiawan suggests that creativity is the ability to create something new (product) or create a new
combination based on facts, data, information or items – items. Mardatillah that partially creativity contribute
significantly to the results of a study of 16,16%.
According to Munandar. [4] study conducted during these reproductive thinking leads to more, memorizing
and find one correct answer against the given problems and high thought process including how creative thinking
rarely drilled. But the creativity of students in school is the potential that must be developed.

The contribution of intrinsic motivation towards Digital image processing Skills Competencies
Students who have motivated intrinsically have a passion for understanding and mastering the lesson. Some
traits about motivation according to Sardiman, among others: the task facing assiduously, resilient facing
difficulties, showed interest in various issues, prefer to work independently, quickly bored on tasks that are
routine or mechanical.
The results of the analysis of the obtained coefficient value significance 0.186 0.044. Thus accepted, meaning
there are Hectares contribute significant positive directly between intrinsic motivation towards competence.
Intrinsic motivation is a drive there yourself, and can influence students to achieve the competency.
Ristifamention that intrinsic motivation to learn the results of the regression analysis with 4.184 value
significance 0.000 < 0.05.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the results of research and discussion in the previous chapter, it can be concluded that:
x There is a significant contribution towards graphic design talent between the intrinsic motivation of
students;
x There is a significant contribution towards intrinsic motivation of creativity among students;

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x There are significant contributions between graphic design talent towards the attainment of
competenciesin digital image processing;
x There is a significant contribution towardsbetween the attainment of competenciesand the creativity of
image processing digital
x There are significant contributions between intrinsic motivation towards the attainment of competencies
in digital image processing.

REFERENCES
1. Sudjimat, D.A, Perencanaan Pembelajaran Kejuruan, (Malang: UM Press, 2014).
2. Rowe, J. Alan, Creative Intelligence, (USC: Marginal School of Bussines, 2005).
3. Semiawan, C.R, Kreativitas Keberbakatan: Mengapa, Apa, dan Bagimana, (Jakarta: PT. Indeks, 2010).
4. Munandar, Utami, Pengembangan Kreativitas Anak Berbakat (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2009).
5. Schunk, D.H, Pintrich, P.R, dan Meece, J.L Tanpa Tahun, Motivasi dalam Pendidikan Teori, Penelitian
dan Aplikasi, (Terjemahan Ellys Tjo, Jakarta: Indeks2012).
6. Hennessey, Beth A, Developing Creativity in Gifted Children: The Central Importance of Motivation and
Classroom Climate, (U.S: University of Connecticut, 2004).
7. Jayantika, Trisna, Kontribusi Bakat Numerik, Kecerdasan Spasial, Dan Kecerdasan Logis Matematis
Terhadap Prestasi Belajar Matematika Siswa SD Negeri Di Kabupaten Buleleng, (Online).
(http://download.portalgaruda.org/article.php?article=259313), (diakses 15 April 2016).

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