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BASIC RULES OF FOOTBALL

American football is considered as one of the more physically


demanding sports today. Each player (some weighing over 300
pounds) stands to experience a huge deal of physical contact each
game as they run, throw a ball, block, tackle, and out run each other
in an effort to force the ball further into their opponent’s territory and
into the end zone. Football is played by two opposing teams, each
fielding 11 players. A football game consists of four quarters, each
with 15 minutes.

A football game is played on a rectangular field, 100 yd (91.4 m) long


and 53.5 yd (48.9 m) wide. At both ends of the 100-yard dimension,
white lines called goal lines mark off the entrances to the end zones.
Each team defends one end zone. A team must carry, pass, or kick the
ball into the 10-yd (9-m) end zone on the opponents' half of the field
to score. Each play must begin on or between the hash marks. The
hash marks are 53 ft 4 in (16.3 m) from each sideline in college and
high school football, and 70 ft 9 in (21.6 m) from each sideline in the
National Football League (NFL). Before each play, the officials place
the ball either between the hash marks or on the hash mark closest to
the end of the previous play.

BADMINTON COURT DIMENSIONS

Overall Court Dimensions

The overall dimensions of a badminton court is 20 feet by 44 feet. The


lines along these measurements mark the sidelines for doubles play
and long service lines for singles play.

BASIC RULES OF BADMINTON

A sport similar to tennis, badminton is played by either two opposing


players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles). Players are
positioned at the opposite ends of the court, aiming to hit a
shuttlecock over the net so that it lands inside the marked boundaries
of the court, and their opponents from doing the same. Only the
server can win points. Just like tennis, there are five main categories
in badminton: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles,
women's doubles and mixed doubles (each pair is composed of one
man and one woman). A game of badminton is played on a court
measuring 6.1 m/20 ft by 13.4 m/44 ft. There is a net (0.8 m/2.5 ft
deep and a height of 1.52m/5 ft) stretched across the middle of the
court where the shuttlecock must be sent over.

BASIC RULES OF BASKETBALL

The object of a basketball game is to score points by making field


goals or free throw shots. There are two opposing team, each with five
players.

A game commences with a jump ball at the court center, wherein each
of the teams vie for ball possession. Each team then tries to recover
the ball, makes a series of passing moves, and makes shots within
shooting range at their designated baskets –circular hoops and net
positioned at each ends of the court.

The opposing team, on the other hand, tries to block the shots to
prevent the ball from going into the basket and attempts to recover
the ball.

Basketball rules award two points for each field goal, while three
points are scored for field goals shot beyond a designated distance
from the basket. Two free throw shots, each worth a point, are
awarded to a player after being fouled by a player from the opposing
team in a penalty situation.

In professional rules, a game consists of four quarters, each with 12


minutes. The team with the higher score wins a game.

A game starts when the umpire at the bowler's end calls ‘Play’. ‘Play’ is
also called to restart the game after an interval or interruption. Before an
interval in or interruption of play, and at the end of a match, the umpire at
the bowler's end calls ‘Time’ and removes the bails from both of
the wickets. The bowling side cannot make an appealfor a dismissal after
‘Time’ has been called.
The game finishes when the first of three things happens:

1. There is a result, so that one of the teams has won or the


team batting last has lost all its wickets with both teams having the
same score thereby giving a tie;
2. The later of the minimum number of overs for the last hour are
completed and the agreed time for the end of the game has been
reached (see notes below);
3. If the players leave the field, either for adverse conditions of
ground, weather or light, or in exceptional circumstances, and no
further play is possible.

Notes:

1. In one-day cricket the second of these is replaced by the


requirement that the agreed number of overs has been reached.
2. The term last hour can be a misnomer. One hour before the
scheduled end of the game, the last hour starts. An agreed
minimum number of overs (usually 15 in Test match cricket and 20
in other first-class cricket games) is bowled. The last hour therefore
lasts either for the longer of 60 minutes, or the time it takes to bowl
the agreed minimum number of overs. This rule is there to prevent
time wasting by a team that looks likely to lose a game.
3. Today, Test matches are played under a set of conditions
agreed by the boards of the competing countries. These are highly
standardised. Days are scheduled as six hours of playing time, but
there is a requirement that a minimum of 90 six-ball overs are
bowled, and the third session may run overtime if the over rate has
been slower than this. If there is a change of innings, two overs are
deducted from the requirement.
4. If there are interruptions to play for weather or light, the
scheduled stumps time may be extended by up to one hour to
compensate (light permitting). If more than an hour's play is lost,
time may be added on subsequent days.

Intervals
Because of the length of the game, there are a number of intervals that
occur in a game of cricket. These are:

 The period between close of play on one day and the start of the
next day's play.
 Intervals between innings.
 Intervals for meals (lunch and tea).
 Intervals for drinks.

There are special rules setting out the duration of each interval. The
interval between innings lasts for 10 minutes.
Before the coin toss to determine which side bats first, the hours of play,
including the timing and duration of intervals for meals or any non-standard
interval, is agreed. Though if nine wickets are down when the agreed time
for tea is reached so that the bowling team only needs one more wicket to
end the batting team’s innings, tea is delayed to the earlier of that wicket
being taken or 30 minutes elapsing. In a one-day game the teams may
agree to take an interval for tea between the innings rather than have a
separate interval. Also, the teams and umpires sometimes agree to have
other intervals. This may be to allow the teams to be presented to an
important visitor or to allow time for a presentation or acclamation when a
player breaks a significant record. Other intervals may be varied slightly if
a wicket falls just before the interval is due to be taken.
Drinks intervals are agreed at the start of each day, but are not taken
during the last hour of the match. Drinks intervals are particularly important
when the game is played in particularly hot climates. Games being played
in heat of 40 degrees Celsius and above are not unknown. Drinks intervals
may not last for more than 5 minutes.

Sachin Tendulkar Virender Shewag Mahendra Singh Dhoni

Gautam Gambhir Yuvraj Singh Rahul Dravid

Murali Vijay Harbhajan Singh Zaheer Khan


Virat Kohli Sreesanth Rohit Sharma

S. Badrinath Irfan Pathan Yusuf Pathan

Ishant Sharma Rudra Pratap Singh Ravindra Jadeja

V.V.S. Laxman Praveen Kumar Munaf Munsa Patel

Amit Mishra Manoj Tiwary Suresh Raina

Murali Kartik Abhishek Nayar Wriddhiman Saha

Ashok Dinda Sudeep Tyagi Ashish Nehra

Robin Uthappa Ramesh Powar Mohammad Kaif

Current List of Indian Football (Soccer) Team Players 2010


Subrata Pal
Subhasish Roy Chowdhury
Arindam Bhattacharya
Anwar Ali
Deepak Kumar Mondal
Mahesh Gawli
Irungbam Surkumar Singh
Nallappan Mohanraj
Gouramangi Singh
Samir Subash Naik
Moirangthem Govin Singh
Rakesh Masih
Naduparambil Pappachan Pradeep
P. Renedy Singh
Steven Dias
Mehrajuddin Wadoo
Anthony Pereira
Clifford Miranda
Syed Rahim Nabi
Climax Lawrence
James Lukram Singh
Jagpreet Singh
Baldeep Singh Junior
Sunil Chhetri
Baichung Bhutia
M. Mohammed Rafi
Abhishek Yadav
Sushil Kumar Singh
Baljit Sahni

Badminton
Prakash Padukone
Pullela Gopichand
Aparna Popat
Aparna Popat
Prakash Padukone
Pullela Gopichand
Anup Sridhar Profile
Profile of Chetan Anand
Profile of Jwala Gutta
Profile of Saina Nehwal