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# 2019-20

## AYUB‫ﺣﻣــﺰه‬ 10TH PHYSICS

Short question answers. | All questions from textbook are answered. All the questions from
BISE Lahore PHYSICS paper from 2013-19
2013 19 are answered with suitable pictures and diagrams.
Get e-copy From: 03234515251

## www.hamzaayub333.blogspot.com www.issuu.com/hamzaayub333 hamzaayub333@gmail.com

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nit 10

## U SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION AND WAVES

10.1 What is simple harmonic motion? What are the necessary conditions for a body
to execute simple harmonic motion? [2017,19]

Simple Harmonic Motion: “SHM is such a vibratory motion in which net force is directly
proportional to the displacement from mean position and is always directed towards the mean
position.”

Conditions:

##  Acceleration must be directly proportional to displacement from mean position.

 Acceleration must be directed towards mean position.

10.2 Think of several examples of motion in everyday life that are simple harmonic.

Examples of SHM:

## • Motion of pendulum of clock.

• Motion of water particles forming waves.

## 10.3 What are damped oscillations? How damping progressively reduces

the amplitude of oscillations?

## Damped oscillations:“The oscillations of a system in the

presence of some resistive force are called damped
oscillations.”

## Reduced Amplitude: Friction reduces the mechanical energy

of system which causes decrease in amplitude of oscillation.

10.4 How can you define the term wave? Elaborate the difference between mechanical and
electromagnetic wave. Give examples of each. [2018]

Wave: “Wave is a disturbance in the medium which causes the particles of medium to undergo
vibratory motion about their mean position in equal intervals of time.”

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## Mechanical Waves: Electromagnetic Waves:

“Waves which require material medium for “Waves which require no material medium for
their propagation are called mechanical their propagation are called electromagnetic
waves.” waves.”
Example: Water waves, Sound waves. Example: Radio waves, X-Rays, Light waves
10.5 Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves with suitable example. [2016, 17]

## Longitudinal Waves: Transverse Waves:

“In longitudinal waves, particles of medium “In transverse waves, the vibratory motion of
move back and forth along the direction of particles of medium is perpendicular to the
propagation of wave.” direction of propagation of wave.”
Example: Sound waves, waves in slinky spring. Example: Water waves.
10.7 Derive a relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave. Write a formula
relating velocity of wave to its time period and wavelength. [2019]


Wave Equation: By definition; 
v

  

If 
t
T
Time Period

Then  !"
d
λ
wavelength
*
So 
v

8
Hence ,-./0123
v
v

v
45 ∵ f
+

10.8 Waves are the means of energy transfer without transfer of matter. Justify this statement with
the help of simple experiment.

## Energy Transfer by Wave: Energy can be

transferred by waves. We use our mechanical
energy to make particles of string oscillating.
Particles transfer this energy to the other and
a wave is formed due to their oscillations.
Hence waves transfer energy without transferring of matter.

10.9 Explain the following properties of waves with reference to the ripple tank experiment. [2016,18]

## a. Reflection b. Refraction c. Diffraction

Reflection: “When wave traveling from one medium falls on the surface of another medium, it
may bounce back into the first medium. This phenomenon is called reflection of waves.”

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Refraction: “When waves from one medium enter the second medium at some
angle their direction of travel may change. This phenomenon is called refraction
of waves.”

## Diffraction: “The bending of waves around obstacles or sharp edges is called

diffraction of waves.”

10.10 Does increasing the frequency of a wave also increase its wavelength? If not,
how are these quantities related?

No! Frequency of wave and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other.
=
According to wave equation 
9: ⇒ 4 ∝
5

So increase in frequency causes decrease the wavelength provided that velocity of wave remains same.

## Amplitude:“The maximum displacement of an Vibration:“One complete round trip of an

oscillating body on either side from its mean oscillating body about its mean position is
position is called its amplitude.” called one vibration.”
02 Define spring constant and write its unit. [2013]

## Spring Constant:“Ratio of force applied on spring to displacement produced is always a

constant value which is called spring constant.”

## 03 State Hook’s Law.

Hook’s Law: “Force applied on spring (stress) and change in its length (strain) is directly
proportional to each other.”

Mathematically: A
B C

## 04 Define mechanical waves and give example. [2015]

Mechanical Waves: “Waves which require any material medium for their propagation are
called mechanical waves.”

## Example: Water waves, Sound waves.

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## 05 Define frequency and time period. [2013,18]

Frequency: “The number of vibrations or cycles of a vibrating body in one second is called its
frequency.”

Time Period: “The time taken by a vibrating body to complete one vibration is called time
period.”

06 Define simple pendulum and write the formula for time period. [2017]

Simple Pendulum: “A simple pendulum consists of small bob suspended by a light string,
executing simple harmonic motion.”

H
Time Period: D
2F G
I

## 07 What do you know about ripple tank? [2019]

Ripple Tank:“Ripple tank is a device to produce water waves and to study their
characteristics.”
Structure: It consists of a rectangular glass tray, a vibrator to produce waves, a
light bulb and a screen behind tray.
08 What is meant by compression? [2015]

## Compression: “Compressions are the regions of longitudinal waves in which

particles of the medium are closer together.”

nit 11

U
SOUND

## 11.1 What is the necessary condition for the production of sound?

Conditions for Sound: Following are the necessary conditions for the production of sound;

##  Sound is produced by a vibrating body.

 Sound travels through a material medium in form of compressional waves.

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## 11.2 What is the effect of medium on speed of sound?

Effect of Medium: Speed of sound is different in different media like gas, liquid and solid due
change in space between molecules. Following is the trend showing speed of sound in different
media J " !K L J " MN L J " 

11.3 How can you prove the mechanical nature of sound by a simple experiment?

## Mechanical Nature of Sound: Sound travels in form of mechanical

waves. We can prove it by experiment. Hang an electric bell in a jar,
listen the sound of ringing bell. Now evacuate all air through vacuum
pump and again ring the bell. From out you will see ringing bell, but
listen no sound. There is no medium in the jar through which sound
wave can travel to walls of jar and then your ears.

## 11.4 What do you understand by the longitudinal wave? Describe

the longitudinal nature of sound waves.

Longitudinal Waves: “In longitudinal waves the particles of the medium move back and forth along the
direction of propagation of wave.”

Longitudinal Nature of Sound: Sound travels in form of compressions and rarefactions in air. Due to
change in air density, compressions and rarefactions are formed which move in the direction of wave.
Hence it is clear that sound waves are longitudinal in nature.

11.5 Sound is a form of wave. List at least three reasons to support the idea that sound is wave.

Sound is wave: Following are some properties which show the wave nature of sound

##  Sound is a disturbance which is transferred due to SHM of air particles.

 Sound manifests the phenomena of reflection which is a basic property of waves.
 The wave equation ,
45 is applicable on sound.

11.6 We know that wave manifests phenomena of reflection, refraction and diffraction. Does sound
also manifest these characteristics?

Yes! Sound manifests all the basic properties of wave like reflection, rarefaction, diffraction etc.

11.7 What is the difference between loudness and intensity of sound? Derive the relationship
between the two. [2016, 17,18]

Loudness: “Loudness is the characteristic of sound Intensity: “Sound energy passing per second
by which loud and faint sounds can be through a unit area held perpendicular to the
distinguished.” direction of propagation of sound wave is called
intensity of sound.”
It s not a physical quantity and is not measureable. Unit: Its units are O ?@P

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## Factors affecting Loudness: Following factors affect the loudness of sound;

 Amplitude of vibrating surface: The loudness of the sound varies directly with the
amplitude of vibrating body.
 Area of vibrating body: Loudness increases with the area of vibrating body and vice
versa.
 Distance from vibrating body: The loudness of the sound varies inversely with the
distance of vibrating body from the listener.

11.9 What do you mean by the term intensity level of sound? Name and define the unit of intensity
of sound.

Intensity Level of Sound: “Intensity level of sound is the relative sound intensity at any point as
compared to a standard sound intensity (Q/ ).”

## Units of Intensity Level: Unit of intensity level is ‘bel’.

Definition: “If the intensity RSTof any unknown sound is 10 times greater than the standard
intensity RQ/ T then intensity level of such a sound is 1 bel.”

11.11 What is difference between frequency and pitch? Describe their relationship graphically [2017**,18]

Pitch: Frequency:
“Pitch is the characteristics of sound by which “The number of sound waves passing through
we can distinguish between a shrill and a one point in one second is called its
grave sound.” frequency.”
Relationship: The relationship between pitch is
shown in figure. If frequency is low, pitch is low
and vice versa.

## 11.12 Describe the effect of change in amplitude

on loudness and the effect of change in frequency
on pitch of sound.

Effect on Loudness: The loudness of the sound varies directly with the amplitude of vibrating
body. The sound produced by a Sitar will be loud if we pluck its wires more violently.

Effect on Frequency: Pitch depends on frequency. A higher pitch means a higher frequency
and vice versa.

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11.13 If the pitch of sound is increased, what are the changes in the following?

## a) Frequency: Increase in pitch means increase in frequency.

=
b) Wavelength: Wavelength is decreased due to increase in frequency. ∵ f ∝
f ∝
5
c) Wave velocity: Wave velocity is constant. (constant quantity)
d) Amplitude: Amplitude of wave is independent of pitch (frequency).

11.14 If we clap or speak in front of a building while standing at a particular distance, we rehear our
sound after sometime. Can you explain how does this happen? [2016]

## Rehearing of Sound: This happens due to the reflection of sound

from the surface.

## The sound which we rehear is called echo.

11.15 What is the audible frequency range for human ear? Does this range vary with the age of
people? Explain. [2014, 16,18**]

Audible Frequency range: The audible frequency range for normal ear is 20-20000 Hz.

Variation due to age: For Children; 20-20000 Hz, For Old People; 20-15000 Hz.

## 11.16 Explain that noise is a nuisance.

Noise is Nuisance: Noise is hazardous to our health as it has negative effects on us like

## 11.17 Describe the importance of acoustic protection.

Acoustics Protection: “The method or technique used to absorb undesirable sounds by soft and porous
surfaces is called acoustic protection.”

Importance: By using the technique noise pollution can be reduced so it is has an important role.

## 11.18 What are the uses of ultrasound in medicine? [2017,19]

Uses of Ultrasonic:

##  Ultrasonic waves are used to diagnose disease in different organs.

 Powerful ultrasonic waves are used to remove blood clots in arteries.
 Ultrasound waves are used to get picture of thyroid gland for diagnosis.

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## 01 What is reflection of sound? [2015]

Reflection of Sound: “When sound is incident on the surface of a medium it bounces back into
the first medium. This phenomenon is called reflection of sound.”

## 02 What is difference between noise and pollution? [2014,15]

Noise: Pollution:
“The sounds with jarring effect on our ears are “The presence of harmful substances in
called noise.” environment is pollution.”
03 Describe the safe level of sound. [2014]

Safe Level of Sound: Following 2 factors ensure the safe level of sound.

 Timing 8 hours

## Pitch of Sound: Quality of Sound:

“Pitch is the characteristics of sound by which “The characteristics of sound by which we can
we can distinguish between a shrill and a distinguish between two sounds of same
grave sound.” loudness and pitch is called quality.”

## 05 How sound is produced? [2013]

Sound Production: Sound is produced when an object vibrates. Due to these vibrations, air density
changes hence compressions and rarefactions are formed which move in the direction of wave. This
disturbance travels through material medium.

## SONAR: “The technique of using ultrasound waves for locating depth or

objects on ocean floor is called SONAR.”

## SONAR means SOund Navigation And Ranging.

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07 What is a stethoscope?

## Stethoscope: Stethoscope is medical instrument works on

transmission of sound. It consists of a chest piece (diaphragm) and
transmission rubber tubes. Sound waves travel from chest-piece to
rubber tubes and the towards listener’s ears.

##  Sound consists of compressional waves that transfer energy.

 Sound waves are longitudinal (mechanical) in nature.

## 09 What is tuning fork? [2019]

Tuning Fork: In school laboratories, we use a device called tuning fork to produce a particular
sound. If we strike the tuning fork against rubber hammer, the tuning fork will begin to vibrate.
10 Differentiate between noise and musical sound. [2015,18**]

Musical Sound: “Sounds which have pleasant Noise: “Sound which has jarring and
effect on our ears are called musical sounds.” unpleasant effect on our ears is called noise.”
Example: Sound of flute and sitar are musical Example: Sound of donkey and pressure horn
sounds. is musical sounds.
11 What is silent whistle? Write its frequency range. [2019]

Silent Whistle: Some people use silent whistle to call dogs whose frequency lies between
20,000 Hz to 25,000 Hz. It is silent for human but not for dogs because the audible frequency
range for dogs is much higher.
nit12

U
GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

## 12.1 What do you understand by reflection of light? Draw a diagram to illustrate

reflection at plane surface.

## Reflection of Light: “When light travelling in a certain

medium falls on the surface of another medium, a part of it turns
back in the same medium. This is called reflection of light.”

## The diagram shows the reflection of light.

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12.2 Describe the following terms used in reflection: Normal, angle of incidence, angle of reflection

Normal: “When light enters a medium, the perpendicular on the point of incidence is called normal.”

Angle of Incidence: “The angle between normal and incident ray is called incidence angle.”

Angle of Reflection: “The angle between normal and reflected ray is called reflection angle.”

## 12.3 State laws of reflection. [2014, 17]

Laws of reflection:

i. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at point of incidence all lie in the
same plane.
ii. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

## 12.4 Define refraction of light. Describe the passage of light

through parallel-sided transparent material. [2019]

## Refraction of Light: “The bending of light from its straight

path as it passes from one medium into another is called
refraction of light.”

## Explanation: The diagram shows the refraction of light.

When light enters in a different medium it changes its
direction.

## Angle of incidence Angle of refraction

Angle of Incidence: “The angle between normal and incident ray is called incidence angle.”

Angle of Refraction: “The angle between normal and refracted ray is called angle of refraction.”

12.6 What is meant by refractive index of a material? How would you determine the refractive index
of a rectangular glass slab? [2014,19]

Refractive Index: “The refractive index ‘n’ of a material is the ratio of speed of light ‘c’ in air to
the speed of light ‘v’ in the material.”
UV WX Y IZ   [ 0
Formula: n
UV WX Y IZ   \ = ,

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## Laws of Refraction: Following are the laws of refraction.

i. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at point of incidence all lie in the
same plane.
ii. The ratio of the sine of angle of incidence ‘i’ to the sine of the angle of refraction ‘r’ is
always equal to a constant.

reflection?

## Total Internal Reflection: “When the angle of

incidence becomes larger than the critical
angle, no refraction occurs. The entire light is
reflected back into the denser medium. This is
known as total internal reflection of light.”

## 12.9 State the conditions of total internal

reflection.

Conditions for T.I.Reflection: Following are the conditions for total internal reflection.

##  The light rays should enter from denser to rare medium.

 The angle of incidence (i) should be greater than critical angle (C).

12.10 What is critical angle? Derive a relationship between critical angle and refractive index of a
substance. [2017**,18]

Critical Angle: “The angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction becomes 90° is called
critical angle.”
_`a [
Relation: According to Snell’s law, ]9K! "^
"

_`a

" sin 
sin K

" sin 
sin 90

" sin 
1

1
sin 

"
=
fK! g"h
10
ijk@= l n
m

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12.11 What are optical fibers? Describe how total internal reflection is used in light propagation
through optical fibers. [2013,18,19]

Optical Fibers: Optical fibers consist of hair size threads of glass or plastic through which light
can be travelled.

Total Internal Reflection through Optical Fibers: Light entering from one end of core strikes the
core-cladding boundary at an angle (42°) greater than critical angle of glass (45°) and is
reflected back into the core. In this way light is total internally reflected in optical fiber.

12.12 Define the following terms applied to lens: Principal axis optical center focal length

## Principal Axis: “Each of two surfaces of a spherical lens is

a section of a sphere. The line passing through the two
centers of curvatures of the lens is called principal axis.”

## Optical Center: “A point on the principal axis at the center

of lens is called optical center.”

## Focal Length: “The distance between optical center and

principal focus is called focal length.”

## 12.13 What is meant by principal focus of a a) convex lens b) concave lens

Focus of Convex Lens: “The light rays travelling parallel to principal axis
after refracting through convex lens meet at a point on principal axis
called principal focus.”

Focus of Concave Lens: “The light rays travelling parallel to principal axis
after refraction through concave lens appear to come from a point
behind the lens called principal focus.”

## Refraction through Convex Lens: Light is refracted as explained

below.

 The ray parallel to principal axis passes through the focal point
after refraction by lens.
 The ray passing through the optical center passes straight through the lens and remains
undeviated.
 The ray passing through the focal point becomes parallel to principal axis after
refraction by the lens.

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12.15 With the help of a ray diagram, how you can show the use of
thin converging lens as a magnifying glass.

## Magnifying Glass: A converging lens can be used as magnifying

glass when object is placed very close to it. It makes a virtual,
upright and magnified image.

## 12.16 A coin is placed at the principal focus of a converging lens. Is an

image formed? What is its nature?

## No! Any image will not form on the screen.

Reason: The converging lens does not form of any object placed on
the focal point as rays do not meet after passing through lens.

12.17 What are the differences between real and virtual and image?

Real Image: “A real image is formed by actual Virtual Image: “A virtual image is formed by
intersection of light rays after reflection or imaginary intersection of light rays after
refraction.” reflection or refraction.”
A real image can be seen on screen. A virtual image cannot be seen on screen.
12.18 How does a converging lens can form a virtual image of a real object? How does a diverging lens
can form a real image of a real object?

## Virtual Image by Lens: Converging lens forms virtual image of object

placed between F and C.

## 12.19 Define power of a lens and its unit. [2016,19]

Power of Lens: “Power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length in meters.”

## Diopter: “1 Diopter is the power of a lens whose focal length is 1 meter.”

12.20 Describe the passage of light through a prism and measure the angle of deviation.

Light through Prism: From figure, incident ray PE making incidence angle 1
on P is refracted towards EF. This refracted ray EF makes an angle o with
surface of prism and move towards the other side of prism where it is
refracted out of the prism making an angle-. This emergent ray FS is not
parallel to incident ray rather makes angle D with is called angle of deviation.

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12.21 Define the terms resolving power and magnifying power. [2018]

Resolving Power: “The resolving power of an instrument is its ability to distinguish between
two closely placed objects.”

Magnifying Power: “The magnifying power is defined as ‘the ratio of the angle subtended by
the image as seen through the optical device to that subtended by the object at the unaided
eye.”

12.22 Draw the ray diagram for Simple microscope, compound microscope, refracting telescope.[2015,18,19]

## Simple microscope compound microscope

refracting telescope

qr
Simple Microscope: M

1 s
q X

Y
Compound Microscope: t
X˳ R 1 s Xₑ T

Telescope: t

12.24 Draw the ray diagram to show the formation of image in normal human eye.

## Human Eye: Human eye consists of a converging lens which makes a

diminished image on retina.

12.25 What is meant by the terms nearsightedness and farsightedness? How can
these defects be corrected? [2013,17,18]

Nearsightedness: “The disability of eye to form a distinct image of distant object on its retina is
called nearsightedness.”

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Correction: Nearsightedness can be corrected by using diverging lens which will diverge light
rays before entering the eye.

Farsightedness: “The disability of eye to form a distinct image of nearby object on its retina is
called farsightedness.”

Correction: Farsightedness can be corrected by using converging lens which will refract light
rays towards focus before entering the eye.

## 01 What do you know about endoscope? [2013,16,17**,19]

Endoscope: “Endoscope is a medical instrument used to explore the interior organs of body for
diagnostic and surgical purpose.”

## 02 What is meant by center of curvature? [2013]

Center of curvature: “A spherical mirror is a part of a sphere. The center of this sphere is called
center of curvature.”

## Regular Reflection: “The Irregular Reflection: “The

reflection by smooth reflection by rough surfaces
surfaces is called regular is called irregular
reflection.” reflection.”
04 State Snell’s law. [2014]

w1m 1
Snell’s Law: Snell’s Law is stated as “During refraction the ratio is equal to refractive
w1m o
index of the second medium.”

ijk 1

m
x-4oy021,- Qmz-C
ijk o
05 Differentiate between convex and concave mirror. [2015,16]

Concave Mirror: “A spherical mirror whose Convex Mirror: “A spherical mirror whose
inner curved surface is reflecting is called outer curved surface is reflecting is called
concave mirror.” convex mirror.”
 Both real and virtual images can be  Only virtual and erect image is formed
formed by concave mirror. by convex mirror.”

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## Uses of Lens: Following are the uses of lens

҉ Lenses are used in spectacles ҉ Lenses are used in microscope ҉ Lenses are used as
magnifying glass ҉ Lenses are used binoculars ҉ Lenses are used in slide projector

## 07 What is a prism? [2015]

Prism: “Prism is a transparent object with at least two polished plane faces inclined towards
each other from which light is refracted.”

## 08 Write the medical use of light pipe. [2016]

Light Pipe: Light pipes are used to illuminate the inaccessible places of body by the doctors.

## 09 What are spherical mirrors?

Spherical Mirror: “A mirror, whose polished and reflecting curved surface is a part of a sphere,
is called a spherical mirror.”

## Pole of Mirror: “It is the midpoint of the curved surface of spherical

mirror. It is also called vertex”

## Optical Center: “A point on the principal axis at the center of lens is

called optical center.”

## 11 What is difference between concave and convex lens? [2017]

Convex Lens: “The lens which causes incident Concave Lens: “The lens which causes incident
parallel rays to converge at a point is known parallel rays seem to diverge from a point is
as convex or converging lens.” known as concave or diverging lens.”
12 Write 2 uses of optical fibre. [2018]

Uses Of Optical Fibre: In PAKISTAN, optical fibre is being used in telephone and advanced
telecommunication systems. Now we can listen thousands of phone calls without any
disturbance.

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nit 13

U
ELECTROSTATICS

13.2 Describe the method of charging bodies by electrostatic induction. [2013, 16]

## Electrostatic Induction: “Electrostatic induction is a process of charging a

conductor without any contact with the charging body.”

Method: To charge a body, bring it closer to the charged body. Due to charge opposite charge
will induce on its both ends.

13.3 How does electrostatic induction differ from charging by friction? [2015,19]

## Electrostatic Induction: Opposite charge is Friction Method: Due to friction heat is

induced on opposite end of body only by produced which causes transfer of electrons
bringing it closer to the charged body. between the bodies and both are oppositely
charged.
13.4 What is gold leaf electroscope? Discuss its working principle with a labeled diagram. [2016,19]

charges.”

## Working Principal: Gold leaf electroscope works on the principle of

Electrostatic Induction.

13.5 Suppose you have a glass rod which becomes positively charged when you
rub it with wool. Describe how to charge the electroscope positively negatively

Charge Positively: Electroscope can be positively charged by bringing a negatively charged rod
closer to it.

## Charge Negatively: Electroscope can be negatively charged by bringing a positively charged

rod closer to it.

13.6 With the help of electroscope how you can find presence of charge on a body?

Presence of charge: To check the presence of charge on the body bring it closer to uncharged
electroscope. If

##  Leaves show deflection the body is positively or negatively charged.

 Leaves show no deflection the body is neutral.

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13.7 Describe how would you determine the nature of the charge on a body by using electroscope?

Nature of Charge: To check the nature of charge on the body bring it closer to a positively
charged electroscope. If

##  Divergence of leaves increases, the body carries positive charge.

 Divergence of leaves decreases, the body carries negative charge.

13.8 Explain Coulomb’s law of electrostatics and write its mathematical form.

Coulomb’s Law: “The force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly
proportional to the product of the magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the
square of distance between them.”
{₁{₂
Mathematical Form: A
B

13.9 What is meant by electric field and electric field intensity? [2018]

## Electric Field: “Electric field is a region around a charge in which it exerts

electrostatic force on other charges.”

Electric Field Intensity: “Electric field intensity at any point is defined as the
force acting on a unit positive charge placed at that point.”

## Unit: Unit of electric field intensity is NC⁻1.

13.10 Is electric field intensity a vector quantity? What will be its direction?

## Vector Electric Intensity: Yes! Electric intensity is a vector quantity.

Direction: Electric intensity of a unit positive charge is directed in the same direction as
electrostatic force acting on it.

13.11 How would you define the potential difference between two points?

Potential Difference: “The energy supplied by a unit positive charge as it moves from one point
to the other in the direction of the field is called potential difference.”

## Unit: Unit of potential difference is ‘volt’.

13.12 Show that potential difference can be described as energy transfer per unit charge between two
points.

## Suppose that Potential of point A = 

Potential of point B = 

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## Then Energy supplied by charge on moving through A to B = MR −  T

m-o3 w.1-z

R −  T
/2-m21y. 144-o-m0-
{

13.13 What do you meant by capacitance of a capacitor? Define unit of capacitance.[2013, 16,18,19**]

## Unit: Unit of capacitance is ‘farad’.

Farad: “If one coulomb of charge given to the plates of a capacitor produces a potential
difference of one volt between the plates of the capacitor then its capacitance would be one

13.14 Derive the formula for equivalence capacitance for a series combination of a number of
capacitors. [2013]

## For series combination; Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q3

V = V1 + V2 + V3

₁ ₂ ₃

s s
f₁ f₂ f₃
8 8 8

  s s 
₁ ₂ ₃

 8 8 8

 s s 
 ₁ ₂ ₃

= = = =  8
ₑ

₁ s ₂ s ₃ ∵
ₑ

13.16 What is difference between variable and fixed capacitor? [2013, 16, 17#]

## Types of Capacitor: Following are different types of capacitors.

Fixed Capacitor: “The capacitor whose capacitance cannot be changed is called as a fixed
capacitor.”

## Examples: paper capacitor, Mica capacitor.

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Variable Capacitor: “The capacitor whose capacitance can be changed is called as variable
capacitor.”

## Uses of Capacitor: Following are the uses of capacitor

҉ In transmitter for tuning ҉ In radio for tuning ҉ In receiver for tuning ҉ In table fan,
ceiling fan, washing machine ҉ In tube lights ҉ In resonant circuits

## 13.18 Discuss one application of static electricity. [2017]

Use of Static Electricity: Static electricity is used to paint car bodies. Car body is charged and
spray particles are oppositely charged by charging the nozzle of spray machine. Charged spray
particles coming out of nozzle form a fine distribution on the body and stick to it due to
attraction of opposite charges.

##  Lightning: The phenomenon of lightning occurs due to a large quantity of electric

charge stored in heavy thunderclouds.
 Fires or Explosions: Static Electricity is a major cause of fires and explosions at many
places like petrol tank and aircraft surface.

## 01 How can you identify conductors and insulators by using electroscope?

Identify Conductors: To check weather an object is conductor or insulator, touch it with the
disc of charged electroscope.

##  If deflection of leaves decreases the object will be a conductor.

 If deflection of leaves remains unchanged the object will be an insulator.

## Mica Capacitor: Mica capacitor is an example of fixed capacitor.

Dielectric: Mica is used as dielectric inside two metallic plates. The folded plates are enclosed
in a plastic case.

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## Properties: Following are the properties of electric field lines.

 These are the imaginary lines indicating the direction of electrostatic force.
 Electric field lines are directed from positive charge to negative charge.
 The spacing between these lines shows the strength of electric field.

## 04 Write a brief note on electrostatic air cleaner.

Electrostatic Air Cleaner: Electrostatic air cleaner is used to relive the discomfort of allergy
sufferers. The airborne particles become positively charged when they make contact with
positively charged mesh. Then they pass through a 2nd negatively charged mesh which causes
the negatively charged particles to precipitate out. In this way high percentage of contaminants
is removed from air.

## Unit of Electric Intensity: The SI unit of electric field intensity is NC-1.

Definition: “If 1 C positive charge placed in an electric field, feels 1 N force acting on it then
electric field intensity will be 1 NC-1 at that point of field.”

## 06 Define electric potential. [2018]

Electric Potential: “Electric potential at a point in an electric field is equal to the amount of
work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that point.”
Mathematical Form: If W is the work done in moving a positive charge q from infinity to a
O
certain point in the field, the electric potential V at this point would be given by 

{
07 Define dielectric. [2018]

Dielectric: “The medium between the two plates of capacitor is air or a sheet of some
insulator. This medium is known as dielectric.”
Note: Dielectric may be air, oily paper, rubber or mica.

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nit 14

U 14.1
CURRENT ELECTRICITY

## Electric Current: “The rate of flow of electric charge through a cross-section is

called electric current.”

##  In metals electric current is produced due to flow of negatively charged electrons.

 In electrolytes electric current is produced due to flow of both positive and negative
charges.

Formula: I = Q/t

## 14.2 What is difference between electronic current and conventional current?

Electronic Current: “Current flowing from Conventional Current: “Current flowing from
negative to positive terminal of battery due to positive to negative terminal of battery due to
the flow of electrons is called electronic the flow of positive charges is called
current.” conventional current.”
14.3 What do you meant by the term emf? Is it really a force? Explain. [2017]

EMF: “It is the energy supplied by a battery to unit positive charge when it flows through the
closed circuit.”

emf is measured in volt (V). It is not a mechanical force rather it is a driving force for electric
charges.

14.4 How can you differentiate between emf and potential difference? [2015]

EMF: “It is the energy supplied by a battery to Potential Difference: “Potential difference
unit positive charge when it flows through the across the two ends of a conductor causes the
closed circuit.” dissipation of electrical energy into other
forms of energy as charge flow through the
circuit.”

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## 14.5 Explain Ohm’s law. What are its limitations?

Ohm’s Law: “The amount of current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the
potential difference applied across its ends, provided the temperature and the physical state of
the conductor do not change.”

Limitations: ҉ Temperature should remain unchanged ҉ Length, surface area and volume
should remain unchanged.

## 14.6 Define resistance and its unit. [2017,18]

Resistance: “The property of a substance to oppose the flow of electric charges through it is
called resistance.”

## Unit: The SI unit of resistance is ohm.

Ohm: “When a potential difference of one volt is applied across the ends of a conductor and
one ampere of current passes through it, then its resistance will be one ohm.”

## Conductors: “Materials in which electrons can Insulators: “Materials in which electrons

freely move so as to pass electricity are called cannot freely move so as to pass electricity
conductors.” are called insulators.”
Examples: Metals and graphite. Examples: Diamond, wood, plastic

14.8 State Joule’s law and explain the energy dissipation in a resistance. [2013, 17**,18**]

Joule’s Law: “The amount of heat generated in a resistance due to flow of charges is equal to
the product of square of current I, resistance R and the time duration t.”

Energy Dissipation: During current flow, charges move from higher potential to lower
potential and give energy. Due to collisions of charges (resistance) energy is converted to heat
energy. This energy is equal to O
Q² x2.

## 14.9 What is difference between A.C. and D.C.? [2013, 16]

D. C: “The current that does not change its A. C: “The current that changes its direction of
direction of flow is known as direct current or flow is known alternating current or A.C.”
D.C.”
Source: The source of DC is chemical battery. Source: The source of AC is AC generator.

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14.10 Discuss the main features of parallel combinations of resistors. [2014, 15]

Features of Parallel Combination: Following are the main features of parallel combination of
resistors

##  In parallel combination voltage across each resistor is same.

 In parallel combination total current through the circuit is sum of individual currents
through the resistors.
8 8 8
 Equivalent resistance can be found by using formula
s
  

I = I1 = I2 = I3

V = V1 + v2 + v3

## So V = IR1 + IR2 + IR3

V = I (R1 + R2 + R3)

## Hazards of Electricity: Following are the hazards of household electricity

Electric Shock: By touching a damage insulation wire one can receive electric shock.

Short Circuit: Short circuit can severally damage the devices or person.

14.13 Describe four safety measures that should be taken in connection with the household circuit.

##  Use fuse in circuits.

 Use the circuit breaker.
 Use the earth wire.
 All devices should be attached in parallel manner.

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14.14 What is the advantage of connecting the equipments in parallel instead of series?

## Advantage of parallel connection: Following are the advantages of parallel connection

 On connecting parallel, same potential differences is applied across all devices. Hence
all devices are individually switched on or off.
 In parallel combination of resistors equivalent resistance is less than the individual
resistances due to which more current can pass through the circuit.

Some questions
questions from Lahore Board

## Methods to combine Resistors: There are 2 methods to combine resistors

1) Series Combination: In series combination of resistors there is only one path for
current flow.
2) Parallel Combination: In parallel combination there is more than one path for current
flow.

## 02 Define resistivity. [2014,19]

Resistivity: “The resistance of one meter cube of a material is equal to its resistivity or specific
resistance.”

It is represented as ρ.

## Electric Power: “The amount of energy Kilowatt-hour: “The amount of energy

supplied by current in unit time is known as delivered by a power of one kilowatt in one
electric power.” hour is called one kilowatt-hour.”
Formula: P = I2 R Formula: 1 kilowatt-hour = 1000 W x 1 hour
04 Describe the function of volt meter and ammeter. [2015]

Function of Voltmeter: Voltmeter is used to measure the potential difference across a circuit
component.

## Note: Ammeter is connected in series while voltmeter is connected in parallel.

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05 If 0.5 coulomb charge passes through the wire in 10seconds then calculate the current flowing.
. [2015]

Time = t = 10 s

I = 0.05 A

## H[ H W[ 

Proof: Electric Power = 

  

## Here K! "Kh



 
So 


S
 

As 
S]

Hence 
S²] Hence Proved!

## 07 What are ohomic and non ohomic devices? [2019**]

Ohmic Devices: “Materials that obey ohm’s law, and hence have a constant resistance over a
wide range of voltages, are said to be ohmic.”

Non Ohmic Devices: “Materials having resistance that changes with voltage or current are non
ohmic.”

## 08 Define ampere. [2016,17]

Ampere: “If charge of one coulomb passes through a cross sectional area in one second, then
current is one ampere.”
=
Mathematically " !JK
= 

= w

## 09 What is the use of earth wire? [2016]

Earth Wire: Many electrical appliances have metallic casing which is connected to ground
using the earth wire. This earth wire provides a safe route for current flow. During a short
circuit, if a person touches the metallic casing, the current flows through earth wire instead of
person. Hence the person is saved.

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## Unit of Power: The SI unit of electric power is watt.

Watt: “If one joule of electrical energy is supplied by electric in one second then electric power
is one watt.”
8 ¡
1 

8 

## 12 What is difference between a cell and a battery? [2017]

Cell: A cell is a single unit that converts chemical energy to electrical energy.

## Battery: Battery is a combination of cells.

13 Calculate the resistance of copper wire having 1m length and 2mm diameter. [2017]

As given Length = l = 1 m

Diameter = d = 2 mm ⇒ g
F ¢
R3.14T ¢

3.14 × 10@­ £

H 8
Resistance = R = ® = R1.69 × 10@° T

Resistance = R = ³. ´ × =µ@¶ 

## 14 For which purpose circuit braker is used in circuits? [2019]

Circuit Braker: The circuit breaker acts as a safety device. It disconnects the supply
automatically if current exceeds the normal value. If something goes wrong with the appliance
and large current flows through the livewire, the electromagnet will attract the iron strip to
separate the contacts and break the circuit.
15 How many watt-hours are in 1000 joules? [2019]
8 ¡
Watt-Hours: We have,
1 
8 

1 ·
R1  TR1 T

1 ℎNK
1000 ·
R1000  T l n
3600

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1000
1000 ·
l n  − ℎNK
3600

1000 ·
0.28  − ℎNK

## 16 What is the work of fuse? [2018]

Fuse: A fuse is a safety device that is connected in series with the livewire in the circuit. It is
short and thin piece of metal wire. If a large, unsafe current passes through the circuit, the fuse
melts and breaks the circuit before the wires become very hot and cause fire.

nit 15

U
ELECTROMAGNETISM

## 15.1 Demonstrate by an experiment that a magnetic field is

produced around a straight current carrying conductor.

## Ampere discovered that when current passes through a conductor, a

magnetic field is produced around it.

## Explanation: If magnetic needle is placed around this conductor at

different positions, it will align along the direction of magnetic field. Also
if we sprinkle some iron fillings on the cardboard around this conductor,
they will align themselves in concentric circles.

15.2 State and explain the rule by which the direction of the lines of force of magnetic field around a
current carrying conductor can be determined? [2016,17**,19]

Right Hand Rule: Direction of magnetic field around conductor can be determined by using
right hand rule which is stated as “Grasp a wire with your right hand such that your thumb is
pointed in the direction of current. Then curling fingers of your hand will point in the
direction of the magnetic field.”

15.3 You are given an unmarked magnetized steel bar and a bar magnet, its north and south ends are
marked as N and S respectively. State how would you determine the polarity at each end of the
unmarked bar?

Bring a side pole of it closer to the north pole of another magnetic bar. If the other bar reflects,
it will be a north pole of bar otherwise a south pole.

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15.4 When a straight current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a force.
State the rule by which the direction of this force can be found out. [2015,18**]

Magnetic force acting on a conductor can be determined by Fleming’s Left Hand Rule which is
stated as “Stretch the thumb, forefinger and the middle finger of the left hand mutually
perpendicular to each other. If the forefinger points in the direction of the magnetic field, the
middle finger in the direction of the current, then thumb would indicate the direction of the
force acting on the conductor”

## 15.5 State that a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences a torque.

Torque acting on Coil: If a current carrying coil is placed inside the magnetic field it
experiences a torque.

Explanation: If sides PQ and RS of a rectangular coil are placed between opposite poles of
magnet perpendicularly, and current flow through coil, then opposite magnetic force acts on
each side of coil which causes its rotation.

15.6 What is an electric motor? Explain the working principle of D.C. motor. [2013]

Electric Motor: “Electric motor (DC motor) is an electrical device which is used to convert
electric energy to mechanical energy.”

Working Principle: A current carrying coil placed inside the magnetic field experiences a
couple and begins rotation. This is the working principle of electric motor.

15.7 Describe a simple experiment to demonstrate that a changing magnetic field can induce emf in a circuit.

Induction of emf: According to Faraday, emf is induced in conductor due to relative motion of
conductor and magnet (magnetic field).

Explanation: Connect the two terminals of rectangular wire loop to galvanometer. Now move
this loop, between poles of a strong magnet, perpendicularly. Due to this motion number of
magnetic lines of force passing through rectangular loop changes hence emf is induced in circuit
which is indicated by the deflection of galvanometer.

15.8 What are the factors which affect the magnitude of emf Induced in a circuit by a changing
magnetic field? [2016, 17]

##  Speed of relative motion between coil and magnet.

 Number of turns of coil.

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15.9 Describe the direction of an induced emf in a circuit. How does this phenomenon relate to
conservation of energy? [2014, 17**,18,19]

According to Lenz’s Law:“The direction of an induced current in a circuit is always such that it
opposes the cause that produces it.”

## Relation to Law of Conservation of Energy: If we apply the law of conservation of energy to

electromagnetic induction, we realize that the electric energy induced in conductor comes from
the kinetic energy of moving magnet. We do mechanical work to move magnet which appears
as electric energy. Hence process of electromagnetic induction is in accordance with the law of
conservation of energy.

15.10 Draw a labeled diagram to illustrate the structure and working of A.C. generator.[2014, 15, 17#]

## Structure: AC generator consists of armature which is rotated inside the

magnetic field.

Working: When a coil is rotated inside the magnetic field, the value of induced
current changes accordingly. This is the basic principal of AC generator.

## 15.11 What do you understand by the term mutual induction?

[2013, 14, 16]

Mutual Induction: “The phenomenon of production of induced current in one coil due to
change of current in a neighboring coil is called mutual induction.”

15.12 What is a transformer? Explain the working of a transformer in connection with mutual
induction.

Transformer: “Transformer is an electric device which is used to increase or decrease the value
of an alternating voltage.”

## Working Principle: Transformer works on the principle of mutual induction.

15.13 The voltage chosen for the transmission of electrical power over large distance is many times
greater than the voltage of the domestic supply. State two reasons why electrical power is transferred at
high voltage?

High Voltage Transmission: Following are the reasons for high voltage transmission of
electricity

 Due to high voltage, transferring of electric power over long distances becomes easy.
 Due to high voltage, energy dissipation in the form of heat (heat =S £ ]) is very low as
current is low.

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15.14 Why is the voltage used for the domestic supply much lower than the voltage at which power is
transferred?

Low Domestic Voltage: Domestic machinery and household devices operate on low voltage
(240 V). That is why voltage is lowered at sub city station to transfer it to domestic areas for
use.

## 01 What is difference between steps up and step down transformer? [2018,19]

Step-up Transformer: “If secondary voltage is Step-down Transformer: “If secondary voltage
greater than primary voltage, then is smaller than primary voltage, then
transformer is called step-up transformer.” transformer is called step-down transformer.”
º » ºV º L ºV
02 Define electromagnet. [2017]

Electromagnet: “The type of temporary magnet, which is created when current flows through a
coil, is called an electromagnet.”

## Electromagnetic Induction: “The production of an electric current across a conductor moving

through a magnetic field is called electromagnetic induction.”

##  The current in conductor is increased.

 Strength of magnetic field is increased.
 Length of wire inside the magnetic field is increased.

## Function of Relay: The relay is used to control a large current with

the help of a small current. A relay is an electrical switch that opens
and closes under the control of another electrical circuit.

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## Transformer on D.C.: No! a transformer cannot work on D.C. voltage supply.

Reason: Transformer works on the principle of mutual induction which is not possible in case of
D.C. voltage.

nit 16

U
BASIC ELECTRONICS

16.1 Describe using one simple diagram in each case, what happens when a narrow
beam of electron is passed through:

## What do these results indicate about the charge on electron?

a) A uniform electric field: When electron beam passes through electric field it bends towards
positive side which shows that electron has negative charge.

b) A uniform magnetic field: When electron beam passes through magnetic field applied by
horse-shoe magnet, it is deflected from its direction.

## 1) Electron Gun: Electron gun is used to generate beam of electron.

2) Deflecting Plates: Deflecting plates used to deflect electron beam.
3) Fluorescent Screen: Fluorescent screen shows electron beam on the screen.

## Uses of Oscilloscope: Following are the uses of oscilloscope

 To show waveform
 To measure voltage
 For range finding
 To find depth of sea
 To show heartbeat.

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## i. How the filament is heated?

Heating Filament: Tungsten filament is heated by electricity. For this purpose current and
voltage range is 0.3 A & 6 V respectively.

## i. Why a large potential is applied between anode and cathode?

+ve Anode Potential: Greater the potential of anode, easier is to produce beam of electron.

## Reason for Vacuum: Vacuum is necessary to produce thermionic emission otherwise

unnecessary canal rays will also produce with electron beam.

16.5 What is electron gun? Describe the process of thermionic emission. [2017**]

## Explanation of thermionic Emission: Tungsten filament is heated by electricity. For this

purpose current and voltage range is 0.3 A & 6 V respectively.

## 16.6 What do you understand by analogue and digital quantities? [2017]

Analogue Quantities: “Those quantities which change continuously with time or remain
constant are called analogue quantities.”

## Examples: Pressure, temperature and time are examples of analogue quantities.

Digital Quantities: “The quantities which change in non continuous steps are called digital
quantities.”

## Note: Digital quantities are expressed in the form of digits.

16.7 Differentiate between analogue and digital electronics. Write down the name of 5 analogue and
5 digital devices that are commonly used in everyday life. [2016,18]

Analogue Electronics: “The branch of electronics which processes in the form of analogue
quantities is called analogue electronics.”

## Analogue Devices: Old Radio, megaphones, volume control in old telephone.

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Digital Electronics: “The branch of electronics which processes data in the form of digits is
called digital electronics.”

## Digital Devices: Computer, mobile phones, modern radios.

16.9 Write down some benefits of using digital electronics over analogue electronics.

Benefits of Digital Electronics: In digital electronics only two digits 1 and 0 are used and all
data is delivered in form of these binary digits which is easy to process.

16.10 What are three universal Logic Gates? Give their symbols and truth tables. [2013, 17**,19]

Logic Gates: Three universal logic gates are AND-gate, OR-gate and NOT-gate.

## 01 What do you know about electronics? [2013,17]

Electronics: “Electronics is the branch of applied of physics which deals with the control of
motion of electrons using electrical devices.”

## 02 What is meant by DAC and ADC?

DAC: “A circuit which is used to convert digital signal to analogue signal is called as Digital to
Analogue Converter DAC.”

ADC: “A circuit which is used to convert analogue signal to digital signal is called as Analogue

## 03 Describe some uses of CRO. [2019**]

Uses of CRO: The CRO is used in many fields of science; displaying waveforms, measuring
voltages, range-finding (as in radar), echo-sounding (to find the depth of seabed). The CRO is
also used to display heartbeats.

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NAND Gate:

## 05 Define thermionic emission. [2018]

Thermionic Emission: “The process of emission of electrons from the hot metal surfaces is called
thermionic emission.”
Conditions: Thermionic emission can be produced by electrically heating a fine tungsten
filament. Typical values of the voltage and current used are 6 V and 0.3 A respectively.

nit 17

U 17.1
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

## What is difference between data and information? [2017#]

Data: “Facts and figures that are used by Information: “In computer technology,
programs to produce useful information are processed data is called information.”
called as data.”
17.2 What do you understand by information and communication technology (ICT)? [2017,18]

ICT: “Information and Communication Technology is concerned with the scientific methods and
means to store and process vast amount of information instantly.”

17.3 What are the components of information technology? Clearly indicate the function of each
component.

## Components of IT: Information communication system is made of 5 components.

1) Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. It includes CPU, and all other
equipment.
2) Software: Software is program and manual which contain instructions for hardware
parts to produce useful information.

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3) Data: Facts and figures that are used by programs to produce useful information are
called as data.
4) Procedures: These are set of instructions and rules to design and use information
system.
5) People: People influence the success or failure of information system. They use
hardware, design software and write the procedures.

## 17.4 Differentiate between primary memory and secondary memory.

Primary Memory: “Primary memory is based Secondary Memory: “The data storage
on electronics and consists of integrated devices are generally the secondary memory.”
circuits.” It consists of hard disc, CD, DVD & flash drive
It consists of 2 parts; RAM & ROM etc.
17.5 Name different information storage devices and describe their uses. [2016**,19]

## Information Devices: Following are common information devices

 Audio, Video Cassettes: Audio and video signals are stored on these cassettes in form
of magnetic field.
 Magnetic Disc: On magnetic discs data is stored in the form of binary digits, on the
magnetic material.
 Compact Disc: In CD, digital data is stored using laser technology. Digital data is stored
in the form of reflecting and non-reflecting spots called ‘lands’ & ‘pits’ respectively. A
laser beam scans the surfaces and read the data.
 Flash Drive: Flash drive is a small device to store digital data. It consists of data storage
ICs. It can be used to transport files from one computer to another.

## 17.6 Explain briefly the transmission of radio waves through space.

transmitter sends the signal to transmission channel. Radio-waves are continuously refracted
by different layers in atmosphere and the signal is received by the receiver.

## Signal through Optical Fibers: Optical fiber is used as

transmission channel to transmit light signals. Light enters in
optical fiber such that incidence angle is greater than critical angle.
In this way all light is reflected and light beam travels to the other
end due to total internal reflection.

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multiplying.”

##  In offices computer is used for preparing letters, documents and reports.

 In hotels computers are used for advance booking, preparing bills and providing inquiry
services.
 Doctors use computers for diagnosing illness and treatment of diseases.
 Architects use computers for building designing and city planning.
 Meteorologist uses computers for weather forecasting.
 Computers are used for designing, printing.

17.9 What is difference between hardware and software? Name different software. [2017,18]

Hardware: “Hardware is part of computer that Software: “Software is program and manual
we can see or touch.” which contain instructions for hardware parts
The term hardware refers to machinery. It to produce useful information.”
includes CPU, and all other equipment. Commonly used software are WINDOWS,
LINUX & Android etc.
17.10 What do you understand by the term word processing and data management? [2013, 16,18,19]

Word Processing: “Word processing is such a use of computer through which we can write a
letter, article, and book or prepare a report.”

Data Management: “To collect all information for any purpose and to store them in the
computer in more than one interlinked files, is called data managing.”

17.11 What is internet? Internet is useful source of knowledge and information. Discuss.

Internet: “Internet is a network of networks, which spreads all across the globe.”

Useful: Teachers use the Internet to supplement their lessons, and a number of prestigious
universities have opened up free online lectures and courses to everyone. It has even allowed
retired teachers to read to and educate children in poorer countries. Widespread use of the
Internet has opened up a substantial amount of knowledge to a much broader range of people
than ever before.

## Some questions from Lahore Board

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## 01 What is a hard disc?

Hard Disc: “A hard disc is a rigid, magnetically sensitive disc used as primary storage device in
computers.”

##  Fast Communication: We can send messages anywhere in world instantly.

 Simple use: After initial set-up email account it is easy to use.

## 03 Differentiate between RAM and ROM. [2017]

RAM: “RAM is abbreviation for Random ROM: “ROM is abbreviation for Read Only
Access Memory, which is used in computer as Memory, which starts the computer.”
temporary memory.”
04 What is meant by operating system? Give an example.

Operating System: “Operating system is software that manages your computer and devices
connected to it.”

## 05 Write a note on fax machine. [2017]

Fax Machine: Fax machine is must for many businesses around world. A fax machine basically
scans a page to convert its text and graphic to electrical signals and transmit it to other fax
machine through telephone lines. Receiving machine convert the signal and print the copy of
message that was sent.

## 06 What is meant by telecommunication? [2018,19]

Telecommunication: “The method that is used to communicate information to far off places
instantly is called telecommunication.”
07 Define piracy and floppy disc. [2019]

Piracy: “Piracy is another issue of importance which is common on computer. It is the illegal
duplication of copyright material like books, papers and software etc.”
Floppy Disc: A floppy disc is a small magnetically sensitive, flexible plastic wafer housed in a
plastic case. It is coated with a magnetic oxide similar to the material used to coat cassettes and
video tapes.

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## 07 Name at least 4 browsers being used now a days. [2019]

Browsers: The 4 browsers being used now a days are 1) Chrome 2) Internet Explorer 3) Opera
4) Mozilla Firefox

## CD: A CD can store over 680 megabyte of computer data.

DVD: A DVD, the same size as traditional CD, is able to store upto 17 gigabytes of data.
09 Write 2 services of internet. [2015]

## Services of Internet: The main services used on the internet include:

 Web browsing - this function allows users to view web pages.
 E-mail - Allows people to send and receive text messages
nit 18

## U ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

18.1 What is difference between atomic number and atomic mass number? Give a
symbolic representation of nuclide.

Atomic Number: “The atomic number is equal Atomic Mass Number: “The atomic mass
to the number of protons in the nucleus.” number is equal to the number of nucleons in
the nucleus.”
Representation of nuclide: A nuclide is represented by the symbol ½¼. Here A=atomic mass
number & Z=Atomic number.

18.2 What do you mean by the term radioactivity? Why some elements are radioactive but some are not? [2013]

## Reason for Radioactivity: Subsequent experiments performed by Henry Becquerel suggested

that radioactivity was the result of the decay or disintegration of unstable nuclei. While the

18.3 How can we make radioactive elements artificially? Describe with a suitable example.

Artificial Method: Stable elements are made radioactive by the bombardment of neutrons.

88º! → 88º! ¿ − K!
8 £¢

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18.4 What are the three basic radioactive decay processes and how do they differ from each other?

decay.

Difference: Alpha-decay, beta-decay and gamma- decay are differ from each other as

 Alpha Decay: In alpha-decay parent element emits À-particle and atomic number
decreases 2.
 Beta-Decay: In beta-decay parent element emits Á-particle and atomic number
increases 1.
 Gamma-Decay: In gamma-decay parent element emits ¿-radiations and atomic number
remains same.

18.5 Â8! . Identify the parent and daughter nuclei in this decay.
Write the alpha decay process for £±¢

Â8! is as follows
Decay Process: The equation of alpha-decay process for £±¢

£±¢ ¢

## Parent Element: £±¢

Â8! , °Âg

18.6 Explain whether the atomic number can increase during nuclear decay. Support your answer
with example.

Example:

## 18.7 What do you understand by half-life of a radioactive element? [2017]

Half Life: “The time during which half of the unstable radioactive nuclei disintegrate is called

Explanation: Half life of Radium-226 is 1620 years. It means that half of its sample will be
converted to daughter elements by the end of 1620 years. In the next 1620 years, half of the
remaining radium will decay, leaving only one0fourth the original amount of radium, and so on.

No! Radioactivity is not a spontaneous process. It is a random process and the rate of
radioactivity is directly proportional to the number of unstable nuclei present.

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18.9 What is meant by background radiations? Enlist some sources of background radiations? [2019]

Sources: Radioactive elements on earth and outer space objects are sources of background

## 18.10 Describe two uses of radioisotopes in medicine, industry or research. [2013,18,19]

Radioisotopes Uses: Cobalt-60 is used as nuclear medicine for cancer and tumors.

In agriculture, radio phosphorus-32 is used as a tracer to find out how well plant is absorbing
the phosphate fertilizer.

18.11 What are two common radiation hazards? Briefly describe the precautions that are taken
against them? [2016]

cause Blindness or formation of Cataract in the eye.

Precautions: The sources should only be handled by tongs and forceps. All radioactive sources
should be stored in thick lead containers.

## 18.12 Complete this nuclear reaction: Â£Å

£±Æ
Æ¢Ç s ? s 2 ©"
8

Æ¢Ç s ±°ÉK s 2 ©" + energy
£±Æ Â± 8
Complete Reaction:

It is a fission reaction because a heavy nucleus is breaking into 2 nuclei with the release of
energy.

18.13 Nuclear fusion reaction is more reliable and sustainable source of energy than nuclear fission
chain reaction. Justify this statement with plausible arguments.

## Arguments: On the basis of following reasons fusion reaction is preferred

 For fusion reaction raw material Hydrogen is easily available while for fission reaction
necessary raw materials are expensive and laboriously available.
 In fission reaction, affordable energy is not possible due to chain fission reaction as
compared to fusion reaction.

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18.14 A nitrogen nuclide decays to become an oxygen nuclide by emitting an electron. Show this
process with an equation.

Equation:

°¢ → £8¢
°¢ s £Ã
£8¢ ¢
a)
°°]! s £Ã
b)
Â8! → £±±
Â£Å s @8Á
c)

d)

## 01 What is neutron number?

Neutron Number: “The neutron number is equal to the number of neutrons in the nucleus.”

## 02 Define isotopes. [2018

Isotopes: “Isotopes are the atoms of same element which have same number of protons but
different number of neutron in their nuclei.”

Example: Hydrogen has 3 isotopes protium ( 88Ã ), deuterium ( £8Ã ), tritium ( ±8Ã ).

## 03 Differentiate between fusion and fission reaction. [2018,19]

Fission Reaction: “Fission reaction is a process in which a heavy nucleus breaks into two nearly
equal parts with the release of large energy.”

## ©" s Â£Å → 8¢8

Æ­Ì! s ±­ÍK s 3 ©" s "Kh
8 £±Æ Â£ 8
Example:

##  Beta-radiations consist of high energy electrons.

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penetrating power than gamma rays.

isotopes.”

## 05 Define carbon-dating. [2017,18]

Carbon Dating: “The age of live and dead objects can be estimated by comparing the activity of
carbon-14 in them. This technique is called carbon dating.”

Man has estimated the age of different ancient trees and rocks using the technique of carbon
dating.

## 06 What is meant by nuclear transmutation? [2015]

Nuclear Transmutation: “The spontaneous process in which a parent unstable nuclide changes
into a more stable daughter nuclide with the emission of radiations is called nuclear
transmutation.”
NOTE: During nuclear transmutation nucleus may emit α-particles, β-particles or γ-rays to
become stable.

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