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INTEGRAL CALCULUS Rule 3: The sum and difference rule.

Lesson 1. Antiderivatives and Indefinite The integrand consists of a sum or


Integrals difference of terms, each term may be integrated
separately.

If f(x) is a given function and F(x) is a ∫ [f(x) ± g(x)] dx = ∫ f(x) dx ± ∫ g(x) dx


function whose derivative is f(x), the relationship
between them is written as: Rule 4: The Power Formula

x n+1
F(x) = ∫ f(x) dx, ∫ xn dx = +C
n+1
Where the symbol ∫ , called the integral sign
indicates that you are to perform the integration
of f(x) dx. Other Integration formulas:
au
For instance, if f(x)= 4x2 - 5x + 2, you 1. ∫ au du = + C , a >1, a ≠1
know that f '(x) = 8x – 5. Suppose you are given ln a
the following functions:
2. ∫ eu du = eu + C
2
g(x) = 4x - 5x + 1
du
and 3. ∫ u-1 du = ∫ = ln |u| + C
u
h(x) = 4x2 - 5x + 100,
4. ∫ ln u du = u ln |u| -u + C
The first derivative of these functions are
both 8x – 5. In general, functions of the form Trigonometric Functions:
4x2 - 5x + C, where C is any real number, will have
the same derivative as that of f(x). The function 5. ∫ sin u du = -cos u + C
4x2 - 5x + C is called the antiderivative of 8x – 5.
In symbols, using the first statement above, this 6. ∫ cos u du = sin u + C
is written as:

∫(8x - 5) dx = 4x2 - 5x + C, 7. ∫ tan u du = ln |sec u| + C

Where C is an arbitrary constant or the 8. ∫ cot u du = ln |sin u| + C


constant of integration, and dx is the variable of
integration. The notation ∫ f(x) dx, is read as “the
indefinite integral of f(x) with respect to x.” 9. ∫ sec u du = ln |sec u + tan u| + C

It is now clear that any function whose


given derivative is not completely determined due 10. ∫ csc u du = ln |csc u - cot u| + C
to the arbitrary constant or the constant of
integration. For this reason, the function ∫ f(x) dx, 11. ∫ sec2 u du = tan u + C
is called the indefinite integral of f(x).

Just like in differentiation, there are rules that can 12. ∫ csc2 u du = − cot u + C
be used to find the integral of a given function.

13. ∫ sec u tan u du = sec u + C


Rule 1: Definition of an Integral
14. ∫ csc u cot u du = − csc u + C
∫ dx = x + C
1 1
15. ∫ sin2 u du = u − sin 2u + C
Rule 2: The Constant Rule 2 4

If the integrand contains a constant, the 1 1


16. ∫ cos2 u du = u + sin 2u + C
constant may be written before the integral sign. 2 4

∫ c dx = c ∫ dx 17. ∫ tan2 u du = tan u − u + C

18. ∫ cot2 u du = − cot u − u + C

Prepared by: Christian D. Pillora BSEE-1


Email: bropillora@gamil.com
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Inverse trigonometric functions:

Prepared by: Christian D. Pillora BSEE-1


Email: bropillora@gamil.com