Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 173


com Bengaluru


NCERT Synopsis
Class 6th to Class 10th

Mobile: +91 – 9113976493

Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com
IAS Guide Page 1
www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


1. Class 6th NCERT Synopsis – Page No. 3 to 18

2. Class 7th NCERT Synopsis – Page No. 19 to 46
3. Class 8th NCERT Synopsis – Page No. 47 to 78
4. Class 9th NCERT Synopsis – Page No. 79 to 117
5. Class 10th NCERT Synopsis – Page No. 118 to 172

IAS Guide Page 2

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Chapter – 1: Class 6th NCERT Synopsis


• Rings of external planet→ debris.

• Saptarshi or small bear→ extension→ pole star

Source: NCERT 6th Geography: The Earth Our Habitat

• Earth→ slightly flattened at poles→ Geoid , Blue planet (2/3rd water)

• Moon moves around earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly same time to
complete one spin. As a result, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the

IAS Guide Page 3

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• By measuring angle of pole star from our place, we scan know the latitude of
our place.

Heat Zones of the Earth

1. Torrid Zone→ Mid – day sun exactly overheat at least once between Tropic
of cancer and Capricorn, area-receives maximum heat.

2. Temperate Zone→ Between Tropics of cancer and Capricorn and arctic and
Antarctic circles respective-moderate temperature angle of sun’s rays
decreases towards poles.

3. Frigid Zones→ Very cold, between arctic and North Pole, Antarctic and
Southern pole, sun does not raise much above horizon.

Measuring time by Movement of Sun

By shadow cast by sun

Noon →shortest Sunrise and sunset → longest

• Axis → angle of 661/2degree with its orbital plane

Source: NCERT 6th Geography: The Earth Our Habitat

IAS Guide Page 4

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Spherical shape→ only half of earth gets light from sun at a time
• Circle of illumination→Circle that divides day from night on globe.

Does not coincide with axis
• Rotation→movement on its axis
• Revolution→ movement around sun in fixed path or orbit.
• Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. The period of rotation is known
as earth day.
• Revolution→3651/4 days

1. Summer Solstice
• Northern Hemisphere tilted towards sun.
• Rays of sun directly of tropic of cancer.
• Northern pole inclined towards sun and places beyond arctic circle→
continuous day light for 6 months
• Northern Hemisphere→ Summer

June 21→longest day and shortest night
• Southern Hemisphere => Opposite→ winter

2. Winter Solstice
• December 22→ Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of sun as Southern
pole is tilted towards sun.
• Southern Hemisphere→ summer
• Northern Hemisphere→ winter

3. Equinox
• March 21 and September 23rd

- Direct rays of sun on equator,
- Neither of poles tilted towards sun
- Whole earth experience equal days and equal nights called equinox.
* March 21st → Spring: Northern Hemisphere
Autumn: Southern Hemisphere
* September 23 → Autumn: Northern Hemisphere

Spring: Southern Hemisphere

IAS Guide Page 5

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Days & nights => Due to rotation of earth.

→Changes in Seasons =>

• Revolution of earth
• Inclination of earth’s axis in fixed position.

Source: NCERT 6th Geography: The Earth Our Habitat

IAS Guide Page 6

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• The level of sea water remain same everywhere. Elevation of land is measured
from level of sea, which is taken as zero.
• Mount Everest→ Highest pt – 8848m
[Junko Tabei (Japan)→1st woman to climb Mount Everest (1975)]
Mariana trench→11,022→greatest depth

1. Asia
• Largest continent, 1/3rd of total land of earth
• Tropic of cancer, eastern hem
• Separated from Europe by Ural Mountains on the West
• Combined land mass of Europe and Asia => Eurasia.

2. Europe
• Arctic Circle passes through it
• Bound by water on 3 sides

3. Africa
• 2nd largest
• Equator → through middle of continent
• Only continent through which the tropic of cancer, equator and tropic of
Capricorn pass.

4. North America
• 3rd largest
• Linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of
• 3 oceans surround this.

5. South America
• Lies mostly in South Hemisphere.
• Andes → world’s longest mountain range.
• Amazon-World’s largest river north to south

IAS Guide Page 7

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

6. Australia
• Smallest continent
• Surrounded by oceans and seas on all sides=>Island continent.

7. Antarctica
• South Pole lies at the centre of this continent.
• No permanent human settlements.
• India’s research stations in Antarctica→ Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.

• More than 71% → Water
29% → Land
• More than 97% of Water-oceans, too salty for human use.
• 0.03% => Fresh Water
• 2.77%→ Stored in ice sheets and ground water
97.2%→ Oceans

Strait→ A strait is a narrow passage of water connecting two large water

bodies like seas and oceans.
Example: Pak strait between India and Srilanka.

• All Oceans are interconnected.
• Ocean waters are always moving.
• 3 movements of ocean water:
1. Waves
2. Tides
3. Ocean currents

4 Major oceans (From largest to smallest)

1. Pacific ocean (largest)
2. Atlantic ocean (2nd)
3. Indian ocean
4. Arctic ocean (smallest)

IAS Guide Page 8

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Pacific Ocean
1. Spread over 1/3rd of earth
2. Mariana trench
3. Circular in shape
4. Asia, Aus, Northern and Southern Americas surround it.

Atlantic Ocean
• ‘S’ shape
• Northern and Southern America on West and Europe and Africa on East
• The coastline of Atlantic Ocean is highly indented. This irregular and
Indented Coastline provides ideal location for Natural Harbours and Ports.
Commerce→ It is busiest ocean.

Arctic Ocean
1. Located within arctic circle and surrounds North Pole
2. It is connected with Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water
known as Berring Strait.
3. Bound by northern coasts of Northern America and Eurasia.

• Extends up to 1600km.
• Nitrogen → 78%-growth of living organisms
• O2 → 21% → Breathe of life
• Co2 → Absorbs heat radiated by earth, keeps it warm, growth of plants
• Density of atmosphere is max at the sea level and decreases rapidly as we go

[Mountaineer-carry cylinder (O2)]

→Indian Ocean
• Only ocean named after a country, i.e. India.
• Triangular shape
• North → Bound by Asia, West by Africa and east by Australia.
→Isthmus → A Narrow strip of land joining two landmasses.

IAS Guide Page 9

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Reasons for Formation of Different Landforms:-

1. Internal Process
- Upliftment and sinking of earth’s surface

2. External Process

-Wearing a way of earth’s surface→ Erosion.

-Rebuilding of surface: Deposition

These 2 processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind.

→Different Landforms
• It is any natural elevation of the earth surface.
• Steep hill with elevation more than 600m is tern as a Mountain.

1. Fold Mountains
• Himalayas, Alps→ Young fold maintains with rugged relief and high conical
• Aravalli Range => One of oldest fold Mountains in world. Worn down –
• Appalachians (Northern America) and Ural mountains (Russia)→ Rounded
features and low elevation very old fold mountains

2. Block Mountains
• Created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
• Uplifted blocks→ Horsts
Lowered blocks→Graben
• Example:- Rhine Valley and Vosges Mountain in Europe

IAS Guide Page 10

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Volcanic Mountains
• Mount Kilimanjaro → Africa
• Mount Fujiyama → Japan

→Mauna Kea (Hawaii) in the Pacific Ocean is an undersea mountain. It is

higher than Mount Everest being 10,205m high.
→Permanently frozen rivers of ice: Glaciers.

• Elevated flat land.
• Flat – topped Table Land standing above the surrounding area.
• One or more sides with Steep Slopes.
• Example:- Deccan Plateau: One of the oldest,
• East African Plateau: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania.
• Western Plateau of Australia
• Tibet Plateau→ Highest
Plateau in word (4000 to 6000m above mean sea level)

→Uses of Plateaus

• Rich in Mineral Deposits

As a result, many of mining areas in world located in Plateau Areas.
• African Plateau => Gold and diamond mining
• Chhotanagpur Plateau => Huge reserves of iro0n, coal and manganese
• Form several water – falls


• Hundru Falls→ Chhotanagpur Plateau→ River Subarnarekha

• Jog falls
• Lava Plateaus are rich in black soil that are fertile and food for cultivation.
• Attraction to tourists

IAS Guide Page 11

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Large stretches of flat land.
• Not more than 200m above Mean Sea Level
• Most plains formed by rivers and their tributaries

Flow from mountains (slopes)→ erode them→ carry eroded material like sand,
stone, silt→ deposit along their course and valley→ plains formed
• Example:- Largest Plains by rivers found in Asia and North America

Ganga, Brahmaputra→ India, Yangtze→ China
• Plains are very fertile, useful areas for human habitation, thickly – populated
regions of world

IAS Guide Page 12

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• Area: 3.28 million sq.km

• North to South => 3200km
East to West => 2900km
• Location: Northern Hemisphere
• Latitude: 8degree 4’N to 37degree 6’N
Longitude: 68degree 7’E to 97degree 25’E
• ISI→ 82degree 30’E

India’s Neighbours
• 7 countries share boundaries

Physical Divisions
1. Great Himalaya or Himadri
→ Contains world’s highest Peaks
→Northern most range

2. Middle Himalaya or Himachal

* Lies south of Himadri
* Many popular hill station
3. Shiwalik→ Southern most range

→North Indian Plains

→Alluvial deposits by rivers Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.

→Peninsular Plateau
• Triangular in shape
• Relief highly uneven
• Hill ranges and valleys.
• Aravallis: border it on north – west side
• Vindhyas and Satpuras

IAS Guide Page 13

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Ganga and Brahmaputra form the World’s largest delta –

Sunderbans delta and

Triangular in shap
• Delta is an area formed at mouth of river (Mouth→ where river enters sea)
• Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called Polyps.
• Lakshadweep islands => Coral islands
• Peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on 3 sides.

IAS Guide Page 14

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Climate Affected by→

1. Location
2. Altitude
3. Distance from sea
4. Relief

Natural Vegetation: 5 Types

1. Tropical evergreen forest
2. Tropical deciduous forest
3. Thorny bushes
4. Mountain Vegetation
5. Mangrove forests

→Tropical Rain Forests (Evergreen)

• Receive heavy rainfall
• Maximum height: 60m
• Shed their leaves at different times of year. So, always appear evergreen.
• Examples: 1. Mahogany
2. Ebony
3. Rosewood (Keyword is MER) etc

• Areas: 1. Andaman and Nikobar islands

2. Parts of North – East states
3. Western slopes of Western Ghats

→Tropical Deciduous Forests

• Large part of India has this.
• Monsoon forests
• Less dense, shed their leaves at a particular time of a year.
• Example: 1. Sal
2. Teak
3. Peepal
4. Neem
5. Shisham

IAS Guide Page 15

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Madhya Pradesh
2. Uttar Pradesh
3. Bihar
4. Jharkhand
5. Chhattisgarh
6. Odissa
7. Parts of Maharashtra

→Thorny Bushes
• Dry areas of Country
• Leaves in form of spines to reduce the loss of water.
• Examples:-1. Cactus
2. Khair
3. Babool
4. Keekar

* Areas: 1. Rajasthan
2. Punjab
3. Haryana
4. Gujarat
5. Eastern slopes of Western Ghats

→Mountain Vegetation
• Wide range of species acc to variation in height.
• With Increase in height, temp falls.
• At height between 1500m => 2500m =>
Trees conical in shape =>
Coniferous trees
* Example:-1. Chir
2. Pine
3. Deodar

→Mangrove Forests
• Can survive in saline water.
• Found mainly in:-
1. Sunderbans in West Bengal

IAS Guide Page 16

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Andaman & Nikobar Islands

• Sundari trees

Wild Life
• Tiger→ National animal
• Asiatic Lions→ Gir Forests, Gujarat.
• Elephants→ Assam, Kerala and Karnataka.
• Camels,→ Desert

Wild Asses→ Rann of Kuchchh

• Wild goats, snow leopards, bears→ Himalayan region
• Peacock→ National bird

Wild Life Week

Every year, 1st Week of October→ To Create awareness of conserving the
habitats of the animal kingdom.
Snake Species→ Cobras and Kraits

→Migratory Birds→ Winter: December stay till March.

1. Pelican
2. Siberian Crane
3. Stork
4. Flamingo
5. Pintail duck
6. Curlew

Loo → Hot dry winds in summer

Major Seasons
1. Cold weather season (Winter)→ December to February
2. Hot weather season (Summer)→ March to May
3. Summer – Winter monsoon season (Rainy)→ June to September
4. Season of retreating monsoon (Autumn)→ October and November

IAS Guide Page 17

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Common Birds in India

1. Parrots
2. Pigeons
3. Mynah
4. Geese
5. Bulbul
6. Ducks

IAS Guide Page 18

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Chapter – 2: Class 7th NCERT Synopsis


• Lithosphere=> Source of mineral wealth.

• The gravitational force of the earth holds the atmosphere around it.
• Environment: French word ‘Envirnor’ meaning ‘Neighbourhood’


Interior of the Earth

1. Crust
• Uppermost layers
• Thinnest of all layers
• About 35km→ continental masses
5km→ ocean floors
• Minerals:
• Silica and Alumina on continental mass (Sial)
• Silica and Magnesium on oceanic crust (Sima)

2. Mantle
• Just beneath crust
• Extends upto depth of 2900km below crust.

3. Inner most Layer – Core

• Radius: About 3500km
• Mode of : Nickel and Iron (Nife)
• Very high temp and pressure.

• Crust forms: Only 0.5% Volume of earth,
Mantle→ 16%

IAS Guide Page 19

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Core → 83%
• Radius of earth: 6371km
• Deepest mine in world, is in South Africa→ 4km deep.

Rocks & Minerals

→Types of Rocks:
1. Igneous Rocks
• When molten magma cools, it becomes solid→ igneous rocks
• Primary rocks

• Extrusive Rocks
- Molten law comes on earth’s surface, rapidly cools down and become
- Very fine grained structure
- Example:-Basalt
- Deccan plateau made up of basalt rocks.

• Intrusive Rocks
- Magma Cools down deep inside earth’s crust.
- Cool down slowly – form large grains
- Example:-Granite (Used in grinders)

2. Sedimentary Rocks
• Rocks roll down, Crack and hit each other and are broken down into small

• Sediments

Transported by wind, water etc

Compressed & hardened

Sedimentary rocks

Example:-Sandstone is made from grains of sand

• These rocks also contain fossils of Plants, Animals and Other microbes that
once lived on them.

IAS Guide Page 20

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Metamorphic Rocks
• Igneous and sedimentary rocks can change into metamorphic rocks under
great heat and pressure
Example:-1. Clay changes into slate.
2. Limestone into marble.

→Rock Cycle → One type changes into another under certain conditions in a cyclic

Source: NCERT 7th Geography: Our Environment

• Minerals are naturally occurring substances which have certain Physical

Properties and definite Chemical Composition.
Example: Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Iron etc.

IAS Guide Page 21

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• The Lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known as the Lithospheric


These Plates move very slowly because of movement of molten Magma
(moves cyclically) inside earth.(Circular)

These movements causes changes on the surface of the earth.


Endogenic Forces Exogenic Forces

Sudden forces Diastrophic forces & Depositional
- Earthquake
- Volcano - Building -River
- Landslides -Mountains -Wind
-Sea Waves

• Earthquake Measurement→ Seismograph

• Magnitude of earthquake → Richter Scale

→Major Land Forms

• Formation due to: 1. Weathering 2. Erosion
• Weathering is the breaking up of rocks on earth’s surface.
• Erosion is wearing a way of landscape by different agents like wind, water and

This process of erosion and deposition create different landforms

→Work of a River
• Meanders
• Waterfalls

IAS Guide Page 22

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Ox-bow lake
• Floodplain
• Levees → Raised banks and rivers
• Delta

→Water Falls
1. Angel Falls → Venezuela, highest in world.
2. Niagara → Border between USA and Canada.
3. Victoria Falls → Borders of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

→Work of Sea Waves

1. Sea caves
2. Sea arches
3. Stacks → wall like rocks, without roof
4. Sea cliff→ rocky coast vertically above sea water
5. Beaches→ sediment deposition

→Work of Ice
1. Glacial moraines

→Work of Wind

• Mushroom Rocks→ winds erode lower section of rocks more than upper part.
Therefore, such rocks have narrower base and wider top.
• Sand dunes→ deposition of sand in low hills by wind.
• When the grains of sand are very fine and light, the wind can carry it over
long distances. When such sand is deposited in large areas, it is called “Loess”
Example:-Large deposits of Loess→ found in China.

IAS Guide Page 23

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

4. AIR

→Composition of Atmosphere
1. Nitrogen → 78%
2. Oxygen → 21%
3. Argon → 0.93%
4. CO2 → 0.03%
5. Others → 0.04%

→Without Co2, Earth would have been very cold to live in.

→Structure of Atmosphere
1. Troposphere→ Average height: 13km, air we breathe existing, weather
Phenomenon like rainfall, fog, hailstorm occur in this layer.

2. Stratosphere→ Average height: 50km above troposphere.

• Almost free from clouds and associated weather phenomenon.

Most ideal condition: Flying Aeroplanes.
• Ozone layer exists in this layer.

3. Mesosphere→ Average height: 80km,

Meteorites burn up in this layer on entering from space.

4. Thermosphere→ 80-400km
• Temp rises very rapidly with increasing height
• Ionosphere→ part of this layer.
• Helps in radio transmission. Radio waves transmitted by earth are reflected
back to earth by this layer.

5. Exosphere
• Uppermost layer
• Very thin air
• Light gases like helium and hydrogen float into space from here.

IAS Guide Page 24

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Weather and Climate

1. Temperature
• Influenced by Insolation.
• Concrete and metals in buildings Asphalt of roads get heated up during day.
This heat is released during night.
Crowded high rise buildings of cities trap warm air and

Therefore, Temp in cities much higher than villages.

Urban heat islands

2. Air Pressure
• Pressure exerted by weight of air on earth surface.
• Highest at sea level and decreases with height.
• High temp→ low pressure→ cloudy skies and wet weather
• Low temp→ High pressure→ clear and sunny skies
• Note → On moon there is no air and hence no air pressure.

- Astronauts have to wear special protective space suits filled with air when
they go to moon. If they did not wear these suits, the counter pressure
exerted by body of astronauts would make blood vessels burst. The
astronauts would bleed.

→Air presses our body with great force, but we don’t feel it because our body
exerts counter pressure in earth.

1. Permanent Winds
• Trade winds, westerlies and Easterlies.
• Blow constantly throughout year in a particular direction.

2. Seasonal Winds
• Change their direction in different seasons
• Example: Monsoon in India.

IAS Guide Page 25

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Local Winds
• Blow during particular period of day or year in small area.
• Example :- Land and sea breezes, Loo

• Moisture in air at any time is known as humidity.
• Warmer air→ More capacity to hold moisture.
• When water Vapour rises, it starts cooling and condenses causing formation
of droplets of water. Clouds are just masses of such water droplets. When
these droplets become too heavy to float, they come down as Precipitation.

• Forms of Precipitation→ Rain, snow, sleet, hail etc.

Note→ Jet planes→ leave white trial behind them. The moisture from their
engines condenses.

IAS Guide Page 26

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• Sources of fresh water→ Rivers, ponds, springs and glaciers

Distribution of Water Bodies

1. Oceans = 97.3%→ Saline Water

2. Ice – caps = 2%
3. Ground – Water = 0.68%
4. Fresh Water lakes = 0.009% →Fresh Water
5. Inland seas and salt lakes = 0.009%
6. Atmosphere = 0.0019%
7. Rivers = 0.0001%

• Salinity is the amount of salt in grams present in 1000 grams of water.

Average salinity of oceans = 35 parts per thousand

• Dead Sea→ Israel: Salinity – 45 parts per thousand. Swimmers can float in it
because the increased salt content makes it dense.

Ocean Circulation
1. Waves
• Example : Tsunami→ Japanese word Harbour Waves
• First indication that tsunami is approaching is the rapid withdrawal of water
from coastal region, followed by destructive wave.

• Due to earthquake => Indian plate moved under Burma Plate.
• Some common methods to predict earthquake adopted locally by people→
studying animal behaviour, fish in ponds get agitated, snakes come to surface.

2. Tides
• Rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called tide.
• High Tide→ when water covers much of the shore by rising to its highest level.
• Low Tide→ When water falls to its lowest level and recedes from the shore.
• Cause→ The strong gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon on the
earth’s surface causes the tides.

IAS Guide Page 27

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• The water of earth closer to the moon gets pulled under the influence of moon’s
gravitational force and causes high tide.

1. Neap Tide
2. Spring Tide

→Spring Tides: During full moon and new moon days. The sun, the moon and
earth are in the same line and tides are highest. These tides are called spring

Source: NCERT 7th Geography: Our Environment

→Neap Tides: When moon is in its first and last quarter, the ocean waters
get drawn in diagonally opposite directions by gravitational pull of sun and
earth resulting in Low Tides. These tides are called Neap Tides.

IAS Guide Page 28

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Source: NCERT 7th Geography: Our Environment

Uses of High Tides

1. High tides help in navigation. They raise water level close to shore and
this helps ships to arrive at harbour more easily.
2. Helps in fishing. Many fishes come closer to shore during the high tide.
3. Used to generate electricity.

3. Ocean Currents
• They are streams of water flowing constantly on ocean surface in definite
• Warm Currents→ Move towards poles and originates in equator.
• Cold Currents→ Move towards equator from poles
• Ocean currents influence the temp conditions of the area
• The areas where warm and cold currents meet provide best fishing grounds of
Example: 1. Seas around Japan
(Kuroshio Current→ Warm & Oyashio Current→ Cold)
2. Eastern Coast of North America
(Gulf Stream→ Warm & Labrador Current→ Cold)

• The areas where warm and cold currents meet also experience foggy weather
making it difficult for navigation.

• March 22→ World water day
• Weather Instruments
1. Thermometer→ Measures temp

IAS Guide Page 29

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Barometer→ Measures atmospheric pressure

3. Rain Gauge→ Amount of rainfall
4. Wind Vane→ Shows the direction of wind.

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 30

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Changes in Himalayan Vegetation with Height:→

Foot hills→ Sal, Teak

Mountain Slopes→ Coniferous trees, Rhododendrons

Growth of Vegetation Depends On:→

* Temperature
* Moisture
* Slope
* Thickness of soil

Classification of Natural Vegetation:-

1. Forests→ Plenty of temp & rainfall

Dense and Open
2. Grasslands→ Moderate rain
3. Shrubs→ Thorny shrubs and scrubs grow in dry region.

1. Tropical evergreen forests
2. Tropical deciduous forests
3. Temperate evergreen forests
4. Temperate deciduous forests
5. Mediterranean vegetation
6. Coniferous forests

→Tropical Evergreen Forests

• Tropical rain forests
• Regions: Near equator and close to tropics.
• Hot, heavy rainfall throughout year
• No particular dry season→ trees do not shed leaves altogether→ Evergreen.
• Thick canopies => Sunlight do no Penetrate inside.

• Hardwood Trees→
1. Mahogany

IAS Guide Page 31

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Ebony
3. Rosewood
• Anaconda→ snake

→Tropical Deciduous Forests

• Monsoon forests
Regions:-1. Large parts of India.
2. Northern Australia
3. Central America

• Experience seasonal changes

• Trees shed leaves in dry season to conserve water.
Hardwood Trees: 1. Sal
2. Teak
 3. Neem
4. Shisham
Are useful for making furniture, transport & construction materials

• Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors (Golden langoor), monkeys.

→Temperate Evergreen Forests

• Location: Mid – latitudinal coastal region.
• Eastern margin of continents→
→ South – East USA
→ South China
→South – East Brazil

Hard & Soft Wood Trees –1. Oak

2. Pine
3. Eucalyptus

→Temperate Deciduous Forests

• Towards higher latitudes
• 1. North eastern parts of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile
2. Coastal regions of Western Europe
• Shed their leaves in dry season.
• Trees: 1. Oak
2. Ash

IAS Guide Page 32

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Beech

• Animals : Deer, foxes, wolves

• Birds : Pheasants, Monals

→Mediterranean Vegetation
• West and South – West margins of continents.
• Areas around Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa & Asia. Hence, the name.
Regions: 1. California in USA
2. South – West Africa
3. South – West South America
4. South – West Australia

• Hot dry summers & mild rainy winters.

• Citrus fruits→ oranges, figs, olives, grapes => cultivated because people have
removed natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want.
• No much wild life
• Mediterranean trees adapt themselves to dry summers with the help of their
thick barks and wax coated leaves which help them reduce transpiration.
• Orchards of World => Fruit cultivation.

→Coniferous Forests
• Higher latitudes (50degree – 70degree) of Northern Hemisphere
• Taiga→ Means pure or untouched in Russian language.
• Also seen in higher altitudes→ (Himalayas)
• Tall, softwood evergreen trees.
• The woods of these trees are very useful for making Pulp, which is used in
manufacturing paper & Newsprint (Match bores, Packing boxes→ Softwood)

• Trees → 1. Chir
2. Pine
3. Cedar

• Animals: Silver fox, mink, polar bear.


IAS Guide Page 33

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Tropical grasslands
2. Temperate grasslands

→ Tropical Grasslands
• Either side of equator & extend till tropics.
• Vegetation grows in areas of moderate to low rainfall.
• Grass can grow very tall => 3 to 4m in height
• Savannah grasslands of Africa.
• Elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopard.

Different Names
1. East Africa→ Savanna
2. Brazil→ Campos
3. Venezuela→ Llanos

→Temperate Grasslands
• Found in mid – latitudinal zones & in interior part of continents.
• Grass => Short and Nutritious
• Animals : Wild buffaloes, Bisons, Antilopes

Different Names
1. Argentina→ pampas
2. Northern America→ prairies
3. Southern America→ Velds
4. Asia→ Steppes
5. Australia→ Downs

Thorny Bushes
• Found in dry desert like regions.
• Tropical deserts => western margin
• Scanty rain

• Growth of vegetation => very limited.
• Mosses, lichens and very small shrubs grow here→ during very short summer.
Region: Polar areas of Europe, Asia and North America.
• The animals have thick fur and thick skin to protect themselves from cold
climatic conditions.

IAS Guide Page 34

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Seal
2. Walruses
3. Musk – oxen
4. Arctic owl
5. Polar bear
6. Snow foxes

IAS Guide Page 35

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru



• Roads can be Metalled (Pucca) and Unmetalled (Kutcha).

• Manali – Leh highway in Himalayan Mountains→ one of highest roadways in
World. ( Maintained by Border Road Organization of Indian Army)
• Golden Quadrilateral→ Connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
• Train from Xining to Lhasa => 4000m above mean sea level
• Indian railway : largest in Asia
• Trans - Siberian railway→ Longest→ St. Petersburg in West Russia to
Vladivostok in Pacific Ocean.



→Amazon Basin
• Amazon→ Name of fierce tribes of women warriors in ancient Roman empire
(given by Spanish explorers)
• It flows through 10degree North/South region.

River Drains:
1. Portion of Brazil
2. Parts of Peru
3. Bolivia
4. Equador
5. Columbia
6. Small part of Venezuela

• It flows from mountains to West and reaches Atlantic Ocean to east.

• Hot and Wet => Throughout the year
• Day and Night => Equally hot and humid→ skin feels sticky

IAS Guide Page 36

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Rain Forests
• Thick forests
• Sunlight do not reach ground
• Only shade tolerant vegetation grows in ground.
• Orchids, Bromeliads grow as plant parasites.

• Toucans, Humming birds

- Coloured plumage + oversized bills for eating make them different from birds
we see in India.
- Make loud sounds

Animals: Monkeys, Sloth & ant – eating tapirs

• Anaconda
• Flesh – eating Piranha Fish.

→People of Rain Forests

• Crops : Tapioca, Pineapple, Sweet potato
• Slash & burn agriculture
• Staple Food: Manioc (Cassava)→ grows underground like potato.

• Cash Crops Grown: Coffee, Maize, Cocoa.

• Forest => Wood => Houses

Meloca→ Apartment house→ slanting roof

→Ganga – Brahmaputra Basin

• Both rivers & their tributaries together form this basin.
• Lies between 10degree N to 30degree N
• Main Crop : Paddy→ requires sufficient water => grown where rainfall is high
• Other Crops : 1. Wheat , Maize, Sorghum, Gram, Millets
• Cash Crops→ Sugarcane, Jute, Banana Plantations (some areas of plain)
• Silk => Bihar & Assam

IAS Guide Page 37

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Tea => West Bengal & Assam

- Varies acc to type of landforms
- Plains : Tropical deciduous trees
Teak, Sal, Peepal
- Brahmaputra Plain => Thick bamboo groves
- Delta => Mangrove forests
- Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh→ Coniferous trees

Pine, deodar, fir

Because climate is cool
And Slopes are steep.

Wild Life
• Elephants, tigers, deers, monkeys
• One – horned rhinocerous => Assam
• Bengal tiger, Crocodiles, Alligator → Delta area
• Fishes→ Rohu, Catla, Hilsa

Blind Dolphin
- Fresh waters of river Ganga & Brahmaputra
- Locally called ‘Susu’
- Presence of susu is an indication of health of the river.
- The untreated industrial & urban wastes with high amount of Chemicals are
killing this species.

• Terrace Farming→ Terraces are built on steep slopes to create flat surfaces on
which crops are grown. The slope is removed so that water doesn’t run off


IAS Guide Page 38

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• The main river along with all its tributaries that drain an area forms a River
Basin or the Catchment Area.
• Bromelids are special plants that store water in their leaves. Animals like
frogs use these pockets of water for laying their eggs.

IAS Guide Page 39

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


The Prairies→ Means Meadow

• Region of flat, gently sloping or hilly land.
• Most part treeless, but low lying plains→ woodlands
• Tall grass => 2m→ Sea of Grass
• Bound by Rocky mountains in West & Great Lakes in East

• Region :

Parts of USA + Parts of Canada

Drained by tributaries Drained by tributaries

Of Mississipppi of Saskatchewan River

• Located in heart of continent => continental type with extreme temp.
• Summers = 20degree C, Winters (Canada) =>20degree C

• Rain => moderate

Ideal for grass growth
• Chinook blows

→Flora & Fauna

• Treeless, but where water available→ willows, alders, poplars grow.
• Major Crop : Maize
• Others : Potatoes, Soybean, Cotton, Alfa – Alfa
• Cattle rearing
• Large cattle farms→ Ranches, looked after by sturdy men called Cowboys.
• Bison or American Buffalo
→Important animal, nearly got extinct.
→Now protected species
• Other Animals: Rabbits, Coyotes, Gophers, Prairie dogs

IAS Guide Page 40

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Very hardworking
• Successfully harnessed technology to utilize natural resources
• Scientific methods of cultivation

North America => Surplus food producer

Prairies => “Granaries of the World”

Due to huge surplus of wheat production

• Dairy Farming
- Great lakes to Atlantic coast in east.

Food processing industries

• Minerals→ Coal & Iron & good network of roads, rails, Canals in this region
have made it most industrialized region in the World.

• Important Cities→ Chicago, Minneapolis, Indianapolis Kansas & Denver.

Canada→ Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon.

• Chinook is a hot wind that blows in winter & therefore raises temp in a short
time. This increase in temp results in melting of snow, making pasture land
available for grazing of animals. (North America)

• Earlier: Priaries => Home of American Indians => Blackfoot Indians & other
tribes => Apache, Crow, the Cree & the Pawnee.

• Combine→ A machine which can sow, plough & work as thresher all by itself.

The Velds (given by dutch settle)

• Velds are rolling plateaus with varying heights from 600m to 1100m.
• Bound by Drakensberg Mountains on East & Kalahari deserts on West.
• North – East parts => high velds => 1600m
• Tributaries of rivers orange & Limpopo drain the region.
IAS Guide Page 41
www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Mild climate due to influence of Indian Ocean.
• Winters→ Cold & Dry
• Temp : 5degree C & 10degree C, July→ coldest
• Summers→ short & warm
• Rainfall→ summer, due to warm ocean currents that wash the shores of velds.
• Dough may occur in winter.

→Flora & Fauna

• Red grass, acacia, maroola
• Lions, leopards, cheetah, kudu

• Cattle rearing & mining.
• Soils not fertile→ discontinuous
Grass => expose barren surface
• Maize, wheat, barley, oats, potato
• Cash crops→ Tobacco, sugarcane, cotton
• Sheep rearing→ most important
→Mainly for Wool => Wool industry
→Merino sheep → Species→ Wool→ Very warm
• Dairy farming

Rich Reserves of Minerals

• Iron & Coal
• Gold & Diamond Mining => major occupation
• Johannesberg→ Gold capital of World
• Kimberley→ Diamond mines
• Mining of diamond & gold in South Africa led to establishment of trade ties
with Britain & gradually South Africa became British colony.
• Good transport Network in mineral areas.
• Pretoria → One of the important city

IAS Guide Page 42

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• Low rainfall, scanty vegetation, Extreme temperatures.

→ Sahara: Hot desert

• World’s largest desert
• North Africa

It Touches 11 Countries:
1. Algeria
2. Chad
3. Egypt
4. Libya
5. Mali
6. Mauritania
7. Morocco
8. Niger
9. Sudan
10. Tunisia
11. Western Sahara
• Some gravel plains & elevated plateaus along with sand. (with rocky surface)

Al Azizia→ Sahara desert => South of Tripoli, Libya recorded highest temp
=> 57.7degree C => 1922.

Flora & Fauna

→Cactus, date palms, acacia
→Some places→ Oasis: green islands with date palms surrounding them.
→Camels, hyenas, jackals, foxes, scorpions, snakes, lizards
• Sahara once used to be lush green plain – climate change => desert.

IAS Guide Page 43

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Bedouins & Tuaregs
→Nomadic tribes
→Rear: goat, sheep, camels, horses
→Milk, hides→ leather => belts slippers etc
→Hair→ Mats, Clothes etc
→Wear heavy robes => protection against dust storms & hot winds.

• Oasis & Nile valley => settled population

Date palms
• Rice, Wheat, barley, beans
• Egyptian Cotton→ World famous
• Oil => Algeria, Libya, Egypt
• Minerals: iron, Phosphorus, Manganese & Uranium

• Depressions are formed when wind blows away the sands.
In depressions where underground water reaches the surface, an oasis is
→Fertile, people may settle
→Grow: date palms
• Some oasis : Abnormally large

Example:-Tafilalet Oasis
→Morocco => large
→13000 Sq.km

→Ladakh: Cold Desert

• La→ Mountain pass, Dak: Country
• Lying in Greater Himalayas, on eastern side of Jammu and Kashmir
• Karakoram range in North & Zaskar range in South
• Indus→ important river
• Rivers form deep valleys & gorges.
• Glaciers→ Example:- Gangri
• High altitude => climate extremely cold & dry
• Air so thin => intense heat of sun can be felt.

IAS Guide Page 44

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Summer: Day: Above 0degree C & night : 30degree C

• Winter: Below – 40degree C most of time.
• Lies in Rain Shadow of Himalayas, Little rainfall => 10cm every year.
• Freezing winds, burning hot sunlight.
• Drass→ One of coldest inhabited place on earth is in Ladakh.

→Flora & Fauna

• High aridity => Vegetation sparse
• Scanty grasses, shrubs => animals graze
• Valleys: Groves of Willows & Poplars.
• Summer : Apples, apricots, walnuts
• Birds : * Robins
* Redstarts
* Tibetan Snowcock
* Raven

• Animals : Wild goats, wild sheep, yak, special dogs

- Milk, meat, hides
- Yak’s milk : cheese & butter
- Hair of sheep & Goat : Wollens

• Either Muslims or Buddhists
• Buddhist Monasteries→ With traditional ‘gompas’

1. Hemis
2. Thicksey
3. Shey
4. Lamayuru

• Summer => Barley, Potatoes, Peas, Beans & Turnip.

• Winter => So harsh => people keep themselves engaged in festivities &
• Leh, capital of Ladakh→

IAS Guide Page 45

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

NH – 1A→ Connects leh to Kashmir valley through Zojila Pass

• Ladakh also known as Khapa – Chan→ slow land
• Finest cricket bate => wood of willow trees
• Tourism

• Chiru or Tibetan Antelope→ Endangered species, hunted for its wool known
as Shahtoosh, which is light in weight & extremely warm.
• People of Ladakh have learned to live in balance with nature. Due to scarcity
of resources like water & fuel, they are used with Care. Nothing is discarded
or wasted.

Manali – Leh Highway

• Crosses 4 passes: Rohtang la, Baralacha la, Lungalacha la, Tanglang la.
• Opens only between July & September – When snow is cleared from road.

IAS Guide Page 46

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Chapter – 3: Class 8th NCERT Synopsis


Actual Resource→ Quantity known, being used in present.

Example:-Coal deposits in Ruhr Region of Germany, Petroleum – West Asia,
dark soils => Deccan Plateau

Potential Resources
- Entire quantity not known could be used in future, not being used in present.
Example:-Uranium found in Ladakh

Ubiquitous Resource
- Found everywhere, Example:- Air

- Windmills : Netherlands, Nagercoil → Tamil Nadu, Gujarat coast



• 90% of World population occupies only 30% of land area. The remaining 70%
is either sparely populated or uninhabited.
• Problems: Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification
• NH – 22: Old Hindustan – Tibet road → landslide

• Soil made of : Organic matter, minerals, weathered rocks
→Soil Profile
• Top Soil => Humus & Vegetation
• Sub Soil => Sand, Silt, Clay
• Weathered rock material
• Parent rock

IAS Guide Page 47

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Factors of Soil Formation

Parent Rock Climate

Determines colour, texture, Temp, rainfall influence
Chemical properties, mineral rate of weathering &
Content, permeability humus


Relief Flora, Fauna & Time

Attitude & Slope, Microorganisms determines
Determine Affect rate of thickness of
Accumulation humus formation soil profile
Of soil

→Soil Conservation Measures

1. Mulching: Bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter
like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.

2. Contour Barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours.
Trenches are made in front of barriers to collect water.

3. Rock Dam: Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents
gullies & further soil loss.

4. Terrace Farming: Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so
that flat surfaces are available to grow plants. They reduce surface run – off &
soil erosion.
IAS Guide Page 48
www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

5. Inter Cropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows & are sown at
different times to protect soil from rain wash.

6. Contour Ploughing: Ploughing parallel to contours of a hill slope to form a

natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

7. Shelter Belts: In the coastal & dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the
wind movement to protect soil cover.

Water Market→ Amreli City in Saurastra region => completely dependent on
purchasing water from nearby talukas.

→Conservation of Water
1. A Forestation
2. Rain water harvesting
3. Canals→ properly lined→ minimize loss by water see page
4. Sprinklers→ Effectively irrigate areas by checking water losses through
seepage & evaporation.
5. Drip or Trickle Irrigation
→Very useful in dry regions

Natural Vegetation & Wild Life

• Bamboos→ Grow in Earth, North – East regions
• Silk obtained from Silk worms that are bred on Mulberry Trees.
• Insects like bees→ Honey, Pollination, Decomposers.
• Birds feed on insects & act as decomposers as well.


- Due to its ability to feed on dead livestock→ is a Scavenger & considered a
vital Cleanser of environment.
- Vultures in India were dying of kidney failure shortly after scavenging
livestock treated with diclofenac, a rain killer that is similar to aspirin or

IAS Guide Page 49

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Important Animals Poached: Tiger, lion, elephant, deer, black buck, crocodile,
rhinoceros, snow leopard, ostrich & peacock, cheetahs.

• Brahma Kamal→ Medicinal herb

• Convention on International trade in endangered species of wild fauna & flora.
• It aims to ensure that International trade in specimens of wild animals &
plants does not threaten their survival.
• Roughly 5000 –animal species & 28000→ plant species are protected.
• It lists ‘species in which trade is prohibited’.
• Example:-Bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids, aloes.

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 50

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• Minerals→ Naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical


Types of Minerals

Metallic Non – Metallic

Ferrous Non – Ferrous - Do not contain metals

Contains Doesn’t contain Limestone, mica,

Iron Iron, but some other gypsum, coal,
Metals → gold, silver petroleum
Examples: copper, lead
*Iron Ore

- Metallic => Hard, conduct heat & electricity, lustre or shine

Extraction of Minerals

Mining Drilling Quarrying

(Taking out Minerals
From rocks) Petroleum, Minerals
Natural gas that lie
Open – Cost Shaft occur far below near
Mining earth’s surface simply
Minerals dug out.
Lie at deep bores Deep wells
Shallow (shaft) are bored.

Removing greater
Surface depth

IAS Guide Page 51

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Distribution of Minerals
• Generally, metallic minerals are found in Igneous & Metamorphic rock
formations that form large plateaus.
Example:-1. Iron – ore→ Sweden (north)
2. Copper & Nickel => Ontario, Canada
3. Iron, Nickel, Chromite, Platinum => South Africa

• Sedimentary Rock formations of plains & young fold mountains contain non –
metallic minerals like Limestone.
Example:-1. Limestone: Caucasus region of France
2. Manganese => Georgia & Ukraine
3. Phosphate beds => Algeria

• Mineral Fuels => Coal & Petroleum =>Sedimentary Strata

• Iron Ore → India & China
• Tin :
*Asia => More than 50% of world’s tin.
*China, Malaysia, Indonesia

Among world’s leading producers
• Lead, antimony, tungsten→ China
• Asia→ also→ Manganese, Zinc, bauxite, nickel & copper(Blue colour rocks)

• Leading producer of Iron Ore in World.
• Iron Ore→ Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, France
• Copper, lead, zinc, manganese, nickel→ Eastern Europe, European Russia.

→North America
3 Zones

1. The Canadian Region North of the Great Lakes

Iron Ore, nickel, gold, uranium, copper→ Canadian Shield Region
2. The Appalachian Region

IAS Guide Page 52

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Mountain Ranges of the West

Western Cordilleras→ Copper, lead, zinc, gold & silver

Note: Switzerland has no known mineral deposit in it.

→South America
• High Grade Iron Ore => Brazil => World’s largest producer.
• Copper → Chile & Peru => Leading Producers.
• Tin→ Brazil, Bolivia => Among World’s largest producers.
• Mineral Oil => Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Columbia
• South America => also => gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite,
mica, platinum, asbestos, diamond.

• World’s largest producer of Diamonds, Gold’s & Platinum.
• South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zaire→ large portion of World’s gold

Democratic Republic of Congo
• Oil→ Nigeria, Libya, Angola
• Also has => copper, iron, chromium, uranium, cobalt & bauxite.

• Largest producer of Bauxite in the World.
• Leading Producer: gold, diamond, iron, tin, nickel.
• Rich in→ copper, lead, zinc & manganese.
• Kalgoorlie, Coolgardie→ areas of Western Australia => Largest deposits of

• Coal => Transantarctic mountains
• Iron => Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica.
• Iron Ore, gold, silver & Oil => Present in commercial quantities.

Distribution in India
• Deposits of high grade iron ore.
• 1. Jharkhand

IAS Guide Page 53

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Odisha
3. Chhattisgarh
4. Madhya Pradesh
5. Goa
6. Maharashtra
7. Karnataka

1. Jharkhand
2. Odisha
3. Chhattisgarh
4. Madhya Pradesh
5. Gujarat
6. Maharashtra
7. Tamil Nadu

1. Jharkhand India is the largest
2. Bihar producer & exporter
3. Andhra Pradesh of Mica in the
4. Rajasthan World

1. Rajasthan
2. Madhya Pradesh
3. Jharkhand
4. Karnataka
5. Andhra Pradesh

1. Maharashtra
2. Madhya Pradesh
3. Chhattisgarh
4. Odisha
5. Karnataka
6. Andhra Pradesh

IAS Guide Page 54

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Bihar
2. Jharkhand
3. Odisha
4. Madhya Pradesh
5. Chhattisgarh
6. Rajasthan
7. Gujarat
8. Tamil Nadu

• Kolar in Karnataka => These mines are among deepest in the World which
makes mining of this ore a very expensive process.

→Seas, lakes & rocks
→India: One of World’s leading producers & exporters.

→Uses of Minerals
• Copper→ coins, pipes
• Silicon→ computer→ obtained from quartz.
• Aluminum→ from bauxite ore→ automobiles, aero planes

→Minerals are non – renewable resource.

• Green diamond => Rarest diamond
• Oldest rocks in world are in
Western Australia => Date from 4300 million years ago (only 300 million year
after earth former)

Power Resources
1. Conventional Resources
2. Non – conventional

• Have been in common use for long time
Example:-1. Fire wood – 50% of energy used by villagers

IAS Guide Page 55

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Fossil Fuels
* Coal
* Petroleum
* Natural gas
3. Hydel Power

• Electricity from Coal => Thermal Power
• Formed millions of years ago => “ Buried Sunshine”

Leading Coal Producers of World

1. China
2. USA
3. Germany
4. Russia
5. South Africa
6. France

Coal Producing Areas of India:-

1. Ranigani → West Bengal
2. Jharia
3. Dhanbad 
4. Bokaro in Jharkhand

Petroleum → Rock Oil (Latin)

• Off – shore & coastal areas
• Black Gold

Petroleum Producing Countries

Chief Others
1. Iraq 1. USA
2. Iran 2. Russia
3. Saudi Arabia 3. Venezuela
4. Qatar 4. Algeria

IAS Guide Page 56

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Digboi→Assam
2. Bombay high→ Mumbai
3. Deltas of Krishna & Godavari rivers.

Natural Gas
• Found with Petroleum deposits
• Major Producers
1. Russia
2. Norway
3. UK
4. Netherlands

1. Jaisalmer
2. Krishna Godavari delta
3. Tripura
4. Some areas off shore in Mumbai.
• Very few countries have natural gas reserves of their own.

Adv Over Oils

• Easier transport (pipelines)
• Cleaner than oil & coal
• Cheaper than oil

Hydel Power
• Norway→ 1st Country to develop hydroelectricity
• 1/4th of world’s electricity is produced by Hydel power.

Leading Producers
1. Paraguay
2. Norway
3. Brazil
4. China

IAS Guide Page 57

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Hydel Power Stations in India

1. Bhakra Nangal
2. Gandhi Sagar
3. Nagarjun Sagar
4. Damodar valley projects
5. Salal project: Jammu & Kashmir.

→Non – Conventional Sources

1. Solar Energy
2. Wind Energy
3. Tidal Energy
4. Nuclear Energy
5. Biogas
6. Geothermal

Wind Energy
• Located in Coastal Regions & in mountain passes where strong & steady
winds blow.
1. Netherlands
2. Germany
3. Denmark
4. UK
5. USA
6. Spain

Disadvantages Advantages
* Noise Pollution - non – Polluting
* Costly
* Disturbs radio & TV reception
* Harmful to birds

Note→ The World’s 1st solar & wind powered Bus Shelter is in Scotland.

Nuclear Power
• USA, Europe → Largest Producers

IAS Guide Page 58

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Rajasthan & Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium.
2. Thorium is found in large quantities in monazite sands of Kerala.

Nuclear Power Stations

1. Kalpakkam→ Tamil Nadu
2. Tarapur→ Maharashtra
3. Ranapratap Sagar→ Rajasthan (near kota)
4. Narora→ Uttar Pradesh
5. Kaiga→ Karnataka

Geothermal Energy
• Heat energy obtained from earth.
• Used for cooking, bating etc

1. USA→ World’s largest Geothermal Plants
2. New Zealand
3. Ice land
4. Philippines
5. Central America

1. Manikaran→ Himachal Pradesh
2. Puga Valley→ Ladakh

Tidal Energy
• Harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of sea
• 1. Russia
2. France – 1st tidal energy built
3. Gulf of Kachchh in India

• Destroys wildlife habitat
• Difficult to harness

IAS Guide Page 59

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Primary Activities
• Extraction & Production of natural resources
• Example:-Agriculturing, fishing, gathering etc.

Secondary Activities
• Processing of resources.
• Example:-Manufacturing of steel, Banking of Bread, Weaving of Cloth.

Tertiary Activities
• Provide support to 1degree & 2degree sectors through services.
• Transport, Trade, Banking, Insurance, Advertising etc.

Arable Land→ Land on which crops are grown

• Agriculture→ Soil Cultivation (Latin)
• Sericulture→ Silk worms
• Pisciculture→ Fish
• Viticulture → Grapes
• Horticulture→ Veg, flowers, fruits for commercial use.

Types of Farming
1. Subsistence Farming Intensive
2. Commercial Farming :-
1. Grain Farming
2. Mixed Farming
3. Plantation

Subsistence Farming
• Practiced to meet needs of Farmers family.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

• Cultivation: Small plot => simple tools & more labour.

IAS Guide Page 60

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• More than one crop annually on same land.

• Rice: Main Crop
• Other: Wheat, Maize, Pulses, Oilseeds
• Regions: Thickly populated areas of monsoon regions of south, south – east &
East Asia.

Primitive Subsistence Farming

1. Shifting Cultivation
2. Nomadic herding

Shifting Cultivation
• Thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of South – East
Asia, North – East India.

These are regions of heavy rainfall & quick regeneration of vegetation.

• Land=> cleared=> burning=> ashes mixed with soil => Maize, yam, potatoes,
cassava=> grown
• Slash & burn agriculture.

Different Names
1. Jhumming→ North – East India
2. Milpa→ Mexico
3. Roca→ Brazil
4. Ladang→ Malaysia

Nomadic Herding
→Semi – arid & arid regions of: Sahara,
Central Asia,
India → Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir

→Hersmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder & water,
along defined routes, in response to climatic constraints & terrain.
→Sheep, Camel, yak, goats,
→Provide milk, meat, wool, hides etc to herders & their families.

IAS Guide Page 61

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Commercial Farming
• Crops are grown & animals are reared for sale in market.
• Large area cultivated, more capital, use of machines.

Commercial Grain Farming

• Crops grown for commercial purpose.
• Wheat & Maize
1. Temperate grasslands of North America
2. Europe
3. Asia

• These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds
of hectares.
• Severe winters restrict growing season & only a Single Crop can grown.

Mixed Farming
• Growing food & fodder crops
Rearing Livestock
• Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, South – East Australia, New Zealand, South

• Single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are
• Large labour & capital required
• Produce may be processed in farm itself or nearby factories.
• Thus, Development of transport network is essential.
• Mainly practiced in: Tropical Regions

1. Rubber in Malaysia
2. Coffee in Brazil
3. Tea in India & Srilanka

IAS Guide Page 62

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Major Crops
• Food Crops: Wheat, rice, maize, millets.
• Fibre Crops: Jute & cotton
• Beverage Crops: Tea & coffee

• Staple diet of tropical & sub-tropical regions.
- High temp, high rainfall & humidity
- Grows best in Alluvial Clayey soil, which retains water.

• In favourable climate, as in West Bengal & Bangladesh => 2 to 3 crops are

grown in a year.
• China→ leading producer,
India, Srilanka, Japan, Egypt

1. Moderate temp & rainfall during growing season
2. Bright sunshine at the time of harvest
3. Well drained Loamy Soil.
1. USA
2. Canada
3. Russia
4. Argentina
5. Ukraine
6. Australia
7. India→ Winter crop

• Also known as Coarse Grains.
• Can be grown on Less Fertile & Sandy Soils.
• It is Hardy Crop that needs low rainfall & high to moderate temp,
• Jowar, Bajra, Ragi→ India
• Nigeria, China, Niger

IAS Guide Page 63

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Maize → Also known as Corn.

1. Moderate Temperature
2. Moderate Rainfall
3. Lots of Sunshine
4. Well drained fertile soils.

1. North America
2. Brazil
3. China
4. Russia
5. Canada
6. India
7. Mexico

1. High temp
2. Light rainfall
3. 210 frost – free days
4. Bright Sun – shine for its growth.
5. Grows best on Black & Alluvial Soils.

1. China
2. USA
3. India
4. Pakistan
5. Brazil
6. Egypt

• “Golden Fibre”

IAS Guide Page 64

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Alluvial soil
2. High temp
3. Heavy rainfall
4. Humid climate

• Grown in tropical areas

• India, Bangladesh→ Leading Producers

1. Warm & wet climate
2. Well drained loamy soil
3. Hill slopes more suitable for growth.

1. Brazil→ leading producer
2. Columbia
3. India

1. Grown on plantations
2. Cool climate
3. Well distributed high rainfall throughout year for growth of its tender
4. Well drained loamy soils
5. Gentle slopes
6. Large labour required

1. Kenya
2. India Produce best quality
3. China tea in World.
4. Srilanka

IAS Guide Page 65

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Organic Farming:
• Organic manure & natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals.
• No genetic modification is done to increase yield of the crop.

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 66

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• 2 degree activities or manufacturing change raw materials into products of more

Example:-Pulp into paper, cotton into cloth

• Industry: Economic activity that is concerned with production of goods

(Example:- Iron & steel industry), extraction of minerals (Extraction of Coal→
Coal Mining Industry), or provision of services→ (Tourism industry – service

→Classification of Industries
Based on Raw Materials
1. Agro – based→ plant & animal products as raw material.

Leather, dairy, food processing etc
2. Mineral based→ 1degree industries, feed other industries.
3. Marine based→sea & oceans
4. Forest based→ furniture→ paper, pharmaceuticals

Based on Size
→Amount of capital invested, number of people employed, volume of

1. Small Scale Industries

• Cottage or household industries are type of SSIs where products are
manufactured by hand, by artisans.
Example:-Basket Weaving, Pottery etc
• Use less capital & technology
• Example:- Silk weaving, food processing

2. Large Scale Industries

• Automobiles, heavy machinery

Based on Ownership
1. Private

IAS Guide Page 67

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. State owned or public sector

3. Joint sector
4. Co – operative sector
Owned & operated by producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers
or both
Example:-Anand milk union limited Sudha diary

Factors Affecting Location of Industries

1. Raw material
2. Labour
3. Capital
4. Market
5. Water
6. Power
7. Land
8. Transport
9. Communication

Industrial System
- Consists of inputs, processes & output
- Example:- Textile Industry
Inputs→ Cotton, labour, factory, transport etc
Processes→ Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing.
Outputs→ Shirts, profits

Industrial Regions
1. Eastern North America
2. Western & Central Europe
3. Eastern Europe
4. Eastern Asia

Location: Temperate areas, near sea ports, near coal fields.

Industrial Regions of India

1. Mumbai – Pune cluster
2. Bangalore – Tamil Nadu region

IAS Guide Page 68

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Hugli region
4. Ahmadabad – Baroda region
5. Chottanagpur industrial belt
6. Vishakhapatnam – Guntur belt
7. Gurgaon – Delhi – Meerut region
8. Kollam – Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.

• Emerging Industries
→Also: “Sunrise Industries”

IT, wellness, hospitality & knowledge

Distribution of Major Industries

• Iron & Steel Industry: Germany, USA, China, Japan, Russia.
• Textile Industry: India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan.
• Information Technology: Silicon volley of central California, Bangalore.

Iron & Steel Industry

• Feeder Industry
• Coal + Iron Ore + Limestone = Steel
• Smelting is a process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating
beyond melting point.
• Steel: Backbone of modern industry.

Important Steel Producing Centres in India

• Bhilai→ Chhattisgarh
Durgapur→ West Bengal
Burnpur→ West Bengal
Jamshedpur→ Jharkhand
Rourkela→ West Bengal
Bokaro→ Jharkhand

• Bhadravati & Vijay Nagar => Karnataka

• Vishakhapatnam > Andhra Pradesh
• Salem => Tamil Nadu

IAS Guide Page 69

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Before 1947, only one => TISCO
• Tata Iron & Steel Company Limited (TISCO) started in 1907 at Sakchi (later
renamed as Jamshedpur)
• Jamshedpur is most conviently located iron & steel centre in India.
• It gets coal from : Jharia Coal fields

• Near confluence of rivers Subarnarekha (West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha) &

Kharkai in Jharkhand.
• Other industrial plants after TISCO
- Chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tin plate,
cable & wire.
• Almost all sectors of Indian industry depend heavily on iron & steel industry
for their basic infrastructure.

• Important steel city of USA.
• Iron ores from : Minnesota mines (1500km away)

• World’s best routes for Shipping Ore cheaply→ great lakes waterway
• Ohio, Monogahela, Allegheny rivers => adequate water

→Note: Great Lakes of USA

1. Superior
2. Huron
3. Ontario
4. Michigan
5. Erie
• Lake superior is largest
• It lies higher upstream than others.

IAS Guide Page 70

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Cotton Textile Industry

Raw Material: Fibre

Natural Man – made

Wool, Silk, Cotton, Nylon, Polyester, Acrylic

Linen, Jute Rayon

• It is one of the oldest industries in the world.

• India, china, Japan, USA→ Largest Producers of Cotton Textiles

Indian Famous Cotton Cloths

1. Muslins of Dhaka
2. Chintzes of Masulipatnam
3. Calicos of Calicut
4. Gold – Wrought of Burhanpur, Surat, Vadodara.

Known Worldwide for their Quality & Design

• The 1st successful mechanized textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

- Warm, moist climate
- A port for importing machinery
- Availability of raw material
- Skilled labour

Resulted in rapid development & expansion of the industry in the region

• Initially, industry flourished in Maharashtra& Gujarat because of Favourable

humid climate
• But today, Humidity can be created artificially, & raw cotton is pure & not
weight losing raw material, so this industry has to spread to other parts.

Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmadabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana,
Puducherry & Panipat

IAS Guide Page 71

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Note→ 1st textile mill in Country=>Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818 (closed
after some time)
• About 1/3rd of Indian Textile production=> exported.

• On banks of Sabarmati River.
• First mill => 1859
• Soon became the 2nd largest textile city after Mumbai, therefore often called
→ “Manchester of India”.

Factors Responsible for growth of mills (Locational Factors)

1. Very close to cotton growing area
2. Climate: ideal for spinning & weaving.
3. Flat terrain & easy availability of land for starting mills.
4. Densely populated states: Maharashtra, Gujarat=> provide skilled &
semi – skilled labour.
5. Well developed road & railway network=> provides easy access to market
6. Mumbai port nearby facilitates import of machinery & export of cotton

Some Problems
1. Emergence of new textile centre in Country
2. Non – Up – gradation of machine & tech in mills of Ahmadabad.

• Important textile centre of Japan => “Manchester of Japan”.

Factors Responsible
1. Extensive plain => land easily available
2. Warm humid climate
3. River Yodo => sufficient water for mills
4. Labour
5. Location of port

• Osaka Industries depends completely upon imported raw materials from

Egypt, India, China & USA.
• Finished Product (demand) => good quality + low price

IAS Guide Page 72

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Now, Textile Mills has been replaced by iron & steel, machinery, shipbuilding,
automobiles, electrical equipment and cement.

→Information Technology (IT)

• It deals with the storage, processing & distribution of information.
• Global => Due to technological, political & socio – economic events.
• Hubs : 1. Silicon valley, California
2. Bangalore

• Bangalore is located on the Deccan plateau from where it gets the name –
“Silicon Plateau”

- Mild climate throughout year
- Largest number of educational institutions & IT colleges in India
- Dust free, low rents, low cost of living.
- Karnataka Government was the 1st to announce an IT Policy in 1992.
- Largest availability of skilled workforce with work experience

• Silicon Valley→ Part of Santa Clara valley, located next to the Rocky
Mountains of North America.

- Temperate Climate
- Close to Scientific & Technological Centres in World
- Major Roads, airports
- Access to Market, labour

• Other Cities: Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Gurgaon, Pune,

Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Chandigarh.

IAS Guide Page 73

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• Ministry of HRD => 1985 => To Improve people’s skills.

• Population: extremely uneven distribution.
• More than 90% lives in 10% of land surface.
• Almost three – quarters of World’s people live in Asia & Africa.
• 60% of World’s People stay in just 10 Countries.

10 Most Populated Countries

1. China
2. India
3. USA
4. Indonesia
5. Brazil
6. Pakistan
7. Nigeria
8. Bangladesh
9. Russia
10. Japan

Density of Population
• World’s average => 51 persons /Sq.km
• South Central Asia has highest density followed by East & South – East Asia.
• Average : India => 382 persons/Sq.km

Factors Affecting Population Distribution

1. Topography 1. Social – Education, Health, Housing

2. Climate 2. Cultural – Varanasi, Vatican City
3. Soil 3. Economic – Industrial Areas
4. Water
5. Minerals

IAS Guide Page 74

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Population Change
• Untill 1800s→ World’s population grew steadily but slowly. Because Birth &
Death rates→ more.
• 1804→ Reached 1 billion
• 1959→ 3 billion Population
• 1999→ 6 billion explosion
• Birth Rate: No of live births per 1000 people.
• Death Rate : No of deaths / 1000 people
• Migration→ Movement of People in & out of an area.
• Natural Growth Rate→ Difference between Birth & Death rate.
• Population increase in World is mainly due to rapid increase in Natural
Growth Rate.
• Emigration (out – migration)→ When a person leaves a country
• Immigration (In – migration)→ When a person enters a new Country.

→Population Composition
• Refers to Structure of Population.
• Population Pyramid => “Age – Sex Pyramid”.

• The shape of Pyramid tells the story of people living in that particular country.
• The number of children (below 15 year) is shown at Bottom & reflects the level
of Births.
• The size of top shows the number of aged people (above 65 years) and reflects
the number of deaths.

• It also tells us how many dependents are there in a country.

Young Dependents Elderly Dependents

(Below 15 years) (Over 65 years)

• Working age –=> Economically active

• The population Pyramid in which Birth & Death Rates – both high

IAS Guide Page 75

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Broad at base & rapidly narrows towards the top

Because although many children are born, a large % of them die in their
infancy, relatively few become adults & there are very few old people.

Source: NCERT 8th Geography: Our Environment

• In Countries where Death Rates (especially among very young) are


Pyramid is Broad in the younger are groups, because more infants survive to

Such populations contain a relatively large number of young people & which
means a strong & Expanding Labour Force.

IAS Guide Page 76

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Source: NCERT 8th Geography: Our Environment

• In Countries like Japan,

Low birth rates makes pyramid Narrow at the base.
Decreased death rates allow number of people to reach old age.

Source: NCERT 8th Geography: Our Environment

IAS Guide Page 77

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Skilled, spirited & hopeful young people endowed with positive outlook are
future of any nation. We in India are fortunate to have such resource. They
must be educated & provided skills & opportunities to become able &

IAS Guide Page 78

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Chapter – 4: Class 9th NCERT Synopsis


• Lies entirely in Northern Hemisphere.

• The Southernmost point of India→ “Indira Point” got submerged under sea
water in 2004 during Tsunami.
• Land Mass : 3.28 million Sq.km
• 2.4% of World’s areas
• 7th largest
• Land Boundary : 15,200km
Length of coastline (Including A & N Lakshadweep): 7516.6km
• Bounded by young fold mountains in the North – West, North & North East.
• Latitudinal & Longitudinal extent : About 30degree
• From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh – Time lag: 2 hours. Hence, time along
standard meridian of India (82degree 30’E) passing through Mirazpur (Uttar
Pradesh) is taken as IST.
• East – West : 2933km
North – South: 3214km
• India: Central between East & West Asia.
India is Southern extension of Asian continent.
• No other Country has a long coastline on Indian Ocean as India has.
• Since opening of Suez Canal in 1869, India – Europe distance reduced by

7 Largest Countries
1. Russia
2. Canada
3. USA
4. China
5. Brazil
6. Australia
7. India

• India’s Contact with world through land routes are much older than her
maritime contacts.

IAS Guide Page 79

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→India’s Neighbours
1. Pakistan→
1. Gujarat Zero
2. Rajasthan Point
3. Punjab→ Wagha line
4. Jammu & Kashmir→ Loc
2. Afghanistan→ Jammu and Kashmir

1. China (Tibet)→ LAC
1. Jammu and Kashmir – Aksai chin (LAC) →(China)
2. Uttarakhand
3. Himachal Pradesh
4. Sikkim
5. Arunachal Pradesh→ Mc Mahon line

2. Nepal
1. Uttarkhand
2. Uttar Pradesh
3. Bihar
4. Sikkim
5. West Bengal

3. Bhutan
1. Assam→ shares longest border
2. Arunachal Pradesh
3. West Bengal
4. Sikkim (Lowest)

1. Bangladesh
1. Assam→ 4th
2. Tripura→2nd longest
3. Mizoram→ Lowest
4. Meghalaya→ 3rd
5. West Bengal→Shares longest (2217 km)

IAS Guide Page 80

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Myanmmar (Burma)
1. Mizoram
2. Manipur
3. Nagaland
4. Arunachal Pradesh

Southern Neighbours Across Sea

1. Srilanka
Separated by Palk Strait & Gulf of Mannar

2. Maldives Islands
South of Lakshadweep

→Length of Borders (Highest to Lowest)

1. Bangladesh → 4096.7km
2. China → 3488km
3. Pakistan → 3323km
4. Nepal → 1751km 15,106.7km
5. Myanmmar → 1,643km
6. Bhutan → 699km
7. Afghanistan → 106km

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 81

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• India is a large landmass formed during different geological periods which has
influenced her relief.

“Theory of Plate Tectonics”

According to this, the Crust of the earth has been formed out of 7 major &
some minor plates.

Movement of plates => stresses within plates
& rocks above => Folding, faulting, Volcanic Activity.

3 Types of Plate Movements
1. Convergent Boundary→ Towards each other
2. Divergent→ away
3. Transform→ Horizontal

• The oldest landmass (Peninsula part), was part of Gondwana Land.

Gondwana Land
1. India
2. Australia As one single
3. South Africa land mass
4. South America
5. Antarctica

• Gondwana→ Split into number of pieces→ Drifting of Indo – Australian Plate

towards North→ Collided with much larger Eurasian plate. Due to this
collision, Sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in geosynclines known
as ‘Tethys’ were folded to form the mountain s/m of Western Asia & Himalaya.

• The Himalayan uplift out of Tethys Sea & subsistence of northern flank of
Peninsular Plateau resulted in formation of a Large Basin.

In due course of time this depression, got filled up with sediments of northern
rivers & rivers from Peninsular plateau in south

IAS Guide Page 82

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

A flat land of alluvial deposits led to formation of Northern Plains of India.

→Peninsular Plateau
• One of ancient landmasses on earth’s surface.
• Supposed to be one of most stable land blocks.

→Himalayas & Northern Plains

• Most recent land forms.
• Himalayas form Unstable Zone

Youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys & fast flowing rivers

→Peninsular Plateau is composed of Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks with

gently rising hills & wide valleys.

• Gondwana Land→ It is southern part of ancient super continent Pangia with
Angara Land in the northern part.

Major Plates
1. Eurasian Plate
2. North American Plate
3. South American Plate
4. African Plate
5. Indo – Australian Plate

• Most Volcanoes & Earthquakes in World – located at Plate Margins but some
do occur within plates.

→Major Physiographic Divisions

1. The Himalayan Mountains
2. The Northern Plains
3. The Peninsular Plateau
4. The Indian Desert
5. The Coastal Plains
6. The Islands

IAS Guide Page 83

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

The Himalayan Mountains

• Young fold mountains
• One of loftiest, most rugged mountains of World.
• Width varies : 400km : Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal→ 150km
• Altitude variation→ greater in the eastern half than western half.

→3 Parallel Ranges
1. Greater or Inner Himalayas or Himadri→ Northern most Range
• Most continuous range, loftiest peaks – Average height 6000m
• Contains all prominent Himalayan peaks
• Folds : Asymmetrical in nature
• Core of this part: composed of “Granite”.
• Perennially snow bound, & number of Glaciers descend from this range.

2. Himachal or Lesser Himalaya

• Lies South of Himadri
• Most rugged mountain system
• Ranges : Highly compressed & altered rocks
• Altitude : Between 3700m & 4500m & Average width : 50km
• Pir Panjal Range→ Longest & most important range.
• Dhaula Dhar & Mahabharat ranges→ other important
• This range consists of famous valley of Kashmir, Kangra & Kullu valley in
Himachal Pradesh.
• Well known for Hill Stations. (Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet)

3. Shiwaliks
• Outer most range
• Width : 10-50km & height : 900 – 1100m
• Composed of unconsolidated sediments brought by rivers from northern
Himalayan range.
• Valleys→ Thick gravel, Alluvium
• Duns→ Longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalayas & Shiwaliks.
Examples:-Dehra Dun, Kotli dun, Patli dun.
→ Himalayan Division Based on Regions from West to East
-Demarcated by river valleys

IAS Guide Page 84

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Between Indus & Satluj Rivers

- Punjab Himalaya also called Kashmir & Himachala Himalaya (Regionally)
from west to east respectively.

2. Between Satluj & Kali Rivers

Kumaon Himalayas

3. Between Kali & Tista rivers

Nepal Himalayas

4. Between Tista & Dihang Rivers

Assam Himalayas

• Brahmaputra marks eastern most Boundary of Himalayas.

• Beyond Dihang Gorge, they bend sharply to south & spread along eastern
boundary of India.

“Purvachal or Eastern Hills”
• These hills in North – East => composed => strong Sandstones which are
sedimentary rocks.
• Run as parallel ranges, dense forest

Purvachal Comprises
1. Patkai hills
2. Naga hills
3. Manipur hills
4. Mizo hills

The Northern Plain

• Formed by interplay of 3 rivers – Indus, Ganga & Brahmaputra & their
• Alluvial soil
• 7 lakh Sq.km, 2400km long.
• Densely populated
• Agriculturally very productive
• In lower course => gentle slope
=>Velocity of rivers decreases

IAS Guide Page 85

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

=>Results in formation of Riverine Islands.

Examples:-Majuli→ in Brahmaputra River is largest inhabited Riverine island

in the World.

• Lower Course => Rivers split into numerous channels due to deposition of silt
=> Distributaries

Northern Plain divided into 3 sections:-

1. Punjab Plains
- Western part of North Plains
- Formed by Indus & its tributaries.
- Larger part lies in Pakistan
- Dominated by “Doabs” (do→ two, ab => water)

2. Ganga Plains
- Extends between Ghaggar & Teesta rivers.
- North India: Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Partly Jharkhand &
West Bengal to its East.

3. Brahmaputra Plain
- Assam

→Division of Plains According to Variation n Relief Features:-

(4 Types)
1. Babar
• Rivers, after descending from mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of
about 8 to 16km in width lying parallel to slopes of Shivaliks, knows as Babar.
• All streams disappear in this Babar belt.

2. Terai
• South of Babar belt, the streams & rivers re-emerge & create a Wet, Swampy
& Marshy region known as Terai.
• Thickly forested region full of wildlife.
• Forests => Cleared to create agricultural land & to settle migrants from
Pakistan after partition.
• Examples:- Dudhwa National Park

IAS Guide Page 86

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

- Uttar Pradesh
- Tiger Reserve
- Kishanpur & Katarighat wildlife sanctuary
- Swamp deer, Hispid hare, Barasingha

3. Bhangar
• Largest part of northern plain formed of older alluvium. They lie above flood
plains of rivers & present a terrace like feature → Bhangar
• The soil in this region contains Calcareous Deposits locally Known as

4. Khadar
• The newer, younger deposits of flood plains.
• They are renewed almost every year & so are fertile,
→Ideal for intensive agriculture

Indus Tributaries: 1. Jhelum
2. Chenab
Originate 3. Ravi
In Himalaya 4. Beas
5. Satluj

The Peninsular Plateau

• It is a tableland composed of old crystalline, igneous & metamorphic rocks
• Formed due to breaking & drifting of Gondwana land & thus, part of oldest
• Has Broad & Shallow valley, & Rounded hills.

2 Broad Divisions :-
1. Central Highlands
2. The Deccan plateau

Central Highlands
- Part of Peninsular Plateau lying to the north of Narmada River covering
major area of Malwa Plateau is known as central highlands.

IAS Guide Page 87

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

- Flow of rivers in this region is from South – West to North – East, thus
indicating slope.

1. Chambal
2. The Sind
3. Betwa
4. Ken

→They are wider in West but narrower in the East.

→The eastward Extension of this Plateau are locally known as
‘Bundelkhand’ & ‘Baghelkhand’.
→The Chotanagpur Plateau, further eastern extension, drained by Damodar

The Deccan Plateau

- It is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada.
- Bounded by
• North : Satpura range
• Mahadev, Kaimur hills, Maikal range→ Form its eastern extension
• It is higher in the west & slopes gently towards east.
• Its extension in North – East :
1. Meghalaya
2. Karbi – Anglong Plateau
3. North Chachar Hills

• North – East is separated by a fault from Chotanagpur Plateau.

• 3 hills ranges from West to East: Garo, Khasi, Jaintia Hills

Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats mark the western & Eastern edges of Deccan
plateau respectively.


1. Lie parallel to West coast, 1. They stretch from Mahanadi valley
continuous & can be crossed to Nilgiris in South, discontinuous,
through passes only. irregular & dissected by rivers
Example:- Thal, Bhor & Pal Ghats draining into bay of Bengal.

IAS Guide Page 88

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. They are higher than eastern 2. Lower Average Elevation: 600m

Average elevation : 900-1600m
3. Highest peaks include the Anai 3. Mahendragiri (1501m) is the
Mudi (2695m) & Doda betta (2637) highest peak.
4. Hill Stations :Ooty, Kodaikenal 4. Shevroy hills, Javadi hills→ located
to South – East & eastern Ghats
5. They cause orographic rain by
facing rain bearing minds to rise
along western slopes of Ghats
6. Their height progressively
increases from North to South.

• One of distinct feature of Peninsular Plateau is the black soil area known as
Deccan Trop.

• Volcanic origin => So igneous rocks
• Rocks denuded over time => formation of black soil.
• Aravalli Hills lie western & northernmost margin of this plateau

Highly eroded hills & found as broken hills. Extend from GI to Delhi in South
West – North East direction.

The Indian Desert

• Lies Western margin of Aravalli hills.
• Sand dunes
• Very low rainfall : 150mm per year
• Arid climate, low vegetation
• Luni→ Only River in this region.
• Barchans→ Crescent shaped dunes, cover larger areas but longitudinal dunes
becomes prominent near India – Pakistan Boundary

The Coastal Plains

Western Coast
- Sandwiched between western Ghats & Arabian sea
- Narrow Plain
- Consists of 3 sections
1. Konkan (Mumbai – Goa)→ Northern part of coast

IAS Guide Page 89

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Kannad Plain→ Central stretch

3. Malabar Coast→Southern stretch

Eastern Coast
- Plains along Bay of Bengal are Wide & Level.
- 2 sections
1. Northern Circar→ North part
2. Coromandel Coast→ South part
- Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri – formed extensive deltas
- Lake Chilka
• Largest salt water lake in India.
• Odisha, to south of Mahanadi delta.

The Islands
→The Lakshadweep Islands
- Close to Malabar Coast
- Small Coral Islands
- Earlier : Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindive
- 1973 : Present name
- Kavaratti island : Hq
- Pitti Island→ Uninhabited, bird sanctuary

→Andaman & Nicobar Islands

• Bigger in size, more numerous & scattered.
• Believed that => Andaman & Nicobar are elevated portion of Submarine
• Strategic importance
• Lie close to equator & experience equatorial climate & has thick forest cover
• Barren island (Andaman & Nicobar) => India’s only active Volcano

IAS Guide Page 90

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• The area drained by a single river system is called a Drainage Basin
• Water Divide→ Upland separates 2 drainage basins.

→Himalayan Rivers
• Perennial→ Rain and Snow
• Indus, Brahmaputra→ Originate from North of Mountain Ranges.

• They have long courses from source to Sea.

-Upper Coarse: Erosional Activity, huge silt

-Middle, Lower→ Meanders, Oxbow Lakes, Flood plains, Deltas

→The Peninsular Rivers

• Seasonal→ depends on rainfall
• Shorter & shallower courses compared to Himalayan Rivers.
• Most of them originate in Western Ghats & flow towards Bay of Bengal.
However some originate in Central highlands & flows towards Arabian Sea→
Narmada, Tapi

→Drainage Patterns
- Depends on slope of land, underlying rock structures, climate.

1. Dendritic→ Branches of tree, develop where river flows slope of terrain
2. Trellis→ Right angles, forms → where Hard & Soft rocks exists parallel
to each other.
3. Rectangular→ Develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain
4. Rodial→ Streams flow in different directions from central peak or dome
– like structure.

A combination of these may be found in the same drainage basin.

Himalayan Rivers
1. Indus
2. Ganga
3. Brahmaputra

IAS Guide Page 91

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→River + tributaries = River System

Indus River System

• Source: Rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar.
• Enters India in Ladakh dist of Jammu and Kashmir pass through Gilgit
→forms Picturesque Gorge

• Tributaries in Kashmir Region:

1. Zaskar
2. Nubra
3. Shyok
4. Hunza

• Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab & Jhelum join together to enter Indus near
Mithankot in Pakistan. Beyond this, it flows southwards reaching Arabian
Sea, East of Karachi.
• Indus Plain: Very gentle slope
• Total length: 2900km
• Over 1/3rd Indus basin is located in India & rest in Pakistan.

1. Jammu & Kashmir
2. Himachal Pradesh
3. Punjab

Indus Water Treaty (1960)

India can use only 20% of total water carried by Indus river system→ used for
irrigation in Punjab, Haryana & Southern & Western Rajasthan.

→The Ganga River System

• Head waters of Ganga Bhagirathi→ fed by Gangotri Glacier & joined by
Alaknanda at Devaprayag ( uttarakhand)
• Haridwar→ Ganga enters plains

• Yamuna => Yamunotri glacier

-Flows parallel to ganga
-Joins at Allahabad

IAS Guide Page 92

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Ganga Flows east wards till Farakka in West Bengal =>northernmost point
of Ganga delta.


- Bhagirathi – Hughly flows southwards through deltaic plains to bay of
- Mainstream, flows southwards into Bangladesh & is joined by
Brahmaputra. => Sunderban delta

• Length of Ganga: 2500km

• Sunderban Delta→ Sundari tree, Marshland, world’s largest & fastest
growing delta, home to Royal Bengal tiger.

→ Ambala →Water divide between Ganga & Indus

→ The Brahmaputra River System

• Source: Rises in Tibet east of Mansarowar Lake very close to sources of Indus
& Satluj.
• Longer than Indus & most of its course lies outside India.
• Flows parallel to Himalayas. On reaching Namcha Barva, it takes ‘U’ turn &
enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge→ Here, it is called

Joined by Dibang, Lohit & others to form Brahmaputra in Assam

• In Tibet→ Carries small volume of water & less silt as it is cold & dry area.
• In India→Passes through high rainfall regions→ carries large volume of water
& huge amount of silt.

IAS Guide Page 93

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

It has a Braided Channel in Assam & forms many riverine islands.

• Every year – rainy season: over flaws its banks, floods in Assam &
• It is marked by huge deposits of silt on its bed causing the river bed to rise.
• Shifts its channel frequently.

=>Peninsular Rivers
• Water Divide: Western Ghats
1. Mahanadi
2. Godavari Eastwards, Bay of
3. Krishna Bengal, Deltas
4. Kaveri

1. Narmada Westwards, Arabian Sea,

2. Tapi Esturies

Narmada Basin
• Source: Amarakantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
• Flows in a Rift Valley formed due to faulting.
• Picturesque locations
Examples:-‘Marble rocks’ near Jabalpur where it flows through deep gorge,
Dhuadhar Falls.
• Tributaries join at right angles.
• Covers Madhya Pradesh& Gujarat.

Tapi Basin
• Source→Satpura ranges, in the Betul dist of Madhya Pradesh.
• Flows in Rift Valley parallel to Narmada.
• Covers : Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra

Other West Flowing Rivers

- Coastal plains between Western Ghats & Arabian Sea are very narrow.
Hence, coastal rivers are short.

IAS Guide Page 94

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Source: Dhebar Lake, Aravallis (Rajasthan)

1. Sabarmati Gujarat, Rajasthan
Gulf of Cambay: Arabian Sea
2. Mahi→ Rises in Madhya Pradesh→Gujarat,
Rajasthan→ Gulf of Khambat
3. Bharathpuzha→ Also: River Nila→ Kerala→ 2nd longest
in Kerala →Source: Annamalai Hills
4. Periyar

- Longest in Kerala
- Perennial
- Idukki Dam
- Kochi City
- Source: Sivagiri Hills (Tamil Nadu)

Godavari Basin→ 1500km

• Largest Peninsular river
• Source: slopes of Western Ghats in Nasik dist of Maharashtra.
• Maharashtra (50%), Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh
• Because of length & area it covers => “Dakshin Ganga”.

1. Purna
2. Wardha
3. Pranhita
4. Manjra
5. Wainganga
6. Penganga

Mahanadi Basin→ 860m

• Rises in highlands of Chhattisgarh
• Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha

Krishna Basin→ 1400km

• Source : Spring near Mahabaleshwar
1. Tungabhadra
2. Koyana

IAS Guide Page 95

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Ghatprabha
4. Musi
5. Bhima
• Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh

Kaveri Basin – 760km

• Source : Brahmagiri range of Western Ghats
• Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
1. Amravati
2. Bhavani
3. Hemavati
4. Kabini

Other East Flowing Rivers

1. Damoder
• West Bengal, Jharkhand
• Sorrow of Bengal
• Rich in minerals
• Mouth : Hooghly river

2. Brahmani River
• Odisha
• Confluence of Sankh & South Koel Rivers
• Together with Mahanadi, Baitarani, it forms large delta.

3. Baitarani River→ Odisha


4. Subarnarekha River
• Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha
• Source: Piska/Nagri near Ranchi, Chotanagpur Plateau
• Hundru falls, Getalsud dam

Note: Lakes of large extent are called the Seas.
Example:-Caspian, dead & Aral Seas.

IAS Guide Page 96

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Meandering river across flood – plains forms Ox – bow Lake.

• Spits & bars form lagoons in the coastal areas.
Examples:-Chilka lake, Pulicat lake, Kolleru lake.

• Inland Lakes: Seasonal

Examples:-Sambar lake: Rajasthan

- Salt Water Lake
- Produce salt

Fresh Water Lakes

1. Wular Lake – Jammu & Kashmir
*Result of tectonic activity.
* Largest freshwater lake in India.
2. Dal Lake – Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir
3. Bhimtal – Uttarakhand
4. Nainital – Uttarakhand
5. Loktak – Manipur
6. Barapani (Umiam Lake) – Meghalaya

Man – made Lakes

• Guru Gobind Sagar (Bhakra Nangal Project)
→ Himachal Pradesh, Satluj River

Nizam Sagar Dam
- Manjira river ( Tributary of Godavari)
- Telangana

Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

- World’s largest masonry dam
- Krishna river
- Nalgonda district of Telangana & Guntur of Andhra Pradesh

Rana Pratap Sagar Dam

- Gravity masonry dam
- Chambal River: Rawatbhata in Rajasthan.

IAS Guide Page 97

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Gandhi Sagar Dam

- Chambal river
- Madhya Pradesh

Jawahar Sagar Dam

- Chambal River
- Rajasthan

Hirakud Dam
- Mahanadi river
- Odisha

Indira Gandhi Canal

- Starts from Harike Barrage at Ferozepur, confluence of Sutlej & Beas Rivers
in Punjab.
- Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana

IAS Guide Page 98

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• The Climate of India is “Monsoon type”. In Asia, it is mainly found in South

& SE.
• Monsoon =>Arabic word – ‘Mausim’→ Season.
• Monsoon refers to seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.
• Annual precipitation varies from over 400cm in Meghalaya to less than 10cm
in Ladakh & western Rajasthan.
• Decrease in rainfall from East to West in northern plains.

Climatic Controls
1. Latitude
2. Altitude
3. Pressure & wind system
4. Distance from sea (Continentality→ Very hot in summer, very cold in
5. Ocean currents
6. Relief→Examples :- Himalayas→ Mountain barriers, Stop cold winds
from North and Western Ghats→ Orographic rain

• Tropic of cancer – Middle of Country from Rann of Kuchchh in West to
Mizoram in East.
• Northern part => Sub – tropics
Southern part => Tropics
• Therefore, India’s climate has features of Tropical as well as Subtropical

- Himalayas prevent cold winds from central Asia from entering India.
→Therefore, Milder winters as compared to Central Asia.

Pressure & Winds

1. Pressure & surface winds
2. Upper air circulation
3. Western cyclonic disturbances & tropical cyclones.

IAS Guide Page 99

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→ North Easterly Winds

• Originate from subtropical – high – pressure belt of northern hemisphere,
blow south, get deflected to right due to coriolis force, & move on towards
equatorial low – Pressure area.

Carry little moisture as they originate & blow over land => No rain to India.
→Monsoon Winds: South – West
→Upper air circulation is dominated by
Westerly flow => Jet stream

• Jet streams are located over 27degree – 30degree N latitude, therefore, known as
Subtropical Westerly Jet Streams.
• Over India, they blow south of Himalayas, all through the year except in
• The western cyclonic disturbances in north & N-W of India are brought in by
this westerly flow.

→ Summer→Subtropical westerly jet streams moves north of Himalayas with

apparent movement of sun.
An easterly jet stream, called “Sub – tropical easterly jet stream”. Blows over
peninsular India, over 14degree N during summer months

Jet Streams:
• Narrow belt of high altitude (above 12,000m) westerly winds in the
• Speed varies from about 110km/hr in summer to about 184km/hr in winter.
Examples: Mid – latitude, subtropical jet stream.

Western Cyclonic Disturbances

• Weather phenomenon of winter months brought in by westerly flow from
Mediterranean Region.
• Influence weather of north & North – West parts of India.

IAS Guide Page 100

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Tropical Cyclones
• Occur during monsoon as well as during October – November
• Are part of easterly flow
• Affect coastal regions of India.
Examples:-Andhra Coast,
Orissa Coast

Coriolis Force
• An apparent force caused by Earth’s Rotation.
• Responsible for deflecting winds towards right in Northern Hemisphere &
towards left in Southern Hemisphere

“Ferrel’s Law”

→The Indian Monsoon

• Between 20degree N & 20degree S→ Monsoon

Factors that Influence Indian Monsoon:

1. The differential heating & cooling of land & water→ creates low pressure
on landmass of India while seas around experience comparatively high

2. ITCZ in summer→ Shift over Ganga plain (this is Equatorial trough

positioned about 5degreeN of Equator. Also→ Monsoon trough during
Monsoon Season)

3. Presence of High Pressure are East of Madagascar, approximately at

20degree S over Indian ocean. The intensity & position of high pressure
area affects Indian monsoon.

4. Intense heating of Tibetan plateau during summer, results in strong

vertical air currents & formation of low pressure over plateau.

5. Movement of westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas &

presence of tropical easterly jet stream over Indian Peninsula in summer.

IAS Guide Page 101

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

6. Changes in pressure conditions over southern oceans also affects the


Southern Oscillation (SO)
• Normally when tropical eastern South Pacific Ocean experiences high
pressure, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean experiences low pressure.
• But in certain years, there is a reversal in pressure conditions & eastern
pacific has lower pressure in comparison to eastern Indian Ocean. This
periodic change in pressure conditions is known as Southern Oscillation.

Below average & late monsoons
• A feature connected with ‘SO’ is ‘El Nino’ Phenomenon in which a warm ocean
current that flows past the Peruvian coast, in place of cold Peruvian current,
every 2 to 5 years.
• The changes in pressure conditions are connected to the El Nino. Hence, the
Phenomenon is referred to as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation)

Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
• ITCZ is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes.
• Zone where the northeast & southeast trade winds converge.
• Lies parallel to equator but moves north or south with the apparent movement
of the Sun.

El Nino
• Name given to periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast
of Peru as a temporary replacement of cold Peruvian current.
• It is a Spanish word meaning ‘The Child’, & refers to Baby Christ, as this
current starts flowing during Christmas.
• Presence of El Nino leads to an increase in sea – surface temperatures &
weakening of trade winds in the region.

→The Onset of the Monsoon & Withdrawal

• Duration: Early June – Mid September
• Burst→Monsoon increases suddenly & continues constantly for several days
& is different from Pre – monsoon showers.
• Reaches India : 1st Week of June (South tip)

IAS Guide Page 102

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Arabian sea & Bay of Bengal branches

- Assam : June 1st week
- Mountains deflect towards west, over Ganga plains

• Both branches merge over North – West parts of Ganga Plains.

• Delhi→Bay of Bengal Branch→ End of June (29th).
• July 1st→ West Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, East Rajasthan
• Mid – July→Himachal Pradesh & rest of Country

→Withdrawal or retreat of Monsoon (Gradual Process)

• Begins : North – West India : Early September
• Mid – October: Withdraws completely from Northern half of Peninsula.

Withdrawal from Southern half is rapid

• Early December →Withdrawn from rest of country.

→Islands receive very 1st monsoon showers, progressively from south to north.
→Withdrawal→ North to south

→The Seasons
1. Cold Weather Season
2. Hot Weather Season
3. Advancing Monsoon
4. Retreating Monsoon

Cold Weather Season

• December & January: Coldest in North.
• Temp decrease from South to North.
• Days are warm & nights: Cold
• Frost common in north &
• North – East Trade Winds
- Land to sea – Most part, no rain
- Tamil Nadu coast : rainfall, sea to land
• North => feeble high pressure develops, light winds moving outwards.

IAS Guide Page 103

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Clear Sky, low temp, low humidity, feeble, variable winds.

Western Cyclonic Disturbances

- West & North – West
- Low pressure systems
- Cause Winter Rains over plains & snowfall in mountains.
- Although total amount of rainfall locally known as “Mahawat” is small, very
important for cultivation of Rabi Crops.

• Peninsular Region: Doesn’t have well defined cold season, hardly any change
in temp pattern – due to moderating influence of sea.

Hot Weather Season (Summer)

• North: Increase in temp, low pressure
• Towards end of May, an elongated low pressure area develops from Thar
Desert to Chotanagpur plateau in east & South East.

- Strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blows during day over North & North –
West India. (Sometimes until late evening)
- Direct exposure => fatal

Dust Storms
- Very common in North in May.
- Bring temporary relief as they lower temp & may bring light rain & cool

• Season for localized thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential

downpours, often accompanied by hail.

In West Bengal→ These storms are called→ Kaal Baisakhi.
• Towards end of summer, Pre – monsoon showers are common especially, in
Kerala & Karnataka.

They help in the early ripening of mangoes & are referred to as “Mango

IAS Guide Page 104

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Advancing Monsoon (Rainy Season)

• South – West monsoons, Average velocity: 30km/hr
• Mawsynram in southern ranges of Khasi Hills receives highest average
rainfall in the World.
• Ganga Plain: Rainfall decreases from East to West.

Monsoon Breaks
• Its tendency to have breaks in rainfall. Thus, it has Wet & Dry spells.
• Rain takes place only few days at a time. They are interspersed with Rainless
Intervals. This is related to movement of monsoon trough→ moves north or

Determines spatial distribution of rainfall

Examples:-If trough lies: Plain => good rainfall in plains,
If in Himalayas (Northward Shift) => Dry spells in plains, rain
in mountain areas of Himalayan Rivers => Floods

Tropical Depressions
• Frequency & intensity of these depressions determine amount & duration of
monsoon rain.
- They form at head of Bay of Bengal & cross over to mainland.
- They follow the axis of monsoon trough of low pressure.
• Monsoon→ Uncertain.

Retreating/Post Monsoon (The Transition Season)

• October – November: Sun→ movement southwards, monsoon trough weakens,
replaced by high pressure.
• The months of October – November form a period of transition from hot rainy
season to dry winter conditions.
• Retreat of monsoon is marked by clear skies & rise in temp.
• While day temperatures are high, nights are cool & pleasant. The land is still
moist. Owing to conditions of high temp & humidity, the weather becomes
rather oppressive during the day. This is commonly known as “October Heat”.
• 2nd half of October – North: Temp decrease rapidly.

IAS Guide Page 105

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• The low – pressure conditions, over north – west India, get transferred to Bay
of Bengal by early November. This shift is associated with occurrence of
Cyclonic Depressions, which originate over Andaman Sea.

• These Tropical Cyclones cause heavy & widespread rain across eastern coast
of India. These are often destructive.
• Thickly populated deltas of Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri are frequently struck
by cyclones, great damage to life & property.
• Sometimes, they hit coasts of Orissa, West Bengal & Bangladesh.
• The bulk of rainfall of Coromandel Coast is derived from depressions &

Distribution of Rainfall
• High Rainfall (Above 400m)
→Parts of Western Coasts
→North – East

• Low Rainfall (Less than 60cm)

→Western Rajasthan
→Adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab
→Leh in Jammu & Kashmir
→Interior of Deccan Plateau
→East of Sahyadris
• Rest of Country: Moderate Rainfall


• Mawsynram→ Wettest place, also famous for “ Stalagmite” & “Stalactite

IAS Guide Page 106

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• India: One of 12 mega – biodiversity Countries.

• Plant Diversity→ 10th in World, 4th in Asia.
• Natural Vegetation refers to a Plant Community which has grown naturally
without human aid & has been left undisturbed by humans for long time. This
is termed as a “Virgin Vegetation”.

→Factors Responsible for Flora & Faunal Diversity:

1. Relief
a. Land
b. Soil
Examples:-Sandy soil→ Cactus
Marshy soil→ Mangroves
Hill slopes with some depth of soil→Conical Trees

2. Climate
a. Temperature
b. Photoperiod (Sunlight)
c. Precipitation
→Biomes are identified on the basis of plants.

→Types of Vegetation in India

1. Tropical evergreen forests
2. Tropical deciduous forests
3. Tropical thorn forests & shrubs
4. Montane forests
5. Mangrove forests

Tropical Evergreen Forests

- Heavy rainfall areas
- More than 200cm with short dry season.

IAS Guide Page 107

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Western Ghats (Western slopes)
2. Island of Andaman & Nicobar, Lakshadweep
3. Upper parts of Assam & Tamil Nadu coast.

Vegetation → Warm & wet => throughout year.

1. Mahogany
2. Ebony
3. Rosewood
4. Rubber
5. Cinchona

Elephants, Monkey, Lemur & Deer
One horned Rhinoceros →Assam and West Bengal
• Birds, bats, sloth (mammal), scorpions, snails

Tropical Deciduous Forests

- Most Widespread forest of India.
- Monsoon forests
- Rainfall : Between 200cm & 70ocm
- Trees shed leaves for 6 to 8 weeks in dry summer.

→Types (On the basis of availability of water)

1. Moist deciduous
2. Dry deciduous

→Common Animals: Lion, tiger, pig, deer, elephant.

→ Birds, lizards, snakes, tortoises

Tropical Moist Deciduous

→Rainfall: 200cm – 100cm
→Areas: Mostly in eastern parts of Country
1. North – East states
2. Foothills of Himalayas
3. Jharkhand
4. West Orissa

IAS Guide Page 108

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

5. Chhattisgarh
6. Eastern slopes of Western Ghats.

1. Teak→ Most dominant species
2. Bamboos
3. Sal
4. Shisham
5. Sandalwood
6. Khair
7. Kusum
8. Arjun
9. Mulberry

Tropical Dry Deciduous

→Rainfall: 100cm – 70cm
1. Rainier parts of Peninsular Plateau
2. Plains of Bihar
3. Plains of Uttar Pradesh

1. Teak
2. Sal
3. Peepal
4. Neem
→Large part: cleared for cultivation & grazing.

The Thorn Forests & Scrubs

→Rainfall: Less than 70cm
North – West part + semi – arid areas of:
1. Rajasthan
2. Madhya Pradesh
3. Gujarat
4. Chhattisgarh
5. Uttar Pradesh

IAS Guide Page 109

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

6. Haryana

1. Acacia
2. Palms
3. Euphorbia’s
4. Cacti

• Trees (Scattered)→ long roots→ to get moisture

• Stems→ Succulent : conserve moisture
• Leaves : Thick & Small→ minimize evaporation
→Animals: Rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse, camels

Montane Forests
• In Mountainous areas, the decrease in temp with increasing altitude leads to
corresponding change in natural vegetation.
• There is succession of natural vegetation in the same order as from Tropical
to Tundra Region.

1. Wet Temperate Type of Forests
- Height : between 1000m – 2000m
1. Oaks Evergreen broad
2. Chestnuts leaf trees

2. Temperate Forests Containing Coniferous Trees

Height: 1500m – 3000m
1. Pine
2. Deodar
3. Silver fir
4. Spruce
5. Cedar
These Forests Cover:
1. Southern slopes of Himalaya
2. Places having high altitude in Southern & North – East India.

IAS Guide Page 110

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Temperate Grasslands
At higher elevations→ common

4. Alpine Vegetation
• Height: At high altitudes, more than 3600m above Mean Sea Level.
• Temperate grasslands & forests give way to alpine vegetation.
• Trees:
1. Silver fir
2. Junipers
3. Pines
4. Birches
• Trees get Stunted progressively as they approach snow line.
• Ultimately, through Shrubs & Scrubs, they merge into Alpine Grasslands.

These are used extensively for Grazing by nomadic tribes like Gujjars (Jammu
& Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Rajastan, Gujarat, etc) and Bakarwals
(Jammu & Kashmir→ Pir Panjal Range, Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh,
Punjab) called Dhangar in rest of India.

5. Tundra Vegetation
• At higher altitudes, Mosses & Lichens form part of tundra.
→ Animals→
1. Kashmir Stag (Hangul)→ State animal of Jammu & Kashmir
-Critically endangered,
2. Spotted Dear (Chital)→ Jinke in Kannada
3. Wild Sheep
4. Jack Rabbit
5. Tibetan Antelope (Chiru)
- Ladakh, India
- Endangered

- Poached for Wool => Soft & Warm =>“Shahtoosh”

To Weave Shawls
6. Yak, snow leopard, squirrels
7. Shaggy horn wild ibex
8. Bear
9. Rare red panda

IAS Guide Page 111

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

10. Sheep & goats with thick hair

Mangrove Forests
• Mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
• Mud & Silt get accumulated on such coasts.
• Roots: submerged under water.

• The deltas of Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri

• Ganga – Brahmaputra delta→ Sundari Trees→ durable hard timber.
• 1. Palm
2. Coconut Grow in some parts
3. Keora of the delta.
4. Agar

• Royal Bengal Tiger → Sunderban Delta
• Turtles, Crocodiles, Gharials, Snakes.

→ Wild Life
• 1200 Bird species => 13% of World
• 2500 Fish species => 12% of World
• Amphibians, reptiles, mammals => 5 – 8% of World

1. Elephant
- Mammal
- Hot wet forests of :
1. Assam
2. Karnataka
3. Kerala

2. Wild Ass
Arid areas of Rann of Kachchh

3. Camels→ Thar Desert

IAS Guide Page 112

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

4. * Indian bison (Gaur)

* Nilgai (Blue bull)
* Chousingha (4 horned antelope)
* Gazel
5. Different Monkey

• India is the only Country in the World that has both Tigers and Lions.
• Asiatic Lion
- Gir forests of Gujarat→ last remaining habitat

• Tigers
- Madhya Pradesh, Sunderbans of West Bengal, Himalayan region
• Leopards

→Animals in Himalayan Region (Which survive in extreme cold)

1. Yak
2. Shaggy horned wild ox (1 tonne)
3. Tibetan antelope
4. Bharal (blue sheep)
5. Wild sheep
6. Kiang (Tibetan wild ass)
7. Ibex
8. Bear
9. Snow – leopard
10. Red Panda

(Arboreal mammal)

(Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. Example:-
→Rivers, Lakes, Coastal Areas
1. Turtles
2. Crocodiles
3. Gharials→ Only representative of variety of crocodile, found in world today.


IAS Guide Page 113

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Pheasants
2. Parakeets
3. Cranes

→Migratory Birds
1. Siberian Crane
2. Flamingo→ Pink Plumage

Rann of Kuchchh

Medicinal Plants
1. Sarpagandha
- Found only in India
- Used to treat Blood Pressure

2. Jamun
- Juice => To prepare Vinegar which is Carminative [(combats flatulence)
Prevents formation of gas in gastro intestinal duct]& Diuretic (Promotes
production of urine), has Digestive Properties.
- Seed =>powder => diabetes

3. Arjun
• Juice of leaves => Cure for earache.
- Regulate BP

4. Babool
• Leaves : Cure for eye sores
• Gum =>Tonic

5. Neem
• High antibiotic & anti bacterial properties

6. Tulsi→ Cough & cold

7. Kachnar→ *Asthma & Ulcers
* Buds & roots =>digestive problems

IAS Guide Page 114

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Temperature Characters of Vegetation Zones

Vegetation Zone Mean Annual Mean Temp in Jan Remarks

Average Temp
Tropical Above24degree C Above 18degree C No frost
Sub – tropical 17 – 24degree C 10degree – 18degree C Frost→ rare
Temperate 7 – 17degree C -1degree – 10degree C Frost→ some
Alpine Below 7degree C Below -1degree C Snow

→Protected Areas
1. Dachigam National Park→Jammu & Kashmir
2. Rajaji National Park→ Uttarakhand
3. Sariska Tiger Reserve→ Rajasthan
4. Ranthambore National Park→ Rajasthan
5. Shivpuri (Madhav) National Park→ Madhya Pradesh
6. Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary→ Uttar Pradesh
7. Rajgir National Park→Bihar
8. Gorumara National Park→ West Bengal Park
9. Kanha→Madhya Pradesh
10. Tadoba Tiger Reserve→ Maharashtra
11. Sanjay Gandhi National Park→ Maharashtra
12. Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary→ Odisha
13. Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary→ Telangana

Tiger Reserve
14. Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary→ Telangana
15. Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary→ Telangana
16. Guindy National Park→Tamil Nadu
17. Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary→ Tamil Nadu
18. Mudumalai National Park→Tamil Nadu
19. Periyar→ Elephant, tiger reserve→ Kerala

IAS Guide Page 115

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• 1st held : 1872
• 1st complete census : 1881
• Most comprehensive demographic, social & economic data.

Population Density
• Bangladesh, Japan => higher than India.
• Rugged terrain, Sparse Population
Unfavourable climate, Example: Arunachal
Hilly, Dissected, Rocky terrain, Pradesh
Low rainfall, 
Less fertile soils 13%people/Sq.km

Dependent Population
1. Children→ Below 15 years
2. Aged→ Above 59 years
• Working age:→ 15 – 59 years

Literacy Rate
2001 Census→ A person aged 7 years & above who can read & write with
understanding in any language.
• Adolescents : 10 to 19 years

National Population Policy (NPP) →2000

• Free & compulsory school education upto 14 years
• Reducing IMR to below 30 per 1000 live births
• Universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases
• Promoting delayed marriage for girls
• Making family welfare a people – Centred Progrramme.

NPP 2000 & Adolescents

• It identified adolescents as one of major sections of population that need
greater attention.
• Nutritional requirements
• Protection from unwanted pregnancies & sexually transmitted diseases.

IAS Guide Page 116

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Encouraging delayed marriage & child bearing

• Awareness about risk of unprotected sex
• Making contraceptives accessible & affordable
• Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.

Dependency Ratio
People of dependent age
Working age

Lagoon→ A salt – Water Lake separated from sea by sandbars & spits.

IAS Guide Page 117

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Chapter – 5: Class 10th NCERT Synopsis


Territorial Water
- Oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles (19.2km) from coast.
- Belongs to nation
Note: 1 Nautical mile = 1.852km

International Resources
• Oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone
– EEZ (Baseline to 200 nautical miles) belong to open ocean & no individual
country can use these without concurrence of international institutions.

Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992

• 1st international earth summit.
• Convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection & socio
– economic development at global level.
• 100 nations
• Signed declaration on Global Climate change & biological diversity.
• Endorsed global forest principles & adopted Agenda 21 for achieving
sustainable development in 21st century.

Agenda 21
• Declaration signed in 1992 at UNCED – United Nations Conference on
Environment & Development.
• Aims at achieving global sustainable development.
• It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through
global co – operation on common interests, mutual needs & shared
• Every local Government should draw its own Local Agenda 21.

• Club of Rome : 1968 : Resource conservation
• Small is beautiful : Schumacher (1974)
• Brundtland Commission Report, 1987=> introduced concept of sustainable

IAS Guide Page 118

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

“Our Common Future→ Book

→Land Resources
• Plains (43%): Agricultural Industry
• Mountains(30%): Rivers, Tourism
• Plateaus(27%): Minerals, fossil fuels, forests

Source: NCERT 10th Geography: Contemporary India - 2

→ Land Utilisation

Culturable Waste Land→ Left uncultivated for more than 5 agriculture years.

Fallow Landso
a. Current Fallow→ left uncultivated for 1 or less than 1 year.
b. Other than Current Fallow→ Left uncultivated for past 1 to 5 agriculture

Net Sown Area

Area has sown more than once in an Agriculture year plus net sown area is
called Gross Cropped Area.

IAS Guide Page 119

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Land Degradation
1. Deforestation
2. Overgrazing
3. Mining & Quarrying→ dust→ retards infiltration of water into soil
4. Over irrigation→ Water logging→ increase salinity & alkalinity in soil.

India: Wastelands in 2000

1. Water eroded Area → 56%
2. Forests degraded Area→ 28%
3. Wind eroded Area → 10%
4. Saline & alkaline land → 6%

→ Soil
Alluvial Soils
1. Entire northern plains
2. Extended to RJ & GJ through narrow corridor.
3. Eastern coastal plains→ deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri.

• Deposited by Himalayan rivers

• Has different proportions of sand, silt & clay.

Soil Particles

Larger Coarse
-Upper reaches of river valley
River Valleys Such soils are common in
(Inland) Piedmont Plains
(Piedmont – Foothills or foot
Of Mountains)
Like “Duars, chos & terai”

IAS Guide Page 120

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Old Alluvial (Bangar) New Alluvial (Khadar)

*High concentration of Kankers * Low

* Less fine particles, less fertile *More fine particles & more fertile

• Alluvial soils => Very fertile

1. Potash
2. Phosphoric acid
3. Lime

Ideal for growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat & other cereal & pulses

• Intensely cultivated, densely populated.

• Soils => dry area => More alkaline => productive after proper treatment &

Black Soil
• Regur soils
1. Deccan Trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau & is
made up of lava flows.

Cover plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh &

2. Extend in the S-E direction along Godavari & Krishna valleys.

Extremely fine => Clayey Material.

Holds Moisture

Contents – Rich in roil nutrients

1. Calcium carbonate
2. Magnesium
3. Potash
4. Lime
→Poor in Phosphoric Contents

IAS Guide Page 121

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Develops deep crack during hot weather, helps in Aeration of soil.

• Sticky→ When wet, difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after 1 st
shower or pre – monsoon period.
• Ideal for growing Cotton => Black cotton soil.

Red & Yellow Soil

• It develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low Rainfall in the Eastern
& Southern parts of Deccan Plateau.

1. Parts of Orissa
2. Chhattisgarh
3. Southern parts of middle – Ganga plain.
4. Along piedmont zone of Western Ghats.

• Reddish due to diffusion of Iron in Crystalline & metamorphic rocks.

• Looks Yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.

Laterite Soil
• Latin word => “Later” means→ Brick.
1. Develops in areas with high temp & heavy rainfall.
2. This is the result of Intense Leaching due to heavy rain.
3. Humus→ low

Because micro – organization (decomposers), like bacteria, get destroyed
due to high temp.
4. It is suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures & fertilizers.

1. Karnataka
2. Kerala
3. Tamil Nadu
4. Madhya Pradesh
5. Hilly areas of Orissa & Assam
• After adopting soil conservation techniques particularly in Hilly Areas of
Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu, this soil very useful for growing Tea &

IAS Guide Page 122

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala are more suitable
for crops like Cashew Nut

Arid Soils
• Colour→ Red to brown
• Texture→ Sandy
• Nature→Saline
• Due to dry climate, high temp, evaporation is faster & soil lacks humus &
• Lower horizons of soil→Contains Kankar because of increasing calcium
• Kankar layer formations restrict infiltration of water.
• After Irrigation→ Soils become cultivable.
Example:-Western Rajasthan

Forest Soils
• Found in hilly & Mountaineous areas where sufficient rain forests are
• Loamy & Silty→ Valley sides
Coarse grained→ Upper slopes
• Himalayas→snow areas→ soils experience denudation & are acidic with Low
Humus content.
• Soils in lower parts of valleys, on river terraces & alluvial fans are fertile.

Soil Erosion
• The denudation of soil cover & subsequent washing down is described as Soil
1. Deforestation
2. Over – grazing
3. Construction & mining
4. Natural forces – wind, water, glacier
5. Defective method of farming

Ploughing in wrong – way
Example:-Up & down the slope form channels for quick flow of water leading
to erosion.
• The runny water cuts through clayey soils & makes deep channels as *

IAS Guide Page 123

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

The land becomes unfit for cultivation→ “Bad Land”.

Chambal basin→ such lands are called “Ravines”.

• Water flows as sheet down a slope→ “Sheet Erosion” & top soil is washed

→Soil Conservation
1. Contour ploughing
2. Terrace Farming→ Steps cut out
Example:-Western & Central Himalayas

3. Strip Cropping
Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow
between crops. This breaks up the force of wind.

4. Shelter Belts

These contributed significantly to stabilization of Sand Dunes & in
stabilizing the Desert in Western India.

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 124

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Lepcha People (Rong People)

• Indigenous people of Sikkim.
• Also found in : West Bengal (Darjeeling)

→IUCN Lists
Endangered Species
- In danger of extinction
- If Negative Factors continue => Survival difficult
1. Black buck (Chinkara)
2. Crocodile
3. Indian wild ass
4. Indian rhino
5. Lion tailed macaque
6. Sangai (brow anter deer in Manipur) etc

Vulnerable Species
• Likely to move into endangered category in near future.
→1. Blue sheep
2. Asiatic elephant
3. Gangetic dolphin

Rare Species:
Species with small population may move into endangered or vulnerable
category if negative factors affecting them continue to operate.
Example:-1. Himalayan brown bear
2. Wild Asiatic buffalo
3. Desert fox
4. Hornbill etc

Endemic Species
- Only found in particular areas usually isolated by natural barriers.
Examples:-1. Andaman teal
2. Nicobar pigeon
3. Andaman wild pig
4. Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh etc.

IAS Guide Page 125

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Extinct Species
• Not found after searches in likely areas.
• May be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or entire earth.

1. Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubantus)
• World’s fastest land mammal
• 112km/hr
• India : 1952 : extinct
2. Pink Head Duck→Once present in Gangetic Plains

1. Cheetah Nearly
2. Pink headed duck Extinct

3. Mountain quail
4. Forest spotted owlet

1. Madhuca Insignis (wild mahua)
2. Habbardia Hepaneuron (grass)

• Cycas Beddomei Dyer

- A rare cycad endemic to eastern Ghats
• Nicobar Megapode: Endangered
• Hetrometrus (C) Kanarensis
Endemic to Karnataka

• Ochlandra Travancoria Gamble (Poaceae)

- Endemic to South Western Ghats
- Used in mat & basket making

• Embelica Ribes (with immature fruits)

Threatened medicinal climber

IAS Guide Page 126

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Enrichment Plantation
• Promotion of few Favoured species, in which a single commercially valuable
species was extensively planted & other species eliminated
• Led to depletion of ecosystem
• Example:-
1. Teak monoculture => damaged natural forests in South India
2. Chir Pine plantations in Himalayas have replaced Oak &
Rhododendron forests.

Buxa Tiger Reserve

→Also: great Indian elephant
→West Bengal
→Affected by dolomite mining.

Himalayan Yew (Taxes Wallachiana)

• Medicinal plant found in Himachal Pradesh & Arunachal Pradesh.
• Taxol→ Chemical compound extracted from bark, needles, twigs & roots of
this tree.
• Cancer Drug: Biggest selling anti – cancer drug in World.
• Over – exploitation: Species are under threat.

3 Types of Crocodiles
1. Fresh water crocodiles
2. Salt water crocodiles
3. Gharials

→Types and Distribution of Forest Resources

1. Reserved Forests
- More than half of total forest land in India has been declared reserve forests
- Conservation of forest & wildlife.
- Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu,
West Bengal, Maharashtra→ Large % of reserve forests in their total forest

2. Protected Forests
• 1/3rd of total forest areas declared
• Forest dept

IAS Guide Page 127

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• These are protected from any further depletion.

• Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Odisha, Himachal→ Bulk under
protected areas

3. Unclassed Forests
• Forests & wastelands belonging to both government & private individual &
• North – East states, parts of Gujarat→ High % as unclassed forests managed
by local communities.

Permanent Forest Estates

• Reserved + protected forests
• Maintained for purpose of producing timber & other forest produce, & for
protective reasons.
• Madhya Pradesh→ Largest area under permanent forests, 75% of its total
forest area.

→Community & Conservation

Sacred Groves
• A wealth of diverse & rare species.
• Nature worship is an age old tribal belief on premise that all creations of
nature have to be protected.
Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called
Sacred Groves (forests of god & goddesses)

These patches of forests are left untouched by local people & any interference
with them is banned.

1. Mundas, & Santhas→ Chotanagpur Region

a. Mahua (Bassia latifolia)
b. Kadamba trees (Anthocaphalus Cadamba)
2. Tribal’s of Bihar & Orissa => Worship
Tamarid (Tamarindus Indica)

IAS Guide Page 128

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Mango (Mangifera Indica)

Trees during weddings

3. Peepal, banyan trees => sacred in many parts

Chipko Movement
- Himalayas
- Opposed deforestation
- Community oforestation with indigenous species
- Attempts to revive traditional conservation methods or developing new
methods of ecological farming.

Beej Bachao Andolan→ Tehri & Navdanya: Adequate levels of diversified

crop production without use of synthetic chemicals.

Joint Forest Management (JFM)

• Good example of involving local communities in management & restoration of
degraded forests.
• 1988: Orissa passed 1st resolution for JFM.
• It depends on formation of local (village) institutions that undertake
protection activities on degraded forest land managed by forest department.
• In return, members of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits
like Non – timber forest produce & share in the timber harvested by
‘Successful Protection’.

IAS Guide Page 129

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• 96.5% → Ocean Water

2.5% → Fresh Water

70% 30%
As ice sheets & glaciers in Ground Water
Antarctica, Greenland &
Mountaineous Regions

• India receives nearly 4% of global precipitation.

→Multi – Purpose River Projects

Hydraulic Structures in Ancient India
1. In 1st Century BC, Sringaverapura near Allahabad => Water harvesting
system channeling the flood water of river Ganga.
2. During time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes & irrigation systems
were extensively built.
3. Evidences of irrigation works have been found in Kalinga (Orissa),
Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur
4. 11h Century→Bhopal Lake→ One of largest artificial lakes of its time
was built.
5. 14th Century→ Tank in Hauz Khas
Delhi→ Constructed by Iltumish for supplying water to Siri Fort Area.

1. Irrigation
2. Electricity Generation
3. Water supply for domestic & industrial uses
4. Flood control
5. Recreation
6. Inland Navigation

IAS Guide Page 130

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

7. Fish Breeding

Hence, dams are referred to as Multi – purpose projects where many uses of
impounded water are integrated with one another.

Examples:-1. Bhakra – Nangal Project→ Sutlej – Beas river basin

Hydel power Irrigation


2. Hirakud Project→ Mahanadi basin

Integrates conservation of water with flood control

Jawaharalal Nehru proclaimed Dams as the ‘Temples of Modern India’

because it would integrate development of Agriculture & village economy
with rapid urbanization & growth of urban economy.

Problems Caused by Dams

1. Regulating & Daming of River => Sedimentation at the bottom of reservoir
=> poorer habitats for rivers aquatic life.

2. Dams fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate,

especially for Spawning

(To lay eggs in water)

3. Reservoirs created on floodplains submerge the existing vegetation & soil

leading to its Decomposition over a period of time.

4. Large – Scale Displacement of local communities.

5. Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of regions with farmers
shifting to water intensive & commercial crops

- Ecological consequence: Salinization of soil
- Increasing social gap between richer landowners & landless poor.

IAS Guide Page 131

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

6. Dams cause riots, inter – state water disputes (sharing of costs & benefits)

7. Dams triggered floods due to sedimentation in reservoir & during heavy


Floods Devastates Life, property & cause extensive soil erosion

8. Sedimentation also meant that flood plains were deprived of silt, a natural
fertilizer, further adding on to problem of Land Degradation.

9. It was observed that multi – purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused

water – borne diseases & pests & pollution resulting from excessive use &

Rainwater Harvesting
• In hill & mountain regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘Guls’ or
‘Kuls’ of Western Himalayas for agriculture.
• Roof top Rain Water Harvesting – Drinking Water→ Rajasthan
• Bengal→ Flood Plains→ inundation channels to irrigate their fields.
• Arid & Semi – Arid Regions
- Agriculture fields converted into rain fed storage structures
- Khadins→ Jaisalmer
- Johads: Other parts of Rajasthan

Rain Water => Palar Pani→ Pure

Gendathur Village, Mysore, Karnataka

→Famous for roof top rainwater harvesting

• Shillong→ Every Household, roof top rain water harvesting system, 15 – 25%
total water requirement of households comes from this.
• Bamboo Drip Irrigation System in Meghalaya→ 200 year old system of
tapping spring & stream water using bamboo pipes.

IAS Guide Page 132

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Tamil Nadu: First & only state in India which has made roof top rainwater
harvesting system Compulsory to all houses across state. These are legal
provisions to punish the defaulter.

→Major Rivers and Dams

1. Kaveri River→ Mettur dam

2. Ponnaiyar (SouthPennar) River

• Source: Nandidurg hills in Chikkaballapur district, Karnataka
• Karnataka, Tamil Nadu => Bay of Bengal
• Dams
1. Kelavarapalli dam→ Near hosur
2. Krishnagiri dam
3. Sathanur dam

3. Palar River
• Rises in Nandi hills, Chikkaballapur, Karnataka
• Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu – Bay of Bengal
• Tributary: Cheyyar River
• Cities : Vellore, Kanchipuram

4.Arkavati River
• Rises in Nandi hills
• Tributary of kaveri
• Bangalore city uses this water (20% of city’s water)
• Tributaries
1. Vrishabhavathi
2. Kumudavathi
• Tippagondanahalli dam


• Koyna Dam→ Maharashtra, on Koyna River→ Rises in Mahabaleshwar,

Western Ghats.

IAS Guide Page 133

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Krishna – Godavari Dispute Is due to objections raised by Karnataka &

Andhra Pradesh, regarding diversion of more water at Koyna by Maharashtra
for multi – purpose project. This would reduce downstream flow in their states
with adverse consequences for agriculture & industry.

6. Pravara Dam (or)

• Nilwande dam
• Maharashtra→ Pravara river

Tributary of Godavari

7. Rana Pratap Sagar Dam

• Gravity masonry dam
• Chambal River at Rawatbhata
• Rajasthan 
• Integrated 4 dams→
Upstream→ Gandhi Sagar (Madhya Pradesh),
Downstream→ Jawahar Sagar Dam with terminal structure of Kota

8. Naraura Dam
- River Ganga
- Uttar Pradesh

→Sardar Sarovar Dam

- Gravity dam, Gujarat
- Narmada River

9. Salal Dam
• River Chenab
• Hydro Electricity
• Jammu & Kashmir

10. Tehri Dam

• Tallest in India (One of tallest in World)
• Bhagirathi River
• Uttarakhand

IAS Guide Page 134

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Embankment, earth & rock – fill dam

11. Rihand Dam

• Gravity dam
• Uttar Pradesh
• Border of Uttar Pradesh & Madhya Pradesh
• Reservoir : Govind Ballabh pant Sagar
• Rihand River →Tributary of son river

Flows through Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh

12. Tilaiya Dam

• 1st of four multi – purpose dams in Damodar valley corporation (Others →
Konar, Panchet, Maithon)
• Barakar river, Jharkhand

(Tributary of Damodar)

13. Konar Dam

- Konar River (Tributary of Damodar)
- Hazaribhagh district, Jharkhand

14. Panchet Dam

- Damodar river
- Dhanbad district, Jharkhand

15. Maithon Dam

• Jharkhand
• Barakar river
• Underground power station – 1st of its kind in South – East Asia

IAS Guide Page 135

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Primitive Subsistence Farming

“Slash & burn Agriculture”
• Land productivity is low as farmer doesn’t use fertilizers or other modern

Different Names in India

1. Jhumming→ North – East: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland
2. Pamlou→ Manipur
3. Dipa→ Bastar dist→ Chhattisgarh & in Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
4. Bewar or Dahiya→ Madhya Pradesh
5. Podu or Penda→ Andhra Pradesh
6. Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa→ Orissa
7. Kumari→ Western Ghats
8. Valre of Waltre→ South East Rajasthan
9. Khil→ Himalayan belt
10. Kuruva→ Jharkhand

Different Names in World

1. Milpa →Mexico, Central America
2. Conuco→ Venzuela
3. Roca → Brazil
4. Masole→ Central Africa
5. Ladang→ Indonesia
6. Ray → Vietnam

Intensive Subsistence Farming

• Areas of high population pressure on land.
• Labour intensive
• Biochemical input, irrigation
• Land holding => Uneconomical, small

Enormous pressure on agriculture land

IAS Guide Page 136

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Commercial Farming
• Use of higher doses of modern inputs→ HYV seeds, Fertilizers, Pesticides etc
=> to get higher productivity.
• Degree of commercialization varies from region to region.
Example:-Rice→ Commercial crop in Punjab, Haryana→ but subsistence
crop in Odisha.

Plantation→ Commercial farming

- Single crop grown on large area
- Interface of agriculture & industry
- Capital intensive inputs, migrant labours
- Produce is used as raw material in respective industries
- Example:-Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc => India.

- Production => Market, so well developed n/w of transport & communication

connecting plantation areas, processing industries & market plays a
important role in development of plantations.
- Tea → Assam and North Bengal
- Coffee→ Karnataka

→Cropping Pattern

3 Cropping Seasons
1. Rabi
2. Kharif
3. Zaid

Rabi Crops
• Sown in winter => October to December
• Harvest : Summer => April to June
Important Crops
1. Wheat
2. Barley
3. Peas
4. Gram
5. Mustard

IAS Guide Page 137

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→States from North & North – West parts

1. Punjab
2. Haryana Wheat & Other
3. Himachal Pradesh Rabi Crops
4. Jammu & Kashmir
5. Uttarakhand
6. Uttar Pradesh (West)
7. Parts of Rajasthan

→Favourable Conditions
1. Availability of precipitation in winter months due to Western Temperate
2. Green revolution : Punjab, Haryana, Parts => Rajasthan

Kharif Crops
• Grown with onset of monsoon.
• Harvest→ September – October
• Important Crops
1. Paddy
2. Maize
3. Jowar
4. Bajra
5. Tur (arhar)
6. Moong
7. Urad
8. Cotton
9. Jute
10. Groundnut
11. Soya bean

Important Rice Growing Regions

1. Assam 3 crops of paddy crown in a year
2. West Bengal 
3. Orissa (Coast) Aus, Aman, Boro

IAS Guide Page 138

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

4. Andhra Pradesh
5. Tamil Nadu Coastal Regional
6. Kerala
7. Maharashtra (Konkan Coast)
8. Uttar Pradesh
9. Bihar
• Recently→ Paddy : important crop : Punjab & Haryana

→Zaid Season

• In between Rabi & Kharif seasons, there is a short season during summer
months known as Zaid Season.
Important Crops:
1. Watermelon
2. Muskmelon
3. Cucumber
4. Vegetables
5. Fodder Crops

• Sugar Cane→ Takes almost a year to grow.

→Major Crops
• Staple food crop of majority of people.
• India: 2nd largest producer after China.

1. Kharif Crop – Requires high temp (above 25degree C)
2. High humidity with annual rainfall above 100cm
3. Areas of less rainfall => Grows with help of Irrigation.

1. Plains of North & North – East India
2. Coastal areas
3. Deltaic regions
• Development of Canal irrigation, Tubewells

IAS Guide Page 139

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Made it possible to grow in less rainfall areas => Punjab, Haryana, West Uttar
Pradesh, Parts of Rajasthan.

• 2nd most important cereal crop.
• Main food crop in north & N-W.
1. Rabi Crop – Requires Cool Growing Season
2. Bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
3. Annual Rainfall => 50 – 75cm

Evenly distributed over growing season

- There are 2 important regions:
1. Ganga – Sutlej plains in N-W
2. Black soil region of Deccan

States →
1. Punjab
2. Haryana
3. Uttar Pradesh
4. Bihar
5. Rajasthan
6. Parts of Madhya Pradesh


1. Jowar Important Millets

2. Bajra grown in
3. Rai India.

• Though Coarse Grains, they have very high nutritional value.

Example:-Ragi→ Rich in iron, calcium, other micro – nutrients, roughage.

IAS Guide Page 140

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• 3rd most important food crop with reference to area & production.
• It is a Rain – fed crop mostly grown in moist areas which Hardly needs
1. Maharashtra→ largest producer
2. Karnataka
3. Andhra Pradesh
4. Madhya Pradesh

• Grows well on Sandy Soils & Shallow Black Soils.
1. Rajasthan→ Largest producer
2. Uttar Pradesh
3. Maharashtra
4. Gujarat
5. Haryana

• Crop of Dry Regions
• Grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy & shallow black soils.

Important States
1. Karnataka→ Largest Producer
2. Tamil Nadu

Other States
1. Himachal Pradesh
2. Uttarakhand
3. Sikkim
4. Jharkhand
5. Arunachal Pradesh

• Used both as food & fodder
• Climate

IAS Guide Page 141

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Kharif Crop => Temp : 21 – 27degree C

2. Grows well in Old Alluvial Soil.
• Some states→ Bihar→ Rabi Crop.
• Use of HYV seeds, fertilizers, irrigation => increase in production.
• States:
1. Karnataka
2. Uttar Pradesh
3. Bihar
4. Andhra Pradesh
5. Madhya Pradesh

• India is the largest producer as well as consumer of pulses in the World.
• Major source of Proteins
• Pulses need Less Moisture & survive even in Dry Conditions.
• Being Leguminous Crops, all these crops except Arhar help in restoring soil
fertility by fixing nitrogen from air.

Therefore, these are mostly grown in Rotation with other crops.

Important Pulses Grown in India

1. Tur (arhar)
2. Urad
3. Moong Kharif
4. Masur
5. Peas Rabi
6. Gram

Important States
1. Madhya Pradesh
2. Uttar Pradesh
3. Rajasthan
4. Maharashtra
5. Karnataka

IAS Guide Page 142

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Food Crops Other Than Grains

Sugar Cane
• It is a tropical as well as a Subtropical Crop.
• Grows well: Hot & Humid climate

Temp: 21degree C – 27degree C
Annual rainfall: 75cm – 100cm
• Low rainfall – Irrigation required
• Can be grown on variety of soils & needs manual labour from sowing to
• India is the 2nd Largest Producer of sugarcane only after Brazil.
It is the Main Source of:
1. Sugar
2. Gur (Jaggary)
3. Khandsari
4. Molasses

Major States
1. Uttar Pradesh
2. Maharashtra
3. Karnataka
4. Tamil Nadu
5. Andhra Pradesh
6. Bihar
7. Punjab & Haryana

Oil Seeds
• India: Largest producer in World.

Main Oil – Seeds Produced in India

1. Groundnut – Kharif
2. Coconut
3. Soya bean – Kharif
4. Mustard Rabi
5. Linseed

6. Sunflower

IAS Guide Page 143

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

7. Cotton seeds
8. Castor seeds – Rabi and Kharif
9. Sesamum (til)
-Kharif: North
-Rabi: South
• Most of these are Edible→ Cooking
• Some: used as raw materials in production of soap, cosmetics & ointments.

Ground Nut
• Accounts for about half of major oilseeds produced
1. Andhra Pradesh→ Largest Producer
2. Tamil Nadu
3. Karnataka
4. Gujarat
5. Maharashtra

• Plantation
• Beverage Crop – introduced in India by British.
• India is the leading producer as well as exporter of tea in the World.
Conditions Required for Growth
1. Grows well in Tropical & Sub – tropical climates endowed with deep &
fertile well – drained soil, rich in Humus & Organic matter.
2. Tea bushes require Warm & Moist Frost – free climate all through the year.
3. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous
growth of tender leaves.
4. Labour intensive
• Tea is processed within tea garden to Restore Freshness.
Regions (Major Production)
1. Assam
2. West Bengal→ Hills of Darjeeling & Jalpaiguri dists.
3. Tamil Nadu
4. Kerala

Other Tea – Producing States

1. Himachal Pradesh
2. Uttarakhand

IAS Guide Page 144

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

3. Meghalaya
4. Andhra Pradesh
5. Tripura

• India produces 4% of World Coffee.

Indian Coffee
→Famous for good quality
→“Arabica Variety” → Initially brought from Yemen
Is produced in the Country.
This has great Demand World over.

1. Baba budan hills→ Initially introduced Karnataka
2. Nilgiri Hills
Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

→Horticulture Crops
• India is the largest producer of fruits & vegetables in the world.
• India is a producer of Tropical + Temperate fruits.

Indian Fruits which have Great Demand the World over are:-
1. Maharashtra
2. Andhra Pradesh
3. Uttar Pradesh
4. West Bengal

1. Nagpur
2. Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya)

1. Kerala
2. Mizoram
3. Maharashtra

IAS Guide Page 145

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

4. Tamil Nadu

Lichi & Guava→

1. Uttar Pradesh
2. Bihar

Pineapples→ Meghalaya

1. Andhra Pradesh
2. Maharashtra

Apples, Pears, Apricots, Walnuts→

1. Jammu & Kashmir 2. Himachal Pradesh

• India produces 13% of World’s vegetables→ Pea, Cauliflower, Onion, Cabbage,

tomato, Brinjal, Potato.

→Non – Food Crops

• It is an Equatorial Crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in
tropical and sub – tropical areas.

Requirements for Growth

1. Moist and humid climate
2. Rainfall→ More than 200cm
3. Temperature→ Above 25degree C
• It is an important industrial Raw Material.
• India→ 5th among World’s Natural Rubber Producers.

1. Kerala
2. Tamil Nadu
3. Karnataka
4. Andaman & Nikobar Islands
5. Garo hills of Meghalaya

IAS Guide Page 146

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Fibre Crops Grown in India

1. Cotton
2. Jute Crops
3. Hemp
4. Silk→ Cocoons of silk worms fed on Mulberry leaves. (Sericulture)

• India: Original home of cotton plant.

3rd largest producer
Conditions for Growth
1. Drier parts of black cotton soil of Deccan plateau
2. High temp, light rainfall or irrigation
3. 210 frost – free days &
4. Bright sun – shine for its growth.
• Kharif Crop requires 6-8 months to mature.

1. Maharashtra
2. Gujarat
3. Madhya Pradesh
4. Karnataka
5. Andhra Pradesh
6. Tamil Nadu
7. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh

• Golden Fibre
• Grows well in well – drained fertile soils in flood plains where soils are
renewed every year.
• High temp required during the time of growth.
• It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets etc.
• Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic Fibres & packing materials
like nylon.

IAS Guide Page 147

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. West Bengal
2. Bihar
3. Assam
4. Orissa
5. Meghalaya

White Revolution (Operation Flood)

Bhoodan – Gramdan Movements

• M. K. Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir.
• Shri Ram Chandra Reddy (Andhra Pradesh)

Gave 80 acres of land to 80 Land – less villagers→Bhoodan.
• Some zamindars offered some villages→ Gramdan

Known as “Blood – less Revolution”

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 148

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


Minerals in Toothpaste
• Cleaning→ Silica, limestone, Aluminium Oxide, Phosphate minerals
• To Reduce Cavities→ Fluoride→ from mineral fluorite.
• White Colour → Titanium oxide→ from minerals rutile, ilmenite, anatase.
• Sparkle in Some Pastes→ Mica
• Tooth Brush & Tube→ Plastics from Petroleum
• Our intake of minerals => 0.3% of total intake.

→Classification of Minerals

Ferrous Non – Ferrous Precious

Iron ore, Copper, lead, tin, Gold,
Manganese, bauxite etc Silver,
Nickel, Platinum
Cobalt etc

→Non – Metallic→ Mica, salt, potash, sulphur, granite, limestone, marble,

sandstone etc.
→Energy Minerals→ Coal, petroleum, natural gas

→Modes of Occurrence of Minerals

1. In Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks→ Minerals occur in cracks, crevices, faults
or joints

Smaller occurrences→ Veins
Larger→ Lodes

Example:-Metallic→ Tin, copper, zinc, lead => obtained from veins & lodes

2. Sedimentary Rocks
• Minerals occur in Beds or Layers, Deposition, Concentration, Accumulation in
horizontal strata.

IAS Guide Page 149

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Examples:-Coal, some form of iron ores (Heat & Pressure)

• Another group of Sedimentary minerals : Gypsum, Potash salt, Sodium salt

Evaporation in arid regions

3. Decomposition of surface rocks, & removal of soluble constituents, leaving

residual mass of weathered material containing Ores.

4. Minerals occur as “Alluvial Deposits” in sands of valley floors & base of hills
=> “Placer Deposits” → contain minerals, not corroded by water.

Gold, Silver, tin, platinum

5. Ocean Waters contains minerals→ Too widely diffused => Economically


But→ Common salt, magnesium, Bromine→ derived from ocean waters

- Ocean Beds→ are also rich in “Manganese Nodules”

Rat–Hole Mining
Meghalaya→ Coal, iron ore, limestone, dolomite etc

Coal mining in Jowai & Cherapunjee is form of a long narrow tunnel,→ Rat
hole mining.

Peninsular Rocks
- Most of reserves of coal
- Metallic minerals
- Mica
- Some non – metallic

IAS Guide Page 150

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Petroleum Deposits
- Sedimentary rocks on Western & Eastern flanks of Peninsula
- In Gujarat
- Assam

→Peninsular rocks => Non – Ferrous minerals

Alluvial Plains (North India)→ No economic minerals

→ Ferrous Minerals
• Accounts for about 3/4th of total value of production of metallic minerals.
• Metallurgical industries

Iron Ore
• India rich in good - quality iron ores.

Two Types
1. Magnetite
- Finest iron ore
- Iron => Upto 70%
- Magnetic qualities => electrical industry

2. Hematite
- Important industrial iron ore
- Iron content : 50 – 60%

Major Iron Ore Belts in India:-

1. Orissa – Jharkhand Belt
• Orissa→ High grade hematite ore

1. Badampahar mines→ Mayurbhanj & Kendujhar districts.
• Adjoining Singhbhum dist of Jharkhand, hematite is mined in Gua &
• Export: Paradwip port

2. Durg – Bastar – Chandrapur Belt

IAS Guide Page 151

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

- Lies in Chhattisgarh & Maharashtra.

- Bailadila Range of Hills in Bastar dist of Chhattisgarh

• 14 deposits super high grade hematite iron ore
• It has best Physical Properties for steel making.
• Exported to Japan & South Korea Via Vishakapatnam Port.

3. Bellary – Chitradurga – Chikmagalur – Tumkur Belt

- Ur – Tumkur Belt
- Large reserves of iron ore
- Kuderemukh mines (Western Ghats)

• 100% export unit transported as slurry through pipeline to a port near
• One of largest in World.

4. Maharashtra – Goa Belt

• Goa & Ratnagiri dist of Maharashtra.
• Ore not of very high quality
• Export : trough Marmagao Port

• It is used in manufacturing of steel & Ferro – manganese alloy.
• It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, Paints.
• Orissa→ Largest producer

→Non – Ferrous Minerals

• India is critically deficient in reserve & production of copper.
• Malleable, ductile, good conductor, Electrical cables, electronics & Chemical
1. Balaghat Mines + Malanjkhand mines : Madhya Pradesh
- Produce 52% of India’s Copper.
2. Singhbhum dist of Jharkhand
3. Ketri mines in Rajasthan

IAS Guide Page 152

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Bauxite deposits are formed by decomposition of wide variety of rocks rich in
Aluminium Silicates.
• Aluminium => Important metal because it combines strength of metals such
as iron, with Extreme Lightness, good conductivity, great malleability.
1. Amarkantak plateau→ Madhya Pradesh
2. Maikal hills→ Chhattisgarh
3. Plateau region of Bilaspur→ Chhattisgarh, Katni→ Madhya Pradesh

Orissa => Largest Producer = 45%

Panchpatmali Deposits in Koraput dist => Most Important

→Non – Metallic Minerals

• It is a mineral made of series of Plates or Leaves.
• Due to its excellent de-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating
properties & resistance to high voltage, it is one important minerals used in
electric & electronic industries.

1. Northern edge of Chota Nagpur Plateau
2. Koderma – Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand→ leading producer
3. Rajasthan→ Around Ajmer
4. Andhra Pradesh→ Nellore

→Rock Minerals
• It is found in association with rocks of Calcium Carbonate or calcium &
magnesium carbonate.
• Found in Sedimentary Rocks of geological formations.
• It is the basic raw material for Cement Industry & essential for smelting of
iron in the blast furnace.
• Areas : Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu

IAS Guide Page 153

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→Energy Resources
1. Conventional→ Firewood, dung, coal, petroleum, Natural gas, electricity
(both hydel + thermal)

2. Non - Conventional→ Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, atomic energy.

• It is formed due to the compression of plant material over millions of years.

Coal, therefore, found in variety of forms depending on the degree of
compression & depth and time of burial.

1. Peat
• Decaying plants in swamps produce peat.
• Low Carbon & High Moisture contents & low heating capacity.

2. Lignite
• It is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content.
• The principal lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu => Used for
electricity generation.

3. Bituminous
• Coal that has been buried deep & subjected to increased temperatures is
bituminous coal.
• Most popular coal in commercial use.
• Metallurgical Coal is high grade bituminous coal used for Smelting Iron in
blast furnace.

4. Anthracite
• Highest quality hard coal.

In India coal occurs in rock series of 2 main geological ages:-
1. Gondwana Coal
2. Tertiary deposits

Gondwana Coal

IAS Guide Page 154

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Little over 200 million years in age.

• Mainly Metallurical Coal.
• Location
1. Damodar Valley (West Bengal – Jharkhand)

1. Jharia – Jharkhand
2. Raniganj – West Bengal
3. Bokaro – Jharkhand
Important Coal Fields
2. Godavari valley
3. Mahanadi Valley
4. Sun Valley
5. Wardha Valley
(Chandrapur district – Vidharbha region – Maharashtra)

Tertiary Coals
• 55 million years old
Areas: - N-E States
1. Meghalaya
2. Assam
3. Arunachal Pradesh
4. Nagaland

→Note: Coal is a bulky material, which loses weight on use as it is reduced to

ash. Hence, heavy industries & thermal power stations are located on or near
the coalfields.

• Uses→ Lubricants, nodal industry for Synthetic Textile, Fertilizer, Chemical
• Occurrence
- Most in India are associated with Anticlines & fault traps in rock formations
of the tertiary age.
- In regions of Folding, anticlines or domes => Oil trapped in crest of the up

IAS Guide Page 155

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

The oil bearing layer is a porous Limestone or Sandstone through which oil
may flow. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non –
porous layers
• Also found in fault traps between porous & non-porous rocks.
• Gas => Lighter => Occurs above oil.
1. Mumbai high→ 63%
2. Gujarat→ 18%
* Ankeleshwar field
3. Assam→ 16%
* Oldest oil producing state
* Digboi, Naharkatiya, moran – Hugrijan→ Important oil fields

→Natural Gas
• Found in association with or without Petroleum.
• Environment friendly fuel because of low CO2 emission.

1. Krishna – Godavari basin
2. Mumbai high & allied fields
3. Gulf of Cambay
4. Andaman & Nicobar islands

Hazira – Vijaipur -Jagdishpur

- 1700km, cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai high & Bassien with
fertilizer, power & industrial complexes in Western & Northern India.

→Nuclear or Atomic Energy

• Uranium, Thorium→
1. Jharkhand
2. Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan
• Thorium→ Monazite Sands of Kerala.

Solar Energy
• Madhapur, near Bhuj
- Largest solar plant of India, used to sterilize milk cans.

IAS Guide Page 156

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Wind Power
1. Nagar coil to Madurai
- Largest wind farm cluster Famous for effective
- Tamil Nadu use of Wind Energy
2. Jaisalmer

→Important States
1. Andhra Pradesh
2. Karnataka
3. Gujarat
4. Maharashtra
5. Kerala
6. Lakshadweep

• Gas from Biogas Plants has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to
Kerosene, Dung cake & Charcoal.

Tidal Energy
- Floodgate dams
- Gulf of Kuchchh
→National Hydropower Corporation has set up a tidal power plant.

Geo Thermal Energy

1. Parvati Valley
- Near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh

2. Puga Valley→ Ladakh

IAS Guide Page 157

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


• Small Scale→ Investment upto 1 Crore

• Large Scale→ more than 1 Crore
• Joint Sector Industries
Example:-Oil India Limited (OIL) => Public + Private

→Textile Industry
• Direct employment generation→ 2nd Largest after Agriculture.
• It is the only industry in India, which is Self Reliant & complete in the value
Example:-From raw material to highest value added products.

→Cotton Textiles
• 1st successful textile mill→ Mumbai→ 1854.
• Today, 80%→ Private, remaining => public + Cooperatives

Fibre production → Spinning → Weaving knitting → Dyeing & Finishing

   

Raw fibre Yarn Fabric Garments Garment


Value Addition in Textile Industry

• Spinning: Centralised : Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu
• Weaving: Highly Decentralised to provide scope for incorporating traditional
skills, designs of weaving in cotton, silk, etc
• India has world class production in Spinning, but Weaving supplies low
quality fabric as it can’t use much of high quality yarn in Country

→Production of Fabric
Mills→ 6%
Power Loom→ 54%
Hand Loom → 23%
→India exports yarn to Japan.

IAS Guide Page 158

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→USA, Uttarakhand, Russia, France, East European Countries, Nepal,

Singapore, Srilanka, African Countries→ Imports cotton goods from India.
→India: 2nd largest installed capacity of spindles, next to China.
→Weaving→ Fragmented units→ Cater to local needs (market)

So, many spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufactures
have to import fabric. (Major drawback of this sector)

1. Power supply : Erratic
2. Weaving machinery needs to be upgraded.
3. Low labour output
4. Competition with synthetic Fibre industry.

Jute Textiles
• First Jute Mill => Rishra, near Kolkata – 1859.
• After partition in 1947, Jute mills remained in India but 3/4 th of the jute
producing areas went to Bangladesh (Erstwhile east Pak)
• India is the largest producer of Raw Jute & Jute goods,
Exporting :1st →Bangladesh
2nd→ India

• West Bengal, along banks of Hugli River, in a narrow belt (80km long, 3km

1. Proximity of Jute producing areas.
2. Inexpensive water transport
3. Good network of roads, railways, waterways
4. Abundant water – processing raw jute
5. Cheap labour: West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh etc
6. Kolkata : Main urban centre, Banking, Port, etc

1. Competition in international market from synthetic substitutes & from
other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt & Thailand.

IAS Guide Page 159

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• There is increase in internal demand due to government policy of Mandatory

use of Jute packaging.
• National Jute Policy : 2005

Main Markets:
1. USA
2. Canada
3. Russia
4. United Arab Emirates
5. Uttarakhand
6. Australia
• The growing global concern for environment friendly, biodegradable
Materials, has once again opened the opportunities for Jute Products.

Sugar Industry
• India: 2nd: Producer of sugar
1st: Production of Gur & Khandsari.
• Raw material→ bulky, in haulage→ sucrose content reduces.

Mills close to Growing Areas

1. Uttar Pradesh – 60%
2. Bihar – 60%
3. Maharashtra
4. Karnataka
5. Tamil Nadu
6. Andhra Pradesh
7. Gujarat
8. Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh

• This industry is Seasonal in nature, so, it is ideally suited to cooperative

• Recent tendency→ Mills shifting→ to southern & western states

• Cane produced here has higher sucrose content

IAS Guide Page 160

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Cooler climate ensures a longer crushing season.

• Cooperatives are more successful in these areas.
1. Seasonal nature of industry
2. Old, inefficient method of production.
3. Transport delay in reaching to cane factories
4. Need to maximize use of Baggase.

Iron & Steel Industry

• Basic industry
• Heavy industry
• Steel Manufacture:
4:2:1 => Iron Ore: Coking Coal: Lime stone
Some manganese→ To harden steel

Process of Manufacture of Steel

Blast furnace Rig iron

Transport of Iron ore=> Melted, Molten
Raw material → Lime stone→ fluxion, → materials
To plant slag→ removed, poured
Coke→ burnt to into
Heat ore moulds

Shaping metal Steel making

Rolling, Pig iron→ purified by
Pressing, melting & oxidizing
Casting,  impurities, manganese,
Forging nickel, chromium
Are added

• India: 9th: Crude steel producer→Largest producer of Sponge Iron.

Integrated Steel Plants

1. Burnpur

IAS Guide Page 161

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. Bokaro
3. Durgapur
4. Jamshedpur
5. Raurkela
6. Bhilai
7. Vishakapatnam
8. Vijaynagar
9. Bhadravati
10. Salem
• SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited)
• TISCO→ Tata Steel
• China→ Largest Producer & consumer of steel
• Chotanagpur Plateau => Maximum concentration of iron & Steel Industries.

- Low cost iron ore
- High grade raw materials in proximity
- Cheap labour

1. High costs & limited availability of coking coal
2. Low : Labour productivity
3. Poor infrastructure
4. Irregular supply of energy.

• India: Imports good quality steel.

But, overall Production of Steel => Sufficient to meet domestic demand.

Aluminium Smelting
• 2nd most important metallurgical industry in India.
• It is light, resistant to corrosion, good conductor, mallable, becomes strong
when mixed with other metals.

- Used in Aircraft, utensils, wires.
- Substitute of steel, Copper, Zinc, lead in number of industries.

8 Aluminium Smelting Plants

1. Orissa (Nalco & Balco)

IAS Guide Page 162

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

2. West Bengal
3. Kerala
4. Uttar Pradesh
5. Chhattisgarh
6. Maharashtra
7. Tamil Nadu

Location→ Factors
1. Regular supply of electricity
2. Assured source of raw material at minimum cost→ Prime factors

• Bauxite, Raw material used in smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured
rock. (Cryolite metal acts as electrolyte)

Chemical Industries
• It is 3rd largest in Asia & 12th World in Size.
Inorganic Chemicals
- Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, Soda Ash → Soap, detergents, glass, paper etc.
- Widely spread over country
Organic Chemicals
- Petrochemicals
- Located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants
• Chemical industry is its own largest consumer.

→Fertilizer Industry
Nitrogenous Fertilisers (Main : Urea)
-3rd largest producer
• Phosphatic fertilizers and Ammonium Phosphate (DAP)
• Complex Fertilizers
- Combination of Nitrogen (N), Phosphate (P), Potash (K).
- Potash is entirely imported as India doesn’t have any reserves of
commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.
• 10 PSUs, 1→ Cooperative sector => Hazira (Gujarat)

Fertilizer Corporation of India

IAS Guide Page 163

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

1. Gujarat
2. Tamil Nadu
3. Uttar Pradesh 50% production
4. Punjab
5. Kerala

Other Producers
1. Andhra Pradesh
2. Orissa
3. Rajasthan
4. Bihar
5. Maharashtra
6. Assam
7. West Bengal
8. Goa
9. Delhi
10. Madhya Pradesh
11. Karnataka

→Cement Industry
• Requires bulky & heavy raw materials – limestone, silica, alumina, gypsum
Coal + Power + Rail transport
• Location
1. Gujarat→ suitable market access in the Gulf Countries.
• 1st Cement plant => Chennai→ 1904
• Decontrol of price & distribution => 1989
1. East Asia
2. Middle East
3. Africa
4. South Asia

IAS Guide Page 164

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

→ Automobile Industry: Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata,

Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore.

→IT Industry
• 30% Women Employees.

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 165

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


→Means of Transport
1. Land
1. Roadways
2. Railways
3. Pipelines

2. Water
1. Inland and
2. Overseas

3. Air
1. Domestic Airways
2. International

PSUs Private

→Reasons for Growing Importance of Road vis-à-vis Rails:-
1. Construction cost of Road : Much lower
2. Roads can traverse – dissected, undulating topography
3. Travel : Slopes, mountains(Himalaya)
4. Economical→ Few persons, smaller goods for short distance
5. Door – to – door service => Lower cost of loading & unloading.
6. Feeder service => rails, airport

→Classification of Roads
1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
• Links Delhi – Kolkata – Chennai – Mumbai &
• Delhi by sex – lane superhighways
• North south corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) & Kanyakumari
(Tamil Nadu),
• East – West corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) & Porbander (Gujarat) are
part of this project.
• Objective→ Reduce Time & Distance between mega cities of India.
• Implemented by NHAI→ National highway Authority of India.

IAS Guide Page 166

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

National Highways
• Link extreme parts
• Laid & maintained by central public works department (CPWD)

NH 1 – Delhi, Haryana, Punjab

• Sher – Shah Suri Marg
• Delhi – Amritsar
• Cities→ Jalandhar, Ludiana, Sonipat, Kurukheshtra, Indo – Pak border

NH 2
• Delhi – Kolkata
• Part of Grant trunk road (Bengal to Kabul) along with NH 91 & NH 1.
• Cities→ Agra, Kanpur, Kaushambi, Allahabad, Varanasi, Durgapur, etc.
• Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh (longest), Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal

NH – 3
- Mumbai to Agra or (AB road)
- Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh→ Longest, Maharashtra
- Cities:- Agra, Gwalior – Indore – Dhule – Nasik – Mumbai

NH – 7
• Longest in India
• Varanasi to Kanyakumari
• Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh→ Longest, Maharashtra, Telangana,
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
• Laid & maintained by CPWD.
• Varanasi, Jabalpur, Nagpur, Adilabaad, Hyderabad, Kurnool, Anantpur,
Chikkaballapur, Bangalore, Dharmapuri, Salem, Dindigal, Madurai,
Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari

NH – 8
- Delhi to Mumbai
- Delhi, Gurgaon, Ajmer, Udaipur, Ahmedabad, Surat, Jaipur, Vadodara,

NH – 6
- Hazira to Kolkata (Gujarat)
- Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal
- Surat, Nagpur, Raipur

IAS Guide Page 167

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

NH – 15→ Most of Rajasthan

State Highways
• State capital with different districts.
• State PWD in state & UTs.

District Roads
• District Hq with other places of district.
• Maintained by Zila Parishad

Other Roads
• Rural roads (PM Grameen Sadak Yojana)→ Every village→ link major town
→ All season motorable road

Border Roads
• BRO Constructs & maintains

Started: 1960 Road of strategic importance in northern & N-E borders

→Metalled Roads
- Cement, concrete or bitumen of coal
- All weather Roads

→Unmetalled→ Go out of use in rainy season.

• Indian Railways→ largest PSU in the Country
• 1st Train : Mumbai to Thane
• 16 zones
• Gauges (Highest to Lowest)
1. Broad gauge (1.676m)→ 46,807km
2. Metro Gauge (1m)→ 13,209km
3. Narrow Gauge (0.762 & 0.610m)→ 3,124km

→Diamond Quadrilateral
- High speed rail n/w
- Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata (Connection)

IAS Guide Page 168

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

- Broad – gauge tracks

- 14 states & Delhi /UT)
- Hyderabad, Bangalore, Tiruvananthapur

• Used to transport crude oil, petroleum products, Natural gas.
• Solids→ slurry form
• Initial Cost : High, later→ low

3 Important Networks
1. From Oil field in Upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
- Via Guwahati, Barauni, Allahabad
- Branches
• Barauni to Haldia, Via Rajband
• Rajband to Maurigram
• Guwahati to siliguri

2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab

- Viam Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi, Sonipat.
- Branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat), Chakshu & other

3. Gas Pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh

• It has branches to
- Kota in Rajasthan
- Shahajahanpur, Babrales etc in Uttar Pradesh

• Cheapest
• National Waterways
1. Ganga River between Allahabad & Haldia→ NW : 1 (1620km)
2. Brahmaputra River between Sodiya & Dhubri (891km)→
NW: 2
3. The West – Coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma – Komman, Udyogamandal
& Champakkara Canals – 205km) – NW:3
• Other Inland Waterways

IAS Guide Page 169

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

Godavari, Krishna, Barak, Sunderbans, Buckingham Canal, Brahmani, East

– West Canal, Damodar Valley corporation Canal.
→95% trade volume: Sea

→Major Sea Ports

• 12 Major & 181 medium & minor ports
Now 13
• Major ports: 95% India’s foreign trade.

1. Kandla Port (Gujarat)→ Highest Cargo Handling

• Kandla in Kuchchh→ 1st port developed after independence.
• Tidal port
• Caters to export & import of Granary & industrial belt across states of Jammu
Kashmir, Himalaya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat.

2. Mumbai (Maharashtra)→ 4th highest cargo handling

• Biggest port with natural & well – sheltered harbour.
• Jawaharalal Nehru Port→ 3rd highest cargo handling also called Nhava
- South of Mumbai, Largest Container Port in India, serve as a hub port.

3. Marmagao Port (Goa)

• Premier Iron Ore exporting port of India.
• Accounts for 50% of India’s iron ore export.

4. New Mangalore Port(Karnataka)

• Export of iron ore from Kudremuch mines.

5. Kochchi Port (Kerala)

• Extreme S-W port,
• Located at entrance of lagoon with a Natural Harbour.

→East Coast
1. Tuticorin Port (Tamil Nadu)
• Extreme S – E port
• Natural harbour & rich hinterland.

IAS Guide Page 170

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

• Hence, Handles large cargoes to even Srilanka, Maldives etc & Coastal regions
of India

2. Chennai Port→ 2nd highest container port

• One of oldest artificial port of India.
• Ranks next to Mumbai in terms of volume of trade & Cargo.

3. Vishakapatnam Port→ 5th highest cargo handling

• Deepest landlocked & well – protected port.
• Originally started as an outlet for iron ore exports.

4. Paradwip Port (Orissa)

• Export of iron→ 2nd highest cargo handling

5. Kolkata Port
• Inland Riverine port
• Serves very large & rich hinterland of Ganga – Brahmaputra basin
• Being tidal port, it requires constant dredging of Hoogly.

6. Haldia Port (West Bengal)

• Subsidiary port to relieve pressure on Kolkata port

7. Ennore Port (Kamarajar Port Limited)

• Coromandel coast about 24km North of Chennai

8. Port Plair Port Trust

• Nationalised in 1953

• India Port→ largest in World
6 Mail Channels: quick delivery
1. Rajdhani Channel
2. Metro Channel
3. Green Channel
4. Business

IAS Guide Page 171

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru

5. Bulk mail
6. Periodical

1. Hindi (highest)
2. English
3. Urdu

- Pipelines Reduces Trans - shipment losses & delays.

IAS Guide

• No.1 institute for IAS Exam

• Offline and Online Batches Bengaluru
• Tests Series with Evaluation Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
• General Studies and Optionals Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 172

www.iasguides.com Bengaluru


✓ No.1 Institute for IAS Exam

✓ General Studies and Optionals
✓ Both Offline and Online classes available
✓ High Standard Faculties and Materials
✓ Regular answer writing practice
✓ Sectional + Full-length tests with Evaluation
✓ Personalized Guidance

IAS Guide, Bengaluru

Website: www.iasguides.com
Mobile: +91 – 9113976493
Email: iasguidecontact@gmail.com

IAS Guide Page 173