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Geamala, Danelle Marie M.


Research Paper

1. History of Combustion

The term “Combustion” was coined since the beginning of time. The combination of heat, oxygen and
fuel produces combustion. From the bonfires made by people through the thunder-struck trees that causes
forest fire that escalates quickly throughout the Amazon, combustion definitely takes place whether it’s caused
by humans or whatever natural, occurring phenomenons.

Combustion on Earth compared to outer space is quite different though. Gravity loses its grip on solids,
liquids and gases. Without gravity, hot air expands but doesn’t move upward. The flame persists because of the
diffusion of oxygen, with random oxygen molecules drifting into the fire. Because of the absence of the
upward flow of hot air, fires in microgravity are dome-shaped or spherical—and sluggish, thanks to meager
oxygen flow. Now that, combustion can happen in space without no visible flame at all. Even scientists who
have studied it for 50 years have no idea what is going on. Among the brilliant minds who have contributed to
the study of combustion was Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. He discovered the major role of oxygen in combustion
and named both oxygen and hydrogen.

2. Engine Classifications
No. of strokes per cycle (Two or Four)
Four stroke engine:
- Cycle of operation completed in four strokes of the piston or two revolution of the piston.
I. Suction stroke- Air-fuel mixture is drawn in.
II. Compression Stroke- Air-fuel mixture is compressed.
III. Expansion Stroke- Explosion forces piston down.
IV. Exhaust Stroke- Piston pushes out burned gases.

Two stroke engine:

- All the processes in two stroke cycle engine are completed in two strokes.

Type of fuel burned

Solid Fuels- it is any type of solid material that can be used as a solid fuel
Liquid Fuels- the handling is easier and they require less storage space
Gaseous Fuels- are the most convenient requiring the least amount of handling

Method of ignition
I. Spark Ignition- the air-fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is
ignited by a spark.
II. Compression Ignition- it is different from the spark ignition in that the fuel is injected after compression and
self-ignites due to the high gas temperature in the combustion chamber.

Firing order- the order in which the several cylinders of an internal-combustion engine are sparked and fired.

Reciprocating or rotary- Rotary compressors are better than reciprocating compressors as they have less
maintenance cost and are small in size. Besides they are some what costlier than reciprocating ones but
because of less machinery they are light in weight and are easy to repair.

3. Types of Ignition
The ignition system is the system in an internal-combustion engine that produces the spark to ignite the
mixture of fuel and air. Namely, there are three types of sytem: The battery, magneto and electronic system.
The battery ignition system is the main source for the spark generation is the battery. It is mostly used in light
commercial vehicles. The magneto ignition system is an electrical generator that has been tuned to create a
periodic high-voltage pulse rather than continuous current. An electrical generator is the reverse of an
electromagnet. And lastly, the electronic ignition system is the type of ignition system that uses a circuit.

4. Basic Engine Cycle

The four stroke combustion cycle consists of intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. The
components of every four stroke gas engine are the following: piston, connecting rod and crankshaft. For the
intake stroke, the piston lowers in the cylinder, sucking air into the cylinder through the intake valve while the
fuel injector simultaneously sprays fuel into the cylinder. Next, the compression stroke in where the valves
close, and crankshaft moves the piston up, compressing the air-fuel mixture. When then piston reaches the top,
the spark plug sparks, igniting the fuel-air mixture. The resulting combustion forces the piston to the bottom of
the cylinder again in the combustion stroke/power stroke. Lastly, in the exhaust stroke, when the piston reaches
the bottom, the exhaust valve opens up. The piston comes back up, forcing the exhaust out of the cylinder. This
engine cycle works with 4 basic steps to a successful rotation of the crankshaft.