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Exe rcise No.

3a
Pests of Crop Plants
O bj ec t i ve s
๏ Distinguish the common invertebrate &
vertebrate pest species & their
corresponding damage to major crop
plants.

๏ Explain the feeding behavior &


corresponding damage to crops of live
insects with chewing & piercing-sucking
type of mouthparts.
Insec ts as PESTS…
A "pest" is defined as any organism that causes
annoyance or injury to human beings, human
possessions, or human interests.

๏ They are an annoyance or nuisance

๏ They endanger human health or safety

๏ They threaten the welfare of useful plants or domestic animals

๏ They damage stored products or structural materials


INSECT PEST
INSECT PEST
C l ass if i c a t i o n b a s e d o n
MOUTHPAR TS
chewing insects
remove pieces of plant
tissue, eat leaves

sucking insects
pierce plant tissue and
remove sap

boring insects
bore into the stalk and eat
plant tissue
INSECT PEST
C l ass if i c a t i o n b a s e d o n
HOST PLANTS
1. Grains (e.g. rice, maize)

2. Crucifers (e.g. cabbage, pechay)

3. Cucurbits (e.g. squash, melon)

4. Solanaceous (e.g. eggplant, tomato)

5. Legumes (e.g. beans, peas)

6. Fruit crops (e.g. mango, citrus)

7. Plantation crops (e.g. coconut, banana)

8. Root crops (e.g. cassava, kamote)

9. Stored products (e.g. flour, spices)


INSECT PEST
C l ass if i c a t i o n b a s e d o n
PLANT PAR TS
PARTS OF THE CORN

1. tassel feeder

2. silk/ear feeder

3. leaf feeder

4. stalk/stem feeder

5. root feeder
INSECT PEST
C l ass if i c a t i o n b a s e d o n
PLANT STAGES
1. vegetative

2. reproductive

3. ripening
INSECT PEST
Damages to crops
1. defoliators

2. transmit diseases

3. bore holes on stem, leaves & fruits

4. leaf folders/rollers

5. discolorations & deformations of plant parts

6. stunted growth
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

RICE
Green Leafhopper
transmit tungro virus, yellow dwarf virus

Nephotettix virescens N. nigropictus


Brown Planthopper
Nilaparvata lugens
๏ causes ‘hopperburn’
๏ transmits grassy & ragged stunt viruses
Rice Bug
Leptocorisa oratorius
๏ emits distinct odor
๏ panicles empty, grains stained brown
Striped Stemborer
Chilo suppresalis
Yellow Stemborer
Scirpophaga incertulas
White Stemborer
Scirpophaga innotata
Pink Stemborer
Sesamia inferens
Stemborers

striped yellow pink white

causes ‘deadheart’ & ‘whitehead’


MESOGASTROPODA
Golden Apple Snail
Pomacea canaliculata
(Mollusca: Gastropoda: Mesogastropoda)
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

COR N
Asiatic Corn Borer (ACB)
Ostrinia furnacalis
larva bores holes on stem, leaves & ears
Corn Earworm
Helicoverpa armigera
larva bores on young unfolded leaves,
ears heavily attacked
Corn Semi-looper
Chrysodeixis eriosoma
young plants attacked, leaf blade eaten,
only veins & midribs left
Corn Seedling Maggot
Atherigona oryzae
younger leaves of young plants dry (deadheart)
White Grub, June Beetle, Toy Beetle
Leucopholis irrorata
root feeder, irregular patches of yellowing or wilting plants in one field
Corn Planthopper
Peregrinus maidis
Corn Aphid
Rhopalosiphum maidis
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

CRU CIF ERS


Diamond Back Moth (DBM)
Plutella xylostella
Cabbage Webworm
Crocidolomia pavonana (=C. binotalis)
Common Cutworm
Spodoptera litura
Cabbage Worm
Artogeia canidia
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

CUCUR BITS
Yellow Squash Beetle
Aulacophora indica
grubs bore into the roots
adults scrape leaf epidermis
Melon Fruit Fly
Bactrocera cucurbitae
fruit rotting inside (with maggots)
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

SOLA NACEO US
CROP S
Tomato Fruitworm
Helicoverpa armigera
feed on fruit
Eggplant Shoot Borer
Leucinodes orbonalis
larva bores growing shoots and fruits
Tomato Lady Beetle
Henosepilachna doryca philippinensis
adults and larvae scrape epidermis of leaves resulting in characteristic net- like damage
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

MALVACEOUS
CROP S
Cotton Bollworm
Helicoverpa armigera
bore through floral buds and developing bolls
Cotton Stainer
causes boll discoloration, premature fruit fall, stunting of growth

Dysdercus cingulatus Dysdercus poecilus


MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

LEGUMES
Aphids
Aphis craccivora
causes shoot deformation, curled leaves & prevents pod formation
Legume Green Leafhopper
Empoasca ricei
leaves turn yellow & showing necrotic patches & slightly curled margins
attacks the shoots
Bean & Pod Borers

Etiella zinckenelia Maruca testulalis


Leaffolder
Homona coffearia
larvae feed inside the rolled or folded leaves
Bean Lycaenid
Euchrysops onelius
pods bored by slug-like larvae
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

COCONUT
Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle
Oryctes rhinoceros
adults bore unopened leaves
triangular gashes are seen after leaves open
Asiatic Palm Weevil
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus
adults bore through cabbage, larvae feed on soft bud, crown destroyed
Coconut Scale Insect
Aspidiotus spp.
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

MANGO
Oriental Fruit Fly
Bactrocera dorsalis
maggots feed on fruits which eventually rot due to secondary contamination with pathogens
Mango Twig Borer
twigs are girdled and eventually wither and die

Niphonoclea albata Niphonoclea capito


Mango Pulp Weevil
Sternochetus frigidus
Mango Leafhopper
Idioscopus clypealis
blossom wither & fruit setting prevented & sooty molds abundant
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

B ANANA
Banana Leafroller
Erionota thrax
portions of leaves rolled, larvae feeds on the leaves
Banana Weevil
Cosmopolites sordidus
plants wilt or turn yellow and collapse
grubs infest the pseudostem
Banana/Abaca Aphid
Pentalonia nigronervosa
transmits virus causing bunchy top symptom
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

STO RED GRAINS


Rice Weevil Corn Weevil
Sitophilus oryzae Sitophilus zeamais
feeds on both milled and unmilled grains causes direct grain damage
Cigarette Beetle
Lasioderma serricorne
Rice Moth
Corcyra cephalonica
feeds on both milled and unmilled grains
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

ROOT CROPS
Sweet Potato Weevil
Cylas formicarius formicarius
tubers with rotting section, larvae bore tunnels through the tubers
infested ones exude disagreeable odor and bitter taste
Tortoise Beetle
Cassida circumdata
Cassava Red Spider Mite
Tetranychus kanzawai
Yellowing & drying of leaves
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

COFF EE
Coffee Berry Borer
Hypothenemus hampei
holes on berries
Leaffolder
Homona coffearia
larvae fold leaves & eat on the epidermis
MAJOR INSECT
PESTS

CACAO
Cacao Snout Beetle or Cacao Weevil
Pachyrrhynchus moniliferus
adults feed on bark, leaves & bore through fruits
larvae also feed on fruits
Pink Mealybug
Planococcus lilacinus
feed on leaves & young shoots
causes stunted growth, sooty molds present
Cacao Pod Borer
Conomorpha cramerella
beans of older pods are bored & eventually rot
Mosquito Bug
Helopeltis spp.
pods riddled with black necrotic areas
Rotten cacao pods resulting
from feeding by Helopeltis bugs
& secondary infection by fungi,
possibly also by coffee bean
weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus
Polyphagous species…

Locusta migratoria manilensis


(Oriental migratory locust)
Polyphagous species…

Helicoverpa armigera
(Corn earworm/ Tomato fruitworm/ Cotton bollworm)
V E R T E B R AT E P E S T
(RODENTS)
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Rodentia
Why do rodents always gnaw?
Field Identification
Rattus norvegicus
(Norway rat, Urban rat)
๏ Large & heavy (200-500g)
๏ Gray, brown or black dorsum
๏ Uniform gray or black venter
๏ Thick bicolored tail (as long as or shorter than head + body)
๏ Blunt snout
๏ Small eyes
Rattus tanezumi (=Rattus rattus mindanensis)
(Philippine ricefield rat, Common ricefield rat)
๏ Medium-sized (100-250g)
๏ Variable shades of dark brown, yellow-brown, gray-brown
๏ Unicolored tail longer than head + body; broad at the base
๏ Pointed snout
๏ Large prominent eyes
Rattus argentiventer
(Asian ricefield rat)
๏ Medium-sized (92-125 g)
๏ Hair variable yellow-orange tips over dark background (salt and pepper
appearance)
๏ Unicolored tail longer than head + body, thin at the base
๏ Pointed snout
๏ Large eyes
Rattus exulans
(Polynesian rat)

๏ Smallest of Philippine rats (20-60 g)


๏ Variable brownish gray to dark
๏ Unicolored tail nearly as long as head + body, thin at the base
๏ Pointed snout
๏ Large eyes
V E R T E B R AT E P E S T
(BIRDS)
Lonchura atricapilla
(Mayang pula, Chestnut Munia, Black-headed Munia)
Lonchura malacca
(Tricoloured munia)
Lonchura oryzivora

(Mayang costa,Java Sparrow, Java Finch, Java Rice Bird)
Lonchura leucogastra
(Mayang bato, White-bellied Munia)
Lonchura punctulata
(Mayang paking, Scaly-breasted Munia or Spotted Munia)
Passer montanus
(Mayang simbahan, Eurasian Tree Sparrow)
Exe rcise No. 3b
Pes t s of C r o p P la n t s &
th e i r Na tu r al E ne m i e s
O bj ec t i ve s
feeding behavior of live
๏ Describe the
predators.

๏ Recognize the common natural enemies


of insect pests.
N AT U R A L E N E M I E S
Natural Enemies…
๏ living organisms

๏ beneficial

๏ found in nature

๏ are able to:

✓ kill

✓ weaken

✓ reduce reproductive potential


Natural Enemies…
๏ include:

✓ predators

✓ parasitoids

✓ microbial agents
Natural Enemies…
PREDATORS
๏ attack or feed on other animals

๏ consumes more than one animal in its life time


Lady Beetles
Coleoptera: Coccinelidae
Prey on aphids, young ACB larvae & young nymphs of leafhoppers & planthoppers

Cheilomenes sexmaculata Micraspis discolor


Lacewings / Antlions
Neuroptera
prey on aphids

Chrysopa sp. Pseudomicromus igorotus


(Green lacewing) (Brown lacewing)
Preying / Praying Mantis
Mantodea

Prey on:
✓ grasshoppers
✓ caterpillars
✓ flies
✓ crickets
✓ other small insects
Earwigs
Dermaptera

Euborellia annulata
Prey on small insects & ACB larvae
Damselflies
Odonata
Prey on leafhoppers, plant-hoppers & other small insects

A. Ischnura senegalensis
B. Agriocnemis femina
A C. Agriocnemis pygmaea

B C
Crickets
Orthoptera: Gryllidae
Prey on insect eggs, small larvae & hopper nymphs

Metioche spp. (sword-tail)


Spiders
Arachnida: Araneae

Pardosa pseudoannulata

Argiope sp.
Oxyopes javanus
Natural Enemies…
PARASI TO I D S
๏ parasitize & kill an arthropod host (entomophagous parasite)

๏ spends its life as an immature form inside the host


(endoparasitism)

๏ immature : parasitic

๏ adult : free-living
Trichogrammatids
Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae
host: eggs of ACB

Trichogramma evanescens
T. evanescens on egg mass of ACB
Parasitic wasp
Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae
Hosts: larvae of leaffolders, Naranga, & stemborers

Charops brachypterum
Parasitic fly
Diptera: Tachinidae
Host: larvae of skippers

Argyrophylax sp.
Natural Enemies…
MICROBIAL AGENTS
๏ insect pathogens

๏ natural enemies of plant pathogens


Fungi
Beauveria bassiana

Chalky white spores Chalky white spores


on brown planthopper on rice bug
Fungi
Metarhizium anisopliae, M. flavoviridae

mature spores of M. anisopliae fungal growth on black bug


on culture medium
Fungi

Paecilomyces lilacinus

spore

hypha

Gigaspora sp.

Trichoderma spp.
Virus
Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV)

polyhedron
Spodoptera litura NPV-infected cutworm larvae
Virus
Granulovirus (GV)

GV-infected brown semilooper larva


Nematode
Steinernema sp.

grub

termite
Bacteria
Bacillus thuringiensis

Bt cells with spores & crystals Bipyramidal crystals


Image  Source:  http://aem.asm.org/content/74/4/923/F1.medium.gif
Figure: Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis in Lepidoptera: ingestion of bacteria (1); solubilization
of the crystals (2); activation protein (3); binding of proteins to the receptors (4); membrane pore
formation and cell lise (5).