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102088 Secondary Curriculum 1B

ASSESSMENT 2:
PROJECT BASED
LEANRING

Rabia Deeb
17464491
PBL Unit Plan
Unit Title: ‘The Universe’ Total Duration of
the Unit (in hours):
5 Weeks
Subject: Earth and Space (ES) Teacher(s): 1 teacher Grade Level:
9
Other subject areas to be included, if any:
(For cross-curricular PBL)

Outcomes
Outcome Type Outcome Code and Descriptor
SC5-1VAappreciates the importance of science in their lives and the role of scientific inquiry in
increasing understanding of the world around them
SC5-2VAshows a willingness to engage in finding solutions to science-related personal, social and
Values and attitudes global issues, including shaping sustainable futures
SC5-3VAdemonstrates confidence in making reasoned, evidence-based decisions about the current
and future use and influence of science and technology, including ethical considerations
SC5-4WS Develops questions or hypotheses to be investigated scientifically

WS4 Students question and predict by:


a. formulating questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164,
ACSIS198)
b. predicting outcomes based on observations and scientific knowledge
Skills
SC5-5WSproduces a plan to investigate identified questions, hypotheses or problems, individually
and collaboratively

WS5.1 Students identify data to be collected for an investigation by:


a.describing the purpose of an investigation
b.explaining why certain types of information need to be collected in a range of investigation types
c.selecting possible sources of data, including secondary sources, relevant to the investigation

SC5-6WSundertakes first-hand investigations to collect valid and reliable data and information,
individually and collaboratively

WS6 Students conduct investigations by:


a. individually and collaboratively using appropriate investigation methods, including fieldwork and
laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data (ACSIS165, ACSIS199)
b. safely constructing, assembling and manipulating identified equipment
c. selecting and using appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and
accurately collect and record data (ACSIS166, ACSIS200)
e. reporting data and information, evidence and findings, with accuracy and honesty
f. evaluating the effectiveness of the planned procedure, considering risk factors and ethical issues,
and suggesting improvements as appropriate

SC5-7WSprocesses, analyses and evaluates data from first-hand investigations and secondary
sources to develop evidence-based arguments and conclusions

WS7.1 Students process data and information by:


a. selecting and using a variety of methods to organise data and information including diagrams,
tables, models, spreadsheets and databases
c. accessing data and information by using a range of appropriate digital technologies

WS7.2 Students analyse data and information by:


d.using knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence
f. evaluating conclusions and evidence, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible
alternative explanations
g. critically analysing the validity of information from secondary sources

SC5-8WSapplies scientific understanding and critical thinking skills to suggest possible solutions to
identified problems

WS8 Students solve problems by:


a. describing strategies to develop a range of possible solutions to an identified problem
b. assessing strategies that have been identified as possible solutions to an identified problem
c. applying the processes of Working Scientifically in developing creative solutions to problems
e. using models to explain phenomena and make predictions
f. applying critical thinking in considering suggested proposals, solutions and conclusions, including
a consideration of risk
g.evaluating different approaches used to solve problems

SC5-9WSpresents science ideas and evidence for a particular purpose and to a specific audience,
using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations

WS9 Students communicate by:


a. selecting and using in presentations, for different purposes and contexts, appropriate text types
including discussions, explanations, expositions, procedures, recounts or reports
e. presenting scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing
evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and
representations for specific audiences

SC5-12ESdescribes changing ideas about the structure of the Earth and the universe to illustrate
Knowledge and how models, theories and laws are refined over time by the scientific community
understanding
ES1 Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over
time through a process of review by the scientific community.

a. outline some of the major features contained in the universe, including galaxies, stars, solar
systems and nebulae
b. describes, using examples, some technological developments that have advanced scientific
understanding about the universe
d. identify that all objects exert a force of gravity on all other objects in the universe

Sustainability
Cross curriculum Sustainability is concerned with the ongoing capacity of the Earth to maintain all life. It provides
priorities authentic contexts for exploring, investigating and understanding systems in the natural and made
environments.
Assessment
What am I looking for? How will I know the students have achieved these goals? How will we use formative assessment to give students feedback during the unit?
Include project rubric(s) and an assessment plan so that students know how they will be assessed.
Rubric(s)/Assessment Activity Outcome Code Formative or Individual or Group?
Summative?
KWL Chart SC5-12ES Formative Individual
This activity is designed to assess the students’ SC5-8WS
knowledge and understanding of the project. It allows
the teacher to have a rough idea of their students’
knowledge and where they need improvement and help.

Mind Map SC5-12ES Formative Group


This assessment activity was designed in order to SC5-6WS
brainstorm student’s ideas on the project and examine SC5-8WS
their understanding of new concepts.

Diagnostic test: Kahoot SC5-12ES Formative Individual


This activity assesses students existing knowledge and SC5-8WS
understanding on the components of the major features
of the Universe.

Excursion: Gravity discovery center and SC5-12ES Formative Individual


Observatory SC5-1VA
Students participate in a variety of activities at the SC5-5WS
Gravity Centre and are expected to construct a short SC5-6WS
paragraph on their new understanding of gravity and SC5-7WS
how it has helped shape their understanding on the SC5-8WS
project.

Questioning & Answering SC5-12ES Formative Individual


Students participate in class discussions, and are able SC5-8WS
to ask questions and answer teacher questions. In doing
this student knowledge and understanding can be
assessed.
Peer assessment SC5-12ES Formative Individual
Students will be required to peer asses their peer’s SC5-8WS
summary task in an expert group activity. Students will
also have to provide their peers with constructive
feedback. Students can use this feedback, to
understand where they done good and what they could
have improved.

Design & implement first hand investigation SC5-12ES Formative Group


In this activity students are expected to create and Sustainability
design a first-hand investigation, after the completion of SC5-1VA
this task students are to create a scientific report to SC5-4WS
demonstrate their findings and understanding of their SC5-5WS
investigation. SC5-6WS
SC5-7WS
SC5-8WS

2D Proposal plans SC5-12ES Formative Group


In this task students are expected to create a 2D model SC5-1VA
of their ideas and proposal plans. Once complete SC5-2VA
students must show their teacher and will receive SC5-4WS
constructive feedback on their progress. SC5-8WS

Part A: 3D inventions/models SC5-12ES Summative Group


Students will be required to present their models to their SC5-1VA
teachers (audience) and will receive constructive SC5-2VA
feedback on their strengths and weaknesses. Students SC5-3VA
can use this feedback to understand where they could SC5-8WS
improve in the future. SC5-9WS
Sustainability

Part B: Reflection SC5-12ES Summative Group


Upon the completion of the presentations students will SC5-1VA
be expected to submit a group reflection on the process SC5-2VA
of their project and on the effectiveness of their models. SC5-3VA
Teacher is to provide students with constructive SC5-5WS
feedback, students can use this feedback to understand SC5-8WS
where they done good and where they could improve in SC5-9WS
the future. Sustainability

Scenario Challenge
Real or imaginary scenario within which the project will take place A description of task as it is presented to the students

The existence of Earth is coming to an end, and oxygen levels Your role is to work alongside scientists and astronauts to
are decreasing. People are urged to have to leave their homes in present prototypes for an invention that will help humans to
order to survive. In the media there has been talk about moving safely explore Mars, in order to determine if people can survive
to the Red Planet. living on the Red planet.

Driving Question
For the teacher: A question that helps initiate and focus the inquiry
For the student: A question that creates interest and a feeling of challenge and guides the project work

How can humans safely explore Mars in order to determine if it is possible to survive living on the planet?
What measures will have to be taken into consideration?
What tools and resources will help you in constructing your idea/model on how to explore Mars?
Entry Event Incursion: Students will be granted the opportunity to speak to an expert from NASA through
skype. Through this experience, students will be able to ask their desired questions to the expert,
and can use this knowledge to help guide their existing ideas on the project.

Excursion: Students will be provided with the opportunity to attend an excursion to the Gravity
discovery center and Observatory. This experience will help consolidate the students understanding
of gravity. Throughout this excursion, students will be able to participate in a range of activities on
the universe and its gravitational forces.

Part 1: Students will be required to construct a 3D model of their inventions on how to safely
Products explore Mars. Students must ensure that they meet the assessments criteria when constructing
their models and presenting them.

Part 2: Students will have to provide their teachers with a hard copy of a 1000-word group
reflection at the end of their presentation of their models. The objectives of the reflection is to allow
students to describe the process on the creation of their models and the ideas associated with it. As
well as their experience.

Public Audience Science Fair: In Week five students will be expected to present their models (E.g. verbally, video,
written forms) to an audience at a Science Fair. The audience will include their peers, teachers and
(Experts, audiences, or product users
students will engage with during/at end a panel of expert Science Pioneers. At the end of their presentations students will be peer
of project) assessed on their models/ideas presented.

Resources and Resources: Throughout the course of this project students will be provided week by week, with
content on ‘The Universe’ that will increase their understanding and approach to the project. These
Materials Needed resources may include:
- Timeline- to help students with time management and help them meet their goals on time
- ICT components- Padlet, Kahoot and Nearpod to examine students understanding and help
guide any confusion, misconceptions/understanding
Materials: Basic materials will be provided to students; these may include:
- Elastic bands, tape, glue and popsicle sticks.
Teaching/Learning Strategies and Tools
Outline the strategies and resources that will support students’ completion of the unit
Essential knowledge
and skills Week 1: Introduce topic of focus- ‘The Project’
What knowledge and/or
skills are going to be used to KWL Chart with explicit teaching where required
enable the student to
respond to the driving
question? Students will be required to write down the scenario, challenge and driving questions of the project. They
How will these be taught will then be required to highlight key words and complete a KWL chart in regards to the project.
and/or scaffolded?
KWL Chart: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1IQheDEwWow2QPXGEDDA68vRxonTGBX-E

Teacher will then discuss the project and the expectations required of the students. As a class a discussion
will take place to address what students already know and what they would like to know.

Student Groups, roles and ‘Team Charter’

Teacher will allocate students into their project groups with their roles. Students will be divided into groups of
four and the roles will include:

- Recorder
- Observer and reporter
- Time manager
- Researcher

In order to maintain group dynamic students will be expected to create a ‘Team Charter’, comprising of their
expectations of one another and standards. Each student will be expected to sign upon agreement of the
Charter. In this Chater students must include:
- How they will tackle challenges within the group?
- How they will monitor that roles and responsibilities are adhered to?

Student centered project work with guided instructions: Entry Event


Students will be informed that they will be speaking to a Scientist from NASA via skype in order to spark
their interest and some new ideas. Prior to doing so in their groups students will be required to generate a
mind map brainstorming their ideas on the project and possible questions they would like to ask the
Scientist.
Possible questions to help students, may include:
- How do you breathe when in space?
- What technologies do you use to collect data?
- Do you think a particular invention could help us live in space?
Teacher will oversee this and provide constructive feedback where required.

A week by week reflective statement

Students will be expected at the end of each week to submit a reflective statement about the group
dynamic, upon the completion students must provide this to the teacher. Teachers can use this in order to
determine the relationship of the group and their progress in the project.

Project timeline

Each project group will be provided with a project timeline. Students will be expected to refer back to this
timeline throughout the project in order to ensure that they are meeting goals and targets within the
recommended times stated. This will also provide teachers with an insight into the group dynamic and
allows them to also assess students’ progress thus enabling them to provide feedback and advice when
required.

Timeline: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1R-SYZFwtBpvid5ThtAnSB_VBSXA05rUq

Week 2: Major features of the Universe ES1a

Prior knowledge Diagnostic test, with explicit teaching where required

As a formative assessment student’s previous knowledge will be tested through a Kahoot quiz, comprising
of stage four outcomes.

Quiz will be based on:


- Space
- Solar system
- Planets
- Galaxies
- Stars

Kahoot quiz: LINK

Upon the completion of the Quiz a class discussion will take place. Students will be required to discuss their
answers and the questions covered in the quiz.

Student centered Expert groups, with explicit teaching where required

Students will be provided with individual topics for their expert group (expert groups are the
students project groups), groups will be required to research their topics and will have to generate a
summary and present it to the class. Students will be peer assessing their peer’s expert groups
summaries when presented.

Peer assessment scaffold: https://drive.google.com/open?


id=1seSzeUfogGD0YqfneXwIiOPhiSkWU2IJ

Topics that will be divided among the expert groups will include:

- The Solar system is not at the center of the Galaxy

- Some nebulae are objects within our galaxy and some are objects outside it

- Outline other types of stars and compare them to the Sun

Each summary should either be:

- A bullet point list of key points

- A graphic representation of information using one or more diagrams

- A Concept map
Students will have to upload their summaries in a document on a Google slides, these slides will be
presented to the class by the expert groups and peers will assess the structure of the summaries
presented. Teacher will provide constructive feedback and explicitly teach any misconceptions that
may arise.

Extension activity: Universe Simulation

To further increase students’ knowledge on major features of the universe students will observe a series of
simulations. Following this as a class students will discuss how this can help improve their project ideas or
generate new ones.

Simulations link: http://interactivesites.weebly.com/solar-system.html

Project based Group work, with guided instructions where required

In their allocated groups students will collaborate their ideas and proposal plans for their 3D models.
Students will be required to draw their plans (2D Form) and ideas and submit this copy to the teacher in
order to receive feedback as part of formative assessment.

Week 3: How we study the Universe: Technological developments ES1b

Explicit teaching of Space Technology

Teacher will construct a visual PowerPoint presentation on Space technology used by NASA to explore
space. Students will be required to note take in order to broaden their understanding of the Project and
develop new ideas.

As a class a discussion will take place and the teacher will ask students a series of questions about the
PowerPoint presentation, these may include:

- Have these developments aided your understanding? If yes, why and how?

- Do you now think it’s possible to explore Mars safely?

- Have these technologies helped you understand how you’d want to construct your model/invention?
Nearpod link: https://share.nearpod.com/KEIMbwaAkW

(NOTE* Weblink might take a little while to open, but eventually will. Thank you  )

Student centered activity to help enhance project ideas and proposal plans

Teacher will provide students with a YouTube video on ‘NASA Technology’ this video will be used to help
improve and enhance student’s proposal ideas for their models. In the student’s project groups, they will be
required to extract key ideas from the video and if need be use it to modify their plans and as part of
formative assessment present their new plans and ideas to the teacher in written or drawn form.

YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnfIKul1CMs

Project based Group work: Student led first hand investigation with guided instruction where
required

As part of a means of expression (UDL), in their project groups students will use their prior knowledge, ideas
and proposal plans and design and implement a practical investigation to test and determine whether their
models will be effective when exposed to different environmental factors mimicking the conditions on Mars
(E.g. gravity).

Students can test their models in regards to:

- Stability

- Durability

- Sustainability

Upon the completion of the experiment students will be required to formulate a scientific report on their
experimental procedure and their findings and use the report as a guide to improve parts of their proposed
models. As part of formative assessment students will be required to submit this report as a group to the
teacher and in return will receive constructive feedback on their new proposed ideas and modifications.

Week 4: Gravity ES1


Student led Padlet brainstorming activity on Gravity

Students will be required to participate in a brainstorming activity to help strengthen their knowledge on
Gravity. In this activity students are required to take notes and collaboratively as a class discuss and share
ideas on the term gravity and its influence on exploring Mars.

Padlet link: https://padlet.com/rabz_dee1/56ki76qxf5ft

Literacy component: Summarize an article on Gravity

In their allocated groups students will be required to summarize an article on ‘Gravity’. Students will have to
summarize the article in written form and share their notes with the class. Upon the completion of this
activity students will be required to present their notes to the class, as a class students can discuss what
they took from the article and what benefit it has on their existing model/ideas.

Article: ‘The role of gravity in human walking: pendular energy exchange, external work and optimal speed’
https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.00657.x

Excursion: Gravity discovery center and Observatory

Students will be provided with the opportunity to go on an excursion to visit the Gravity discovery center and
Observatory. This will help strengthen the students understanding on Gravity and its components. At the
Centre students will be able to participate in a range of fun and interesting activities such as:

- Explore the Discovery Gallery, students will be able to learn about fundamental forces in regards to
Gravity and the waves present within the Universe.

- Tower Climb and Analysis: In this activity students will be able to climb a tower and conduct an
experiment on Galileo Galilei’s gravity.

Formative assessment: Project based

Students will be expected to take notes while they explore the center and participate in the activities. After
the excursion students will have to provide their teacher with a short paragraph on their experience at the
Centre and how their new knowledge will help modify, further develop and construct their models.
Week 5: Presentation of Inventions/Models

Student led Science Fair Presentation

In their allocated groups students will be expected to present their models, in their desired presentation form
(written, spoken, PowerPoint, audio, video) to their peers and panel of expert NASA pioneers at a Science
Fair. At the end of the presentation students are expected to provide their teachers with a hard copy of their
group reflections on the construction process of their models.

Summative assessment

The student’s models will be assessed by the teacher. Teacher is required to provide students will
constructive feedback on the structure of their model.

Project Marking Criteria: https://drive.google.com/open?


id=1ZSU0u7mGW9RrDyOpEbkuLalN1Yv3iuDQ

Overall Project reflection

At the end of the project each group is to submit one hard copy of a reflection to their teacher. The reflection
must cover the following questions:
- How has this project helped shape your understanding of the universe?
- What was one thing you found most difficult?
- How would you want to improve your model for future reference?
- Did you enjoy this project, what was your favorite aspect and what was your least favorite?
- What strategies did you use to analyze your data, findings and observations?
Time management Timeline
What strategies will you use
to help students complete - Students will be provided with a timeline to help them organize their time in order to ensure that they
the project on time? meet the requirements of the project before the dead line.
- Each week students will have to go over the timeline as a group and discuss whether their on track
and if not must implement strategies to help them achieve their goals.
- The timeline will also provide students with the ability to speak to their teachers on where they feel
stuck in order to receive guidance on how to tackle particular setbacks.

Timeline link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1R-SYZFwtBpvid5ThtAnSB_VBSXA05rUq


Self-management Peer assessment
How will you establish a
culture that promotes self- Refer to Week 2:
regulated learning in
students? - Student expert groups will be peer assessed when delivering their summaries on articles based on
What strategies will be used the Major features of the Universe.
to help students develop
these skills?
- Students are required to complete a scaffold comprising of a range of questions on the summaries of
the articles and are to score their peers work and provide a small feedback comment.
- Peer assessment promotes self-regulation

Peer assessment scaffold: https://drive.google.com/open?


id=1seSzeUfogGD0YqfneXwIiOPhiSkWU2IJ

Group management Team Charter


How will you promote full
participation and keep track Refer to Week 1:
of each group’s progress?
How will you encourage the Student project groups are to create a team charter, stating the groups objectives, roles, goals and
development of social skills? responsibilities. Each student is to sign their name and declare that they will comply by the rules and
expectations stated in the Charter.

A week by week reflective statement

Students will be expected to complete a reflective statement on the group dynamic each week in order to
ensure that responsibilities are being met and goals are being achieved. This will also provide teachers with
an insight into the groups progress and can help the teacher establish methods to encourage the
development of the student’s social skills within the group.
ICT Scaffold
How will you guide students
to use technology effectively
In order to ensure that technology is used effectively for researching and presenting, teacher will scaffold
in researching and presenting
their project? how to effectively use ICT components responsibly and proficiently. Teacher will provide students with a set
of expectations that must be compiled with when using technology to conduct research and presentations.

Teacher will create scaffolds that:


- How to responsibly use technology to conduct research?
- How to extract information through the use of technology?
- How to critically analysis the relevance and reliability of the research presented technologically?
- How to appropriately create a google slide?

Differentiation Multiple means of expression

Excursion: Students are provided with the opportunity to visit the Gravity discovery center and Observatory.
This experience will allow students to gain a deeper understanding of the concept of gravity and how and
where to apply it to their models.

Incursion: Students are able to skype experts from NASA, this provides them with the ability to ask
questions and use the feedback to enhance their undertraining of the project.

First hand investigation: Students are expected to create a first-hand investigation to test aspects of their
models. The data collected allows students to make modifications to their models where required and also
consolidates their understanding of the project.

Expert groups: Expert groups allows students to experience a role other than their roles of students. It
allows them to take control to an extent and dictate their learning.

These activities/experiences are significant for differentiation because it provides the students with the
ability to contribute and further their understanding of the content through their personal strengths. It also
provides students with the ability to express their understanding of content through a variety of mediums.

Overall Project reflection


Reflection
Methods Refer to Week 5:
How individual, team, and/or
whole class will reflect Each individual group will be required at the end of the project to submit a reflection on their experience
during/at end of project? throughout the unit of work. Students reflection must cover their personal understanding of key concepts
and their personal growth throughout the project.

Resource checklist:
(Attach all relevant resources to the program)

Project schedule/calendar/timeline
- Week 1 Timeline: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1R-SYZFwtBpvid5ThtAnSB_VBSXA05rUq

Criteria for product


- Week 5 Assessment Marking Criteria: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1ZSU0u7mGW9RrDyOpEbkuLalN1Yv3iuDQ
Formative assessment strategies
- Week 1 KWL Chart: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1IQheDEwWow2QPXGEDDA68vRxonTGBX-E
- Week 2 Kahoot quiz: LINK
- Week 2 Peer assessment: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1seSzeUfogGD0YqfneXwIiOPhiSkWU2IJ

Scaffolds (may support development of essential knowledge and skills, self-management, group management, etc)
- Week 1 Timeline: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1R-SYZFwtBpvid5ThtAnSB_VBSXA05rUq
- Week 3 Nearpod : https://share.nearpod.com/KEIMbwaAkW
- Week 2 Peer assessment: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1seSzeUfogGD0YqfneXwIiOPhiSkWU2IJ

Rationale
Project based learning (PBL) is becoming a highly prevalent teaching and learning strategy within the 21st century, it provides students
with the opportunity to deepen their learning and establish a variety of skills that enable them to question and research (Aitken, 2019). In
basic terms PBL can be described as a student-centred strategy that provides students with the opportunity to learn about a particular
focus topic and in groups are expected to use their problem solving skills to unfold open-ended problems (Nilson, 2010). PBL differs from
the traditional strategies of teaching in that the teacher becomes the facilitator and the style of learning becomes more collaborative and hands on
driven by real-world relations (Aitken, 2019). There are a variety of benefits associated with PBL, however the most common ones include, an
increase in both student and teacher motivation, positive student attitudes and an increased connection between concepts and the real world
(Boaler, 1998). A variety of schools throughout NSW are using PBL successfully and are noticing a decrease in negative student behaviour. This
theory can be supported by a study by Creghan & Adair-Creghan (2015), which state that PBL has the ability to positively impact student attendance
and behvaiour due to a students sparked interest and relation of school work to the real world.

This paper will highlight the use of PBL in the unit of work attached above. The chosen focus topic for this project is about ‘The Universe’, with
particular focus to the Red Planet (Mars). This focus topic was mainly chosen due to its ability to be highly relatable to the real world, as students
use their knowledge of Earth and Space to construct their ideas. Through the use of PBL students will be provided with a scenario, challenge and
discovery questions to guide their thoughts and ideas on the project. These can be used as a guides to challenge the student’s way of thinking as it
enables them to think outside the box, and encourages and motivates students to build their own creativity (Creghan & Adair-Creghan (2015). The
approach of inquiry based learning can also be observed within the unit of work, as students are provided with a variety of opportunities to control
and construct their own learning. Guided inquiry, ‘is not simply answering questions and getting the right answers; it engages, interests and
challenges students to connect their world with the curriculum’ (Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2015). This type of inquiry can be observed in the
unit of work above, for example students in week three are expected to create their own first hand investigation. This task is designed to enable
students to determine the effectiveness of their models by mimicking the environmental conditions of Mars. Throughout this task, limited teacher
involvement is present as the teacher will only guide students when required. Therefore, this enables students to critically think and reflect upon
their problem solving skills in order to approach this task successfully.

An additional example of inquiry based learning can be observed in week two of the unit of work, in a student centered expert group task. This task
enables students to control their way of questioning research resources and allows students to examine and compare their answers collaboratively.
In doing this task, students are able to teach one another, interact collaboratively and share ideas, challenges and strengths (Ann, Doris, Martha,
Kathryn, Ann & Joseph, 1997). A component of this task is also to get students to present their research summaries to the class, and would be peer
assessed at the end. The strategy of peer assessment is used because it, ‘can help learners to understand what their learning goals are, what
approaches are needed to meet the goals, and make their revisions more effective’ (Meusen-Beekman, Joosten-ten & Boshuize, 2015). An
alternative advantaged of peer assessment, is that it promotes student’s self-regulation, as it enables students to create peer-to-peer feedback that
is both easy to understand and access through peer communication. It also enhances a student’s ability to share responsibility, discuss, collaborate
and reflect on ideas (Birenbaum, 1996).

Components of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used throughout the unit of work/project to enhance the students
understanding of the content and project objectives. For example, in week three, a digital artifact, ‘Nearpod’ was used as an interactive tool to not
only present a PowerPoint presentation to students but to also increase their participation through answering questions and collaboratively
contributing their ideas. This type of teaching strategy is also incorporated in order to correlate with the principals of Universal design for learning
(UDL). UDL can be understood as a teaching approach that constructs specific pedagogies and curricular activities that are compatible with the
learning needs of a diverse range of students (Loreman, Deppeler and Harvey, 2011). It entails three significant principals these include, providing
students with multiple means of representations, expressions and engagement (CAST, 2014). A means of representation can be observed in the
incorporation of the ICT component, as students are provided with the opportunity to view information not only through a PowerPoint format but also
through an interact technological format. The principal of means of engagement can be observed as the ICT activity can increase the student’s
motivation and spark their interest as they are able to interact and share their ideas and not just examine a ordinary PowerPoint presentation.

In conclusion, it is evident that PBL and its effectiveness has a significant impact on a student’s learning environment. It enhances the student’s
confidence in their learning and provides students with the ability to gain essential life skills such as, problem solving skills, critical thinking skills and
creative skills. In the creation of this unit of work and project, the main goal was to ensure that students are able to engage in challenges that allow
students to think outside the box. This goal was reinforced through the use of pedagogical and learning framework approaches such as, inquiry
based learning and ICT components. Thus, PBL is the future of greater teaching and learning environments, not only at a school level but at a
community level.

References

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