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BRAVAIS LATTICES

RAGESH NATH R ST.JOSEPH’S COLLEGE BANGALORE (AUTONOMOUS)

7 CRYSTAL LATTICE

We know that a three dimensional space lattice is generated by

repeated translation of three non-coplanar vectors a, b, c. Based

on the lattice parameters we can have 7 popular crystal systems.

C TOM THR

Crystal system

Unit vector

Angles

Cubic

α =β =√=90

a= b=c

Tetragonal

a = b≠ c

α =β =√=90

Orthorhombic

a ≠ b ≠ c

α =β =√=90

Monoclinic

a ≠ b ≠ c

α =β =90 ≠√

Triclinic

a ≠ b ≠ c

α ≠ β ≠√ ≠90

Hexagonal

a= b ≠ c

α =β=90

√=120

Rhombohedral

a= b=c

α =β =√≠90

BRAVAIS LATTICES

In 1850, M. A. Bravais showed that identical points can

be arranged spatially to produce 14 types of regular

pattern. These 14 space lattices are known as ‘Bravais lattices’.

Each point in a lattice is called lattice point or lattice

site.

Each point in a crsytal lattice represents one constituent particle which may be an atom, a molecule(group of atoms)or an ion. Lattice points are joined by straight lines to bring out the geometry of the lattice.

UNIT CELL

Unit cell is the smallest portion of a crystal lattice which, when repeated in different directions, generates the entire

lattice. it is characterized by;

Its dimensions along the three edges a,b and c. these edges

may or may not be mutually perpendicular.

Angles between the edges α (between b and c) ß (between a and c) and γ (between a and b). Thus a unit cell is characterized by six parameters.

PRIMITIVE AND CENTRED UNIT CELLS

Unit cells can be broadly divided into two categories , primitive and

centred unit cells.

When constituent particles are present only on the corner positions of a unit cell. It is called as Primitive unit cell.

When a unit cell contains one or more constituent particles present

at the positions other than corners in addition to those at corners, it

is called a centred unit cell.

THREE TYPES OF CENTRED UNIT CELLS.

1. Bodycentred unit cells. Such a unit cell contains one constituent particle(atom, molecule or ion) at its BODY-CENTRE beside the ones that are at the corners.

2. FACE-CENTRED UNIT CELLS

Such a unit cell contains one constituent particle present at the

CENTRE of each face, besides the ones that are at its corners.

3.End-centred unit cells.

In such a unit cell, one constituent particle is present at the centre

of TWO OPPOSITE FACES besides the ones present at its corners.

ARRANGEMENT OF LATTICE POINTS IN THE UNIT &

NO. OF LATTICE POINTS / CELL.

FOURTEEN BRAVAIS LATTICES

abc 

90

P

I

F

E

Corresponding Examples NaCl, Zinc Blende, Cu

P

I

F

E

a  b c
    90

P

I

F

E

abc 

90

 P I F E 4 Monoclinic Parallogramic Prism  

abc 

90

Monoclinic sulfur, Na 2 SO 4 .10H 2 O

 P I F E 5 Triclinic Parallelepiped (general) 

abc 

K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , CuSO 4 .5H 2 O, H 3 BO 3

 P I F E 6 Hexagonal 120 Rhombic Prism 

a b c

90, 120

 P I F E 7 Rhombohedral Parallelepiped (Equilateral, Equiangular) 

abc 

90

Calcite (CaCO 3 ), Cinnabar (HgS)

Crystal System

Shape of UC

Bravais Lattices

P

I

F

E

4
Monoclinic
Parallogramic Prism
5
Triclinic
Parallelepiped (general)
6
Hexagonal
120 Rhombic Prism
7
Rhombohedral
Parallelepiped (Equilateral, Equiangular)

NOTE:

The Crystal Systems are defined based on Symmetries

(Rotational, Mirror, Inversion etc. forming the Point

Groups) and NOT on the geometry of the Unit Cell

THANK YOU