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Physics 218 Final Exam

Fall  2011,  Sections  513,514,515,526,528  


 

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instructed  to  do  so!  
 

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Rules  of  the  exam:  

1. You  have  the  full  class  period  to  complete  the  exam.  
2. When  calculating  numerical  values,  be  sure  to  keep  track  of  units.    
3. You  may  use  this  exam  or  come  up  front  for  scratch  paper.    
4. Be  sure  to  put  a  box  around  your  final  answers  and  clearly  indicate  your  work  to  your  grader.  
5. Clearly  erase  any  unwanted  marks.  No  credit  will  be  given  if  we  can’t  figure  out  which  answer  you  are  
choosing,  or  which  answer  you  want  us  to  consider.  
6. Partial  credit  can  be  given  only  if  your  work  is  clearly  explained  and  labeled.  
7.  All  work  must  be  shown  to  get  credit  for  the  answer  marked.  If  the  answer  marked  does  not  
obviously  follow  from  the  shown  work,  even  if  the  answer  is  correct,  you  will  not  get  credit  for  
the  answer.  

Put  your  initials  here  after  reading  the  above  instructions:__________  

  1  
Part  1:  (35p)  Collisions   Table  to  be  filled  
 by  the  graders  
Part   Score  
Problem  1.1: A   flat   object   of   irregular   shape,   mass   m,   and   moment   of  
Part  1  (35)    
inertia  Icm  around  an  axis  perpendicular  to  its  plane  and  passing  through  
Part  2  (35)    
its   center   of   mass   is   hanging   at   rest   from   a   nail   located   a   distance   d  
Part  3  (30)    
above   its   center   of   mass.   A   projectile   with   negligible   mass   but   linear   Part  4  (35)    
momentum   P   hits   the   objects   horizontally   at   a   distance   L   below   the   Part  5  (30)    
hanging  point  where  it  gets  absorbed  immediately  into  the  object.  In  the   Part  6  (35)    
following  the  system  refers  to  the  object+projectile  system.   Bonus  (10)    
   nail   Question  1.1.1: (4p)   Identify   the   Exam  Total    
forces  external  to  the  system.  
Forces  are  gravity  and  whatever  force  the  nail  is  exerting.  
   L  
Question  1.1.2: (4p)   During   the   collision   is   the   linear  
P        d   momentum  of  the  system  conserved?  Explain  why.  

c.m.   No,   because   the   sum   of   the   external   forces   is   not   zero,   in  
particular   the   nail   may   exert   a   horizontal   force   during   the  
collision.  
 

Question  1.1.3: (4p)   During   the   collision   is   the   total   angular   momentum   conserved   with  
respect  to  the  point  at  the  nail?  Explain  why.  
Yes,  because  the  sum  of  the  external  torques  in  the  z  direction  is  zero  and  therefore  
the  angular  momentum  is  conserved  in  the  z  direction.  
 
Question  1.1.4: (4p)   During   the   collision   is   the   mechanical   Energy   of   the   system   conserved?  
Explain  why.  
No,   because   the   work   of   non-­‐conservative   forces   such   as   those   acting   during   the  
collision  remove  mechanical  energy  from  the  system.  
 
Question  1.1.5:  (4p)   Right   after   the   collision   is   the   mechanical   Energy   of   the   system  
conserved?  Explain  why.  
Yes,  because  there  are  not  any  non-­‐conservative  forces  left  after  the  collision.  
 
Question  1.1.6: (7p)   Find   the   angular   velocity   of   the   object   right   after   the   collision   with   the  
projectile.  
LP
Li = LP = (I CM + md 2 )! f ! ! f =
(I CM + md 2 )
 
  of  mass  of  the  object  will  raise.  
Question  1.1.7: (8p)  Find  how  much  the  center  
1 1 1 L2 P 2
Ei = (I CM + md 2 )! 2f = mg!y " !y = (I CM + md 2 )! 2f = (I CM + md 2 )
2 2mg 2mg (I CM + md 2 )2
 
1 L2 P 2
!y =
2mg (I CM + md 2 )
  2  
 

Part  2: (35p)  Angular  Momentum    


Problem  2.1: I   the   middle   of   space   a   massless   support   structure   holds   two   axes.   Around   those  
axes   two   disks   with   radii   R1   and   R2   and   masses   m1   and   m2   respectively   are   rotating   without  
slipping  against  each  other  as  shown  in  the  figure  below.    The  angular  velocity  of  disk  1  is  w1.  
While   the   disks   are   rotating   around   themselves,   the   two   disks   are   not   rotating   around   each  
other  (i.e.  the  massless  structure  is  not  rotating  around  itself.)  
Question  2.1.1: (5p)   Find   the   distance   from   the   axis   of  
   R1  
the  bigger  disk  (R1)  to  the  center  of  mass  of  the  system.  
   R2  
Question  2.1.2:  
m 0 + m2 (R1 + R2 )
rcm = 1 =
m1 + m2

       
 
 
Question  2.1.3: (10p)   Find   the   moment   of   inertia   of   the   whole   system   around   its   center   of  
mass,  ISYSTEM.  
I SYSTEM = I1 + m1rcm2 + I 2 + m2 (R1 + R2 ! rcm )2  

 
 
 
 

Question  2.1.4: (20p)  After  some  time  friction  forces  on  the  axes  slows  the  disks  rotation  until  
they  do  not  rotate  around  their  own  axes  anymore.  Find  the  angular  velocity  of  rotation  of  
the  system  around  its  center  of  mass.  
Conservation of angular momentum implies I1!1 ! I 2! 2 = I SYSTEM ! S
R1!1
and because both disk rotate without slipping we get R1!1 = R2! 2 " ! 2 =  
R2
# R &
!1 % I1 ! I 2 1 (
R! # R & $ R2 '
" I1!1 ! I 2 1 1 = !1 % I1 ! I 2 1 ( = I SYSTEM ! S " ! S =
R2 $ R2 ' I SYSTEM

 
 

 
  3  
Part  3:  (35  points)  Energy  and  Collisions  
Problem  3.1: Two  identical  objects  of  mass  m  are  released  from  rest  in  a  smooth  hemispherical  
bowl  of  radius  R,  from  the  positions  shown  in  the  figure  below.  You  can  ignore  friction  between  
the  masses  and  the  surface  of  the  bowl.    
Question  3.1.1: (20p)   If   they   stick   together  
when  they  collide,  how  high  above  the  bottom  of  the  
bowl  will  the  masses  go  after  colliding?  
At the moment the left mass reaches the one at
the bottom it has a speed of
1
Ei = mgR = mvB2 ! vB = 2gR
2
Because the linear momentum is conserved during
the collision and just after the velocity of the system is
vB gR
v = 2gR = mvB =2mvA ! vA = =
2 2
Again, using conservation of energy we found
1 v2 1 gR R
2mvA2 = 2mg"y ! "y = A = =
2 2g 2g 2 4

 
 
Question  3.1.2: (9p)  Find  the  ratio  of  the  total  mechanical  energy  at  their  maximum  position  to  
the  mechanical  energy  before  the  collision.  
R
E f 2mg 4 1
= =
Ei mgR 2

 
 

 
 
Question  3.1.3: (6p)  Is  the  collision  elastic  or  inelastic?  Explain  your  reasoning.  
Since  the  Mechanical  energy  is  not  conserved  the  collision  is  inelastic.  

  4  
Part  4: (35p)  Equilibrium    
Problem  4.1: A  pole  is  used  to  support  a  sign  of  uniform  mass  m  and  length  L.  One  side  of  the  
sign  is  hinged  to  the  pole  and  the  other  side  connected  to  a  rope  making  an  angle   α  which  is  
also  attached  to  the  pole  as  shown  in  the  figure  below.  
Question  4.1.1: (17p)  Find  the  Tension  on  the  rope  
g   From   the   equation   of   rotational   equilibrium:
L mg
T sin(! )L ! mg = 0 " T =
2 2sin(! )
 
α    
m  
 
     L    
Question  4.1.2: (18p)   Find   the   horizontal   and   vertical  
component  of  the  force  on  the  hinge.  
From  the  other  equations  of  equilibrium  we  get:  

mg mg
N x ! T cos(! ) = 0 " N x = T cos(! ) = cos(! ) =
2sin(! ) 2 tan(! )
mg mg
N y + T sin(! ) ! mg = 0 " N y = mg ! T sin(! ) = mg ! =
2 2
 
 
 

 
Question  4.1.3: (0p)  Knowing  that  the  pole  will  bend  if  at  any  point  on  the  pole  the  sum  of  the  
external   torques   exceeds   τ max.     Find   the   maximum   height   of   the   hinge   above   ground   such  
that  the  pole  does  not  break.  
By  a  mistake  in  the  phrasing  you  should  ignore  this  question.    
Just  for  fun  seen  as  a  whole,  the  mass  of  the  sign  will  produce  a  torque  on  the  pole  of  
mgL/2,  regardless  of  the  total  height  of  the  pole.    
Notice  that  also  the  torque  of  the  tension  in  the  upper  part  of  the  pole  with  respect  to  
the  hinge  is  Tcos(alpha)  *Ltan(alpha)  =Tsin(alpha)  =  mgL/2.  So  as  long  as  the   τ max  is  
larger  than    mgL/2  the  pole  will  ot  break.  
 
 
 
 
 
 

  5  
Part  5: (30p)  Gravitation  
Problem  5.1: You  are  designing  a  satellite  to  move  in  a  circular  orbit  around  the  earth.  You  know  
the   mass   of   the   earth   me=5.97   1024   Kg   and   the   gravitational   constant  G=6.67   10-­‐11   m3   Kg-­‐1   s-­‐2.  
In  the  following  you  can  ignore  the  gravitational  pull  of  the  sun  and  any  other  planets.  
Question  5.1.1: (10p)   Write   a   free-­‐body   diagram   of   the  
satellite   and   using   Newton’s   laws   deduce   the   period   of   rotation  
of   the   satellite   as   a   function   of   distance   from   the   center   of   the  
earth.  
 

Gme ms v2 4! 2 R 1 Gme 4! 2 R 3
! = !ms = ms " = " T =  
R2 R T2 T 2 4! 2 R 3 Gme

 
 
 
Question  5.1.2: (10p)   The   Department   of   Defense   asks   you   find   the   orbital   radius   necessary  
such  that  the  satellite  takes  24  hours  to  orbit  the  earth,  that  way  the  satellite  will  always  be  
atop  the  same  position  on  the  surface  of  the  earth  (known  as  a  geosynchronous  orbit).    What  
radius  is  that?  A  number  with  proper  units  is  required.  
4! 2 R 3 Gme
T= ! R = 3 T2 " 42, 000km  
Gme 4! 2

 
 

 
 
Question  5.1.3: (10p)  What  would  be  the  speed  of  the  satellite?   A   number   with   proper   units   is  
required    
Gme ms v2 Gme Gme
! 2
= !ms " = v2 " v = # 3,071 m/s  
R R R R

 
 
 

 
 
  6  
Part  6: (35p)  Simple  Harmonic  Motion  of  a  planetoid  
Problem  6.1: A  small  object  of  mass  m  is  attached  to  two  springs  with  constants  k  and  negligible  
natural   lengths   that   in   turn   attach   to   two   different   concrete   blocks.   The   mass   is   originally   a  
distance   h   with   respect   to   an   imaginary   line   joining   the   two   blocks   as   shown   in   the   figure  
below.  Assume  the  distance  L  is  much  larger  than  h.  No  gravity  is  present.  
Question  6.1.1: (10p)   Draw   a   coordinate   system   and   find   the  
total  force  that  both  strings  exert  on  the  mass.  Indicate  the  direction  
of  the  force.  
Choosing   positive   +X   in   the   horizontal   right   position.   We   get
L  
In the direction of each spring we have a force of F = !k( h 2 + L2 ).
h  
m   The sum of forces in the direction of x we have  
h
L  
Fx = 2sin(! )F = !2 k h 2 + L2 = !2hk
2 2
h +L

 
 
 
Problem  6.2: (10p)   Using   the   equations   of   Newton   write   the   differential   equation   whose  
solution  is  the  equation  of  motion.    

d 2h 2k d 2 h
By  using  f=ma  we  get   Fx = !2hk = m " !h =  
dt 2 m dt 2
 

Problem  6.3: (10p)   Find   the   angular   frequency   of   oscillation   of   the   mass   between   the   two  
blocks,  and  write  the  position  of  the  mass  as  a  function  of  time.  

2k
!=
m
 
2k
x(t) = h cos(t )
m which  is  are  equivalent  to  the  equations  of  a  spring  with  k’=2k.

 
Problem  6.4: (5p)  Find  the  velocity  of  the  mass  as  it  passes  through  the  imaginary  line.  
Seeing  that  the  energy  of  spring  is  just    
Knowing that the energy of a spring in SHO is
1 1 2 2kh 2
E = k 'h 2 = kh 2 = mvmax
! vmax =  
2 2 m

  7