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9/8/18

RESEARCH in
everyday LIFE
Practical Research I

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Learning Objectives:
● To differentiate qualitative from
quantitative research
● To enumerate some types of
qualitative researches
● To enumerate some types of
quantitative researches
● To cite examples of qualitative and
quantitative researchers according
to discipline

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Comparing Quantitative and
Qualitative Research

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Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Objective/ • Understands underlying • Expresses data in terms of


Purpose reasons numerical values as
• Gains insights in the gathered from the
prevailing trends respondents
• Is interpretive and • Draws exact ideas from
contextualized samples

Hypotheses • May emerge as the study • Are specifically stated at


progresses the outset and tested

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Sample • Comes in small • Comes in large numbers.


numbers. Respondents Respondents are selected
uses nonprobability through probability
sampling. sampling.

Data Collection • Unstructured (free in • Structured procedures


form) procedures

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Qualitative Quantitative
Research Research
Data Analysis • Inductive analysis of • Deductive analysis of
data data
• Minimal to no use of • Requires the use of
statistical test statistical tests
Outcome • Inconclusive and • Conclusive, usually
need further study descriptive in nature,
before recommending and are used to
a course of action recommend a final
course of action

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Generalization • Findings are • Findings are


particularly in-depth generalizable to all
about a certain situations
phenomenon

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Qualitative Quantitative
Research Research
● Multiple realities Nature of “Reality” / ● Single reality
● Socially Ontological ● Objective
constructed/ ● Context free
subjective
● Context
interrelated

Researcher interacts Relationship of the Researcher is


with that researcher to that independent from
being researched being researched / that being
Epistemological researched

Qualitative Quantitative
Research Research
Value-laden and Role of Values / Value-free and
biased Axiological unbiased

● Basic element of Language of ● Basic element of


analysis is research / Rhetorical analysis is
WORDS NUMBERS
● Rich ● Precise
descriptions measurement of
● Informal ; variables
personal voice ● Formal;
impersonal
voice

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Qualitative Quantitative
Research Research
● Inductive Process of ● Deductive (tests
(develops theory) research / theory)
● Theory developed Methodological ● Theory developed a
during the study priori
● Control ● Outcome oriented
unimportant ● Control important
● Discovery of ● Cause-and-effect
meaning relationships
● Accurate and ● Accurate and
reliable through reliable through
verification validity and
reliability

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Qualitative Research Types

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Definition
◎ Involves an interpretive, naturalistic
approach to the world
◎ A study on things, attempting to make
sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in
terms of the meanings people bring to
them

Denzin and Lincoln, 2005

Definition
◎ using methods such as participant
observation or case studies which result in
a narrative, descriptive account of a setting
or practice

Parkinson & Drislane, 2011

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Types

◎ Phenomenology
◎ Ethnography
◎ Grounded Theory
◎ Case Study
◎ Discourse and Conversation Analysis
◎ Inductive Thematic Analysis
◎ Narrative Analysis

Phenomenology

◎ emphasizes on individual experiences,


beliefs, and perceptions
◎ captures the lived experience of
individuals

Guest, Namey & Mithcell, 2013

A phenomenology of landscape: places, paths and


monuments (Tilley, 1994)

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Ethnography

◎ Focuses on studying shared practices and


belief systems (i.e., culture) of a group of
people in their natural context over a
prolonged period of time

Guest, Namey & Mithcell, 2013

The curious eclipse of prison ethnography in the age of


mass incarceration (Wacquant, 2002)

Grounded Theory
◎ a set of methods that consist of
systematic, yet flexible guidelines for
collecting and analyzing qualitative data
to construct theories ‘grounded’ in the
data themselves

Guest, Namey & Mithcell, 2013


Modeling the information-seeking patterns of academic
researchers: a grounded theory approach (Ellis, 1993)

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Case Study
◎ explores and investigates contemporary
real-life phenomenon through detailed
contextual analysis of a limited number
of events or conditions, and their
relationships

Yin, 1984 cited in Zainal, 2007


Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study
for the trimethylaluminum/water process (Puurunen, 2005)

Discourse and Conversation


Analysis
◎ emphasizes the version of the world, of
society, events, and inner psychological
worlds that are produced in discourse

Potter, 1997 cited in Bryman, 2008

Neoliberal ideology in community college mission


statements: A critical discourse analysis (Ayers, 2005)

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Inductive Thematic
Analysis
◎ presenting the stories and experiences
voiced by study participants as
accurately and comprehensively as
possible

Guest, Namey & Mithcell, 2013


Children’s understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis
(Fielden, Sillence and Little, 2011)

Narrative Analysis
◎ Focuses on the narratives (storytelling)
used as source of data
◎ gathering of important historical details
of what people perceive about their lives
in terms of continuity and process

Bryman, 2008

The storied nature of human conduct (Sarbin, 1986)

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Quantitative Research Types

Definition
◎ an inquiry into a social or human problem
based on testing a theory composed of
variables, measured with numbers, and
analyzed with statistical procedures in
order to determine whether the predictive
generalizations of the theory hold true
Cresswell, 1994

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Types

◎ Descriptive Research
◎ Survey Research
◎ Correlational Research
◎ Causal-comparative/ Quasi-experimental
Research
◎ Experimental Research

Basic/Descriptive Research

◎ describes what exists and gathers


information about the current status of a
certain phenomenon
◎ answers who, what, when, where, and
how

Melegrito and Mendoza, 2016


On the conditions under which an equation has only roots
with negative real parts (Hurwitz, 1964)

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Survey Research

◎ gather evidence on people’s knowledge,


opinions, attitudes, and values on various
issues and concern

Melegrito and Mendoza, 2016

Survey research in operations management: a process-


based perspective (Forza, 2002)

Correlational Research
◎ defines the degree of relationship
between two or more variables using
statistical data

Melegrito and Mendoza, 2016

Atypical object exploration at 12 months of age associated


with autism in a prospective sample (Ozonoff et al., 2008)

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Causal-comparative/ Quasi-
experimental Research
◎ finds out the causes of existing
phenomena
◎ ascertains cause-and-effect relationships
among variables which are not
manipulated within control and non-
control groups
Melegrito and Mendoza, 2016

Experimental Research
◎ True experimentation or laboratory study
◎ To identify and impose control over all
other variables except one; to determine
the effects of manipulated independent
variables on dependent variables

Melegrito and Mendoza, 2016


The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen
injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of
the prostate (Huggins and Hodges, 1941)

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Examples of Qualitative and
Quantitative Researches

Qualitative & Quantitative Research Examples


Area of Discipline Qualitative Quantitative
Medicine Dengue prevention Studies to develop
practices of different vaccines for HIV
places in the Philippines

Arts Stories behind the Search for a good paint


different artworks and substance and painting
different painters material
Sports Common characteristics Development of a
of children into and not lightweight material to
into sports be used as volleyball

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Area of Discipline Qualitative Quantitative


Music / Psychology Characterization of Effects of types of
different behaviors of music on the behavior of
children listening to a children
particular music genre
History Apolinario Mabini: the Statistical profiles of a
sublime paralytic population for the past
20 years
Business Behavioral traits of Relationship between
product patrons in the expenditures in
last 10 years advertisements and sales

Area of Discipline Qualitative Quantitative


Agriculture Health benefits of Effects of organic
organically grown fertilizers in vegetable
vegetables to elderly production and sales
Fisheries Fishermen’s adjustment Environmental factors
mechanisms to the El affecting the amount of
Nino phenomenon fish catch in kilograms

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Area of Discipline Qualitative Quantitative


ICT Effects of technology Effectiveness of Gooru
use on students’ Learning System in the
classroom discourses attitude toward
technology use of
secondary physics
students
Social Science Ethnographic study of Effects of
the economic and socioeconomic status on
political practices of the students’ achievement in
Ibanags Philippine History
classes

Edwin Herbert Land


“Do not do anything that
anyone else can do readily. ”

THE END . . . .

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Thank you very much for listening!


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