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Angela Marie G.

Sapatua September 27, 2019

2018-68761 T-3L

What is the science behind the successful micro-propagation techniques particularly:

a. Inarching
Inarching is used to replace the root system of an established tree for a variety of reasons such
as girdling of the original trunk, a delayed graft incompatibility freezing injury, or root system
disease or pest problem. The inarching assumes that the new root system is resistant. Inarching
often involves planting the new rootstock seedlings at the base of an established tree in the
spring, and allowing them to become established for several weeks or months before grafting
later during the growing season. It is necessary to resort to inarching when the roots as well as
the trunk have been girdled. Undamaged suckers, seedlings or rooted cuttings with a stem
diameter between 1/4 to 1/2 inch can be used to form the bridge. Inarching is frequently used
when the stem of a young tree (or houseplant) has been damaged or girdled by insects, frost or
root system disease. Inarching bypasses damaged bark and reestablishes the vascular system
from the top of the tree to the roots. The technique uses scions (can be an existing shoot,
sucker, or watersprout that is already growing below and extending above the injury) and
rootstocks that are on their own roots when the graft is made. The goal of grafting is to join
cambial tissues of the scion and the rootstock to form a union, allowing for reestablishment of
an intact vascular system.

b. Marcotting
Marcotting or air layering, an asexual or vegetative method of plant propagation, can be easily
performed with less skill. Air layering is just slightly different from other methods of layering
such as tip layering, simple layering, compound or serpentine layering, etc. In all these methods,
the induction of root development is usually done by wounding the part of the plant to be
rooted. In this layering method, roots are induced to form on the part of the plant while it
remains aerial (aboveground), hence the term air layering. But in other layering methods, the
same plant part is rooted on the ground usually by bending it downward. Most trees especially
fruit trees are seasonal fruits (they fruit seasonally) and so are sometimes hard to propagate
when they are not in season. Air layering reduces the how long trees last before they can fruit
(i.e with air layering, the trees take shorter time to fruit).
Select a good branch, about finger thick and near vertical.
1. Remove a ring of bark 30 to 50 cm long from a position 400-600 mm from the tip of
the branch. The cut must be deep enough to get through the cambium layer. Scrape the branch
well to remove the soft material.
2. Dust the cut area with a growth hormone powder, making sure all excess is removed
by tapping and blowing, otherwise burns will occur.
3. Take a handful of wet peat moss, squeeze out well and place in the middle of a piece
of plastic around 250 mm square.
4. Place this around the ringbarked area, tying first the bottom, firming down the peat
moss and tying the top.

After 5-6 weeks, a good root system should be visible and the marcot is then ready to be taken
from the parent tree. This is best done by cutting halfway through and waiting two weeks
before completing the cut. Care must be taken in planting the marcot. In the first place, do not
plant with a large ball of peat moss adhering to the roots as this will give rise to fungus; rather,
eliminate as much as possible without damaging the young roots. The marcot should be planted
in good potting mixture, well-drained, taking care not to plant too deeply. Ideally, the top of the
roots should be level with or slightly above the ground. The plant should be well staked and
watered carefully.

c. Patch Budding
Patch budding is used for species that have thick bark like pecans (Carya). The thick bark makes
T- and chip budding difficult. The distinguishing feature of patch budding is that a rectangular
patch of bark containing a single bud is taken from the scion and placed into a similar patch
taken from the rootstock. Specialized tools that act as templates or double bladed knives are
used to get matching sized patches from the scion and rootstock. An advantage of grafting citrus
with the patch bud compared to T-budding and chip budding is that the larger surface area of
the graft makes it less likely to be absorbed by a fast-growing target branch before the buds
sprout. A disadvantage of patch budding compared to scion grafting techniques such as the cleft
graft and the bark graft is that the buds can be slow to start growing. Although the particular
graft demonstrated in this tutorial is of a Mato Buntan pummelo, I also found that patch
budding works well for oranges, lemons, and limes; I expect that it would work well for any type
of citrus.
d. Cleft Grafting
One of the simplest and most popular forms of grafting, cleft grafting is a method for top
working both flowering and fruiting trees (apples, cherries, pears, and peaches) in order to
change varieties. Cleft grafting is also used to propagate varieties of camellias that are difficult
to root. This type of grafting is usually done during the winter and early spring while both scion
and rootstock are still dormant. This may be accomplished by collecting scion wood several
weeks or more earlier, during the winter, and storing under refrigeration, in slightly moist cloth
or other medium. This differential phenological activity between stock and scion allows vigorous
callusing from the stock and later stages of graft union formation at the point of stock/scion
union, but the relative dormancy of the scion delays leafing out and hence minimizes scion
water stress. This is critical before vascular continuity is established, i.e. before new xylem forms
across the graft union to facilitate water transport from stock to scion. Cleft grafting may be
performed on main stems or on lateral or scaffold branches. Cleft grafting is usually performed
several to many feet up from ground level, in an established tree. As such, it is a top working or
highworking technique. It is used to change over (rework) an established fruit (scion) variety to a
new (more desirable) variety, or to obtain multiple varieties on a single tree, or to insert a
pollinizer branch for self incompatible trees like apple. The rootstock used for cleft grafting
should range from 1 to 4 inches in diameter and should be straight grained. The scion should be
about 1⁄4-inch in diameter, straight, and long enough to have at least three buds. Scions that
are between 6 and 8 inches long are usually the easiest to use. The success of the graft depends
on the compatibility between the rootstock and scion. (For more detailed study, please refer to:
https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.14383)
References

https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/selecting_and_storing_scion_wood_for_grafting

https://www.lubbockonline.com/life/2017-03-20/peffley-graft-saves-trees-serious-bark-damage

https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/grafting-and-budding-nursery-crop-plants

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-to/propagation/grafting/inarch-grafting-on-
plants.htm

http://www.ladybug.uconn.edu/FactSheets/trees--bridge-grafting-and-inarching-.php

https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/inarching

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/hort494/mg/methods.alpha/AprMeth.html

http://irrecenvhort.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-prop-glossary/06-grafting/03-buddingtypes/05-grafting-
budpatch.html

https://www.fruitmentor.com/patch-budding