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MacDonald 1

Emily MacDonald

Joyce Barnes

ENG 1202 Online

24 October 2019

Annotated Bibliography

My essay will explore the ways in which race and gender play a role in the gun control

debate in America. There seems to be a stereotypical idea in America of white men clinging to

their guns during this controversial time. I want to discover to what extent this idea is true and if

so, why is the issue over guns perceived differently by people who aren’t white or aren’t men. I

want to shed light on the fact that the debate over gun control isn’t just a Second Amendment

issue, but also an issue of race and gender.

Follman, Mark. “Here's How the NRA Degrades and Objectifies Women.” Mother Jones, 6 May

2019, www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/09/nra-women-sexism-guns/.

This article by Mark Follman titled, Here’s How the NRA Degrades and Objectifies

Women, described the sexist magazine article the NRA wrote about the founder of Mom’s

Demand Action. In the magazine article, gun rights lobbyist Dave Kopel accused Watts of not

being domestic enough as a stay-at-home mom. She is attacked for having a successful career,

saying that this makes her a fraud. In the magazine article, there is a picture of her in a 1950s

paper doll apron.

The purpose of this article is to shed light on the sexism in the NRA. This shows that the

NRA doesn’t value the opinions of women in the gun control debate, since this lobbyist thinks

that her opinion in invalid based off of how “real” of a stay-at-home mom she is.
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This article was written relatively recently. The author has a lot of experience in writing

and journalism. The information used in this article can be backed up by evidence.

I intend to use this information in my research to show that the opinions of women are

constantly undermined by the NRA. This shows that feminism is not something that gun

lobbyists support.

Goss, Kristin A. “The Socialization of Conflict and Its Limits: Gender and Gun Politics in

America*.” Social Science Quarterly, no. 2, 2017, p. 455. EBSCOhost,

doi:10.1111/ssqu.12419.

Kristin Goss writes in the article, The Socialization of Conflict and Its Limits: Gender and

Gun Politics in America, about the efforts of both gun control and gun opposition advocates to

get women behind their movements. The article provides data the shows that the amount of

women supporting gun rights over the last thirty years has not increased enough to show that

these pro-gun groups have succeeded in their efforts to gain support from women. It also

shows that “gun regulation groups have mobilized their female sympathizers but not enough to

offset the political engagement of pro-gun men” (Goss, 2017). The article concludes that

despite the marketing campaign efforts to influence women’s attitudes, “women are still

significantly more likely than men to favor gun regulation” (Goss, 2017).

The author’s purpose in this article is to reveal data on whether the efforts of pro and

anti- gun campaigns to mobilize women has actually worked. It appears to have no bias

favoring one result over the other.


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This is an article published on EBSCOhost. It is from Social Science Quarterly. It is also a

relatively recent article, and all of the sources are cited.

I will use the information from this article to show the trends in female gun ownership

and opposition over the past thirty years. Additionally, I will use the data provided to show how

political parties impact these trends.

Hauser, Christine. “'I Could Have Killed You,' Ohio Officer Warns Two Boys With BB Gun.” The

New York Times, The New York Times, 17 Oct. 2018,

www.nytimes.com/2018/10/17/us/bb-gun-boy-police.html?searchResultPosition=1.

This is a New York Times articles written by Christine Hauser in 2018 that reports on a

conversation between a police officer and two African-American children. The police were

called on “two young male blacks” who had a gun. The officer approached the children with a

weapon drawn and then discovered that it was only a BB Gun. After this discovery, the officer

lectures the children and tells them that he could have killed them. This situation has received

varying responses, with some praising the officer for teaching them a lesson, and others saying

that these children were targeted because of their race. One person said, “Why is your

department trying to pat themselves on the back for NOT shooting some Black kids who had a

BB Gun?” (Hauser, 2018) and pointed out that open carry is legal in Ohio.

The purpose of this article is to show a situation that could have gone badly but

thankfully didn’t. Depending on how you look at the situation, either this shows either that the

children were being careless and the officer gave them a well-needed lecture, or that the black

children were targeted for simply playing with a BB gun.


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This article was written in the New York Times. Everything the author discusses that

happened can be proven true through video evidence of the incident. The article appears to

have very little bias. It is also a recently written article, so it is relevant.

I intend to use this article to show that African-American children are taught to be more

careful when it comes to something as simple as playing with a BB gun because they are more

likely to be targeted than white children. The children were being spoken to in a more

frightening way than they possibly deserved. This article can also be used to show why some

tragic instances of innocent African-Americans being shot by polices can happen.

Henigan, Dennis A. “Guns Don’t Kill People, People Kill People”: And Other Myths About Guns

and Gun Control. Beacon Press, 2016.

The book, “Guns Don’t Kill People, People Kill People”: And Other Myths About Guns

and Gun Control, by Dennis Henigan discuss why many of the arguments that are pro-gun

ownership are false. For the purpose of my research, I will examine the section of the book

about gun use for home invasions. Henigan states that while many argue that the main purpose

for having a gun in the home is to protect you and your family from a home invasion, but this

will most likely not take place. He states that it is more likely that you would either not use your

gun or fire and miss; in most situations, the person does not end up shooting the person

breaking into their house. He goes on to say that a gun in the house is more likely to be used to

shoot someone else who lives in the house; the most likely victim of such situations is women.
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This chapter is meant to persuade people to realize that having a gun in the house will is

not as safe as people expect it to be. It appeals to people who are opposed to guns already, and

challenges the beliefs of people who are pro-guns.

This book was published by Beacon Press. The author was the former Vice President of

the Brady Center to Prevent Gun violence, and all of the work in this book is cited.

I would use this in my research to show that women are more likely to be killed by a gun

in the home than an actual intruder. This demonstrates that women are often the victims of

gun violence but are not being considered by gun lobbyists and politicians.

Morgan, Thad. “The NRA Supported Gun Control When the Black Panthers Had the Weapons.”

History.com, A&E Television Networks, 22 Mar. 2018,

www.history.com/news/black-panthers-gun-control-nra-support-mulford-act.

The article, The NRA Supported Gun Control When the Black Panthers Had the Weapons,

by Thad Morgan from History.com was written in 2018 and describes the actions of the NRA

and law enforcement toward the Black Panther Party carrying weapons. The article points out

that today, the NRA takes a strong stance that everyone should have the right to bear arms, but

they were opposed to the Black Panthers exercising that right. The NRA “fought alongside the

government for stricter gun regulations in the 1960s. This was part of an effort to keep guns out

of the hands of African-Americans as racial tensions in the nation grew. The NRA felt especially

threatened by the Black Panthers. Whose well-photographed carrying of weapons in public

spaces was entirely legal in the state of California, where they were based” (Morgan, 2018).
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The author’s purpose in this article is to provide evidence of racial discrimination of the

right to bear arms. It is meant to inform an unaware audience of the injustice that has

historically surrounded the Second Amendment.

After reading his biography, the author seems to be well-education and experienced in

his field as a writer. In this article, he cites his sources. The article was also written relatively

recently, which leads me to believe that this is a credible source.

I will be using the information in this article as evidence of the history of racial

discrimination toward carrying weapons in America. I will also use this information to talk about

the goals of the Black Panthers, and how the NRA has changed its stance on gun control since

the 1960s.

Tahmassebi, Stefan B. "Gun Control and Racism." George Mason University Civil Rights Law

Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, Summer 1991, p. 67-100. HeinOnline,

https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/gmcvr2&i=74.

In this journal article titled, “Gun Control and Racism” by Stefan B. Tahmassebi, the

evidence of racism and gun control is displayed. This talks about how minorities have always

been disarmed. “Discrimination and oppression of blacks, other racial and ethnic minorities,

immigrants, and other “unwanted elements”, including union organizers and agrarian

reformers” has caused gun control enforcement toward minorities as a way to oppress them.

The author’s purpose in this article is to inform the audience on what makes the right to

bear arms a right for white people as opposed to a right for all Americans. The intended

audience is anyone who doesn’t that there is any racial discrimination in gun control.
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This is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal. It is published by George Mason University

Civil Rights Law Journal. The author has a law degree and appears to be very credible.

I will use this information in my research to showcase the fact that racism exists in gun

control. It will provide evidence of white people using gun control against minorities that they

feel threatened by.

Winkler, Adam. “Gunfight: The Battle over the Right to Bear Arms in America”. W.W. Norton &

Company, 2011.

Gunfight: The Battle over the Right to Bear Arms in America, by Adam Winkler, talks

about the long history of racism and gun control. He mentions that the founders of America,

who wrote the Second Amendment, did not allow slaves or free African-Americans to own

firearms. Meanwhile, the white colonists were allowed to use firearms to start a revolt.

“America’s most notorious racists, the Ku Klux Klan, which was formed after the Civil War,

made their first objective the confiscation of all guns from newly freed blacks, who gained

access to guns in service to the Union Army. In the twentieth century, gun control laws were

often enacted after blacks with guns came to be perceived as a threat to whites” (Winkler,

2011).

The purpose of the author in this book is to demonstrate how complicated the issue of

gun control. It also reveals the fact that gun control has always existed toward African-

Americans, and the NRA only seems to have a problem with gun law restrictions when it is

affecting white people.


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This book is published by W.W. Norton & Company. The author is well-educated and has

a law degree. The information in his book is cited, and it is definitely a reliable source.

I will use this in my research to show that clearly race plays a role in gun control, and we

need to consider the fact that African-Americans have repeatedly been disarmed many times

before white people started worrying about their own guns being taken away.

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