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BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT ON THE INSTRUCTIONAL


COMPETENCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN
LUCENA CITY

An Undergraduate Research Study Presented to the Faculty of


Dalubhasaan ng Lungsod ng Lucena

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of


Bachelor of Science in Public Administration

By:

Regie G. Amarillas
Jessica B. Arong
Fatima B. Bello
Caren A. Montoya

May 2018

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APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis hereto entitled

Comparative Assessment on the Instructional Competence of


Public and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City

Prepared and submitted by Amarillas, Regie, Arong, Jessica, Bello,


Fatima, and Montoya, Caren in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Degree Bachelor of Science in Public Administration has been examined and
recommended for acceptance and approval for ORAL EXAMINATION.

___________________________
Denia S. Ravara, MPA, MBA
Adviser

Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with the grade of PASSED


on March 4, 2018.

____________________
Mr. Raul Marquez, RF, MPA
Chairman

_______________________ ____________________
Ms. Maria Charmaine Lagustan Mr. Julio Ramillo Mercurio
Member Member

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor


of Science in Public Administration.

__________________________
Ms. Mercedita D. Torres, Ed. D.
OIC-President/Dean

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The researchers wish to express their gratitude to all the persons who
formed part of this study.
To Almighty God, for guidance and strength. This would not be
possible without His help.
To Hon. Mayor Dondon Alcala, for his constant support to
Dalubhasaan ng Lungsod ng Lucena.
To our Family, for the love and support.
To our Friends, for the laughter in times of sorrow and downfall.
To our adviser, Ms. Denia S. Ravara for the patience and continuous
support.
To our Dean, Ms. Mercedita Torres, for the guidance to finish this
study.
To the Students of Senior High Schools, This would not also be
possible without your aid.
Thank you very much and God bless you all.

-Researchers

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DEDICATION

Dedicated to the my source of strength, God


For my parents, this is all for you

-Reg

This piece of work is humbly dedicated to the person who have inspired me all
throughout to GOD ALMIGHTY,
To my family whom have been providing me with a colourful and exciting journey up
to this day,
And lastly to my co researcher for their patience, time, perseverance, persistence, ideas,
moments and open-mindedness during the period of research thank you for the
wonderful and meaningful memory

-jess

I would like to dedicate this study to my family especially to my beloved parents who
supported me.
To my thesis group mates Regie, Jessica and Caren for believing that we could finish
this study. And also to God for giving me inspiration. Thank you so much.

- Timay

I would like to dedicate my research study to ALMIGHTY GOD,


To my beloved parents Elena and Freddie,
To my thesis buddies Regie, Jessica, and Fatima, to my classmates and friends,
To the people behind my success. Thank you so much

- Caren

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ABSTRACT
The study entitled “Comparative Assessment on Instructional
Competence of Public and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena
City” was conducted to assess the instructional competence of public and private
senior high school teachers in Lucena City specifically to answer the following
questions (1) to evaluate the respondent’s observation on the instructional
competence of senior high school teachers in terms of diversity of learners, teacher
behavior in actual teaching and assessment of learner’s outcome (2) find out whether
there is significant difference on the instructional competence of public and private
senior high school teachers as to diversity of learners. (3) determine whether there is
significant difference on the instructional competence of public and private senior
high school teachers as to teachers’ behavior in actual teaching. (4) reveal whether
there is significant difference on the instructional competence of public and private
senior high school teachers as to assessment of learners’ outcome.

The researchers used a descriptive-comparative method of research through


the aid of questionnaires that was conducted in three (3) public and three (3) private
senior high schools in Lucena City and utilized a total of 331 respondents, composed
of students from the selected schools. The researchers used the chi-square test of
independence to determine whether there is a significant difference on the
instructional competence of public and private senior high school teachers in Lucena
City.

The findings have shown that the respondents were mostly female and
young adult. Public senior high school teachers were proficient in terms of diversity of
learners, teacher’s behaviour in actual teaching and assessment of learners’
outcome. On the other hand, in terms of diversity of learners, teacher’s behaviour in
actual teaching, and assessment of learners’ outcome, private senior high school
teachers were highly proficient

Based on the investigation conducted, the following conclusions are obtained


(1) There is no significant difference on the instructional competence of public and
private senior high schools’ teachers in terms of diversity of learners. (2) There is
significant difference on the instructional competence of public and private senior
high schools’ teachers in terms of teacher’s behavior in actual teaching. (3) There is
significant difference on the instructional competence of public and private senior
high schools’ teachers in terms of assessment of learners’ outcome.

In the light of the findings and conclusion, the researchers offered the
following recommendations (1) for public senior high school teachers to find ways to
improve their teaching styles so that the students would be able to feel a more
conducive setting of a classroom.
(2) for the parents to have a decisive choice of schools upon enrolling their children in
a senior a high school. (3) for the government to intensify their support to senior high
schools. (4) for the researchers to validate the findings of this research using different
kind of respondents.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL SHEET…………………….……………………………………..…i.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………..……………………………………..…ii.
DEDICATION…………………………..………………………….……………...iii
ABSTRACT………………………….…………………………………….……...iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………..………………………………………………..vi.

CHAPTER I
Introduction……………………………………….………………………..1
Statement of the Problem………………………………………..……....2
Objectives of the Study……………………………………….…..……...3
Research Paradigm………………………………………..………..……3
Null Hyphotesis……………………………………………………………4
Scope and Limitations………………………………………..…………..4
Definition of Terms…………………………………………..……………5

CHAPTER II
Related Literature…………………………………………..…….……....6
Related Studies…………………………………….…………..…………11

CHAPTER III
Research Methodology…………………………………………………..15
Research Design…………………………………………..……………..15
Research Locale………………………………………………...………..15
Research Respondents……..…………...…………………….………...15
Research Instrument.……………………….……………..……………..16
Data Gathering Procedure.………………… …………………………..16
Statistical Treatment…………….………………………………………..17

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CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION
AND ANALYSIS OF DATA……………………………………………..19

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS,
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………….…………29

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………..32

APPENDICES
Questionnaire
Curriculum Vitae

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List of Figures
Figure 1. Relationships of the Variables 3

List of Tables
Table1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution 19
of the Respondents in terms of Age
and Sex.
Table 2 Instructional Competence of Public and 21
Private Senior High School Teachers in
Lucena City in terms of Diversity of Learners.
Table3. Instructional Competence of Public and 23
Private Senior High School Teachers in
Lucena City in terms of Teacher Behavior
in Actual Teaching.
Table4. Instructional Competence of Public and 25
Private Senior High School Teachers in
Lucena City in terms of Assessment
of Learner’s Outcome
Table5. Summary of Overall Weighted 26
Mean of the Instructional Competence
of Public and Private Senior High School
Teachers in Lucena City.
Table 6. Test of Independence on Instructional 28
Competence between Public and Private
Senior High School Teachers in
Lucena City in terms of Diversity of Learners
Table 7. Test of Independence on Instructional 28
Competence between Public and Private
Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City
in terms of Teacher Behavior in the Classroom
Table 8. Test of Independence on Instructional 28
Competence between Public and Private
Senior High School Teachers in
Lucena City in terms of Assessment of
Learner’s Outcome

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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Today is very much different type of education that we had learned
before. In order to succeed in this generation where skills, abilities and
knowledge becomes a demand, today’s children must possess the necessary
learning and intelligence. This will make them competitive enough in striving
and proving that they would be able to have a professional career in the
future.
In the Philippines, one of the major drives of the former Aquino
Administration was the enhancement of basic education curriculum known as
the Republic Act 10533 which was signed into law on May 15, 2013. It was
enacted and promulgated because the Philippines is the last country in Asia
and one of the only three countries in the world with a 10-year pre-university
program (Rappler.com,2013). It has been instituted by the Philippine
Government to quality of high school graduates. These graduates are
envisioned to become more competitive in the global business arena and to
bring more success that would definitely contribute towards building nation
and be at equivalence with the rest of the world.
Thus, in order to achieve this kind of milestone, teachers have the
great responsibility in molding and inculcating essential skills and knowledge
to the students. Teachers should be cognizant enough on how he/she would
teach the different kind of learners. Most of the successful teachers are able
to bring the best of their student and inspire them to be a better citizen of the
community.
The researchers become interested to undertake the study to
compare the instructional competence of public and private senior high
school teachers. The researchers strongly believe that this study would at
least recognize the teachers’ strengths and weaknesses when it comes to
teaching.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


The general objective of the study is to find the difference in the
instructional capabilities of public and private senior high school teachers in
Lucena City.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents as to:
1.1 Age
1.2 Sex
2. What is the respondent’s observation on the instructional competence
of public and private senior high school teachers based on Teacher
Observation Guide for Instructional Competence by the Department of
Education (DepEd) in terms of:
2.1 Diversity of Learners
2.2 (Content and Pedagogy) Teacher Behavior in Actual
Teaching
2.3 Assessment of Learners’ Outcome

3. Is there a significant difference on the instructional competence of


public and private senior high school teachers in terms of diversity of
learners?
4. Is there a significant difference on the instructional competence of
public and private senior high school teachers in terms of teacher
behavior in actual teaching?
5. Is there a significant difference on the instructional competence of
public and private senior high school teachers in terms of assessment
of learners’ learner’s outcome?

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. Evaluate the respondent’s observation on the instructional


competence of senior high school teachers in terms of diversity of
learners, teacher behavior in actual teaching and assessment of
learner’s outcome.

2. Find out whether there is significant difference on the instructional


competence of public and private senior high school teachers as to
diversity of learners.

3. Determine whether there is significant difference on the instructional


competence of public and private senior high school teachers as to
teachers’ behavior in actual teaching.

4. Reveal whether there is significant difference on the instructional


competence of public and private senior high school teachers as to
assessment of learners’ outcome

RESEARCH PARADIGM

Input Process Output

Teacher
Observation
Guide for Comparative
Instructional Assessment of Best Practices
Competence Public and in Teaching
by the Private Senior Strategies
Department of High School
Education
(DepEd)

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Figure 1. Relationships of the Variables


The research paradigm guided the researchers to describe and
illustrates how the variables were treated in the study. The input includes the
Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional Competence by the Department
of Education (DepEd) which served as the basis for a comparative
assessment between public and private senior high school. The output is
intended for best practices in teaching strategies.

NULL HYPHOTESIS
1. There is no significant difference on the respondent observation on
the instructional competence of public and private senior high school
teachers in Lucena City in terms of diversity of learners.
2. There is no significant difference on the respondent observation on
the instructional competence of public and private senior high school
teachers in Lucena City in terms of teachers’ behavior in actual
teaching.
3. There is no significant difference on the respondent observation on
the instructional competence of public and private senior high school
teachers in Lucena City in terms of assessment of learners, outcome.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The areas of the study were the three (3) randomly selected public
senior high schools and three (3) randomly selected private senior high
schools tagged as one (1), two (2), and three (3) respectively.

The researchers focused on three hundred thirty-one (331)


respondents composed of students from the selected senior high schools,
one hundred forty-two (142) from the public senior high schools and one
hundred eighty-nine (189) from the private senior high schools.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are operationally defined for further


understanding of the research:

Academic track subjects sound like college


courses that prepare students to
learn more advanced skills in
college. These will also develop
skills that the students will need
if they want to work right after
high school.

Behavior the way, act or conducts of a


student or a teacher towards
others.

Pedagogy the method and practice of


teaching, especially as an
academic subject or theoretical
concept.

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Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Materials which are related in the present study were read and
presented to give readers insight into the studies already conducted along
this area of investigation, to find out how the data were gathered for the
purpose of gaining suggestions useful to the present study and to look into
the findings and conclusion which may be relevant to the present one.

A brief summary of some of this investigation with significant relations


to the present study was made in this chapter.

RELATED LITERATURE

K-12

CIIT College of Arts and technology stated that K to 12 (also K-12) is


an education system under the Department of Education that aims to
enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare
graduates for lifelong learning and employment. “K” stands for Kindergarten
and “12” refers to the succeeding 12 years of basic education (6 years of
elementary education, 4 years of junior high school, and 2 years of senior
high school). At present, the Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of
only three countries in the world with a 10-year pre-university program.

In 2011, the Department of Education (DepEd) administered a shift to


a fresh learning scheme — the K to 12 basic education program. Many
people were resistant to the new education system. Despite this, the
government is keen on revolutionizing the Philippine education. (CIIT College
of Arts and Technology, 2012)

Rey Gamboa (2013) in his column”Is K12 the answer?” in Philippine


Star discussed the preparation made by the government concerning K-12

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program. According to him, it is not just the quality of teaching that was the
problem but also the challenge for majority of Filipinos in sending their
children through primary education. We could also add that another problem
lay are the inadequate number of classrooms, particularly in public schools,
where children are packed beyond decent numbers, and go on shifts and
shortened class hours during the day in a week.

Senior High School “completes” basic education by making sure that


the high school graduate is equipped for work, entrepreneurship, or higher
education. This is a step up from the 10-year cycle where high school
graduates still need further education (and expenses) to be ready for the
world.

SHS will be offered free in public schools and there will be a voucher
program in place for public junior high school completers as well as ESC
beneficiaries of private high schools should they choose to take SHS in
private institutions.

This means that the burden of expenses for the additional two years
need not be completely shouldered by parents. (http://www.deped.gov.ph/k-
to-12/)

Instructional Competence
According to the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers (1997) a
professional teacher is a licensed professional who possesses dignity and
reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional
competence. S/he adheres to observe, and practice a set of ethical and moral
principles, standards and values. In connection to this, a teacher who is a
keen observer of these practices should have a high level of instructional
competency.

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In its broadest sense, teaching is a process that facilitates learning.


According to Alberta Teachers’ Association (2013), teaching is the
specialized application of knowledge, skills and attributes designed to provide
unique service to meet the educational needs of the individual and of society.
The choice of learning activities whereby the goals of education are realized
in the school is the responsibility of the teaching profession.
The Wing Institute (2015) mentioned that instructional competence
are the skills and knowledge that enable a teacher to be successful. To
maximize student learning, teachers must have expertise in a wide-ranging
array of competencies in an especially complex environment where hundreds
of critical decisions are required each day.
Arthur and Philips (2002) said that competence gives the teacher the
responsibility to present evidence of the achievement of the students. The
question is how teachers perform, identifies the competencies and relate to
overall performance of the students according to the capacity.

Diversity of Learners
There are diverse types of learners. Flores et.al (2002) stated that the
domain of diversity if learners emphasize the ideal that teachers can facilitate
the learning process in diverse types of learners, by first recognizing and
respecting individual differences then using knowledge about students’
differences to design diverse sets of learning activities to ensure that all
students can attain appropriate learning rules.
Teachers promote critical thinking when they make the rules of the
classroom culture explicit and enable students to compare and contrast them
with other cultures. Students can develop cross-cultural skills in culturally and
linguistically diverse classrooms. For such learning to take place, however,
teachers must have the attitudes, knowledge, and skills to make their
classrooms effective learning environments for all students. Given the
opportunity, students can participate in learning communities within their

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schools and neighborhoods and be ready to assume constructive roles as


workers, family members, and citizens in a global society.

Teacher’s Behavior in Actual Teaching


The positive and negative behaviors exhibited by teachers determine
to a great extent their effectiveness in the classroom and, ultimately, the
impact they have on student achievement.
School Improvement Network (2012) distinguished teaching in
positive and negative reinforcement. According to them, positive
reinforcement is a very powerful and effective tool to help mold and change
behavior. It works by praising and rewarding desired behavior, which then
makes the behavior more likely to happen in the future whereas for most
people, the term “negative reinforcement” gets easily mistaken for
punishment, which is not the case. With negative reinforcement, one
increases a behavior, whereas with punishment, you are decreasing a
behavior. Negative reinforcement can also be thought of as when a negative
or unwanted behavior is stopped or avoided due to removal of a certain
stimulus/item after the behavior is exhibited. That way the likelihood of the
positive behavior occurring again will be increased and coupled with a
positive direction.
Good teachers know how to bring out the best in their students. Teach
(2017) emphasized that teachers are more responsible for more than just
academic enrichment. If you want to be a great educator, you must reach the
students in their multiple levels of intelligence because the teachers must be
committed both inside and outside the classroom. By constructing strong
relationships, educators are able to affect every aspect of their students’ lives
by teaching important life lessons that will help them succeed.
Every teacher knows that the perfect lesson plan is useless without
effective classroom management. It was emphasized by the Ministry of
Education in Guyana (2015) that effective classroom management paves the

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way for the teacher to engage the students in learning. A disorganized


classroom without routines and expectations makes it difficult for the teacher
to do her job. Students don't know what to do, so they might get off task or
cause disruptions. When the teacher is constantly redirecting students or
handling behavior problems, she loses crucial teaching time. Classroom
management strategies help create an organized classroom environment
that's conducive to teaching. Manzano et.al (2003) said that effective
teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom. If
students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and
procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm. In these situations,
both teachers and students suffer. Teachers struggle to teach, and students
most likely learn much less than they should. In contrast, well-managed
classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can
flourish.

Assessment of Learners’ Outcome


Teaching requires assessment, i.e., the evaluation of student
understanding in light of the goals of a lesson or a course. Student learning
outcomes articulate what a student should know or can do after completing a
course or program. The assessment of student learning outcomes provides
information that puts student learning at the forefront of academic planning
processes.
According to Roberts (2008) effective assessment task is one which
assesses students' attainment of the learning outcomes. Unit learning
outcomes are what students are expected to know, understand or be able to
do in order to be successful in a unit. They begin with an action verb and
describe something observable and measurable.
There are many benefits to communicating learning goals and
outcomes. York (2018) stated that learning goals help us keep in mind the
learning that needs to be facilitated, and learners understand the learning

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they will need to be able to demonstrate. According to Clinton (2017), when


student learning outcomes assessment is done in a meaningful and
systematic way, it benefits all facets of the institution from the students, to the
faculty, to the administration. Well-designed assessment has numerous
benefits aside from the obvious one of providing a measure of students'
progress as it can be a means to engage students with their learning.

RELATED STUDIES

Senior High Schools Model

Seameo Innotech Research Updates (2016) conducted a study


entitled “Senior High School Modelling: Moving towards the new K to 12
Curriculum” which aimed to identify the strengths and innovation of selected
senior high model schools, ascertain challenges and potentials and
improvement and formulate policy recommendation based on the lessons
learned by the selected senior high model schools.

The study covered the various stages of the SHS modelling from pre-
implementation to implementation, including the challenges that the schools
have experienced. The pre-implementation stage considered the factors that
influenced the school in SHS Modelling program. These include establishing
linkages with local government units and local businesses and industries,
developing appropriate curriculum, capacity building especially for teaching
personnel and acquiring necessary certifications particularly for teaching
technical vocational subjects. On the other hand, the implementation stage
included the necessary inputs such as human and financial resources,
adequate facilities, curriculum, and learning materials including policy
guidelines; processes that take place such as intervention programs, use of
different teaching methodologies, and student assessment; and outputs such

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as innovations and student employment as on the-job trainees generated


during the first year of SHS Modelling.

Included in the seven SHS model schools were composed of four


general public high schools, namely, 1) Sangley Point National High School
(NHS) in Sangley Point, Cavite City, Cavite; 2) Bacolod City NHS and 3)
Sum-ag NHS in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental; 4) Palo NHS in Palo, Leyte;
and three public TechVoc high schools, namely, 5) San Pedro Relocation
Center NHS in San Pedro, Laguna; 6) Doña Montserrat Lopez Memorial NHS
in Silay City, Negros Occidental; 7) Merida Vocational School in Merida,
Leyte.

Most of the seven SHS model schools engaged in the SHS Modelling
not only to contribute in achieving Education for All, but also to provide
greater access to senior high school education to poor and working students
as well as employment opportunities and quality education to students while
they are unable to enrol in college. The SHS Modelling school heads and
teachers were oriented and trained on the K to 12 Program and SHS
Modelling. Different SHS model schools have different human resource
requirements depending on their program strategies. With respect to SHS
teachers, the schools usually employ those who have a Master’s degree or
units.

Among the innovations introduced and/or practiced by some of the


SHS model schools are undergoing on-the-job training (OJT)programs as
early as Grade 11 to accommodate all students and prevent congestion of
trainees at the end of the SHS term; making the school accessible to indigent
students by strictly implementing a “zero collection” policy; using real life
scenarios, skill-oriented learning and treating students as adults to motivate
and challenge them to do well in school; and encouraging SHS teachers to

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conduct action research and develop their own instructional materials to help
enrich existing instructional materials.

Practices of Senior High School Teachers in the Implementation of K-12


Curriculum

A study was conducted in Infanta, Quezon by Leonardo Flora


Combalicer, Jr. (2012) entitled “Best Practices and Problems in the Initial
Implementation of the K+12 Curriculum Among Teachers In Infanta, Quezon:
Implications To An Effective Implementation Of Senior High School” which
aimed to identify and investigate the practices of senior high school teachers
in the implementation of K-12 curriculum and the underlying problems along
with its implementation with an end view of determining the teachers’ best
practices to come up with a more effective implementation of the Senior High
School. The findings revealed that the teachers in the public schools in the
Division of Quezon, District of Infanta were prepared in the implementation of
K+12 curriculum. This shows that the teachers always practice preparing,
designing and reviewing the lessons, collecting a variety of materials for
instruction, and soliciting support and feedback from other K+12 teachers but
lack dialogues and updates about K+12 from experts and school heads.

The findings also revealed that the teachers in the Division of Quezon,
District of Infanta, are generally showing good practices in “Curriculum
Enhancement” in terms of enhancing the contents and designing all the
needed and appropriate materials to develop and create situations that will
boost students’ creative and critical skills. The study also revealed that in the
initial implementation of the K+12 Curriculum, the teachers were able to
refine best practices including reviewing and ensuring understanding of
subject matter before delivery; simplifying curriculum content to suit the level
of learners; measuring student performance through varied assessment tools;
creating situations that enhance communication skills among students;
integrating learner nature and interests into subject matter; preparing the

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needed materials before starting lesson proper; Designing activities that


develop student creativity and flexibility; exploring the use of appropriate
varied teaching strategies and techniques; integrating with the lessons the
culture, customs and traditions of the community; and using student base-
knowledge on lesson as a springboard for discussion.

RELEVANCE TO THE STUDY

The literature and studies in this research gave further insight to the
researchers in knowing the instructional competence of senior high schools. It
explained the things thoroughly and helped the researchers assess the
instructional competence of senior high schools’ teachers. It also aided the
information required so that the researchers could successfully convey their
thoughts to their readers.

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Chapter lll
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the methods and procedures that were utilized
by the researchers in the preparation and completion of the study. It includes
the research design, research locale, research instrument, and data
gathering procedures, research respondents, and statistical treatment.

Research Design
The researchers used a comparative-descriptive method of research
in conducting, analysing, and interpreting of data. This method comprised of
collecting and describing data to produce meaningful information. The
researchers used survey questionnaire as a mean of gathering data needed
in this research.

Research Locale

The study was conducted in the three (3) randomly selected public
and three (3) randomly selected private secondary schools. These schools,
for confidentiality were tagged as the Public Senior High School 1, Public
Senior High School 2, Public Senior High School 3, Private Senior High
School 1, Private Senior High School 2 and Private Senior High School 3.

Research Respondents

The researchers utilized three hundred thirty-one (331) respondents


from the students of public and private senior high schools. These schools
were picked randomly for the researchers believed that the respondents can
make an assessment on the instructional competence of senior high school
teachers.

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Research Instrument

The researchers used questionnaire in gathering data and have


distributed it to the respondents. This served as the main instrument for the
research study. The survey questionnaire is divided in five (5) parts:

Part I – The Demographic Profile of the respondents which includes


the age and sex
Part II – The assessment of the respondents on the instructional
competence of their teachers.
Part III - Significant Difference on the Instructional Competence of
Public and Private Senior High School Teachers in Terms of Diversity of
Learners.
Part IV – Significant Difference on the Instructional Competence of
Public and Private Senior High School Teachers in Terms of Teacher
Behavior in Actual Teaching.
Part V - Significant Difference on the Instructional Competence of
Public and Private Senior High School Teachers in Terms of Assessment of
Learners’ Learner’s Outcome.

Data Gathering Procedure

The research title of this study was chosen from the three (3) propose
title of the researchers and was defended by the researchers until approved.
After the specific title has been set, the researchers started to gather valuable
information which was used for the study to be completed so that the survey
tools were reliable and valid.

The researchers used the Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional


Competence by the Department of Education (DepEd) as the survey
questionnaire. The researchers believed that it well sufficed the question to
be asked in order for them to get an honest information regarding the study.

The researchers have distributed the survey questionnaire to the


selected respondent to test its affectivity.

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The researchers personally distributed the survey questionnaire to the


one hundred forty-two (142) respondents in public secondary high school
students and one hundred eighty-nine (189) private secondary high school
students in Lucena City with a total of three hundred thirty-one (331)
students.

The survey questionnaire was used for the researchers to analyse


and interpret the gathered data to formulate the conclusion and
recommendation of this study.

Statistical Treatment
Data that was gathered was manipulated using the following
mathematical procedure.
Percentage formula:
P=F/n
Where:
P = percentage
f = frequency
n = number of respondents

Weighted Percentage Mean:


WM=V1W1+V2W 2+V3W 3+V4W 4
Vn
Where:
W = unit weight corresponding to the response
V = the number of respondents
Vn = total number of respondents
The weighted mean was used to determine the assessment of public
and private senior high school student to the best practices of their teachers.

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Chi-Square Test of Independence


(O-E)2
X2 = ∑ E

Where:
X2 = Chi-square computed value
O = Observed Frequencies
E = Expected Frequencies

Likert Scale
Range Unit Weight Verbal Interpretation
3.26-4.00 4 Highly Proficient
2.51-3.25 3 Proficient
1.76-2.50 2 Basic
1.00-1.75 1 Below Basic

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Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This includes the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
through the survey questionnaire which have been treated by the statistical
formulas. Tables were used for an organized presentation of the contents of
this chapter.

Part I. Demographic Profile of the Respondents


Table1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents in terms
of Age and Sex.

Public Private
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Age
15-17 59 41.6% 67 35.4%
18-20 77 54.2% 120 63.5%
Above 20 6 4.2% 2 1.1%
TOTAL 142 100% 189 100%
Sex
Male 54 38.0% 85 45.0%
Female 88 62.0% 104 55.0%
TOTAL 142 100% 189 100%

Age
In public senior high schools, the age bracket of 18-20 got the highest
distribution with 77 out of 142 respondents or 54.2%, followed by the age
bracket of 15-17 with 59 respondents or 41.6% and the least age bracket
which is above 20 has 6 or 4.2%. Likewise in the private senior high schools,
the age bracket of 18-20 also got the highest distribution with 120 or 63.5% of
the respondents which is also being followed by the age bracket of 15-70 with
35.4%. Furthermore, the least age bracket is above 20 with 2 respondents or
1.1%

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It was stated based on the results that the respondents are within 15-
20 years old. It only means that the students enrolled in senior high schools
are still young and haven’t stopped going to school.
According to Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants
(OCASI) (2015), secondary schools provide instruction to Grade 9-12 and
generally students start going to high school at the age of 14 years of age
and eventually graduate at the age of 18.

Sex
In public senior high schools, 54 or 38.0 % of the respondents were
male and the rest were female with 88 respondents or 62% while in the
private senior high schools 85 or 45% of the respondents were male and the
rest were female with 104 respondents or 55 %.
Based on the results, most of the respondents were female.
It was being supported by the 2008 Functional Literacy and Mass
Media Survey (FLEMMS), that girls were better in terms of enrollment
indicators in elementary and secondary education. Female Net Enrollment
Ratio (NER) was computed at 91.07 percent while male NER was lower at
88.78 percent. This means that there were around 9 in every 100 girls and 11
in every 100 boys. Moreover, The Gender Parity Index (GPI) which is used to
assess differences between girls and boys enrollment is computed at 1.03
(103 girls in every 100 boys) which means that more girls had enrolled in
schools than boys during that period.

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Part II. Assessment on the Instructional Competence of Public and


Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City based on the
Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional Competence by the
Department of Education (DepEd).

Table 2 Instructional Competence of Public and Private Senior High School


Teachers in Lucena City in terms of Diversity of Learners.

Instructional Competence Public Private


Diversity of Learners WM VI WM VI
1. Sets lesson Objectives within the
experience and capabilities of the 3.28 HP 3.21 P
learners.
2. Utilizes varied techniques and
strategies suited to different kind of 3.13 P 3.31 HP
learners.
3. Shows fairness in dealing with the 3.11 P 3.31 HP
learners.
4. Paces lessons appropriate to the 3.17 P 3.28 HP
needs and difficulties of the learners.
5. Provides appropriate intervention 3.28 HP 3.20 P
activities for learner at risk.
Overall Weighted Mean 3.19 P 3.26 HP

Legend:
3.26-4.00 – Highly Proficient
2.51-3.25 – Proficient
1.76-2.50 – Basic
1.00-1.75 – Below Basic

The table shows the comparative assessment of the instructional


competence of public and private senior high schools teachers in Lucena City
using Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional Competence by the
Department of Education (DepEd) in terms of diversity of learners.
Based on the result, public senior high schools teachers got an overall
weighted mean of 3.19 with a verbal interpretation of Proficient while private
schools got 3.26 overall weighted mean with a verbal interpretation of Highly
Proficient.

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The result shows that teachers in private senior high schools are more
active when it comes to addressing student’s unique skills and abilities within
the competences of the students.
It is supported by Jaap Dronkers and Peter Robert (2013) on their
working paper entitled “The Effectiveness of Public and Private Schools from
a Comparative Perspective” concluded that private schools are more effective
than comparable public schools with the same students, parents and social
composition. They tend to give higher educational outcomes of their students
as well as more favorable school climate.

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Table3. Instructional Competence of Public and Private Senior High School


Teachers in Lucena City in terms of Teacher Behavior in Actual Teaching.

Instructional Competence Public Private


Teacher Behavior in Actual Teaching WM VI WM VI
1. Teachers accurate and updated content using 3.21 P 3.33 HP
appropriate techniques and strategies.
2. Aligns lesson objectives, teaching methods, 3.03 P 3.36 HP
learning activities, and instructional materials
3. Encourages learners to use higher order thinking 3.10 P 3.14 P
skills in asking questions
4. Engages and sustains learner’s interest in the
subject matter by making content meaningful and 3.28 HP 3.26 HP
relevant.
5. Establishes routines and procedures to maximize 3.15 P 3.34 HP
use of time and instructional materials.
6. Integrates language, literacy, skills and values in 3.03 P 3.28 HP
teaching.
7. Presents lesson logically in a developmental 3.17 P 3.38 HP
planner.
8. Utilizes technology resources in planning, 3.30 HP 3.35 HP
designing and delivery of the lesson.
9. Creates a situation that encourages learners to 3.13 P 3.27 HP
use higher order thinking skills.
Overall Weighted Mean 3.15 P 3.32 HP

Legend:
3.26-4.00 – Highly Proficient
2.51-3.25 – Proficient
1.76-2.50 – Basic
1.00-1.75 – Below Basic

The table shows the comparative assessment of the instructional


competence of public and private senior high schools teachers in Lucena City
using Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional Competence by the
Department of Education (DepEd) in terms of teacher behavior in actual
teaching.
Based on the result, public school teachers got an overall weighted
mean of 3.15 with a verbal interpretation of Proficient whereas private senior

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BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

high school teachers got a verbal interpretation of Highly Proficient with


3.32 as overall weighted mean.
This result shows that private senior high school teachers are more
self-motivated than public senior high school teachers when it comes to
integrating necessary learning and knowledge and provides more competitive
setting for the student. This is because they encompass more latest
technological apparatus and more suitable facilities.
It is being supported by Jaap Dronkers and Peter Robert (2013) on
their working paper entitled “The Effectiveness of Public and Private Schools
from a Comparative Perspective” that for private schools in comparison with
public schools promote better academic quality because more students will
increase the opportunities of reaching higher levels of scholastic achievement
both as a result of a higher level at the start of secondary school and of better
teaching and learning condition.

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BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Table4. Instructional Competence of Public and Private Senior High School


Teachers in Lucena City in terms of Assessment of Learner’s Outcome

Instructional Competence Public Private


Assessment of Learner’s Outcome WM VI WM VI
1. Provides timely, appropriate 3.21 P 3.42 HP
learners’ behavior.
2. Uses appropriate formative,
summative test congruent to the 3.14 P 3.31 HP
lessons.
3. Uses non-traditional authentic
assessment techniques when 3.15 P 3.36 HP
needed.
4. Keeps accurate records of 3.15 P 3.26 HP
learners’ performance level.
5. Gives assignment as
reinforcement or enrichment of the 3.13 P 3.30 HP
lesson

6. Provides opportunity for learners 3.10 P 3.27 HP


to demonstrate their learning.
Overall Weighted Mean 3.13 P 3.30 HP

Legend:
3.26-4.00 – Highly Proficient
2.51-3.25 – Proficient
1.76-2.50 – Basic
1.00-1.75 – Below Basic

The table shows the comparative assessment of the instructional


competence of public and private senior high school teachers in Lucena City
using Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional Competence by the
Department of Education (DepEd) in terms of assessment of learners’
outcome.
Based on the result, public senior high schools teachers got an overall
weighted mean of 3.13 with a verbal interpretation of Proficient. On the other
hand, private senior high schools got an overall weighted mean of 3.30 with a
verbal interpretation of Highly Proficient.

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It just shows that private senior high schools teachers more likely to
provide learners a better way of assessing and demonstrating their learning
acquired in the classroom.
Moreover, it is being supported by National Center for Education
Statistics (2007) by the US Department of Education that both public and
private schools had a good deal of control over certain classroom practices
like selecting the content and topics and skills to be taught except in the area
of determining the amount of homework private school teachers were more
likely than public school teachers.

Table5. Summary of Overall Weighted Mean of the Instructional Competence


of Public and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City.

Instructional Competence of
Senior High School Teachers in Public Private
Lucena City
WM VI RANK WM VI RANK
Diversity of Learners 3.19 P 1 3.26 HP 3
Teacher Behavior in Actual Teaching 3.15 P 2 3.32 HP 1
Assessment of Learners’ Outcome 3.13 P 3 3.30 HP 2
Overall Weighted
3.16 P 3.29 HP
Mean

Table 3 shows the Summary of the overall weighted mean of the


instructional competence of public and private senior high school teachers in
Lucena City based on Teacher Observation Guide for Instructional
Competence by the Department of Education (DepEd).
For public school teachers, all of the results were Proficient. Diversity
of learners with 3.19 overall weighted mean is on the rank 1, followed by
teacher’s behavior in the classroom with overall weighted mean of 3.15 and
the last is assessment of learners’ outcome which has overall weighted mean
of 3.13. While for private schools’ teachers, all of the results are Highly

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Proficient. Teacher behavior in actual teaching ranked 1 with an overall


weighted mean of 3.32. It is being followed by assessment of learners’
outcome with 3.30 as an overall weighted mean. Furthermore, the last is
diversity of learners with an overall weighted mean of 3.26.
As shown in Table 3, private senior high school teachers are better
than public senior high school teachers. Since private schools are exclusively
operated, they tend to have more advance equipment and learning materials
that will definitely give students a more favorable learning condition.

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Part3. Test of Independence on Instructional Competence between Public


and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City

Table 6. Test of Independence on Instructional Competence between Public


and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City in terms of Diversity
of Learners

Degrees of Computed Tabular Value Level of


Freedom Value Independence
3 6.1959 7.815 0.05

Computed X2 = 6.1959 < tabular X20.05 = 7.815


Computed X2 is therefore not significant. Accept the null hypothesis.

Table 7. Test of Independence on Instructional Competence between Public


and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City in terms of Teacher
Behavior in the Classroom

Degrees of Computed Tabular Value Level of


Freedom Value Independence
3 30.502 7.815 0.05

Computed X2 = 30.502 > tabular X20.05 = 7.815


Computed X2 is therefore significant. Reject the null hypothesis.

Table 8. Test of Independence on Instructional Competence between Public


and Private Senior High School Teachers in Lucena City in terms of
Assessment of Learner’s Outcome

Degrees of Computed Tabular Value Level of


Freedom Value Independence
3 29.657 7.815 0.05

Computed X2 = 29.657 > tabular X20.05 = 7.815


Computed X2 is therefore significant. Reject the null hypothesis.

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Chapter V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the undertaken research work,


the conclusion drawn and the conclusion made as an outcome of this study.

Summary of Findings
The respondents were characterized by the following:
1. The demographic profile of the respondents were:
1.1. Most of the respondents in public and private senior high schools
were in the age bracket of 18-20 with 77 or 54.2% and 120 or 63.5%
frequency distribution respectively.
1.2. Majority of the respondents were female with 88 or 62% frequency
distribution in public senior high schools and 104 or 55% in private
senior high schools.
2. The respondents assessed the instructional competence of public and
private senior high school teachers in terms of:
2.1. Diversity of learners, public senior high schools teachers got an
overall weighted mean of 3.19 with a verbal interpretation of
proficient whereas in private senior high schools teachers obtained
3.26 overall weighted mean with a verbal interpretation of highly
proficient
2.2. Teacher’s behavior in actual teaching, public and private senior high
school teachers gained 3.15 and 3.32 overall weighted mean with a
verbal interpretation of proficient and highly proficient respectively.
2.3. Assessment of, public senior high school teachers got an overall
weighted mean of 3.13 with a verbal interpretation of proficient while
private senior high school teachers got an overall weighted mean of
3.30 with a verbal interpretation of highly proficient.
3. Based on the instructional competence of public and private senior high
school teachers using the chi-square test of independence, there is no

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significant difference in the assessment of the respondent in terms of


diversity of learners.
4. Based on the instructional competence of public and private senior high
school teachers using the chi-square test of independence, there is
significant difference in the assessment of the respondent in terms of
teachers’ behavior in actual teaching.
5. Based on the instructional competence of public and private senior high
school teachers using the chi-square test of independence, there is
significant difference in the assessment of the respondent in terms of
assessment of learners’ outcome.

Conclusions
Based on the findings the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Majority of senior high school students from both public and private
senior high schools were female and young adults
2. Public senior high schools’ teachers are proficient in terms of diversity
of learners, teachers’ behavior in actual teaching and assessment of
learners’ outcome.
3. Private senior high schools’ teachers are highly proficient in terms of
diversity of learners, teacher’s behavior in actual teaching and
assessment of learners’ outcome.
4. There is no significant difference on the instructional competence of
public and private senior high schools’ teachers in terms of diversity of
learners.
5. There is significant difference on the instructional competence of
public and private senior high schools’ teachers in terms of teacher’s
behavior in actual teaching.
6. There is significant difference on the instructional competence of
public and private senior high schools’ teachers in terms of
assessment of learners’ outcome.

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Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the following
recommendations are suggested:
1. For public senior high school teachers to find ways to improve their
teaching styles so that the students would be able to feel a more
conducive setting of a classroom.
2. For the parents to have a decisive choice of schools upon enrolling
their children in a senior a high school.
3. For the government to intensify their support to senior high schools.
4. For the future researchers to validate the findings of this research
using different kind of respondents.

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