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Industrial Data

ISSN: 1560-9146
National University of San Marcos Peru

García P, Manuel; A. Quispe, Carlos; Ráez G., Luis

Continuous quality improvement in industrial processes Data,
vol. 6, no. 1 August, 2003, pp. 89-94
National University of San Marcos
Lima Peru

Available at: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=81606112

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Vol (6). 1: pp. 89-94



(one) Manuel García P.

(two) Carlos Quispe A.

(3) Ráez Luis G.


SUMMARY An organization or any part thereof, provides a number of services (or products) that consumes (internal or
external) customer. For delivery of that service (or product) organizations running a process. This article is
The current approach to quality in intended to provide an understanding of the principles of continuous process improvement, Series Standards
organizations has been the level of NTP-ISO 9000 is taken: 2001 to understand the conceptual aspect and based on processes for management
assurance to continuous system approach the quality.
improvement, and this can give proof
Series of Standards NTP-ISO 9000:
2001 that unlike its previous version, Series of Standards NTP-ISO 9000: 2001 promotes the adoption of a process approach when developing approach,
emphasizes improvement continuous implementing and improving the effectiveness of a quality management system, to enhance customer satisfaction by
quality processes. meeting their requirements . This approach is based on the structure of the NTP-ISO 9004: 2001 Management
Systems Quality. Guidelines for performance improvement, the previous version of the series of standards NTP-ISO
9000: 1994 was based on 20 items, which are:

Keywords: Quality. Process

improvement. Quality management one. Management Responsibility
systems. two. Quality system
3. Contract review
Four. Control Design
ABSTRACT 5. Control of documentation and data
6. Purchases

The current approach of quality Within 7. Control of products supplied by the customer
Organizations has changed from the level 8. Identification and traceability of products
securing the continuous improvement to 9. Process control
level. The NTP-ISO 9000: 2001 series of 10. Inspection and testing
Norms can confirm This and show how, eleven. Control of inspection equipment, measuring and testing
UNLIKE ITS previous version, it 12. State inspection and testing
emphasizes on a continuous improvement 13. Control of nonconforming products
in process quality. 14. Corrective and preventive actions
fifteen. Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery
16. Control of quality records
17. internal quality audits
Key Words: Quality. Process 18. Training
improvement. Quality management 19. After-sales service
systems. twenty. statistical techniques

(one) Professor at Faculty of Chemical Engineering, UNMSM (3) Teacher of the Department of Design and Technology.

E-mail: calidadtotal@hotmail.com Faculty of Industrial Engineering, UNMSM E-mail:

(two) Teaching Department of Systems Engineering and Computer Science.
Faculty of Industrial Engineering, UNMSM E-mail:




The NTP-ISO 9004: 2001 presents eight principles of quality

management, which have been developed for managers to use the
organization to lead the continuous improvement of performance in the
organization. These principles of quality management are as follows.

- customer-focused organization: Organizations depend on their

customers and therefore should understand current and future
customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive
to exceed customer expectations.

Figure 1. Model of a quality management system

- Leadership: Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the

Current quality management systems are based on processes, and its organization. They should create and maintain the internal
requirements the following chapters of Standard NTP-ISO 9001: 2001: environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving
the objectives of the organization.

(4) quality management system (5)

Management Responsibility (6) Resource - Staff participation: People at all levels are the essence of an
management (7) Product Realization (8) organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to
Measurement, analysis and improvement be used for the benefit of the organization.

Which they can be seen in greater detail in Figure 1. - Focus on processes: A desired result is achieved efficiently
when activities and related resources are managed as a process.
To assist in the successful implementation of a quality management
system with ISO 9000, ISO developed the ISO / TC 176 / SC 2 N 544R
"ISO 9000 Introduction and Support Package: Guidance on the Process - focused management system: Identifying, understanding and managing
Approach to quality management systems "which for Peru, the Technical interrelated processes as a system contributes to the effectiveness and
Committee of Standardization Management and Quality Assurance, efficiency of an organization in achieving its goals.
prepared and presented several documents of this standard, one of them
being the Peruvian Guide GP 015 dOCUMENT fOR tHE INTRODUCTION
aND SUPPORT SERIES oF STANDARDS ISO 9000. - Continuous improvement: Continuous improvement of overall
performance of the organization should be a permanent objective of.

Such guidance-based processes for was reviewed and approved by the - Making decisions based on facts: Effective decisions are based
Commission on Technical and Trade Regulations management systems on the analysis of data and information.
approach to quality - CRT (INDECOPI), which was finally subjected to
public discussion, having no observation was made official in May 2002. - mutually beneficial relationship with suppliers: An organization
and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial
relationship enhances the ability of both to create value.
This guide explains in a simple way what is meant by process, as
existing processes in an organization interact and efficient use of the
Deming cycle of continuous improvement in organizations. If only one of these principles are not taken into account in the quality
management in the organization, this would have a number of


Manuel P. Garcia, Carlos Quispe G. A. and Luis Ráez >>>

stumbles which would be reflected in the dissatisfaction of their clients and in rez, ie from an "informal system" to "best in class". The advantage is
the financial statements. that the results of this approach can be recorded and tracked them to
reach goals set improvement. a scale from 0.0 to 5.0 is currently
used, this scale allows to know the degree of process maturity.
FOCUS processes and ISO 9000: 2001

The principles of quality management approach to the process says the

letter "A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and
related resources are managed as a process." PROCESSES - PDCA

Beginning in 1950, and repeatedly over the next two decades, Deming
According to the NTP-ISO 9000: 2001 management systems quality Cycle PDCA used as an introduction to each and every one of the
- Fundamentals and vocabulary, a process is defined as "set of trainings provided to top management of Japanese companies. There so
activities interrelated or interact, which transforms inputs into far this cycle (which was developed by Shewhart), has traveled the world
outputs", and in the case of a product the same standard defines it as as the undisputed symbol of Continuous Improvement. The NTP-ISO
"result of a set of activities each or interacting activities which 9000: 2001 based on the PDCA Cycle Continuous Improvement scheme
transforms inputs into outputs ". Inputs and finished products can be of quality management system. In Figure 3 we can appreciate the
tangible and intangible. For more details see Figure 2. Deming cycle.

It is recognized, statistically, that in organizations without "Managing

Standard NTP-ISO 9001: 2001 emphasizes the importance for an Continuous Improvement" inefficiency volume may be between 15 and
organization to identify, deploy, manage, and continuously improve the 25% of its sales. Which if made, between 4 and 6%. A quick calculation
effectiveness of the processes needed for the quality management will make us discover the magnitude of the respective "gold mine" and
system, and to manage the interactions of these processes in order to the effect on performance and competitiveness. Most failures or
achieve organizational goals. inefficiencies that make up the waste are unknown, considered normal,
ignored and often hidden. Attitudes that hinder finding solutions and
prevent their recurrence.
ISO - NTP 9004: 2001 goes beyond the requirements of the Standard
NTP-ISO 9001: 2001 by focusing on performance improvements and
recommends evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of processes. Management of continuous improvement in an organization requires:

This is done by internal or external process according valuing review

scale mature - The management leadership
- A committee of continuous improvement

Figure 2. Representation of a process Figure 3. Deming cycle



- Specific training and motivation - Improving communicate to all members of the company
- A documented management system - Identify new projects / problems
- external advice

According to the NTP-ISO 9000: 2001 Continuous improvement is a SYSTEM APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT
"recurring activity to increase capacity to meet the requirements"
requirements being the "need or expectation, generally implied or The principle Management System focused is closely related to the
obligatory". approach to processes, raising the cycle of continuous improvement
PDCA or PDSA processes meaning "Plan-Do-Check-Act" developed by
- Analysis and evaluation of the situation. W. Shewarth (1920) and known by W. Edwards Deming for its
- Targets for improvement. dissemination, it is for that reason that is known as the Cycle DEMING.
- Deployment solution.
- Measurement, verification, analysis and evaluation of the results of the

A quality management system is composed of all processes that
- Formalizing changes. interact with each other. These processes of quality management
system includes processes that directly and indirectly present in the
The results are reviewed to identify opportunities for improvement. Improvement is organization.
an ongoing activity, and some of the information received from the system itself
and customers. Processes rarely occur in isolation. The output of a process is
typically part of the inputs of the subsequent processes, as shown in
Within the context of a quality management system, the PDCA cycle is a Figure 4.
cycle that is in full swing. That can be developed in each of the processes.
It is linked to the planning, implementation, monitoring and continuous In an organization, interactions can range from simple to complex,
improvement, for both products and processes for quality management into a mesh where a continuous flow of tangible and intangible up to
system. depend on each other and this can be seen clearly in Figure 5. It is
here clearly you can distinguish internal customers and external
PDCA is explained as follows: customers.

To plan:
- Involve the right people The Deming cycle can be applied in each process and involving internal and /
- Collect data available or external customers.
- Understanding customer needs
- Study thoroughly the / processes involved Implementation of the approach to the processes according to NTPISO 9001: 2001
- Is the process capable of meeting the needs?
- Develop the plan / train staff

The NTP-ISO 9001: 2001 states in its introduction on the approach to

Do: the process:
- Implement the improvement / verify the causes of problems
- Collect appropriate data A process approach, when used within a quality management system
emphasizes the importance of:
- Analyze and display data
- You have achieved the desired results?
- Understand and document the differences
- Review problems and errors
- What he was learned?

- What remains to be resolved?

Figure 4. Chain Process
- Incorporating process improvement


Manuel P. Garcia, Carlos Quispe G. A. and Luis Ráez >>>

- Understanding and meeting requirements, - Who is the "owner" of the process?

- The need to consider processes in terms of added value, - Is outsources any of these processes?
- What are the input and output elements of each process?
- Obtaining results of process performance and effectiveness, and

- Continuous improvement of processes based on objective measurement. Activity 2: The sequencing and interaction of these processes.

- What is the process flow?

Subclause 4.1 General Requirements Requirement 4. Management Systems - How can you describe them?
Quality Standard NTP-ISO 9001: 2001, says "The organization shall establish, - What are the interfaces between the processes?
document, implement and maintain a quality management system and - What documents are needed?
continually improve its effectiveness accordance with the requirements of this
International Standard. " Activity 3: Determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that
both the operation and control of these processes are effective.

And that in turn mentions six activities, to be deployed as follows: - What are the characteristics of the desired products and unwanted?

- What are the criteria for monitoring, analysis and measurement of

Activity 1: Identify the processes needed for the quality management system processes?
and their application throughout the organization. - How can you incorporate this into the planning system Quality
- What processes are needed for the quality management system? Management QMS and product realization processes?

- Who are the customers in each process? - What are the economics?
- What are the requirements to satisfy these customers? - What methods are appropriate for data collection?

Figure 5. Interacting processes into a quality management system



Activity 4: Ensure the availability of resources and information necessary CONCLUSIONS

to support the operation and monitoring of these processes.

Customer satisfaction is based on their perception of quality is influenced by

- What resources are needed for each process? the actions you take an organization. These actions should be derived from
- What are the communication channels? indicators that assess the quality of processes and products that generate
- How can provide external and internal information about the and contribute to its improvement.
- How can you get feedback?
- What data needs to be collected?
It is important to establish a management system for quality that is
- What records need to be maintained?
clearly oriented to processes and continuous improvement. Therefore
organizations achieve leadership to the extent they have the ability to
Activity 5: Monitor, measure and analyze these processes.
maintain the excellence of its processes and commit to the constant
development of its objectives, always aimed at customer satisfaction.
- How can performance monitoring process?
- What measurements are necessary?
- How you can analyze the best way the information collected?
And finally, it is clear that the process approach with the NTP-ISO
9000: 2001 will serve to refocus the actions being done, which will
- What the results of these analyzes say?
demonstrate the benefits of the system and that will be reflected in
the financial statements.
Activity 6: Implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and
continual improvement of these processes.
- How can we improve the process?
- What corrective and preventive actions are necessary?
- Are these actions implemented?
- They Are Effective?
1. García-Pantigozo, Manuel et al. (2000) Audits

Processes have to be identified in the organization then it is managed Quality ISO 9000: 2000. Data Rev. Industrial Research Institute

properly. Standard NTP-ISO 9001: 2000 requires all existing processes in FII - UNMSM No. 6.

the organization are managed in accordance with section 4.1 General

requirements. According to the experience will be that necessary 2. García-Pantigozo, Manuel et al. (2001) Series of Standards

processes are documented. They should be taken on issues regarding NTP ISO 9000: 2001. Rev. Industrial Data - FII Research Institute -

customer and legal or regulatory aspect and type of activities. UNMSM No. 8.

3. Garcia-Pantigozo, Manuel et al. (2002) Kaizen or improved

Should be taken into account when drawing up the documents, the following ra continues. Industrial magazine Data - FII Research Institute -

factors such as: UNMSM No. 9.

- the effect on quality

- the risk of customer dissatisfaction 4. Indecopi. (2001) NTP-ISO 9000: 2001 Management Systems Quality.
Principles and vocabulary.
- legal and regulatory requirements
- economic risk
- the effectiveness and efficiency 5. Indecopi. (2001) NTP-ISO 9001: 2001 Management Systems Quality.
- staff competence
- the complexity of the processes
6. Indecopi. (2001) NTP-ISO 9004: 2001 Management Systems Quality.
Guidelines for performance improvement.
To facilitate this cumbersome and do more work with the NTP-ISO
9001: 1994, it can be used and then processes through graphic
document, written instructions, checklists, flowcharts, visual or 7. Indecopi. (2002) GP015- document for the Introduction and support the
ISO 9000 Series.
electronic means.