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ABSTRACT

Saint Louis University Medical Clinic stores patient’s medical records using the yellow or green

cards. Through observation and interview, some apparent problems are perceived with the existing

system. The SLU-MEDRECS Information System (SMIS) is a computerized patient record management

system proposed to address the problems of the current system by making the process of looking for the

personal record of the patient faster and easier. Thus, it will enable easier manipulation of the inputs

which will lead to a more efficient health system and will avoid error and misplacement of the

documented medical record. The SMIS integrates a complete view of not just the patient’s health

information, medical prescription, and clinical letters but also the latter’s personal information. This

electronic patient record is a more improved and modernized system that has a familiar resemblance with

the traditional paper record that is currently being used in SLU Medical Clinic at Maryheights Campus.

Table of Contents

Abstract

xi

Chapter 1 Introduction

1

1.1 Background of the Study

1

1.2 Business Profile

2

1.3 Importance of the Study

3

1.4 Statement of the Problems

4

1.5 Statement of Objectives

5

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

6

1.7 Definition of Terms

6

Chapter 2 Research Methodology

7

2.1 Review of Related Literature

7

2.2 Data Gathering Techniques and Sources of Data

13

Chapter 3 Existing and Proposed System

14

3.1 Overview of the Existing System

14

3.2 Problems of the Existing System

14

3.3 Overview of the Proposed System

15

3.4 System Workflow

16

3.4.1 Context Diagram

16

3.4.2 Decomposition Diagram

17

3.4.3 Diagram 0

18

3.4.4 Level 2

19

3.4.5 Data Dictionary

20

3.4.6 Process Description

25

3.5 Cost Benefit Analysis

28

Chapter 4 Summary Conclusion Recommendation

33

4.1 Summary

33

4.2 Conclusion

34

4.3 Recommendation

34

Bibliography

35

Appendix

36

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Saint Louis University Medical Clinic at Maryheights Campus stores patients’ medical records using either the

yellow or green cards. Patients who are going for a consultation needs to look for their own medical record or if the latter

don’t have a record, he/she has to fill up the necessary information on the card and then give it to the assistant staff who will

write the patient’s medical information and the preliminary diagnosis. Because of these paper based system, it may slow

down the procedure in many ways. For an instance, there are a lot of patients and since the medical clinic is exercising the

paper based system, searching for the medical cards itself takes a couple of minutes and so with the whole process. But with

the integration of an information system, the process will be faster thus saving a lot of efforts from the medical staff as well

as time.

The Information Technology (IT) improves a lot today. A lot of computer based system can help to manage business

process. Michael Hammer and James Champy define a business process as a collection of activities that take one or more

kinds of input and create an output that is value to the customer (Mathias Weske, 2012, p.4). Once a system can manage the

business process of a clinic, a lot of paper works are able to automation and no need for paper based system.

This study aims to provide the SLU Medical Clinic a system that will help to eliminate problems; a system that will

help the clinic in providing efficient and effective medical services to its stakeholders. Lastly, a system that will provide a

facilitative and secured medical information and will make the process of looking for the personal record of the patient faster

and easier.

1.2 Business Profile

The SABM Medical Clinic is an integral part of Saint Louis University. The clinic takes good care of the university

students and staffs and makes sure that stakeholders are given the right medical attention they deserve. The clinic’s activities

include the following: regular check-ups, attending to injuries/wounds and prescribing the right medications to those in need

may it be within the university or mere visitors.

The procedures followed by the clinic are the following:

The staff will ask the patient if he/she already has an existing record in the
The staff will ask the patient if he/she already has an existing record in the
clinic and will ask the student to retrieve their records in the filing cabinet. If
no such record exists the student is asked to fill up one.
The patient will then proceed to the other working staff and will be
asked about the symptoms he/she is feeling. The working staff will
record these and will direct the patient to the doctor’s room.
Consultation with the doctor.
Doctor’s prescription and giving of
available medicine by the school nurse.
Record the daily number of patients,
consultation and medical certificates.

The people who are responsible for the clinic are the following:

Dr. Benjamin B. Vergara Medical Clinic Dr. Hosanna F.Pajela Dr. Laila G. Jara University University
Dr. Benjamin B.
Vergara
Medical Clinic
Dr. Hosanna F.Pajela
Dr. Laila G. Jara
University
University
Physician
Physician
Joanne Leigh M. Sally
Jhudy Praise E.
Aniceto
Ma. Antonette M.
Morales
Jose C. Cabansag
University Nurse
University Nurse
University Nurse
University Nurse
Louwee Andrew C.
Cortez
Karth Lou D.
Namingit
Working Scholar
Working Scholar

The clinic’s services are made possible through its resources: 1 wheelchair,

1 medical clinic

head, 2 university

physician, 4 university nurse, observation room (5 beds), treatment area (2 beds w/ wheels), doctor room (1 bed), 1

refrigerator, 1 cabinet, 1 file cabinet for employees, 1 stretcher & papers used to record transactions (yellow for students,

green for staff).

1.3 Importance of the Study

Nowadays, everything is computerized; there will be a great decrease with regards to the use of paper in keeping

medical records in the future. There will be a transition from the paper-based system into a digital-based system. Patients do

not need to spend their time in searching for their record through the file cabinet. Doctors and the assistants can easily access

the information and medical history of the patient within seconds with the increased efficiency in technology. It also

eliminates the need for writing on the part of the patient.

Privacy and security of the patient’s personal information are also significance in the study of this project. The

proposed system needs to ensure that the system is secured enough to prevent any unauthorized person to gain access the

records.

The importance of the study is to provide a system that can transform the current paper-based system into a

computerized system, which can improve the process of patient record management, electronic generating report and others.

The proposed system is designed based on the problems and requirements gathered from the target users.

1.4 Statement of the Problems

The paper based system currently in use cause many problems to the patients. When the patient first visits the clinic,

the assistant staff requires the former to fill in a new medical card (Yellow for students and Green for Faculty and Staff).

This include some private information that can be obtain from the patient’s identity card such as name, ID number, age,

gender, date of birth, contact information and address. Then, the assistant staff will pass the medical card to the doctor for

the consultation. After the doctor checks the condition of the patient), some diagnosis will be written down on the medical

card by the doctor and the medicine prescription will be written down on the prescription paper. After the patient got his/her

medicine, the assistant staff will keep the medical card in the organized cabinet. Usually, these medical cards are sorted in

alphabetical order according to the patient’s family name. The patient needs to search for his/her medical card through the

file for any subsequent visit.

Few problems that the patients have encountered by using the manual system are:

A. Time consuming

- By using the traditional medical cards, time is wasted especially when there are a lot of patients because the medical

card passes from the assistant

staff to

the doctor during consultation and is given back to the school nurse who

gives the medicine to the patient. Besides, the staff also spends some time in organizing the medical cards from time to time.

Another one is that finding your medical card in the filling cabinet or filling a new one consumes a lot of time.

B. Lack of security

- The medical card is easily exposed to unauthorized user. They can easily get the vital information of the patient from

the clinic because the medical cards are just kept and left on the cabinet unsecured.

C. Limited Capacity

- What can be written in the medical card is limited. The medical card just includes some basic information about the

patient, diagnosis and simple treatment information. When the card has no more space, the patient need to fill up a new

medical card again using the same information that was written in the old medical card.

D. Space

- The cabinet where the medical cards are placed occupies a space in the clinic. The greater the increase in the number

of the medical cards, the more that the clinic will allot space to house the new cabinet.

E. Inventory

- Inventory of the medicines are conducted every end of each semester only resulting to a problem wherein what if in

the middle of the month the medicines run out and these medicines are needed by the patient right away.

1.5 Statement of the Objectives

This project aims to:

a) Create an information system that organizes and stores the medical information of the patients.

b) Assist the staff and the doctor in patient record management.

c) Share information electronically in a timely and secure manner.

d) Generate report automatically (Medical certificate, medical prescriptions/treatment, and health certificate especially

to the athletes).

e) Retrieve past medical record.

f) Produce report about the inventory of the medicines.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The proposed system is to be used in Saint Louis University Medical Clinic at Maryheights Campus only. The target

users of the system are doctors, nurses or any office workers in the clinic. This project is mainly emphasized on developing

a system for storing electronic patient record. It also includes some other functions that can help the target users to improve

their performance. Electronic patient record is a database module of the proposed system. It keeps the patient information

and their medical record. The medical record included the patient medical history, previous diagnosis records and previous

treatment records.

1.7 Definition of Terms

CLINICAL INFORMATION SYTSTEM- is a technology based system that is applied at the point of care and is

designed to support the acquisition and process of information as well as providing storage and processing capabilities. It is

a collection of various information technology applications that provides a centralized repository of information related to

patient care across distributed locations.

MEDRECS Medical Records

MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS-health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified practitioner in

the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSIS- To serve as a visual aid for discussion of treatment recommendations with patient

prior to actual treatment

CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 Review of Related Literature

In this section, the research, location and analysis of the existing knowledge related to the subject of inquiry are

explored and cited. Martin (1976) data within an organization is incr4easingly being regarded as a basic resource needed to

run an organization. As with other basic resources, professional management and organization of data are needed. The

importance of efficient use of data for planning, predicting and other functions will become so great in a computerized

organization that it will have a major effect on growth and survival of co-operations. In relation, the presence of an automated

data management system in SLU Medical Clinic’s efficiency, timely decisions and responses will be achieved.

Dr. Nick Booth, HSCIC Clinical Director for Information Standards Delivery said, "Achieving consistency in

professional record keeping allows the continual improvement of high quality information about care. By working closely

with a range of health and social care professionals, citizens, carers and health IT specialists, these generic and professionally

owned standards have been created to be a key enabler for better informed patients, better informed care professionals, and

better informed health service management. These will be invaluable in supporting the future development of electronic care

records in health and social care."

Elements of a Useable Information System

According to Comptroller (1995), to function effectively as an interacting, interrelated, and interdependent feedback

tool for management and staff, MIS must be “useable.” The five elements of a useable information system are: timeliness,

accuracy, consistency, completeness, and relevance. The usefulness of information system is hindered whenever one or more

of these elements are compromised.

o

Timeliness: To simplify prompt decision making, an institution's MIS should be capable of providing and distributing

current

information to appropriate users. Information systems should be designed to expedite reporting of information. The

system should be able to quickly collect and edit data, summarize results, and be able to adjust and correct errors promptly.

o Accuracy: A sound system of automated and manual internal controls must exist throughout all information systems

processing

activities.

Information

should

receive

appropriate

editing,

balancing,

and

internal

control

checks.

A

comprehensive internal and external audit program should be employed to ensure the adequacy of internal controls.

o Consistency: To be reliable, data should be processed and compiled consistently and uniformly. Variations in how

data is collected and reported can distort information and trend analysis. In addition, because data collection and reporting

processes will change over time,

management must establish sound procedures to allow for systems changes. These

procedures should be well defined and documented, clearly communicated to appropriate employees, and should include an

effective monitoring system

o Completeness: Decision makers need complete and pertinent information in a summarized form. Reports should be

designed to eliminate clutter and voluminous detail, thereby avoiding "information overload."

o Relevance: Information provided to management must be relevant. Information that is inappropriate, unnecessary,

or too detailed for effective decision making has no value. MIS must be appropriate to support the management level using

it. The relevance and level of detail provided through MIS systems directly correlate to what is needed by the board of

directors, executive management, departmental or area mid-level managers, etc. in the performance of their jobs.

Records

Lian (2002) defined a medical record as confidential information kept for each patient by health care professional or

organization. It contains the patients’ personal details such as name, address, date of birth, a summary of the patient medical

history and documentation of each event including the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Relevant documents

and correspondence are also included.

According to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) records include, “… all books, papers,

maps, photographs, machine-readable materials, or other documentary materials, regardless of physical form r characteristics,

made or received … or in connection with the transaction of public business and preserved r appropriate for preservation by

that agency or its legitimate successor as evidence of the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations,

or because of the informational value of the data in them.”

The International Council on Archives (ICA) Committee on Electronic Records defines a record as “recorded

information produced r received in the initiation, conduct, or completion of an institutional or individual activity and that

comprises content, context, and structure sufficient to provide evidence of the activity.” A record can be defined as “evidence

of an even.”

Automation of Records

Sorrentino [ 1991:23] advocates that automation can provide them with an opportunity to direct their time and

to

meaningful

patient

care.

Tedious

administrative

tasks

can

be

eliminated using computerization.

effort

According to Neame [1995:4-6] the benefits of an electronic medical record are numerous. Information is available

from every computer that is connected to the database and entries made by multiple providers in different locations can be

linked to create a single record for an individual. Data can be checked as it is entered to ensure adequacy and accuracy. The

same data can be viewed in different ways and links to knowledge based tools are also possible.

Adderley et. Al. [1997:45] maintains that “computerization has allowed more time for personalized patient care and

patient/ staff interaction”. They also concluded that “it (computerization) has made information readily available for

acquisition and analysis of data”.

Anderson et. Al. [1995:767] also argue that a computer-based patient record could improve health care in several

important ways. It could provide practitioners with rapid access to more reliable patient data. It could also support clinical

decision making, clinical reminders and alerts, quality assurance and outcomes research.

When a health information system is computerized, the worldwide trend is to combine the statistical processing with

the patient record system into a single health information system [Leske et.al. 1992:260: Neame, 1995:11; Pulliam, 1992:123;

Wallace, 1994:1]. Such a system will keep a permanent record of individual patients and simultaneously increment the

number of cases without the service provider even being aware of it. At regular intervals the statistical data will be

summarized and presented in a format that will be useful to both the service providers.

Patient Record Management System

Lenhart et al. defines a patient record management system as a system that stores demographic and medical

information from ancillary services such as registration, lab, radiology, pathology, pharmacy, consultation and transcription.

They state that a record management system is not simply automated updates of paper based charts, but rather a dynamic

system used to help health care workers make

better informed dragonesses.

According to Gaillour et al. a record management system is only effective at achieving the goals of increasing quality

of care and lowering costs if the organization re-designs its current workflow and practices. Hence a very user-friendly system

needs to be crated to mitigate the risk of user dissatisfaction towards the new system.

Function of Patient Record Management System

According to Melongoza (2002) these are incorporated into the technical (clinical) and business (administration)

component of health service. These are divided into three (3); transactional control reporting, operating, planning and

strategic planning.

o Transactional functions: handle day to day operational and administrative task of the organization. Example of this

includes the following: order entry, service scheduling, treatment and other personal staffing and scheduling.

o Control reporting and operating function: provide summarized data about the operation of the organization to the

manager and health care professional that permits the monitoring of various activities. These tasks include medical record

tracking, medical audit and peer review.

o Strategic planning function: provide a framework from decision making with long range implications which include

patient care strategy like level of care, occupancy and service demand, requirement and project cost.

Thus the patient management information system in this study ideally consists of integrated approach to maintain patient

related administrative and clinical data considering the continuum of care dependent on the services provided.

Significance of Patient Record Management System

According to Professor Angelika Menne- Harits, director of the archive school in Marburg, Germany, electronic

office systems enable us to see clearer. “It is no longer the fear of being inundated by enormous amounts of paper, but

awareness that nothing was left for appraisal, if we do not formulate fundamental principles, which make us think about a

theory to guide everyday decisions.”

He continues to say that the experience with electronic records sharpens our perception. Thus, the aim of records

management system is to make records eloquent and to facilitate research.

According to ARMA International, a not-for-profit professional association and authority on managing records and

information, records management systems are important because Records are information assets and hold value for the

organization. Organizations have a duty to all stakeholders to manage them effectively in order to maximize profit, control

cost, and ensure the vitality of the organization. Effective records management ensures that the information needed is

retrievable, authentic, and accurate.

Clinical Benefits of an Information System

Fromberg et al. claim the clinical benefits to such system include:

o

Easier, more rapid access to patient data charts

o

More educated patients about their own ailments

o

An increase in time to spend consulting with patients

o

An increased perception of patient care and theoretically a better working environment

According to Dassenko and Slowinski, an average of up to 15 minutes was saved per patient on the patient’s first

visit and further 20 minutes on each subsequent visit as a result of implementing a computer based patient record.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Based Information System

According to Gordon (2006), the following are what he identified as the advantages of computer based information

system.

o

They are user friendly and the navigations is very easy.

o

They help in organizing and managing documents effectively. Since the data is stored in a highly organized manner,

accessing necessary data is very easy.

o

It helps save time. People are able to access data needed in real time thus enabling them access detailed information.

o

Accurate, current and reliable data is provided. As data can be analyzed correctly and plans made can be implemented

at astounding speed due to proper automated systems.

o

They are installed to improve internal efficiency of the organization

o

They increase security and protect data from being misused.

According to Gordon (2006), the following are what he identified as the disadvantages of computer based information system.

o Hackers: information sent by use of the internet can easily be hijacked and terminated by unauthorized persons before

reaching its destination.

o

Virus: this can destroy files by replicating themselves in the document hence losing the meaning of the file.

Problems of the Administering Patient Management System

According to Gordon the following are possible problem to be encountered while administering the system:

o

It is not suitable for computer illiterate people.

o

The user must be a member in order to make use of the system.

o

The systems do not do away with paper work completely; the papers are still used at some point.

2.2 Data Gathering Techniques and Sources of Data

Survey is a research tool for collecting information from a selected group of people using standardized questionnaire. In

continuous quality improvement, surveys help to measure satisfaction levels and determine specific areas for improvement.

The sources of data came from students, faculty and staff of School of Accountancy and Business Management (SABM) in

Saint Louis University (SLU).

The facts in the study are done through a face-to-face interview with the student, staff and doctor. By interviewing the medical

staff, the researchers have known the process in the medical clinic and acquired additional knowledge of what they are doing

like recording the daily number of patients and the consultation that has done by the doctor for each patient. The researchers

also used the observation method to have a personal experience of the process involved in the clinic to find out what is

lacking in the current system and to have ideas for improvement. The purpose also of observation is for the researchers to be

familiar to the process of the service of the clinic or how they manage their day-to-day operation.

CHAPTER 3

EXISTING AND PROPOSED SYSTEM

3.1 Overview of the Existing System

The researchers decided to choose the SLU MEDICAL CLINIC Maryheights Campus as the entity to work on. They

have known the current process of the SLU Medical Clinic by interviewing the students, staff and doctors. The current

process/procedures followed by the clinic are the following: first, the staff will ask the patient if he/she already has an existing

record in the clinic and will ask the student to retrieve their records in the filing cabinet, if no such record exists the student

is asked to fill up one; second, the patient will then be asked about the symptoms he/she is feeling and the working staff will

record these and will direct the patient to

the

doctor’sroom; third, consultation

with

the doctor take

place and the doctor will also record the consultation in the medical card of the patient; fourth, doctor’s prescription and

giving of available medicine by the attending nurse; lastly, record the daily number of patients, consultation, and medical

certificates released. They add their daily tally to produce the monthly tally of the patients who visited the clinic for future

decision making.

3.2 Problems of the Existing System

SLU Medical Clinic at Maryheights Campus is currently using a paper-based system which results to some problems

that are being encountered by the staffs and patients. Such problem occurs when a patient is asked to either fill in the medical

card or to look for their medical card in the cabinet. The process is time consuming and it may cause some inconvenience

not only to the patient but also to the assistant staff who spends time in organizing the medical cards at the end of the day.

Another problem arises when the medical card is already filled and there’s no more space to write on. The procedure is

redundant because the patient needs to fill in a new medical card with the same information that can be seen in the old medical

card. Another problem takes place because of the cabinet that is used to store all the medical cards. Since the cabinet is

unsecured, the medical cards are exposed to unauthorized person and they can easily gain access to the confidential

information written on the medical cards. Furthermore, the cabinet occupies a large space in the clinic; another problem

transpires due to the inventory system they use. Given that the medical staffs only make an inventory count at the end of the

semester, it is inevitable that some medicines may run out of stock at the middle of the semester.

3.3 Overview of the Proposed System

SLU-MEDRECS Information system is a system that helps the patient to save time in searching for his own medical

card in the file cabinet as well as for the doctors and nurses to easily access the information and medical history of the patient.

The proposed system aims to maintain health records of the patients to be secured, organized and can be access to up-to-date

patient information. Only the student assistant, the doctor and the nurse are authorized to make use of the system.

The patients just have to say his school identification number and the system must automatically generate the latter’s

medical record. Upon entering the medical clinic, the patient will directly go to the student assistant who receives the patient.

The student assistant will be generating inputs from the patient such as the latter’s symptoms that brought him in the clinic

and other relevant information. Afterwards, the doctor will input his/her diagnosis about the patient in the system together

with the prescribed medicines. Lastly, the nurse will input in the medicine that he/she will give to the patient (e.g. name of

the medicine and quantity).

The proposed system must generate medical certificates and prescription. It also contains a report generation of the

inventory of the medicines in the clinic so that the inventory process will be easier. Other features of this system are the

ability to create, update and retrieve through search results all the medical records. The proposed number of computer units

in the medical clinic in order to properly execute the system is three (3) in which each of the computers are networked with

each other so that the information will be relayed well.

This SLU-MEDRECS information system purposely built to eliminate the existing system of the medical clinic

which is the paper-based system or if not, minimize the use of paper as well as to fasten the medical procedures. Moreover,

the system will be developed to realize the functionality of the system to help

nurses

at

the

medical

clinic.

the

patients,

doctors,

and

3.4 System Workflow

3.4.1 Context Diagram

3.4 System Workflow 3.4.1 Context Diagram 16

3.4.2 Decomposition Diagram

3.4.2 Decomposition Diagram 17

3.4.3 Diagram 0

3.4.3 Diagram 0 18

3.4.4 Level 2

3.4.4 Level 2 19

3.4.5 DataDictionary

 

DATA FLOWS

NAME

DESCRIPTION

ORIGIN

DESTINATION

DATA STRUCTURE

ACCOUNT

This contains the name and password that the staff registered in the system.

User Account File

Log in

Account

DETAILS

Details=Name+

Password

ADDITIONAL

This includes patient’s additional details such as allergies, past operations (if any).

Assistant

Update Patient File

Additional

DETAIL

Detail=Medical

History+(Allergies)

ACCESS

This is the confirmation indicating that the entered name and password is correct.

Verifies Name

Grant User Access

Access Granted=Registered Name+ Correct Password

GRANTED

and Password

DIAGNOSIS

This is the doctor’s diagnosis of the patient’s condition.

Doctor

Update Patient File

Diagnosis=Findings

EDIT ACCOUNT

It enables the staff to edit his/her password or deactivate his/her account anytime there will be a change of staffs.

Staff

Create or modify account

Edit Account=New Password+(Delete Account)

GAIN ACCESS

It enables the staff to access the system.

Log in

Staff

Gain Access=Password+ Name of Staff

INITIAL

This includes the patient’s preliminary condition upon visiting the clinic (body temperature, blood pressure, etc.)

Assistant

Update Patient File

Initial Findings= Body Temperature+ Blood Pressure

FINDINGS

INITIAL

This is the medicine inventory given by the school administration at the beginning of the semester.

Nurse

Record Available

Initial Medicine Count=Name of Medicines+ Quantity of Medicines

MEDICINE

Medicine

COUNT

LIST

This is the list of the students (including transferees) and faculty of the university (past or present).

MIS

Establish and Update Patient Record

List=Name of Students and Faculty + ID Number

LIST OF

This includes the name and quantity

Record Medicine

Inventory File

List of Available Medicine= Name of

AVAILABLE

Available

 

of available medicines at the beginning of the semester.

   

Medicine+ Quantity

LOOKS FOR

The name and password entered by the staff will be searched from the user account file.

Verifies Name

User Account File

Looks for Name and Password=Name+ Password

NAME AND

and Password

PASSWORD

MEDICAL

This is a document certifying that the student has been sick at a certain date to be presented to the Student’s Affairs Office for special purposes.

Generate Medical

Patient

Medical Certificate= Patient’s Name+ Illness +Treatment

CERTIFICATE

Certificate

MEDICAL

This is the past diagnosis of the patient including treatment and prescription.

Patient File

Update Patient File

Medical History= Past Diagnosis+ Treatment+ Prescription

HISTORY

MEDICAL

This is the document that consists the patient’s personal information and medical history.

Update Patient File, Patient File

Generate Prescription, Patient File, Generate Medical Certificate, Doctor

Medical Record= Patient’s Information + Medical History

RECORD

MEDICINE

This is a confirmation whether the prescribed medicine is available at the clinic.

Check Medicine

Record Medicine to be Released

Medical Confirmation= Prescribed Medicine Available

CONFIRMA

Availability

TION

 

MEDICINE

This is the name, dose and quantity of the drug that the doctor has prescribed.

Nurse

Check Medicine

Medicine Details=Quantity+ Name+ Dose

DETAILS

Availability

MEDICINE

This is the inventory of the medicine at the end of the semester.

Inventory File

Produce Inventory Report

Medicine Inventory= List of Medicine+ Quantity+ Medicine Name+ Dose

INVENTORY

MEDICINE

This is the final report of inventory at the end of the semester that will be submitted to the admin.

Produce Inventory Report

Admin

Medicine Inventory Report= Quantity of Remaining Medicines

INVENTORY

REPORT

 

MEDICINE NAME

This is the name of the medicine prescribed by the

Check Medicine

Inventory File

Medicine Name= Name of the Drug Prescribed

Availability

 

doctor.

     

MEDICINE

This is the availability of the medicine to be given to the patient.

Inventory File

Check Medicine

Medicine Status= List of Available Medicines+ Quantity

STATUS

Availability

MODIFIED

This is the account of the staff after editing his/her password.

Create or modify account

User account file

Modified

ACCOUNT

Account=new

 

password+(deactivated

account)

MONTHLY

This is the number of patients who visits the clinic for the month.

Create Monthly Tally of Patients

Admin

Monthly Tally Report=Name of Patients + ID number

TALLY

REPORT

 

NAME

This is the full name of the staff registered in the system.

Staff

Log in

Name=First Name+(Middle Initial)+Last Name

NEW ACCOUNT

This is the account to be registered in the system.

Create or Modify Account

User Account File

New Account=Registered Name+ Valid Password

NUMBER OF

This is the number of patients who visits the clinic daily.

Patient File

Compute for Number of Patients Monthly

Number of Patients Daily=

PATIENTS

DAILY

 

PATIENT

This includes the name, age, gender, address of the patient.

Doctor

Create Request

Patient Details=Name+ Age+ Gender+ Address

DETAILS

Letter

PATIENT

This is the patient’s personal information.

Establish and

Patient File

Patient Information= Name+ Age+ Birth Date+ Course and Year+ ID Number+ City Address+ Contact Number

INFORMATION

Update Patient

Record

PASSWORD

This is a secret series of numbers or letters that allows the staff to access the system.

Staff

Log in

Password=Numbers+

Letters

PRESCRIPTION

This includes the medicine, dosage, quantity, and how often the medicine will be taken.

Generate

Patient, Nurse

Prescription= Medicine Name+ Dose+ Quantity+ Number of days to be taken+(Frequency)

Prescription

REGISTER

This includes the name of the staff and the password chosen to create his/her account.

Staff

Create or modify account

Register

ACCOUNT

Account=Name+

 

Password

REQUEST

This is the letter of referral made by the

Create Request

Patient

Request Letter= Referral + Patient

LETTER

Letter

 

doctor for further examination of the patient.

   

Details

TOTAL

This is the accumulated number of patient monthly.

Compute for number of patients monthly

Create monthly tally of patients

Total Patients Monthly=accumulated number of patients monthly

PATIENTS

MONTHLY

 

TREATMENT

Medical remedy and prescribed cure/medicine for the illness of the patient.

Doctor

Update Patient File

Treatment=Medical Remedy+ Prescription

UPDATED

List of available or remaining medicine after releasing the prescribed medicine

Record Medicine to be Released

Inventory File

Updated Inventory= Inventory Count after Release of the Medicine.

INVENTORY

USER ACCESS

This is the confirmation that the staff can access the system.

Grant User Access

Staff

User Access

GRANTED

Granted=Correct

Name+ Correct

Password

USER IS LOGGED OUT

This is the denial of access if the staff entered the wrong name/password.

Cancel Log in

Staff

User is Logged Out=Incorrect Name+ Incorrect Password

VALIDATE

The name and password entered by the staff will be validated if the name and password matches the registered accounts in the user account file

User Account File

Verifies Name and Password

Validate Name and

NAME AND

PASSWORD

 

Password=Name+ Password

VERIFY NAME

The name and password entered by the staff is to be verified.

Log In

Verifies Name and Password

Verify Name and Password=Name+ Password

AND

PASSWORD

 

WRONG NAME

If the name and password entered by the staff does not match the registered account.

User account File

Cancel Log in

Wrong Name and Password=Incorrect Name+ Incorrect Password

AND

PASSWORD

 

DATA STORES

NAME

DESCRIPTION

DATA STRUCTURE

INVENTORY FILE

Stores the name of available medicines with quantity and dose.

Inventory File= Available Medicines+ Quantity+ Name+ Dose

PATIENT FILE

Stores the list of patients with their personal information and medical history. This also adds the number of patients who visit the clinic daily for a month.

Patient File=Patient’s Personal Information+ Medical History

USER ACCOUNT FILE

Stores the user name and password registered in the system.

User Account File=User Name+ Password

 

EXTERNAL ENTITIES

 

NAME

DESCRIPTION

INPUT

OUTPUT

ADMIN

People responsible for the release of medicine inventory in each school.

Medicine Inventory Report Monthly Tally Report

 

ASSISTANT

Someone who first attends to the patient and asks for the latter’s condition (body temperature, blood pressure, etc.)

Gain Access

Name and password Edit account Register Account Additional Detail Initial Findings

DOCTOR

Conducts check up on the patients and gives medical treatment.

Gain Access

Name and Password Edit Account Register Account Diagnosis Treatment

Medical Record

MIS

System containing the personal information about the student and faculty.

 

List

NURSE

Personnel in charge of the medicine being released to the patient.

Prescription

Name and password Edit account Register Account Medicine Details Initial Medical Count

PATIENT

May be a student or faculty in need for medical assistance.

Medical Certificate Prescription Request Letter

 

STAFF

This includes authorized personnel (assistant, doctor, nurse) to access the system.

User Access Granted User is Logged Out

Name

Password

24

3.4.6 Process Description

 

PROCESSES

 

NAME

DESCRIPTION

PROCESS

INPUT

OUTPUT

NO.

ESTABLISH

The list of patients (students and faculty who have been part of this university including the transferees) from the MIS is integrated with the system by saving in the patient file data store.

01

List

Patient

AND UPDATE

Information

PATIENT

RECORD

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

ADD Patient Information to PATIENT FILE

 

CREATE OR

The staff will input his/her name and password to create account. If the staff wishes to change his/her password, the staff will log in first then change his/her password. Moreover, when the staff is replaced, he/she can deactivate his/her account.

02

Edit Account

New Account Modified Account

MODIFY

ACCOUNT

Register Account Name and Password

 

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

ADD name and password

LOG IN

The staff will input his/her registered name and password to access the system.

03

Account Details Name and password

 

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

ADD Name and Password THEN verify Name and Password

 

VERIFIES NAME AND PASSWORD

The system will verify if the name and password is registered and valid.

3.1

Verify Name and Password Validated Name and Password

Access Granted Looks for Name and Password

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

GET Name and Password THEN look for Name and Password in USER ACCOUNT FILE IF Name and Password in USER ACCOUNT FILE THEN validate Name and Password AND activate Access Granted

 

GRANT USER

If the name matches the password, the system will grant the user the access.

3.2

Access Granted

User Access

ACCESS

Granted

 

25

 

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

IF Access is granted THEN allow User Access

CANCEL LOG IN

If the name doesn’t match the password, the system will cancel log in.

3.3

Wrong name and Password

User is Logged Out

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

IF Wrong Name and Password THEN User is Logged Out

UPDATE PATIENT

The assistant will update the

04

Additional Detail, Initial Findings, Diagnosis, Prescription, Medical History

Medical Record

FILE

patient file by putting the patient’s additional detail and initial findings which will be used by the doctor to diagnose the patient and prescribe the necessary treatment. These information will be stored in the patient file producing the patient’s medical record.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

IF Patient come to clinic for the first time THEN add Additional Details and Initial Findings ELSE add Initial Findings only

 

CREATE

If the doctor needs to refer or

 

05 Patient Details

Request letter

REQUEST

send the patient to consult a

LETTER

medical specialist, a request letter will be created and be given to the patient.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

ADD Patient Details THEN create Request Letter

GENERATE

From the patient’s medical

 

06 Medical Record

Medical Certificate

MEDICAL

record saved in the patient

CERTIFICATE

file, medical certificate which contains the patient’s illness will be generated to be given to the patient.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

OPEN Medical Record THEN create Medical Certificate

GENERAT

From the medical record

 

07 Medical Record

Prescription

E

which contains the doctor’s

PRESCRIP

prescription stored in the

TION

patient file, prescription is generated to be given to the patient.

26

 

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

OPEN Updated Patient File THEN give Prescription to Patient

 

RECORD

The nurse will record the

08

Initial Medicine

List of Available Medicine

AVAILABLE

inventory of medicines

Count

MEDICINE

(medicine name and quantity) at the beginning of the semester and will be saved in the store of inventory file as the list of available medicines.

 

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

ADD Initial Medicine Count to INVENTORY FILE

 

CHECK

The nurse will input the

09

Medicine Details,

Medicine Name,

MEDICINE

details of the medicine/s

Medicine Status

Medicine

AVAILABILIT

prescribed by the doctor and

Confirmation

Y

the system will check from the inventory file the availability of the medicine.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

GET Medicine Details of Prescription THEN verify Medicine Status IF Medicine available THEN confirm Availability

 

RECORD

After checking the availability of the medicine,

10

Medicine

Updated Inventory

MEDICINE TO BE

Confirmation

RELEASED

the system will record the medicine released and will update the inventory file to keep the inventory file up-to- date.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

IF Prescribed Medicine is Released THEN update INVENTORY FILE

 

PRODUCE

The inventory of medicines at

11

Medicine Inventory

Medicine Inventory Report

INVENTORY

the end of the reporting period

REPORT

(end of semester) is checked from the inventory file and is used to produce inventory report to be submitted

 

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

GET Medicine Inventory THEN create Report to Admin

27

COMPUTE FOR

The number of patients daily is accumulated to compute the number of patients daily.

12

Number of Patients Daily

Total Patients

NUMBER OF

Monthly

PATIENTS

 

MONTHLY

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

GET Number of Patients Daily from PATIENT FILE THEN add Number of Patients Daily AND compute for Number of Patient Monthly

 
 

Number of daily patients will be added to get the monthly tally report.

13

Total Patients

Monthly Tally

CREATE

Monthly

Report

MONTHLY

TALLY OF

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

PATIENT

GET Total Patients Monthly THEN create Monthly Tally Report to Admin

 

LOG OUT

The staff will log out his/her account after doing their tasks.

14

Log Out Account

Account Logged

Out

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

IF the staff Log Out his/her account THEN Account is Logged Out

 

3.5 Cost Benefit Analysis

The cost-benefit analysis is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives

that satisfy transactions, activities or functional requirements for a business. It is a technique that is used to

determine options that provide the best approach for the adoption and practice in terms of benefits in labor,

time and cost savings.

SLU-Maryheights Campus Medical Clinic, being one of the medical clinics in Saint Louis University,

should assess whether to change their current system/process to an automated one.

COST

BENEFITS/COST SAVINGS

Cost of learning the system

2, 850

*Benefits

34, 526

Cost of developing the system

18, 000

   

Computer set

35, 997

   

Epson L120 Printer

4, 995

   

Repairs and Maintenance Cost

2, 000

   

Electricity Cost

5, 712

   

TOTAL COST

P69, 554

TOTAL BENEFITS

P34, 526

28

SUPPORTING COMPUTATIONS:

COST OF THE NEW SYSTEM

 

Cost of learning the system

Number of Persons to be trained Baguio City minimum wage Days of training Cost of developing the system Computer set (P11, 999*3) Epson L120 Printer Repairs and Maintenance Cost

2

285

5

2, 850

18, 000

35, 997

4, 995

2, 000

Electricity Cost (P6.80 per kwh*8hrs*105days)

5, 712

TOTAL COST OF THE NEW SYSTEM P69, 554

Acquiring the SLU MEDRECS Information System may incur certain costs as follows:

1. Cost of learning the system software

- According to Wage Order No-RB-CAR-17 Effective June 29, 2015, the Baguio City minimum

wage amounts to P285 per worker multiplied by five (5) days with two staff operator

- (285)(5days)(2 employees)

2. Cost of Developing the new system software

- The cost of developing the system software depends upon the complexity of the system. After

researching from a system specialist, the development of SLU MEDRECS Information System

totaled to P18,000 including the installationcosts.

3. Computer Set

- The computer set that fits the system includes the following specifications:

Processor: Intel Celeron G1620 2.7GHZ LGA 1155

Motherboard: Intel Board LGA1155, DDR3, VGA, LAN

RAM: 2GB DDR3 PC12800/1600

HDD+SSD: WD 1TB Blue/Green

Case: Bysuo casing black

Monitor: LG 15.6Led Monitor

ODD: DVDRW 24X

AVR: 500VA AVR BLK

Keyboard/Mouse: Trailblazer USB MOUSE/ PS2Keyboard

4. Epson L120 Printer

- Smallest, single function ink tank system printer delivers cost-effective and reliable color printing

that is suitable for the generation ofreports.

5. Repairs and Maintenance cost

- This includes the restoration of the defected parts of the hardware and also sustaining the hardware

itself.

6. Electricity Cost

- Benguet Electric Cooperative (BENECO) imposes P6.80 per kwh in Baguio City.

*WITHOUT THE SYSTEM:

Cost of Prescription Paper Expected number of patients per day

100

Multiply: by Average number of days per

105

Semester Total Number of Patients per Semester

10, 500

Divide by: Sheets per pad

100

Number of prescription pads issued persemester

105

Multiply

by: Price per prescription pad

30

3, 150

Cost of Medical Cards

Price of Card per Piece

5

Add:

Printing Cost per piece

1

Price of medical card per piece

6

Multiply by: Patients Filling up newmedical card per day

50

Expenses Incurred daily by using medical cards

300

Multiply by: Average number of days per 105

31,500

Semester Cost of Medical Certificate Expected number of patients acquiring medical certificate per day Multiply: by Average number of days per Semester

Expected number of patients acquiring medical certificate per day Multiply: by Average number of days per

40

105

Total number of medical certificates released per

4, 200

Day Divide by: Sheets per pad

100

Number of medical certificate pads issued per Semester

42

Multiply by: Price per medical certificatepad

30

1, 260

TOTAL EXPENSES INCURRED WITHOUT THE P35,910 SYSTEM PER SEMESTER

*WITH THE SYSTEM:

Cost of Prescription Paper

Expected number of patients per day

100

Multiply:

by Average number of days per

105

Semester Total Number of Patients per Semester

10, 500

Divide by: Sheets per ream (480*4)

1, 920

Number of reams of newsprint per semester

Expected number of patients to be issued with

5.5

Multiply by: Price of one (1) ream

110

605

Cost of Medical Cards

medical certificates per day

40

Multiply: by Average number of days per 105 Semester

 

Total Number of Patients per Semester

4, 200

Divide by: Sheets per ream (480*2)

960

Number of reams of newsprint per semester

4.4

Multiply by: Price of one (1) ream

110

484

Epson L120 Ink

295

TOTAL EXPENSES INCURRED WITH THE SYSTEM PER SEMESTER

P1, 384

Total expenses without the system incurred per semester

35, 910 1, 384 P34, 526
35, 910
1, 384
P34, 526

Less: Total expenses with the system incurred per semester

*BENEFITS

The transition from the paper-based system to the electronic patient record management system can acquire

the following benefits.

1. New features in the recording

- These may include new and improved process of recording personal and medical information.

2. Faster record - finding

- With the use of the system software, record finding would be faster and less time consuming

in times ofemergency.

3. Improved quality service

- By using system software that will support the medical clinic in terms of recording

information, it will enhance the quality service of the clinic.

At the end of approximately 2 semesters, the cost invested in the said system will be returned.

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATION

Summary

As discussed in the previous chapters the main problem that was addressed was dealing with patient medical

4.1

record. It is the above situation that drove the researchers to develop the SLU-MEDRECS Information System to be

used only in SLU-SABM Medical Clinic to enable them to handle details efficiently and effectively. Saint Louis

University Medical Clinic at Maryheights Campus stores patients’ medical records using either the yellow or green

cards. Patients who are going for a consultation needs to look for their own medical record or if the latter don’t have a

record, he/she has to fill up the necessary information on the card and then give it to the assistant staff

who will

write the patient’s medical information and the preliminary diagnosis. This kind of system is troublesome and plaguing.

Moreover, patient’s information is not really secured in the cabinet.

SLU-MEDRECS Information System (SMIS) is a computerized patient information system whose main

purpose is to make the process of looking for the personal record of the patient faster and easier. Therefore, it will enable

easier manipulation of the inputs which will lead to more efficient health system and will avoid error and misplacement

of the documented medical record. With this system, the medication process will be more focused on the patient and

not on searching and filling up the medical records which will enable the clinic to provide patients with quality care in

a timely and cost- effective manner. The SMIS integrates a complete view of not just the patient’s health information,

medical prescription, and clinical letters but also the latter’s personal information. This system will ensure the safety

and security of the patient’s private information unlike the clinic’s current paper-based system. This electronic patient

record is a more improved and modernized system that has a familiar resemblance with the traditional paper record that

is currently being used in SLU Medical Clinic at Maryheights Campus.

The proposed system will benefit the doctors, patients and assistant staffs. With the system, much workloads

and planning can be scheduled and done in a timely but efficient and accurate manner. It aims to assist users in

achieving their respective goals and objectives efficiently and effectively.

4.2

Conclusion

In a nutshell, SLU-MEDRECS Information System (SMIS) is a computerized patient information system. It

simplifies the works of the student assistant, nurse and doctor, as well as the patient. This project aims to solve the

encountered by the medical clinic of Saint Louis University, Maryheights Campus. By using the system, the staffs in

the clinic should be able to do their works more efficiently and time saving. The time used by patients in searching for

their medical cards will be decreased as well as most of the process is done using computer rather than handwriting.

Moreover, there is a function to generate Medical Certificate and prescription to the patient. The doctor will just sign

these documents rather than writing the details of the patient. The proposed system is expected to give benefits to

Medical Clinic in terms of increased overall performance and efficient records management at the Medical Clinic of

Saint Louis University, MaryheightsCampus.

4.3

Recommendation

Given the limited amount of time, the project’s scope was rather limited to only one clinic in the entire Saint Louis

University. The scope can further be widened to include all other clinic of Saint Louis University to make a more

integrated comprehensive system that covers the entire university’s records management. A few other components can

be included in the system in the future. This may include the ability to include an upload functionality for patient images

could greatly enhance the usefulness of the system.

Bibliography

Clayton, P.D., et. al. (10 Apr 2012). Building a comprehensive clinical information system from

components. The approach at Intermountain Health Care. Retrievedfrom

Clifford, G. C. (11 June 2008). Medical information systems: A foundation for healthcare

technologies in developing countries. Retrievedfromhttp://www.biomedical

engineeringonline.com/content/7/1/18

Clinical

patient

management

system.

(01

May

2013).

Retrieved

fromhttp://www.advancedcomputersoftware.com/ahc/products/adastra-patient

management-system.php

Electronic health record features & functions. (08 Oct 2014). Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/

Fraenkel D.J., Cowie M., Daley P. (31 Jan 2003). Quality benefits of an intensive care clinical

informationsystem.Retrievedfrom http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12545004

Karki, R. K. (15 Jan 2011). Medical record and its importance. Retrieved from http://www.healthnet.org/

Menachemi N., Collum, T.H. (11 May 2011). Benefits and drawbacks of electronic health

record systems.

New clinical record standards to support seamless care. (11 July 2013). Retrieved from

Smith, K. (01 Nov 2007). Importance of records management. Retrieved from http://www.

humanrightsinitiative.org/index.php?option=com_content&id=367%3Aimportance-of-records

management&Itemid=40

Appendix A

Prototype

Log in page

Appendix A Prototype Log in page Sign up page 36

Sign up page

Appendix A Prototype Log in page Sign up page 36

Account Settings

Account Settings Assistant StudentDashboard 37

Assistant StudentDashboard

Account Settings Assistant StudentDashboard 37

Nurse Dashboard

Nurse Dashboard 38
Nurse Dashboard 38
39 Doctor Dashboard

39

Doctor Dashboard

39 Doctor Dashboard
Medical Certificate 40

Medical Certificate

Medical Certificate 40

Prescription

Prescription Inventory Repo 41

Inventory Repo

Prescription Inventory Repo 41

41