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Name : Intan Khoerunnisa

Student ID : B1B018037
Entourage :3
Group : D1
Assistant : Dwi Nofyan Sansa Putra




A. Background

Samples or examples can be easily interpreted as part of a population that

represents the nature and character of the population as a whole. The sampling
technique is the method or method used to determine the number and members of a
sample. Each member, of course, is a representative of the population chosen after
being grouped based on the similarity of characters. The sampling technique used must
also be adjusted to the purpose of the study (Krejie, 2016).

Specimen collection is preservation carried out to maintain the specimen organ.

Collection techniques are divided into two, namely wet collection and dry collection.
Dry collection is done for animals such as mammals, amphibians, and aves, while the
wet collection is used for the reptile and Pisces classes. Turn off objects, fixation and
preservation. The object to be used as a specimen must be turned off first, this is done
to facilitate preservation, then a fixation is carried out aimed at maintaining the size
and shape of body cells, followed by preservation of the specimen so that the specimen
is not damaged so that it can be used as a reference collection in animal identification
(Tjakrawidjaya, 1999).

The Benefits and uses of Specimen collection according to Suhardjono 1999

include: 1. Helping to identify or identify types 2. Diagnosing or describing owner
characteristics 3. Helping studying kinship relationships 4. Studying geographical
distribution patterns 5. Studying seasonal presence patterns 6. Tofu habitat 7. Tofu
plants or host animal 8. Know the biology of life cycle behavior (Suhardjono,1999).

Specimen collection is an important scientific asset as research material for

fauna diversity at both national and international levels. Management activities that
can be carried out in the form of processes of preservation, maintenance, data
recording, supervision in the use of scientific specimens (Suhardjono, 1999).
Specimens are examples of animals, plants or whole microbes (eg insects and fish),
animal or plant body parts (eg mammalian skulls and bird bones) or organs (liver) or
blood (for DNA material) that are collected and stored for a period of time in particular
(Suhardjono & Yuyuk, 2015).
The Method of collection depends on the taxa of a Species. The creation of
preserved specimens is needed to observe specimens practically without having to look
for new fresh material, especially for specimens that are difficult to find in nature. or
recognize the type of animal, diagnose or describe the character of its owner, help
study kinship relationships, learn the seasonal patterns of its existence, know the
habitat of knowing plants or host animals, and also know their biological
characteristics such as behavior and life cycle. Specimen collection can also provide
an overview of the biological wealth of an area and find out the pattern of biota
distribution geographically (Pratiwi & Rahmat, 2015).

B. Objectives

The objectives of this laboratory activity are:

1. To understand the methods of collection and preservation of animal specimen
2. To do preservation of invertebrate and vertebrate.
3. To make a data collection of preserved specimen in catalogue.

The sampling technique is the method or method used to determine the number
and members of a sample. Each member, of course, is a representative of the
population chosen after being grouped based on the similarity of characters. The
sampling technique used must also be adjusted to the purpose of the study. Sampling
can be broadly grouped into two (2) groups, namely sampling Probability and
Nonprobability. Probability sampling according to Sugiyono is a sampling technique
that provides equal opportunities for each element (member) of the population to be
chosen as a sample member. Meanwhile, Nonprobability sampling according to
Sugiyono is a technique that does not provide the same opportunities / opportunities
for each element or member of the population to be selected as a sample.
1) Probability sampling
Probability sampling requires that ideally, the researcher knows the size of the parent
population, the desired sample size is determined, and the researcher behaves that each
element or group of elements must have the same opportunity to be sampled.
2) Nonprobability sampling
Non Probability sampling is a sampling technique that does not pay attention
to many variables in sampling. Samples from Nonprobability Sampling are also
referred to as research subjects where the results of tests conducted on sampling have
no relationship with the population. The purpose of using this sampling technique is
more attached to the material being tested while in random sampling or sample
probability, the research objective is attached to the value of the material in the
population being tested.
Specimens of various types of animals are often needed for research and
teaching aids in the world of natural science education, cannot utilize specimens that
are not conserved, in animal collection activities need to pay attention to several things,
including not disturbing the existence of endangered animals or remnants of human
remains ancient collected whether animals need to be processed for testing all
specimen collections must be labeled with information about the name of the species,
location of the discovery. Date of collection and other data required Labels must be
written when the specimen is preserved. So no information is collected. Wrong about
protected species (Jasin, 2017).
There are two types of specimen collection, namely wet collection and wet
collection, which are stored in a 70% ethanol preservative solution, while dry
collections in the form of bones and skin are preserved with formalin or borax
chemicals according to Yayuk et al 2010. Animal preservation can be done by means
of following ways:
1. Bone preservation (skeletal): Making bone preparations is done by first
dissecting and skinning clean specimens from the skin then boiling for 30 minutes to
2 hours to facilitate the separation of muscles from the frame, then naturally cool and
then clean the muscles or meat that is cleaned still attached to the frame carefully until
clean, then cleaned and soaked in bleach so that the bone is the last clean white, neatly
arranged, labeled, and identified.

Picture. 2.1 Example of Skeletal Specimen

2. Insect preservation: Preparation of insect preservatives is done by first
killing the insect by inserting the insect into a bottle or jar where chloroform foam has
been placed, previously placed on the border of a rather thick paper that has been
perforated so the insect dies. without being exposed to wet chloroform after death, the
insides of the insect's body are smeared with 70% alcohol and then pierced with office
pins or pins, embedded in styrofoam, according to Afifah et al 2014, insectarium is an
insect preserved with alcohol preservatives (F% and 5% formalin) which is packaged
in the form of a learning media collection! 6Barium and insectarium before being used
in previous studies have been validated by media experts, so they are known to be
feasible or not used in research.
Picture. 2.2 Example of Insectarium Specimen
3. Dry preservation (taxidermy): taxidermy is a preservation technique for
centuries of mummification (Dermic et a, 2012). Taxidermy preparation is done by
first anesthetizing the specimen with chloroform or ether. Specimens commonly used
for taxidermy are mammals and animals after animals die, nicks are made from the
abdomen of the front of the genitals to the chest, then the wound is covered with corn
flour afterwards, animals are skinned using a scalpel, fat is lifted, the dam after
cleaning then borax is sprinkled and cotton rolls made as big as corn or as long as the
animal's body is then inserted as a substitute for meat and then shaped like its stature
when it is still alive, its back is sewn, its mouth is sewn in a triangle.

Picture. 2.3 Example of Taxidermy Specimen

4. Preservation of wet which are usually used as wet preservatives are usually
crustaceans or other invertebrate animals. Production is quite simple, the process of
animals being killed with chloroform or ether, cleaned, then put in a transparent jar
containing 70% alcohol which matches the size or size of a larger animal is usually
accompanied by a transparent word for the animal's base to remain in position, then a
statement is given using waterproof paper (Pratiwi, 2016).
Picture. 2.4 Example of Wet Specimen

A. Materials

The instruments used in this laboratory activity are glass bottle, syringe,
fixation box, insect net, killing bottle, cotton, cardboard, tracing paper, tweezers,
needle, Styrofoam, stationery, camera, surgical kit, specimen container, specimen tray,
portable stove, toothbrush.

The material used in this laboratory activity are 70% alcohol, tissue,
chloroform, formalin, silica gel, cornstrach, borax, cotton, fake eyes, wire, glue, liquid
soap, bleach, natrium hipochihiorite (10% NaOCl) and the animal specimen.

B. Methods

The method used in this laboratory activity are :

1. Several sampling techniques were learned by students.

2. Preparation of animal specimen collection on the field or laboratorium
(anesthesia, euthanasia, fixation, preservation) were learned by students.
3. Animal management collection were learned by students.
4. Interim reports were completed by students.

Dermici, B., Gultiken M.E., Karayigit, M.O dan Atatar, K. 2012. Is frozen taxidermy
an Alternative Method for Demonstration of Dermatopaties. Eurasion Journal
of Veterinary Sciences, 28(3) pp.172-176.

Jasin, M. 2017. Sistematika Hewan Vertebrata dam Invertebrata. Surabaya: Sinar


Kilawati, Y. & Arfianti, D., 2017. Iktiologi modern. Malang: UB Press.

Krejie.R.V.,& Morgan, D.W. 2016. Determining sample size for research activities.
Educational and psychological Measurement.

Pratiwi, R., & Rahmat, R., 2015. Sebaran kepiting mangrove(Crustacea: decapoda)
yang terdaptar dikoleksi rujukan pusat penelitian oseanografi-lipi 1960.

Singh, G. 1999. Plant Systematics.Science publishers, inc. United stated of America.

Suhardjono & Yuyuk, R, 2006. Status Taksonomi Fauna di Indonesia dengan

Tinjauan khusus pada collembolo. 200 indonesia, 15(2), pp. 67-86.

Tjakrawidjaya, F. 1998. Arsenic in Taxidermy Collections Bogor: Puslitbang Biologi.

Vogel, E. F. De. 1987. Manual of Herbarium Taxonomy. Theory and Practice .

Unesco. Jakarta.