Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 51

Namma Kalvi

www.nammakalvi.org

,sikj;jkpnH
2019 g[jpa ghlj;jpl;lj;jpd;go

12
1000f;Fk; nkw;gl;l xU kjpg;bgz; TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
40 bkhHpg;gapw;rp jiyg;g[fs;

,ytrk;
bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL
ciuahrphpah;fs;:

Kidth; rp. gue;jhkd;/ M.A., M.Ed., M.Phil, Ph.D., n$. jh;kuh$; n$Rjh!;/ M.A., M.Ed.,
KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ flY}h;. cjtpj; jiyikahrphpah;/ jpz;Lf;fy;.

k.uhgh;l;/ M.A., B.Ed., M.Phil. Ph.D., FUro vk;.V. b$y!;od;/ M.A., B.Ed. M.Phil.,
KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ ghisa=;nfhl;il. KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ ehfh;nfhtpy;.

rp. $hz; @ khlrhkp/ M.A., B.Ed., M.Phil. nf.Mh;. k+;Rsh


KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ ghisa=;nfhl;il. KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpia/ kJiu.

®
SURYA PUBLICATIONS
(A unit of Shyamala Group)
Corporate Office: Registered Office:
No. 1, Sugar Mill Colony, New No. 59, 4th Avenue,
Salai Kumaran illam, Madurai Road, Opp. to Govt. Boys Hr. Sec. School,
Tirunelveli - 627 001. Ashok Nagar, Chennai - 600 083.
Phone : 0462 - 2338899, 2338484 Ph : 044 - 24744484
Mobile : 94431-58484, 95978-39822 Mobile: 94421-58484, 94425-58484
E-mail : suryaguides@yahoo.com E-mail: srigangapublications5@gmail.com
website : www.suryapublications.in

Price ` 290/- i
Published by
B.Arumugam
Surya Publications
(A Unit of Shyamala group)

www.nammakalvi.org

OUR BANK DETAILS


TIRUNELVELI ACCOUNT

Account Name : Surya Publications Account Name : Surya Publications


Account Number : 446971431 Account Number : 510909010051752
Bank Name : Indian Bank Bank Name : City Union Bank
IFSC Code : IDIB000T034 IFSC Code : CIUB0000230
Branch Name : Tirunelveli Junction Branch Name : Palayamkottai

CHENNAI ACCOUNT

Account Name : Sri Ganga Publication Account Name : Sri Ganga Publication
Account Number : 928507483 Account Number : 512020010022514
Bank Name : Indian Bank Bank Name : City Union Bank
IFSC Code : IDIB000A031 IFSC Code : CIUB0000230
Branch Name : Ashok Nagar Branch Name : Palayamkottai

ii
www.nammakalvi.org
bghUslf;fk;
vz; bghUz;ik ghlj;jiyg;g[fs; gf;fk;
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
bra;a[s; ,se;jkpnH- 1-6
ciueil jkpH;bkhHpapd; eil mHfpay; 7 - 16
xd;W bkhHp bra;a[s; jz;oay=;fhuk;* 17 - 22
Jizg;ghlk; ghujpapd; fojk; 23 - 29
,yf;fzk; jkpHha; vGJnthk; 30 - 41
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 1 42 - 44
bga;badg; bga;a[k; kiH
ciueil bgUkiHf;fhyk; 45 - 53
,aw;if/ bra;a[s; gpwbfhU ehs; nfhil 54 - 58
ntshz;ik/
,uz;L Rw;Wr;NHy; bra;a[s; beLey;thil* 59 - 65
Jizg;ghlk; Kjy;fy; 66 - 71
,yf;fzk; ehy;tifg; bghUj;j=;fs; 72 - 83
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 2 84 - 86
Rw;wj;jhh; fz;nz cs
ciueil jkpHh; FLk;g Kiw 87 - 98
bra;a[s; tpUe;jpdh; ,y;yk; 99 - 102
gz;ghL bra;a[s; fk;guhkhazk; *
103 - 113
@d;W
Jizg;ghlk; chpikj;jhfk; 114 - 117
,yf;fzk; bghUs; kaf;fk; 118 - 129
thH;tpay; jpUf;Fws;* 130 - 142
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 3 143 - 146
bry;tj;Js; vy;yhk; jiy
ciueil gz;ila fhyj;Jg; gs;spf;Tl=;fs; 147 - 161
bra;a[s; ,jpy; btw;wp bgw* 162 - 169
fy;tp bra;a[s; ,ilaPL 170 - 174
ehd;F
bra;a[s; g[wehD}W* 175 - 183
Jizg;ghlk; ghJfhg;gha; xU gazk; 184 - 188
,yf;fzk; gh ,aw;wg; gHfyhk; 189 - 197
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 4 198 - 200

iv
vz; bghUz;ik ghlj;jiyg;g[fs; gf;fk;
ehbld;g ehl;od; jiy
ciueil kjuhrg;gl;odk; 201 - 210

ehfhpfk;/ bra;a[s; bja;tkzpkhiy* 211 - 215


Ie;J bjhHpy;/ bra;a[s; njthuk; 215 - 219
tzpfk; bra;a[s; mfehD}W 220 - 225
Jizg;ghlk; jiyf;Fsk; 226 - 229
,yf;fzk; gokk; 229 - 239
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 5 240 - 242
rpWif mshtpa TH;
ciueil jpiubkhHp 243 - 251
bra;a[s; ftpijfs; 252 - 254
fiy/ bra;a[s; rpyg;gjpfhuk; *
255 - 263
MW mHfpay;/
g[Jikfs; bra;a[s; bka;g;ghl;oay; 264 - 269
Jizg;ghlk; eofh; jpyfk; 270 - 275
,yf;fzk; fhg;gpa ,yf;fzk; 276 - 287
thH;tpay; jpUf;Fws; 288 - 296
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 6 297 - 300
mUik cila bray;
ciueil ,yf;fpaj;jpy; nkyhz;ik 301 - 309
bra;a[s; mjprakyh; 310 - 313
ehL/
r@fk;/ muR/ bra;a[s; 313 - 317
njapiyj; njhl;lg; ghl;L
VG epUthfk; bra;a[s; g[wehD}W* 318 - 322
r=;ffhyf; fy;btl;Lk; vd;
Jizg;ghlk; epidt[fSk; 323 - 326

,yf;fzk; bjhd;kk; 326 - 338


khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 7 339 - 341
vy;yh capUk; bjhGk;
ciueil ekJ milahs=;fis kPl;lth; 342 - 350
bra;a[s; Kfk; 351 - 353
kdpjk;/ bra;a[s; ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk;* 354 - 360
vl;L MSik
bra;a[s; rpWghzhw;Wg;gil *
361 - 367
Jizg;ghlk; nfhil kiH 368 - 371
,yf;fzk; FwpaPL 372 - 381
khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 8 382 - 384

v
jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;
X=;fypil te;J cah;e;njhh; bjhHtps=;fp
V=;bfhypePh; +hyj;(J) ,Usfw;Wk; ? M=;ftw;Ws;
kpd;ndh; jdpahHp bt=;fjpbuhd;(W) VidaJ
jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;-
www.nammakalvi.org ? jz;o

beLey;thil
`itafk; gdpg;g tyndh;g[ tis,g;
bgha;ah thdk; g[Jg;bgay; bghHpe;bjd
Mh;fyp Kid,a bfhL=;nfhy; nfhtyh;
kdg;ghlg; gFjp

VWil ,depiu ntWg[yk; gug;gpg;


g[yk;bgah; g[yk;bghL fy=;fp nfhly;
ePL,jH;f; fz;zp ePh; miyf; fyht
bka;f;bfhs; bgUk;gdp eypa gyUld;
iff;bfhs; bfhs;spah; ft[s;g[ila{c eL=;f
?ef;fPuh;

fk;guhkhazk;
`Jd;g[ csJvdpd; md;nwh
Rfk; csJ> mJ md;wpg;
gpd;g[ csJ" ,il kd;Dk;
gphpt[ csJ vd cd;ndy;"
Kd;g[ cbsk; xU ehy;ntk;
Kot[ csJ vd cd;dh
md;g[ cs/ ,dp/ ehk; Xh;
Ith;fs; csh; Mndhk;.
FfndhLk; Ith; Mndk;
Kd;g[" gpd; Fd;W NH;thd;
kf bdhLk; mWth; Mndk;"
vd;KiH md;gpd; te;j
mfd; mkh; fhjy; Ia-
epd;bdhLk; vGth; Mndk;"
g[fy; mU=; fhdk; je;J/
g[jy;tuhy; bghype;jhd; Ee;ij.
? fk;gh;

vi
jpUf;Fws;
md;g[k; mwDk; cilj;jhapd; ,y;thH;f;if mBfhik bry;tj;jpw;F ahbjdpd; btBfhik
gz;g[k; gaDk; mJ. ntz;Lk; gpwd;ifg; bghUs;.
itaj;Js; thH;th=;F thH;gtd; thd;ciwa[k; kwj;jy; btFspia ahh;khl;Lk;" jPa
bja;tj;Js; itf;fg; gLk;. gpwj;jy; mjdhd; tUk;.
bra;ahky; bra;j cjtpf;F itafKk; jd;idj;jhd; fhf;fpd; rpdk;fhf;f" fhthf;fhy;
thdfKk; Mw;wy; yhpJ. jd;idna bfhy;Yk; rpdk;.
ed;wp kwg;gJ ed;wd;W" ed;wy;yJ rpdk;vd;Dk; nrh;e;jhiuf; bfhy;yp ,dk;vd;Dk;
md;nw kwg;gJ ed;W. Vkg; g[iziar; RLk;.
ve;ed;wp bfhd;whh;f;Fk; ca;t[z;lhk;" ca;tpy;iy Ez;zpa E}y;gy fw;gpDk; kw;Wk;jd;
bra;e;ed;wp bfhd;w kfw;F. cz;ik mwpnt kpFk;. ? jpUts;Sth;

,jpy; btw;wpbgw
tpz;ntW" tpz;btspapy; ,a=;F fpd;w
btz;kjpa[k; br=;fjpUk; KfpYk; ntW"
kz;ntW" kz;nzhL fye;jp Uf;Fk;
kzy;ntW" gdpj;Jspa[k; kiHa[k; ntW"
g[z;ntW" tPuh;fspd; tpGg;g[z; ntW"
g[fH;ntW" bry;thf;F ntW" fhQk;
fz;ntW" fy;tpf;fz; ntW" fw;whh;
ftpeila[k; ciueila[k; ntW ntW. ? Rujh

g[wehD}W
mwpt[k; g[fGk; cilnahh; kha;e;bjd/
tWe;jiy cyfKk; md;nw" mjdhy;
fhtpbdk; fynd" RUf;fpbdk; fyg;ig"
ku=;bfhy; jr;rd; ifty; rpwhmh;
kGt[ilf; fhl;lfj;J mw;nw
vj;jpirr; brypDk;/ mj;jpirr; nrhnw. ?xsitahh;

bja;tkzpkhiy
xUika[ld; epdJjpU kyuo epidf;fpd;w
cj;jkh;jk; cwt[ntz;Lk;
cs;bshd;W itj;Jg; g[wk;bghd;W ngRthh;
cwt[fy thikntz;Lk;
bgUikbgWk; epdJg[fH; ngrntz;Lk; bgha;ik
ngrh jpUf;fntz;Lk;
bgUbewp gpoj;bjhGf ntz;Lk; kjkhdnga;
gpoah jpUf;fntz;Lk;. ?,uhkyp=;f mofs; vii
rpyg;gjpfhuk;
FHy;tHp epd;wJ ahnH/ ahH;tHpj;
jz;Qik epd;wJ jfnt/ jz;Qikg;
gpd;tHp epd;wJ KHnt/ KHbthL
To epd;W ,irj;jJ Mke;jphpif ? ,s=;nfhtofs;

jpUf;Fws;
mwptw;wk; fhf;Fk; fUtp brWthh;f;Fk; brhy;Yjy; ahh;f;Fk; vspa" mhpathk;
cs;mHpf;fy; Mfh muz;. brhy;ypa tz;zk; bray;.

vg;bghUs; ahh;ahh;tha;f; nfl;gpDk; mg;bghUs; cUt[fz;L vs;shik ntz;Lk; cUs;bgUe;njh;fF


;
bka;g;bghUs; fhz;gJ mwpt[. mr;rhzp md;dhh; cilj;J.

vjpujhf; fhf;Fk; mwptpdhh;f;F ,y;iy fld;mwpe;J fhyk; fUjp ,ld;mwpe;J


mjpu tUtnjhh; neha;. vz;zp ciug;ghd; jiy.

ey;ypdj;jpd; C=;Fk; Jizapy;iy" jPapdj;jpd; ths;nghy; giftiu m+;rw;f" m+;Rf


my;yy; gLg;gJ}ck; ,y;. nfs;nghy; gifth; bjhlh;g[.

tpidj;jpl;gk; vd;gJ xUtd; kdj;jpl;gk; gHfpa bry;tKk; gz;g[k; bfLf;Fk;


kw;iwa vy;yhk; gpw. fHfj;Jf; fhiy g[fpd;. ? jpUts;Sth;

g[wehD}W
fha;bey; mWj;Jf; ftsk; bfhspnd"
khepiwt[ ,y;yJk;/ gy;ehl;F MFk;"
E}WbrW MapDk;/ jkpj;Jg;g[f;F czpnd/
tha;g[FtjdpDk; fhy;bghpJ bfLf;Fk;" ? gprpuhe;ijahh;

,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk;
ghjfh; FGkpr; brhw;w gHpg;g[iu vd;Dk; bfhs;sp
Vjkpy; fUizg; bgk;khd; ,Ujaj;J Cd;w Cd;w
ntjid cHe;J rpe;ij bte;J g[zg ; l;lhh; my;yhy;
nehjfr; rpde;njhh; khw;w Etd;wpyh; fUk nehf;fp. ? vr;.V. fpUl;ozdhh;

rpWghzhw;Wg;gil
vGrk=; fle;j vG cwH; jpzpnjhs;
vGth; g{z;l <ifr; bre;Efk;
tphpfly; ntyp tpayfk; tps=;f
xUjhd; jh=;fpa cuDil nehd;jhs;. ? ej;jj;jdhh;

viii 
www.nammakalvi.org

caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk; 12


,ay; 1 bkhHp

bra;a[s; ,se;jkpnH- rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; 1


ciueil jkpH;bkhHpapd; eil mHfpay; jp.R. eluhrd;

,ay;
bra;a[s; jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH; (jz;oay=;fhuk;) jz;o
Jizg;ghlk; jk;gp bey;iyag;gUf;F (ghujpahh;) ghujpahh;
,yf;fzk; jkpHha; vGJnthk;

,ay;
bra;a[s;
1 ,se;jkpnH-
? rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak;

ghlE}y; tpdhf;fs;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1.
``kPz]Lke;jg; gHikeyk; g[Jf;F jw;F~~ ftp+h; Fwpg;gpLk; gHikeyk;/
f) ghz]oahpd; r=;fj;jpy; bfhYtpUe;jJ c) bghjpifapy; njhd;wpaJ
) ts;sy;fisj; je;jJ
m) f kl;Lk; rhp M) f/ c ,uz]Lk; rhp
,) kl;Lk; rhp <) f/ ,uz]Lk; rhp [tpil: <]
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

FWtpdh
1. ftp+h; rpw;gp vtw;iw tpae;J ghl/ jkpHpd; Jiz ntz]Lk; vd;fpwhh; >
bre;epwj;J thdk; nghy; rpte;j iffs; cila ciHf;Fk; bjhHpyhsh;fspd; jpuz;l
njhs; kPJ tPw;wpUf;Fk; tpah;it Kj;Jf;fisg; ghl jkpHpd; Jiz ntz;Lk; vd;fpwhh; rpw;gp.

rpWtpdh
1. `brk;ghpjp kiynkl;oy; jiyiar; rha;g;ghd; bre;epwj;Jg; g{f;fhlhk; thd bky;yhk;~
bjhlh; btspg;gLj;Jk; fhl;rp eaj;ij tpsf;Ff.
ŠŠ fjputd; jd; fjph;fisr; RUf;fpf; bfhz;L nkw;F nehf;fp kiwtJ ,aw;if.
ŠŠ Mdhy; ftp+h; brk;ikkpF Nhpad; khiyapy; kiyKfl;oy; jd; jiy rha;f;fpwhd;
vd;fpwhh;.
ŠŠ fjputdpd; fjpbuhsp gl;L thdbkDk; fhbly;yhk; g{f;fhlha; khwpd vd;W rpw;gp eak;gl 1
tpsf;Ffpwhh;.
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
2. gpd;tUk; ,U ghf;fspd; fUj;JfspYs;s ntw;Wikia vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf.
12 giHad fHpjYk; g[jpad g[FjYk; kPz]Lke;jg; gHikeyk; g[Jf;F jw;F
tGty fhy tifap dhnd bka;rpyph;f;fj; jkpH;f;Fapny - Ttp th/ th-
? ed;D}y; ? rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak;

ed;D}y; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak;


1 giHatw;iw xJf;fp g[jpatw;iwg;
g[Fj;j ntz;Lk;.
gHik bray;ghLfSf;Fg; g[jpa totk;
bfhLf;f ntz;Lk;.
,ay;

njitaw;w brhy;/ bghUs;/ tHf;fk; jkpH;j;jhapd; gHikkpF


vy;yhk; fhykhWjYf;F Vw;g g[jpa bray;ghLfSf;Fg; g[jpa totk; bfhLj;J
brhy;/ bghUs;/ tHf;fk; njit. jkpH;f;Fapny bka;rpyph;f;FkhW ghl th.

beLtpdh
1. jkpHpd; rPhpsikj; jpwk; tpae;J ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; TWtdtw;iwj; bjhFj;J
vGJf.
,sikg; bghUe;jpa jkpHpd; jpwj;ijf; ftp+h; rpw;gp gpd;tUkhW ghLfpwhh;.
ŠŠ brk;ikkpF Nhpad; khiyapy; kiyKfl;oy; kiwa[k; nghJ thdk; vDk; fhL
g{f;fhlha;f; fhl;rp jUfpwJ.
ŠŠ ciHg;ghsh;fspd; iffs; rpte;J jpuz;l njhs;fspy; tpah;itj; Jspfs; Kj;JKj;jha;f;
fhzg;gLfpwJ.
ŠŠ ,f;fhl;rpbay;yhk; ehd; tpae;J ghl md;idj; jkpnH cd; Jiz ntz;Lk;.
ŠŠ bgUfp tUk; ftpijfSf;F czthf ,Uf;Fk; jkpnH-
ŠŠ jkpnH eP- ghz;oadpd; jkpH;r; r=;fj;jpy; jtH;e;jpUe;jha;.
ŠŠ ghhp Kjyhd ts;sy;fs; vGtiu ,k;kz;Qf;Fj; je;jha;.
ŠŠ cd; gHikahd eyd;fis vy;yhk; g[Jg;gpj;J/ jkpH;f;Fapny eP bka;rpyph;f;fg; gho th.
ŠŠ Tz;oid cilj;bjwpe;J btsptUk; rp=;fk; nghy; th.
ŠŠ Fsph; bghjpifapy; njhd;wpa bjd; jkpnH rPwp th vd;W rpw;gp jkpHpd; rPhpsikiaj; jpwk;
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

tpae;J ghLfpwhh;.

,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[
brk;ghpjp/ bre;jkpH;/ bre;epwk; ? gz]g[j;bjhiffs;
Kj;J Kj;jha; ? mLf;Fj;bjhlh;
rpte;J ? tpidbar;rk;
tpah;it bts;sk; ? cUtfk;
cWg;gpyf;fzk;

rha;g;ghd; = rha; + g; + g; + Md; tpk;Kfpd;w = tpk;K + fpd;W + m


rha; ? gFjp tpk;K ? gFjp
g; ? re;jp fpd;W ? epfH;fhy ,ilepiy
g; ? vjph;fhy ,ilepiy m ? bgabur;r tpFjp
2 Md;? glh;f;if Mz]ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

tpae;J = tpa + j; (e;) + j; + c ,Ue;jha; = ,U + j; (e;) + j; + Ma;


12
tpa ? gFjp ,U ? gFjp
j; (e;) ? re;jp/ (`e;~ MdJ tpfhuk;) j; (e;) ? re;jp/ (`e;~ MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp Ma; ? Kd;dpiy xUik
tpidKw;W tpFjp
1
g[zh;r;rp tpjp

,ay;
1. brk;ghpjp = brk;ik + ghpjp
<Wnghjy; vd;w tpjpg;go/ ik bfl;L brk; + ghpjp vd;gJ brk;ghpjp vdg; g[zh;e;jJ.
2. thdbky;yhk; = thdk; + vy;yhk;
cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng vd;w tpjpg;go/ (k; + v = bk) thbdky;yhk; vdg;
g[zh;e;jJ.
3. cd;iday;yhy; = cd;id + my;yhy;
ŠŠ ,<I tHp at;t[k; vd;w tpjpg;go/ cd;id + a; + my;yhy; vd;whdJ.
ŠŠ cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng vd;w tpjpg;go/ (a; + m = a) cd;iday;yhy;
vdg; g[zh;e;jJ.
4. bre;jkpnH = brk;ik + jkpnH
ŠŠ <Wnghjy; vd;w tpjpg;go/ ik bfl;L brk; + jkpnH vd;whdJ.
ŠŠ Kd;dpd;w bka; jphpjy; vd;w tpjpg;go/ (k; jphpe;J e; njhd;wp)/ bre;jkpnH vdg; g[zh;e;jJ.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1. `bghjpif~ vd;gJ ve;j kiyiaf; Fwpf;Fk;> caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
m) Fw;why kiy M) tpe;jpa kiy ,) ,ka kiy <) rhkpkiy [tpil: m]
2. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; ve;E}iy bkhHpbgah;j;jikf;fhfr; rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUjpidg;
bgw;whh;>
m) mf;fpdp M) xspg;gwit ,) mf;fpdprhl;rp <) NhpaepHy; [tpil: ,]
3. `rha;g;ghd;~ vd;gjd; rhpahd gFgj gphpg;g[ Kiw
m) rha;g;g[ + Md; M) rha; + g; + Md;
,) rha; + g; + g; + md; <) rha; + g; + g; + Md; [tpil: <]
4. ftp+h; rpw;gp vGjpa ve;jg; gilg;gpyf;fpaj;jpw;F rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUJ fpilj;jJ>
m) xU fpuhkj;jpd; fij M) xU fpuhknk mGjJ
,) xU fpuhkj;jpd; ejp <) xU g[spakuj;jpd; fij [tpil: ,]

5. `bre;jkpH;~ ? ve;jg; g[zh;r;rp tpjpfspd; mog;gilapy; rhpahfg; g[zUk;>


m) <Wnghjy;/ ,dkpfy; M) <Wnghjy;/ Kd;dpd;w bka;jphpjy; 3
,) <Wnghjy;/ jd;bdhw;wpul;ly; <) <Wnghjy; [tpil: M]
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org
6. `tpah;it bts;sk;~ ? ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[j; jUf.
12 M) ctikahFbgah; M) fUtpahF bgah;
,) cUtfk; <) ctikj;bjhif [tpil: ,]
7. ,tw;Ws; vJ ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; vGjpa E}y;>
M) Nhpa fhe;jp M) Nhpa ghh;it ,) xspg;g{ <) Nhpa epHy; [tpil: <]

1 8.

fUj;J 1 : ghz]oahpd; r=;fj;jpy; bfhYtpUe;jts; jkpH;j;jha;.
fUj;J 2 : tpk;Kfpd;w njhs;fs; bre;epwj;Jg; g{f;fhlhdJ.
,ay;

m) fUj;J 1 rhp M) fUj;J 2 rhp


,) ,uz]Lk; fUj;Jk; jtW <) fUj;J 1 rhp/ 2 jtW [tpil: <]
9. `,se;jkpnH~ vd;Dk; ghly; E}ypd; Mrphpah;
m) rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; M) bgUe;njtdhh;
,) jkpHz;zy; <) K. tujuhrdhh; [tpil: m]
10. ghz;oahpd; r=;fj;jpy; bfhYtpUe;jts;
m) nfhg;bgUe;njtp M) ntz;khs;;
,) jkpHd;id <) xsitahh; [tpil: ,]
11. .............. Kjyhd ts;sy;fis <d;W je;jts; jkpHd;id.
m) rilag;g ts;sy; M) rPjf;fhjp
,) ghhp <) beL=;fps;sp [tpil: ,]
12. vk;kUikr; bre;jkpnH! cd;iday;yhy; Vw;wJiz ntWz;nlh ? vd;W ghoath;
m) ghujpahh; M) ghujpjhrd;
,) rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; <) jpU. tp. f [tpil: ,]
13. `,se;jkpnH~ vd;Dk; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpaj;jpd; ghlypd; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s ghtif
m) nehpir Mrphpag;gh M) mWrPh;f; fHpbeoyo Mrphpa tpUj;jk;
,) fyp tpUj;jk; <) vz;rPh;f; fHpbeoyo Mrphpa tpUj;jk; [tpil: <]
14. bghUj;jpf; fhl;Lf.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

i) brk;ghpjp ? cUtfk;
ii) Kj;JKj;jha; ? tpidbar;rk;
iii) rpte;J ? mLf;Fj;bjhlh;
iv) tpah;itbts;sk; ? gz;g[j;bjhif
m) 4321 M) 3412 ,) 2143 <) 3214 [tpil: m]
15. brk;ghpjp ? ,r;brhy;Yf;Fhpa g[zh;r;rp tpjpiaf; fz;lwpf.
m) <Wnghjy; M) ,dkpfy;
,) MjpePly; <) Kd;epd;w bka;jphpjy; [tpil: m]
16. cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng ? vd;w tpjpf;Fg; bghUj;jkhd brhy;iyf; fz;lwpf.
m) cd;iday;yhy;M ) thdbky;yhk; ,) bre;jkpnH <) brk;ghpjp [tpil: M]
17. 
`,se;jkpnH~ vd;Dk; ftpij rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpaj;jpd; vf;ftpijj; bjhFg;gpy;
,lk;bgw;Ws;sJ>
4
m) R{hpa epHy; M) xU fpuhkj;J ejp ,) xspg;gwit <) epyt[g;g{ [tpil: <]
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
18. rpw;gpapd; gd;Kf=;fspy; bghUe;jhjijf; TWf.
m) ftp+h; M) Xtpah; 12
,) nguhrphpah; <) bkhHpbgah;g;ghsh; [tpil: <]
19. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; jkpH;j;Jiwj; jiytuhfg; gzpahw;wpa gy;fiyf;fHfk;
m) ghujpahh; M) ghujpjhrd; ,) jkpH; <) fhkuhrh; [tpil: m]
20. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; vj;jid Kiw rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUJ bgw;Ws;shh;> 1
m) @d;W M) ,U ,) ehd;F <) gy [tpil: M]

,ay;
21. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpad; rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkpapd; .............. ,Uf;fpwhh;.
m) jiytuhf M) brayhsuhf ,) bghUshsuhf <) cWg;gpduhf[tpil: <]

FWtpdh
1. bjhHpyhsh;fspd; iffs; vjidg; nghyr; rpte;Js;sjhff; ftp+h; rpw;gp TWfpwhh; >
khiyapy; kiwa[k; fjputdpd; fjpbuhsp nghy bjhHpyhshpd; iffs; rpte;Js;sjhff;
TWfpwhh;.
2. jkpH;bkhHpapd; gHikeyk; vit >
ŠŠ jkpH;bkhHp ghz]oah;fspd; mitapny jd;dpfuw;w brk;bkhHpaha; Ml;rp bra;jJ.
ŠŠ ghhp nghd;w ts;sy;fs; gyiu jkpH; kz]zpw;Fj; je;j gHik eyk; bfhz]l bkhHp.
3. ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; mth;fspd; Mir vd;d >
`jkpH; gy g[jpa cs;slf;f=;fshy; jd;idg; g[Jg;gpj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;" gH+;rpwg;igj;
jf;f itj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz]Lk;~/ vd;gnj ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; mth;fspd; Mir
MFk;.
4. ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; vGjpa ftpij E}w;fspy; rpytw;iw vGJf.
xspg;gwit/ rh;g;gahfk;/ Nhpa epHy;/ xU fpuhkj;J ejp/ g{$;a=;fspd; r=;fpyp.
5. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpaj;jpd; gd;Kf=;fisf; Fwpg;gpLf.
ftp+h;/ nguhrphpah;/ bkhHpbgah;g;ghsh;/ ,jHhrphpah;. caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
6. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; vGjpa ciueil E}y;fs; ahit>
,yf;fpar; rpe;jidfs;/ kiyahsf;ftpij/ miya[k; RtUk;.
7. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpaj;jpd; ftpijfs; vk;bkhHpfspy; bgah;f;fg;gl;Ls;sd>
M=;fpyk;/ fd;dlk;/ kiyahsk;/ kuhj;jp/ ,e;jp.
8. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; vj;jid Kiw rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUijg; bgw;Ws;shh;>
ŠŠ rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUijg; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpad; ,U Kiw bgw;Ws;shh; .
ŠŠ bkhHpbgah;g;g[f;fhft[k;/ `xU fpuhkj;J ejp~ vd;Dk; ftpij E}ypw;fhft[k; rhfpj;jpa
mfhbjkp tpUijg; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; bgw;Ws;shh;.

rpWtpdh
1. Fsph; bghjpifj; bjd;jkpH; Vd; rPwp tu ntz]Lk; vdr; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; TWfpwhh;>
ŠŠ cs;sj;jpy; bgh=;fptUk; czh;t[fis czh;r;rp kpF ftpijahf vGj Kj;jkpnH cjtp 5
bra;fpd;wJ.
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

ŠŠ ghz]oakd;dh;fs; mikj;j r=;fj;jpny/ jd;dpfuw;w brk;bkhHpaha; ,Ue;J Ml;rpr;


12 bra;jJ.
ŠŠ ghhp nghd;w ts;sy;fs; gyiu ,j;jkpH; kz]zpw;Fj; je;jJ.
ŠŠ md;wpUe;j jkpHh; eyKk; jkpH;ehl;Lg; bghJik eyKk; kPz]Lk; gpwg;gjw;F eP Fapy;
nghyf; Ttp tu ntz]Lk;.
ŠŠ ,d;W jkpHh;fisr; NH;e;jpUf;Fk; moikj;jdKk;/ mwpahika[k; mfd;wpl mth;fs;
1 rpiwg;gl;oUf;Fk; Tl;oid cilj;jpl ePa[k; rp=;fk; nghyr; rPwp g[wg;gl;L tu ntz]Lk;.
2. ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; gw;wpf; Fwpg;g[ tiuf.
,ay;

bgah; : ghyRg;gpukzpak;.
rpwg;g[g; bgah; : rpw;gp (vGj;Jfisr; brJf;Ftjhy; rpw;gp vdg;gl;lhh;).
bgw;nwhh; : rp. bghd;Drhkp ? fz;oak;khs;.
Ch; : Mj;Jg;bghs;shr;rp/ nfhit.
gzp : ghujpahh; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; jkpH;j;Jiwj; jiyth; .
rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkpapd; braw;FG cWg;gpdh;.
tpUJ : ``xU fpuhkj;J ejp~~ vDk; ftpij E}Yf;Fr; rhfpj;jpa mfhbjkp tpUJ.
gilg;g[fs; : xspg;gwit/ rh;g;gahfk;/ Nhpa epHy;/ g{$;a=;fspd; r=;fpyp.

fw;git fw;wgpd; gf;fk;: 3

jkpH;bkhHpg; ghlj;jpy; bkhHp thH;j;Jg; ghly; ,lk; bgWtjd; nehf;fk; Fwpj;j fUj;Jfisj;
bjhFj;Jf; fye;Jiuahly; epfH;j;Jf.
ntjd; : vdf;F bkhHp thH;j;J itg;g[ Kiwiag; gw;wpa xU tpsf;fk; njit.
kjd; : brhy;Y=;f- bkhHp thH;j;J itg;g[ Kiwapy; vd;d tpsf;fk; ntz;Lk;>
ntjd; : ,g;nghbjy;yhk; ,iwthH;j;J ,Ue;j ,lj;jpy; bkhHp thH;j;J itf;fg;gLfpwnj/
mJjhd;.
kjd; : mJ ,lkhw;wk; ,y;iy. xJf;fg;gLtJk; ,y;iy.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

ntjd; : new;W nghy; ,d;W ,y;iy vd;fpwPu;fsh>


kjd; : mjhtJ/ xU braiyj; bjhl=;Ftjw;F Kd; tpUg;g bja;t=;fis tz=;fptpl;Lj;
bjhl=;FtJjhd; tHf;fk;.
ntjd; : jw;nghJ g[j;jf=;fspy; mg;go ,y;iyna.
kjd; : tz=;FtJ ntW/ ,lk; bgwtpy;iy vd;gJ ntW. ,J bkhHpg;g[j;jfk;. vdnt/
bkhHpiaj; bja;tkhf cUtfg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
ntjd; : bkhHp bja;tj;ij vt;thW tz=;fyhk;>
kjd; : bkhHp bja;tj;ijg; gy g[yth;fs; gythW nghw;wpa[s;sdh;. ghujpjhrd; jkpiH
vd;Daph; vd;ngd; fz;Ou; ? vd;ghh;.
ntjd; : mg;ngh/ bkhHpg;ghl=;fspy; bkhHpf; flt[(is)s; thH;j;ij itg;gJ rupjhdh>
kjd; : epr;rakhf/ bkhHp tsk;/ bkhHp rpwf;f/ bkhHp bja;tj;ij tz=;f ntz;Lk;
vd;gjhy; bkhHp thH;j;jpid ,lk; bgwr; bra;tJ rhyr;rpwe;jJ.
ntjd; : ed;wp kjd;.
kjd; : ed;wp ntjd;/ kPz;Lk; re;jpg;nghk;.
6

www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

12
,ay; 1
ciueil cyfk;
jkpH;bkhHpapd; eil mHfpay;
? jp.R. eluhrd;

1
ghlE}y; tpdhf;fs;

,ay;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1. ,yf;fpaj;ija[k; bkhHpiaa[k; xUnrug; ngRfpd;w ,yf;fz E}y;
m) ahg;gU=;fyf;fhhpif M) jz]oay=;fhuk;
,) bjhy;fhg;gpak; <) ed;D}y; [tpil: ,]
2. fUj;J 1 : ,ay;g[ tHf;fpy;/ bjhluikg;g[ vd;gJ vGtha;/ gadpiy vd;W tUtnj kug[.
fUj;J 2 : bjhluikg;g[/ r=;fg; ghly;fs; gytw;wpy; gpwH;e;J tUfpwJ.
m) fUj;J 1 rhp M) fUj;J 2 rhp
,) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; rhp <) fUj;J 1 rhp 2 jtW [tpil: ,]
3. bghUj;Jf.
m) jkpH; mHfpay; ? 1. guyp R. bey;iyag;gh;
M) epyt[g;g{ ? 2. jp. R. eluhrd;
,) fpil ? 3. rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak;
<) ca;a[k; tHp ? 4. fp. uh$ehuhazd;
m) 4/ 3/ 2/ 1 M) 1/ 4/ 2/ 3 ,) 2/ 4/ 1/ 3 <) 2/ 3/ 4/ 1 [tpil: <]

FWtpdh
1. eil mHfpay; gw;wpj; bjhy;fhg;gpak; TWk; fUj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLf. caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
ŠŠ eilbgw;wpaYk; (fpstpahf;fk;/ 26) vd;Wk; eil etpd;bwhGFk; (bra; 135) vd;Wk;
rpy brhw;bwhlh;fisj; bjhy;fhg;gpak; ifahz]oUf;fpwJ.
ŠŠ ftpijapd; ,a=;fhw;wy;jhd; eil vd;fpwJ bjhy;fhg;gpak;.
ŠŠ bkhHpf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; xU typikkpf;f Mw;wy; ftpijf;fhf/ ,yf;fpaj;Jf;fhfj; jd;id
btspg;gLj;jpf; bfhs;tnj eil vdg;gLk;.
2. ``glhmk; <j;j bflhm ey;ypirf;
flhm ahidf; fypkhd; ngf~~ ? ,r; r=;ff; ftpijapd; mofspy; Xir eakpf;f brhw;fisa[k;
mtw;wpw;fhd ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[fisa[k; vLj;J vGJf.
Xir eakpf;fr; brhw;fs; :
glhmk; <j;j/ bflhm ey;ypir/ flhmahid/ ey;ypir.
,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[fs; :
glhmk;/ bflhm/ flhm ? bra;a[spirasbgilfs;
<j;j ? bgabur;rk; 7
ey;ypir ? gz;g[j;bjhif
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
3. tpoay;/ tdg;g[ ? ,U brhw;fisa[k; xU=;fpizj;Jj; bjhlh; mikf;f.
12 g{j;Jf; FY=;Fk; g{f;fspd; kzj;jpYk; gwitfspd; xypfspYk; tpoaypd; btspr;rkhf
cjpf;Fk; fjputdpd; njhw;wk; ,aw;ifapd; tdg;ig vLj;Jiuf;Fk;.

rpWtpdh
1. r=;fg;ghly;fspy; xypf;nfhyk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f xU gz]ghFk; ? tpsf;Ff.
1 ŠŠ ve;jj; bjhd;ikahd bkhHpa[k; rkpf;i+apypUe;Jk;/ ,irapypUe;Jk; jhd; njhd;WfpwJ.
ŠŠ r=;fg;ghly;fspy; Xira[k; bghUSk; ,ize;J fiytotk; bfhs;fpd;wd.
,ay;

ŠŠ ,jidna me;jg; gDty; ghly;fspd; xypg;gpd;dy; vd;fpnwhk;. ,e;j xypf;nfhy=;fs;


czh;r;rpfisf; fhl;Lk; tpjkhf mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.
fle;jL jhid @tpU=; To
cld;wdph; MapDk; gwk;g[ bfhsw;fhpnj"
Ke;E}W Ch;j;nj jz; gwk;g[ ed;dhL"
Ke;E}W CUk; ghprpyh; bgw;wdh;"
ŠŠ caph; xypfs; Fwpg;ghf beoy; xypfspd; tUifa[k;/ rpy xypfSk; rpy brhw;fSk;
jpUk;gtuy; jd;ik bgw;wpUg;gJk;/ ,tw;nwhL nrh;e;J epfH;j;jg;bgWk; brhy;
tpisahl;LfSk; r=;fg;ghly;fspy; xypf;nfhyk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f xU gz]ghf
tps=;fpaij czh;j;Jk;.
rhd;W :
`glhmk; <j;j bflhm ey;ypir flhm ahidf;~ ? ,t;thpfs; xypf;nfhyj;jpd; gz;ig
czh;j;JfpwJ.

beLtpdh
1. ftpijapd; eiliaf; fl;likf;Fk; mHfpay; TWfis vLj;Jf;fhl;o tpsf;Ff.
ftpijapd; eiliaf; fl;likg;gd:
ghl;L my;yJ eilmHfpapay; TWfspy; xypf;nfhy=;fSk; brhw;fspd; g[yKk;
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

bjhlhpay; nghf;FfSk; Kf;fpakhdit.


ftpij ? eilapay;:
bkhHpapd; jdpr;rpwg;ghd TWfSk;/ mtw;iwf; ifahSfpd;w tifikfSk;
ftpijapd; ce;J rf;jpahf mikfpd;wd. bkhHpf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; xU typikkpf;f Mw;wy;
ftpijf;fhf/ ,yf;fpaj;Jf;fhfj; jd;id btspg;gLj;jpf; bfhs;fpwJ. ftpijapd;
,a=;fhw;wy;jhd; eil. eilbgw;wpaYk; (fpstpahf;fk; ? 26) vd;W bjhy;fhg;gpak;
TWfpwJ.

xypf;nfhy=;fs;:
bjhd;ikahd bkhHpfs; aht[k; rkpf;i+apypUe;Jk;/ ,irapypUe;Jk;jhd;
bjhl=;FfpwJ. Xira[k; bghUSk; ,ize;J fiytotk; bfhs;fpd;wd. ,ijna/ me;jg;
gDtypd; ? ghlypd; xypg;gpd;;dy; vd;fpnwhk;.
rhd;W: †fle;jL jhid @tpU=;To cld;wdph; MapDk; gwk;g[ bfhsw;fhpnj‡
,g;ghlypy; f/ j/ l/ w Kjypa ty;ypd bka;fs; gpw bky;ypd ,ilapd bka;fisf;
fhl;oYk; mjpfkhf tUfpwJ. ,jd; mog;gilapy; xg;gpl;Lg; ghh;j;J xypf;nfhyj;jpd;
8
typikia mwpayhk;.
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
glhmk; <j;j bflhm ey;ypir
flhm ahidf; fypkhd; ngf (g[wk; ? 145) 12
,jpy; gy caph; xypfs; tUifa[k; jpUk;gtuy; jd;ika[k; ,tw;nwhL nrh;e;J
epfH;j;jg;bgWk; brhy; tpisahl;LfSk; ,=;nf ftdj;jpw;Fhpad. xypf;nfhyk;
r=;fg;ghly;fspd; xU Kf;fpag;gz;g[.


brhw;g[yk; :
brhy;tsk; vd;gJ xUbghUs; Fwpj;j gy brhy;/ gy bghUs; Fwpj;j xU brhy;/
1
gyJiw/ gyR{Hy;/ gy g[idt[fSf;Fk; chpajha; tUjYk;/ czh;t[k;/ bjspt[k; bfhz;ljha;

,ay;
tUjYk;/ vdg; gythW brHpg;ghd jsj;jpy; brhw;fs; tpisr;ry; fz;oUg;gijf; Fwpf;Fk;.
rhd;whf/ Ky;iyf;fypapy; fhisfspy; gy ,d=;fisf; fhl;Lfpd;w brhw;fs; cs;sd.
brhy;tsk; xU gz;ghl;od; milahsk;. brhy;tsk; vd;gJ jdpr;brhw;fsha; epiwe;J
miktija[k; Fwpf;Fk;.

bjhifepiy :
r=;f ,yf;fpa bkhHpapd; milahskhf cs;s xU gz;g[ ,J. ,jidj; bjhifepiy
vd;W bjhy;fhg;gpa vr;rtpay; ngRfpwJ. bjhifbkhHp vd;gJ brwpthf;fg;gl;l xU
totikg;g[.
mJ thf;fpa mikg;gpy; xU brhy; nghynt eilbgWk;.
rhd;W: itFWtpoay;/ ftpDW tdg;g[/ jPePh; vd;gd.
bjhlhpay; nghf;Ffs; :
xypf;nfhyKk;/ brhw;g[yKk; brhw;bwhlh; epiya[k; ghlypd; jsj;ij Vh; elj;jpg;
gz;gLj;jpg; nghfpd;wd vd;why;/ ghj;jp fl;o tug;g[ah;j;Jk; gzpfisj; bjhlhpay; totk;
bra;fpd;wJ. ghpkhwg;gLk; czh;t[fSf;Fk; bra;jpfSf;Fk; Vw;gj; bjhlh;fs; Vwpa[k;
,w=;fpa[k; jpUk;gpa[k; RHd;Wk; ,a=;Ffpd;wd.

ftpij kWjiyj;bjhlh; :
bjhluikg;g[ vd;gJ vGtha; + brag;gLbghUs;/ my;yJ gpwtw;Wld; Toa
mikg;g[ + gadpiy vd;W tUtJ kug[. ,J r=;fg;ghly;fspy; gytw;wpy; gpwH;e;J tUfpwJ.
rhd;W: ngbuapd; KWtyhhpd;/ ek;gp beL+;brHpaDila rht[r;rl=;F ghly;: caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
†,Lfbthd;nwh/ RLfbthd;nwh
gLtHpg;gLf ,g;g[fG; bta;nahd; jiyna‡ (g[wk; ? 239)
,jd; ,Wjp mo gpwH;nthL mike;Js;sJ. Vida 20 mofspy; bjhlh; thpirahft[k;
neh;glt[k; bry;fpd;wd. xt;nthh; moa[k; tpidKw;WfnshLk;/ jd;dpiwnthLk;
Kofpd;wd. ,g;go 18 gz;g[fis thpirg;gLj;jpa gpwF/ bjhFj;Jr; brhy;tJnghy/
(M=;Fr; bra;gitbay;yhk; bra;jdd; Mjypd;) Twptpl;Lg; nghlh ngh ? g[ijj;jhy; g[ij"
Rl;lhy; RL vd;W mYj;Jf; bfhs;fpwJ.
,Wjpahf :
eilapay; vd;gJ totikg;gpd; gFjpfisa[k; KGikapida[k; rhh;e;nj ,Uf;fpwJ.
mj;jifa eil mHfpaiyf; fl;likg;gjw;Fr; r=;f ,yf;fpank Kjd;ik Mjhuk;. nkYk;
r=;f ,yf;fpak; mjDila jdpj;Jt kpf;f r@f ? gz;ghl;Lj;jsj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;l rpy
gz;g[fisa[k; nghf;Ffisa[k; brhe;j kug[fshff; bfhz;Ltpl;lJ. vdnt/ ftpijiaf;
fl;likf;Fk; mHfpay; TWfs; r=;f ,yf;fpa=;fspy; gutpf; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
9
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org

12 TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1. bra;a[is Xh; cs;sikg;ghff; TWk; E}y;
m) ed;D}y; M) bjhy;fhg;gpak;
1 ,) ahg;gU=;fyf;fhhpif <) jz]oay=;fhuk;  [tpil: M]

2. fhisfspy; gy ,d=;fisf; fhl;Lk; E}y;


,ay;

m) bjhy;fhg;gpak; M) Ky;iyf;fyp
,) g[wehD}W <) gjpw;Wg;gj;J  [tpil: M]

3. ghlypd; jsj;ijg; ghj;jpfl;o tug;g[ah;j;Jk; gzpiar; bra;tJ


m) bjhlhpay; totk; M) xypf;nfhyk;
,) brhw;bwhlh; epiy <) brhw;g[yk;  [tpil: m]

4. fUj;J 1 : brhy;ypy;jhd; czh;t[k; bghUSk; bghjpe;J fplf;fpd;wd.


fUj;J 2 : jkpH; mHfpaiyf; fl;likg;gjw;Fr; r=;f ,yf;fpank Kjd;ik Mjhuk;.
m) fUj;J 1 rhp M) fUj;J 2 rhp
,) fUj;J 1 rhp/ 2 jtW <) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; rhp [tpil: <]

5. fUj;J 1 : 
Ky;iyf;fypapy; vUJfspd; gy ,d=;fisf; fhl;Lk; brhw;fs; epuk;gpf;
fplf;fpd;wd.
fUj;J 2 : brhy;tsk; xU gz;ghl;od; milahskhft[k; ,Uf;fpwJ.
m) fUj;J 1 jtW M) fUj;J 1 rhp/ 2 jtW
,) fUj;J ,uz]Lk; rhp <) fUj;J 1 jtW/ 2 rhp [tpil: ,]

6. fUj;J : bjhd;ikahd bkhHp rkpf;i+apypUe;Jk; ,irapypUe;Jk; jhd; bjhl=;FfpwJ.


tpsf;fk; : bkhHpj;njhd;w mog;gilahf ,Ug;gJ xypna. xypia btt;ntW tot=;fspy;
cr;rhpf;Fk; nghJ bkhHpj; njhd;WfpwJ.
m) fUj;J rhp tpsf;fk; jtW M) fUj;Jk; tpsf;fKk; rhp
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

,) fUj;J jtW tpsf;fKk; jtW <) fUj;J jtW tpsf;fk; rhp [tpil: M]

7. bghUj;jkhdijf; fz;lwpf.
m) ghtif ? Ie;J
M) t+;rp ? btz]gh eilj;nj
,) gdpePh; ? bjhif bkhHp
<) fhkh; tdg;g[ ? bjhlhpay; nghf;F [tpil: ,]

8. bghUj;jkhdijf; fz;lwpf.
m) flhm ahidf; fypkhd; ngf ? Ky;iyf;fyp
M) g[zhpd; g[zuhJ bghUns ? bjhy;fhg;gpak;
,) ,td; je;ij je;ij ? ew;wpiz
<) ahKk; ghhpa[k; csnk ? g[wehD}W [tpil: <]

10
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
9. bghUe;jhjijj; njh;f.
m) fd;dp tpoay; ? bjhif bkhHp 12
M) bgha;gL brhy; ? kwpj;jhf;fk;
,) r=;fg;ghly;fs; ? kWjiyj; bjhlh;
<) fp.uh$ehuhazd; ? fpil [tpil: M]


10. jkpH;bkhHpapd; eil mHfpay; vd;Dk; fl;Liuapd; Mrphpah;
m) jp.R. eluhrd; M) xsit eluhrd;
1

,ay;
,) rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; <) jkpHz;zy;  [tpil: m]
11. 
................ ,GbkDk; bkhHpahy; tpGkpaJ gaf;Fk; tifapd; ,yf;fpa=;fs;
gilf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.
m) jkpHpy; M) M=;fpyj;jpy;
,) bjY=;fpy; <) tlbkhHpapy; [tpil: m]
12. kyUk; kzKk; nghy ftpija[ld; ,uz;lwf; fye;jpUg;gJ
m) jkpHh;fspd; mHFzh;t[ M) jiytd; jiytpapd; md;g[zh;t[
,) ts;sypd; ts;sd;ika[zh;t[ <) gf;jh;fspd; bja;t czh;t[ [tpil: m]
13. mwpag;gl;l tuyhw;Wf; fhyj;jpd; bjhlf;fkhfj; njhw;wk; jUtJ
m) g[uhzk; M) r=;f ,yf;fpak; ,) fy;btl;L <) ehzak; [tpil: M]
14. mHF vd;gJ ................ bra;jp.
m) kdpjhpd; M) nguz;lj;jpd; ,) fhjyhpd; <) flt[shpd; [tpil: M]
15. mHfpaiy cUthf;Ftjw;Fj; jsk; mikj;Jj; jUtJ
m) bjhy;fhg;gpak; M) r=;f ,yf;fpak;
,) g[uhzk; <) kdpjelj;ij  [tpil: m]
16. ,yf;fpaj;ija[k; bkhHpiaa[k; xUnrug; ngRfpd;w ,yf;fzk;
m) bjhy;fhg;gpak; M) ed;D}y;
,) bjhd;D}y; tpsf;fk; <) jz;oay=;fhuk;  [tpil: m] caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
17. ,yf;fpaj;jpd; `................~ gw;wpj; jkpH; ,yf;fpa kugpy; mGj;jkhd fUj;J cz;L.
m) eak; M) gad; ,) epiy <) <LghL [tpil: M]
18. ,yf;fpaj;jpd; nehf;fk; my;yJ mwptpay; rhh;e;j fUj;Jepiyfs; fiy cUthf;fj;jpd; nghnj
rhptu ,ize;jpUf;f ntz;Lk; vd;W TWk; E}y;
m) bjhy;fhg;gpak; M) ed;D}y;
,) ,yf;fz tpsf;fk; <) bjhd;D}y; tpsf;fk; [tpil: m]
19. r=;f ,yf;fpak; ghlw;bghUs;fshf totikj;Js;sit
i) mfj;jpizr; rhh;e;j bra;jpfs; ii) g[wj;jpizr; rhh;e;j bra;jpfs;
m) i - rhp M) ii - jtW
,) ,uz;Lk; rhp <) i - rhp " ii - jtW  [tpil: ,]
20. mfd; Ie;jpizfisg; ngRtJ
m) ed;D}y; M) jz;oay=;fhuk;
11
,) bjhy;fhg;gpak; <) g[wg;bghUs; btz;ghkhiy [tpil: ,]
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
21. gh tiffs; Mrphpak; Kjw;bfhz;L
12 m) @d;W M) ehd;F ,) Xd;W <) ,uz;L [tpil: M]
22. 
me;epy kU=;fpd; mwKjyhfpa Kk;Kjw; bghUl;Fk; chpa vd;g?vd;W ghtiffnshL
mwtpay; fUj;Jfis ,izj;Jr;brhy;tJ
m) r=;f ,yf;fpak; M) ghpghly; ,) bjhy;fhg;gpak; <) mfj;jpak; [tpil: ,]

1 23. ghl;L my;yJ ftpijapd; eilapay; TWfspy; Kf;fpakhdit


i) xypf;nfhy=;fs; ii) brhw;fspd; g[yk; iii) bjhlhpay; nghf;Ffs;
,ay;

m) i, ii - rhp M) ii, iii - rhp


,) @d;Wk; rhp <) ,uz;L kl;Lk; jtW [tpil: ,]
24. ftpijapd; ................ eil.
m) ,a=;fhw;wy;jhd; M) mHFjhd;
,) ghh;itjhd; <) ,ay;g[jhd; [tpil: m]
25. `eilbgw;wpaYk;~ vd;gJ bjhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd ................ tUk; brhw;bwhlh;.
m) fpstpahf;fj;jpy; M) bkhHpahf;fj;jpy;
,) vGj;J mjpfhuj;jpy; <) ,tw;wpy; vJt[kpy;iy [tpil: m]
26. Mrphpa eilj;nj t+;rp" Vid btz;gh eilj;nj fyp?vd;W Fwpg;gpLk; E}y;
m) fypj;bjhif M) bjhy;fhg;gpak; ,) ghpghly; <) Fwt+;rp [tpil: M]
27. `fle;jLjhid @tpU=;To~?vd;W bjhl=;Fk; ghlyofs; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s E}y;
m) mfehD}W M) g[wehD}W ,) fypj;bjhif <) ghpghly; [tpil: M]
28. `glhmk; <j;j bflhm ey;ypirf; flhm ahidf; fypkhd; ngf~ vd;Dk; mofs; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s
E}y;
m) mfehD}W M) g[wehD}W ,) fypj;bjhif <) ghpghly; [tpil: M]
29. `
g[zhpd; g[zuhJ bghUns" bghUs;tapd; gphpapd; g[zuhJ g[zh;nt-~ vd;Dk; mofs;
,lk;bgw;Ws;s E}y;
m) g[wehD}W M) ew;wpiz ,) mfehD}W <) fypj;bjhif[tpil: M]
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

30. Ee;ij je;ijf;F ,td;je;ij je;ij?vd;Dk; mofs; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s E}y;


m) g[wehD}W M) ew;wpid ,) mfehD}W <) fypj;bjhif[tpil: m]
31. ................ fypapy;/ fhisfspy; gy ,d=;fisf; fhl;Lfpw brhw;fs; epuk;gpf; fplf;fpd;wd.
m) Fwp+;rpf; M) Ky;iyf; ,) kUjf; <) ghiyf; [tpil: M]
32. 
`fpil~ vd;Dk; FWehtypy; MLfspd; milahs=;fisg; gy bgah;fisr; brhy;yp
miHg;gth;
m) ,e;jpuh ghh;j;jrhujp M) fp. uh$ehuhazd;
,) b$afhe;jd; <) b$ankhfd; [tpil: M]
33. bjhifepiy/ bjhifbkhHp gw;wpg; ngRk; bjhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; ,ay;
m) vr;rtpay; M) ,ilapay; ,) ctikapay; <) vGj;jpay; [tpil: m]
34. `ePh;gL gR=;fyk;~ vd;Dk; mofSf;Fhpa E}y;
12 m) g[wehD}W M) mfehD}W ,) ew;wpiz <) ghpghly; [tpil: ,]
www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
35. ek;gp beL+;brHpaDila rht[r; rl=;F/ rh;r;irf;F cs;shdJ gw;wpg; ghoath;
m) ngbuapd; KWtyhh; M) bts;isf;Fo ehfdhh; 12
,) ehpbtqcj;jiyahh; <) nfht{h;fpHhh;  [tpil: m]
36. 
,Lf bthd;nwh/ RLf bthd;nwh/ gLtHpg; gLf/ ,g;g[fH; bta;nahd; jiyna?vd;w
g[wehD}W mofspy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; kd;dh;


m) mwpt[ilek;gp
,) br=;Fl;Ltd;;
M) ek;gp beL+;brHpad;
<) fps;sptstd;  [tpil: M]
1

,ay;
37. `bjhoa[ila njhs; kze;jdd;~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; g[wehD}w;Wg; ghlypd; Mrphpah;
m) ngbuapd; KWtyhh; M) bghd;Koahh;
,) nfht{h;fpHhh; <) bts;isf;Fo ehfdhh; [tpil: m]
38. ngbuapd; KWtyhhpd; g[wehD}w;Wg; ghlypy; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s gz;g[fs;
m) 16 M) 18 ,) 15 <) 14 [tpil: M]
39. jkpH; mHfpaiyf; fl;likg;gjw;Fr; ................ Kjd;ik Mjhuk;.
m) r=;f ,yf;fpank M) r=;fk; kUtpa ,yf;fpank
,) ePjp ,yf;fpank <) fhg;gpank  [tpil: m]
40. jkpH; mHfpay; vd;Dk; E}ypd; Mrphpah;
m) jp.R. eluhrd; M) xsit eluhrd;
,) jkpHz;zy; <) ty;ypf;fz;zd; [tpil: m]
41. ................ fiyiaj; jkpHf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpath;fspy; jp. R. eluhrd; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fth;.
m) jpiuf; M) jpwdha;t[f; ,) bkhHpbgah;g;g[f; <) ngr;Rf; [tpil: M]
42. jp.R. eluhrd; ................ Mfg; gzpg[hpe;jhh;.
m) khtl;l Ml;rpah; M) nghuhrphpah;; ,) tHf;Fiu+h; <) kUj;Jth; [tpil: M]

FWtpdh
1. ,yf;fpak; vtw;iwj; jdf;Fhpa mHfpay;; rhjdkhf khw;w ntz]oa[s;sJ>
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
kdpj ehf;Ffspd; <uk;gl;Lf; fplf;Fk; bkhHpahdJ/ ngRgtd;/ nfl;gtd; MfpnahUila
jdpg;gl;l NHy;fs; ngRk; nghJk;/ nfl;Fk; nghJk; jdpr;NHy;fisj; jdf;Fhpa mHfpay;
rhjdkhf khw;w ntz]Lk;.
2. bkhHpapd; rpwg;g[ tHf;Ffisf; fiyapay; tHf;Ffshf khw;Wgit vit>
ctkk;/ cUtfk;/ vr;rk;/ Fwpg;g[/ cs;Siw/ ,iwr;rp Kjypait bkhHpapd; ,ay;g[
tHf;Ffisf; fiyapay; tHf;Ffshf khw;WgitahFk;.
3. jkpH; ,yf;fpaj;jpd; gad;fshff; fl;Liuahrphpah; TWtd ahit>
mwk;/ bghUs;/ ,d;gk; my;yJ ntW Vnjh Xh; cah;e;j Fwpf;nfhis czh;j;Jtdthf jkpH;
,yf;fpaj;jpd; gad;fs; ,Uf;f ntz]Lk;.
4. `fiy KGik~ gw;wpj; bjhy;fhg;gpak; Fwpg;gpLtJ ahJ>
`fiy KGik~/ vd;gJ ,yf;fpaj;jpw;fhd nehf;fk; my;yJ mwptpay; rhh;e;j fUj;Jepiyfs;/
fiy cUthf;fj;jpd; nghnj rhptu ,ize;jpUf;f ntz]Lk; vd;W bjhy;fhg;gpak;
Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. 13
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
5. jkpH; mHfpaypd; beLk;gug;g[fbsd Mrphpah; vjidf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;>
12 r@f gz]ghl;L kugpw;nfw;gnt/ fiy gilg;ig/ mHfpay; bewpia/ gz]ghl;od;
,yr;rpidahfr; rpj;jupg;gjw;Fj; jkpH;kug[ Kd;te;jpUf;fpwJ" Kd; bkhHpe;jpUf;fpwJ. ,Jnt
jkpH; mHfpaypd; beLk;gug;g[ MFk;.
6. ghlypd; jsj;ij Vh; elj;jpg; gz]gLj;jpg; nghfpd;wdit vit>
xypf;nfhyk;/ brhw;g[yk;/ brhw;bwhlh; epiy.
1 7. gz;ila ftp+h;fSf;F ,ay;ghf ,Ue;j czh;t[ vJ>
ftpg;bghUis mikf;fpd;w tpjj;jpy; czh;r;rpfisg; gha;r;Rk; tpjj;jpy; jP=;ftpfisr;
,ay;

brtpahug; gUfr;bra;J fw;nghh; ,jak; fdpa[k; tz;zk; gilf;Fk; mHtpay; czh;t[/


gz;ilf; ftp+h;fSf;F ,ay;ghf ,Ue;jJ.
8. ,yf;fpaj;jdk; vd;gJ ahJ>
ŠŠ ,yf;fpak; vd;w bkhHprhh;fiy/ bkhHpapd; jdpj;Jtkhd gz;g[fis ,ad;w kl;Lk;
jdf;Fhpajhf;fpf; bfhs;fpwJ.
ŠŠ ,yf;fpaj;jpw;F xU rpwg;g[j;jd;ikiaj; je;JtpLfpwJ. ,j;jifa jd;ikjhd; ftpj;jdk;
my;yJ ,yf;fpaj;jdk; vd;W ngrg;gLfpwJ.
9. bkhHpapd; tHf;Ffisf; fiyapay; tHf;Ffshf khw;Wgit vit>
ctkk;/ cUtfk;/ vr;rk;/ Fwpg;g[/ cs;Siw/ ,iwr;rp.
10. `yl;rpak;~ bghUs;fnshL ,uz;lw ,izj;JtpLtJ vJ>
mfd; Ie;jpizfisg; ngRfpw bjhy;fhg;gpak; g[zh;jy;/ gphpjy; Kjyhd mfd;
Ie;jpidfis ,d;gk;/ bghUs;/ mwk; Mfpa mwtpay; `yl;rpag;~ bghUs;fnshL ,uz;lw
,izj;JtpLfpwJ.
11. ve;j bjhd;ikahd bkhHpa[k; vtw;wpypUe;J bjhl=;FfpwJ>
ve;j bjhd;ikahd bkhHpa[k; rkpf;ifapypUe;Jk; ,irapypUe;Jk;jhd; bjhl=;FfpwJ.
12. xypg;gpd;dy; vd;gJ ahJ>
ŠŠ bkhHprhh;e;j ftpija[k; ,irnahLk; ,irf;fUtpnahLk;jhd; gpwf;fpwJ.
ŠŠ Xira[k; bghUSk; ,ize;J fiytotk; bfhs;fpd;wd.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

ŠŠ ,jidna me;jg; gDtypd; ghlypd; xypg;gpd;dy; vd;fpnwhk;.


13. brhy;ypy; g[ije;J fplg;gd ahit>
ŠŠ brhy;ypy;jhd; czh;t[k; bghUSk; bghjpe;J fplf;fpd;wd.
ŠŠ fiya[k; gz;ghLk; tuyhWk; murpaYk; bghjpe;J fplf;fpd;wd.
14. jkpH; ,yf;fpa=;fspy; fhzg;gLk; brhy;tsj;jpw;fhd rhd;Wfisj; jUf.
ŠŠ Ky;iyf; fypapy;/ fhisfspy; gy ,d=;fisf; fhl;Lfpw brhw;fs; epuk;gpf; fplf;fpd;wd.
ŠŠ fp. uh$ehuhazd; `fpil~ vd;Dk; FWehtypy; MLfspy; milahs=;fisg; gy
bgah;fs; brhy;yp miHf;fpwhh;.
15. brhy;tsk; vd;gJ ahJ>
ŠŠ brhy;tsk; vd;gJ jdpr;brhw;fsha; epiwe;J miktija[k; Fwpf;Fk;.
ŠŠ xd;wpw;F nkw;gl;l brhw;fs; ftt[f;if befpHhky; Ka=;fpf; fplg;gija[k; Fwpf;Fk;.
14
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
16. bjhlhpapy; totk; bra;a[k; gzpfs; ahit>
xypf;nfhyKk; brhw;g[yKk; brhw;bwhlh; epiya[k; ghlypd; jsj;ij Vh; elj;jpg; gz;gLj;jpg; 12
nghfpd;wd vd;why;/ ghj;jpfl;o tug;g[ah;j;Jk; gzpfisj; bjhlhpay; totk; bra;fpd;wJ.
17. jp. R. eluhrd; jkpH;g; nghuhrphpauhfg; gzpahw;wpa gy;fiyf;fHf=;fisf; TWf.
ŠŠ kJiy fhkuhrh; gy;fiyf;fHfk;.
ŠŠ nghye;J ehl;od; thh;!h gy;fiyf;fHfk;. 1
ŠŠ jpUbey;ntyp kndhd;kzpak; Re;judhh; gy;fiyf;fHfk;.

,ay;
18. jp.R. eluhrd; ,aw;wpa E}y;fs; ahit>
ftpijbaDk; bkhHp/ jpwdha;t[f;fiy/ jkpH; mHfpay;/ jkpHpd; gz;ghl;L btspfs;.

rpWtpdh
1. jp.R. eluhrd; ? Fwpg;g[ tiuf.
bgah; : jp.R. eluhrd;
rpwg;g[ : jpwdha;t[f;fiyiaj; jkpGf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpath;.
gjtp : kJiu fhkuhrh; gy;fiyf;fHfk;/ nghye;J ehl;od; thh;rh gy;fiyf;fHfk;/
jpUney;ntyp kndhd;kzPak; Re;judhh; gy;fiyf;fHfk; Mfpatw;wpy;
jkpH;g; nguhrphpauhfg; gzpg[hpe;jhh;.
gilg;g[fs; :  ftpijbaDk; bkhHp/ jkpH; mHfpay;/ jkpH; gz;ghl;L btspfs;/
jpwdha;t[f;fiy.
2. 
r=;fg;ghly;fs; gytw;Ws; mike;Js;s kWjiyj; bjhlhpay; nghf;Ff;Fr; rhd;W je;J
tpsf;Ff.
jkpH; bkhHpapy; ciueil tHf;F/ ngr;R tHf;F cs;spl;l ,ay;g[ tHf;fpy;
bjhluikg;g[ vd;gJ vGtha; + brag;gLbghUs; my;yJ gpwtw;Wld; Toa mikg;g[ +
gadpiy vd;W tUtnj kug[. Mdhy; r=;fg;ghly;fs; gytw;wpy; ,e;epiy khwp tUfpwJ.
,jidf; ftpij kWjiyj; bjhlh; vd;gh;.
rpwg;ghf Koa[k; ghly;fspd; ,Wjpapy;jhd; ,e;jj; bjhlhpay; gpwH;t[epiy bgupJk;
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
fhzg;gLfpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhfg; ngbuapd; KWtyhh;/ ek;gp beL+;brHpaDila rht[r;
rl=;fpy; Kuz]ghlhd fUj;J cUthfpa[s;sij
,Lf bthd;nwh/ RLfbthd;nwh"
gLtHpg; gLf/ ,g;g[fH; bta;nahd; jiyna- (g[wk; : 239)
vd;w ,g;ghlypy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;s ,Wjp mo Xh; vspikahd bjhlhpay; gpwH;nthL
mike;jpUf;fpwJ.
`bjhoaila njhs; kze;jdd;~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; ,g;ghlypy; bjhlh;e;J tUk; 20
mofspy; bjhlh;fs; thpirahft[k; neh;glt[k; bry;tijf; fhzyhk;. xt;nthh; moapYk;
jdpj;jdpna tpidKw;WfnshL jd;dpiwnthL 18 gz]g[fis thpirg;gLj;jpj; bjhFj;Jf;
TWk; g[yth; ,Wjpapy; beL+;brHpaDila cliyg; g[ijj;jhy; g[ij " Rl;lhy; RL
vd;W mYj;Jf; bfhs;fpwhh;. ,J r=;fg; ghlypd; kWjiyj; bjhlhpay; nghf;Ff;Fj; jFe;j
rhd;whFk;.
15
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org

12 fw;git fw;wgpd; gf;fk;: 7

1. ftp+h; ghujpjhrdpd; mHfpd;rphpg;g[ ? Fd;wk; ? xspa[k; Fd;Wk; ghlypy; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s


eilr;rpwg;gpidj; bjhFj;J ciuahf tH=;Ff.
xspa[k; Fd;Wk;
1 mUtpfs; ituj;bjh=;fy;
mlu;bfhog; gr;irg;gl;nl
FUtpfs; j=;ff; fl;o
,ay;

Fspu;kyh; kzpapd; Fg;ig


vUjpd;nky; gha[k; nt=;if
epyt[nky; vGe;j kpd;dy;
rUbfyhk; xspnru; j=;fj;
jfLfs; ghulh eP ? ghujpjhrd;
,aw;if tUzidiag; ghujpjhrd; brk;ikg; gLj;Jtjpy; ty;yth;.
,g;ghlypy;/ thDaph;e;j kiyapd; mHif jdf;nf chpj;jhd eilapy; cUtfg;gLj;Jfpwhh;.
ŠŠ kiyapdpd;W tpGk; btz;ikahd mUtpfs; kiyahfpa bgz;zpd; fhjpy;
mzpe;jpUf;Fk; ituj;jhyhd bjh=;fyhf cs;sJ.
ŠŠ kiyapy; mlh;j;jpahfg; glhe;jpUf;Fk; gRikahd bfhofs; mg;bgz; cLj;jpapUf;Fk;
gr;irg; gl;lhilahff; fhzg;gLfpwJ.
ŠŠ kiyapy; fhzg;gLk; FUtpfs; Nhpa xspapd; fhuzkhff; j=;ff; fl;ofshff;
fhzg;gLd;wd.
ŠŠ g{j;jpUf;Fk; g{f;fs; etkzpfs; Mff; fhl;rpaspf;fpd;wd.
ŠŠ vUjpd; nky; gha[k; nt=;iff; fhl;rpfs;/ Kd;itf;fg;gLfpwJ.
ŠŠ epytpd;nky; XLfpd;w kpd;dypd; thpfs; tpGe;J fplf;Fk; rUFfs; xspapd; gpufhrj;jhy;
j=;fj;jfLfshff; fhl;rpaspf;fpd;wd.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

2. 
jkpHpd; brhy;tsj;ij btspg;gLj;Jk;goahf ahid ' kyh; Fwpj;j gy brhw;fis
mfuhjpapy; fz;L gl;oaypLf.

ntHk;/ fspW/ fsgk;/ khj=;fk;/ ifk;kh/ ck;gh;/ fhp/ Jk;gp/ Mid/ fsgk;/
ahid faKdp/ ifk;kiy/ F+;ruk;/ ty;tpy=;F/ J=;fy;/ thuzk;/ flfk;/ Joao/
flfk;.
mUk;g[/ nghJ/ eis/ KfpH;/ g[&;gk;/ eWtp/ bkbfFs;/ brk;kyh;/ bghJk;gh;/
kyh;
myh;/ kfue;jk;/ bghk;ky;/ tPjp.



16
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

12
,ay;
bra;a[s;
1 jd;ndh; ,yh jkpH;
(jz;oay=;fhu ciu nkw;nfhs; ghly;)

1
ghlE}y; tpdhf;fs;

,ay;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1. ``kpd;ndh; jdpahHp bt=;fjpbuhd;W VidaJ
jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;-~~ ,t;tofspy; gapd;W te;Js;s bjhileak;
m) monkhid/ mo vJif M) rPh; nkhid/ rPh; vJif
,) mo vJif/ rPh; nkhid <) rPh; vJif/ monahid [tpil: ,]

rpWtpdh
1. `V=;bfhypePh; +hyj;J ,Usfw;Wk;~ ? ,l+;Rl;og; bghUs; tpsf;Ff.
,lk; :
,g;ghlypd; mo jz]oay=;fhuk; vd;Dk; mzp ,yf;fz E}ypd; bghUszpapaypy;
,lk; bgw;Ws;s ciu nkw;nfhs; ghlyhFk;. ,jd; Mrphpah; jz]o Mthh;.
bghUs;; :
kf;fshy; nghw;wg;gl;L/ cah;e;j kiyfSf;F ,ilna bghjpifapy; gpwe;J/
rhd;nwhuhy; bjhHg;gl;L/ kf;fspd; mwpahik vd;Dk; ,Uisg;nghf;Fk; jkpnH cdf;F
epfh; ,y;iy vd;fpwhh;.
flyhy; NHg;gl;l ,e;epyt[yfpd; ,Uisg; nghf;Fk; fjputidg; nghy mf,Uisg;
nghf;Fk; jkpH;bkhHpf;F epfh; vk;bkhHpa[k; ,y;iy vd;gjhFk;.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[
bt=;fjph; ? gz]g[j;bjhif
cah;e;njhh; ? tpidahyiza[k; bgah;
,yhj ? ,ilf;Fiw
cWg;gpyf;fzk;

cah;e;njhh; = cah; + j;(e;) + j; + Xh; tps=;fp = tps=;F + ,


cah; ? gFjp tps=;F ? gFjp
j; ? re;jp (`e;~ MdJ tpfhuk;) , ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
Xh; ? gyh;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
Mh; vd;gjd; <w;wabyGj;jhd `M~ `X~ Mfj; jphpa[k; 17
(ed; 353)
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

te;J = th(t) + j;(e;) + j; + c


12
th (t) ? gFjp (`t~ vdf; FWfpaJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? re;jp/ (`e;~ MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp

1 g[zh;r;rp tpjp
,ay;

1. M=;ftw;Ws; = M=;F + mtw;Ws;


ŠŠ `caph;thpd; cf;Fws; bka; tpl;nlhLk;~ vd;w tpjpg;go/ M=;f; + mtw;Ws; vd;whdJ.
ŠŠ `cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng~ vd;w tpjpg;go/ (f; + m = f) M=;ftw;Ws; vd;W
g[zh;e;jJ.
2. jdpahHp = jdp + MHp
ŠŠ `, < I tHp at;t[k;~ vd;w tpjpg;go/ jdp + a; + MHp vd;whdJ/
ŠŠ ``cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng~ vd;w tpjpg;go (a;; + M = ah) `jdpahHp~ vd;W
g[zh;e;jJ.
3. bt=;fjph; = btk;ik + fjph;
ŠŠ `<Wnghjy;~ vd;w tpjpg;go `ik~ bfl;L btk; + fjph; vd;whdJ.
ŠŠ `Kd;dpd;w bka; jphpjy;~ vd;w tpjpg;go (`k;~ `=;~ ? Mfj; jphpe;J) `bt=;fjph;~ vd;W g[zh;e;jJ.

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1. mzpapyf;fzj;ij kl;Lk; TWk; ,yf;fz E}y;
m) Kj;JtPhpak; M) tPunrhHpak;
,) khwdy=;fhuk; <) ,yf;fz tpsf;fk; [tpil: ,]
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

2. fPH;f;fhz]gtw;Ws; `tpidahyiza[k; bgah;~ vJ>


m) cah;e;njhh; M) te;jhd; ,) elg;ghd; <) cah;e;J [tpil: m]
3. `<Wnghjy;~/ `Kd;dpd;w bka;jphpjy;~ vr;brhy;Yf;Fhpa g[zh;r;rp tpjp>
m) fU=;Fapy; M) bt=;fjph; ,) beLe;njh; <) KJkuk; [tpil: M]
4. `tps=;fp~ ? ,r;brhy;ypd; rhpahd gFgjcWg;gpyf;fz gphpg;g[
m) tps + =; + , M) tps=;F + f; + ,
,) tp + s=;F + , <) tps=;F + , [tpil: <]
5. fUj;J 1 : kf;fspd; mwpahikia mfw;WtJ jkpH;bkhHpahFk;.
fUj;J 2 : g[w ,Uisg; nghf;f fjputd; cjt[k;.
m) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; rhp M) fUj;J 1 rhp 2 jtW
,) fUj;J 1 jtW 2 rhp <) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; jtW [tpil: m]

18 6. fUj;J 1 : `bjhd;D}y; tpsf;fk;~ mzpapyf;fzj;ij kl;Lnk TWk; E}y;.


fUj;J 2 : `Ftyahde;jk;~ vd;Dk; E}y; KGikahd ,yf;fz E}y;.
www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
m) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; rhp M) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; jtW
,) fUj;J 1 jtW/ 2 rhp <) ,tw;wpy; vJt[kpy;iy [tpil: M] 12
7. rhpahdijj; njh;f.
m) tPunrhHpak; ? ehty;
M) Kj;J tPhpak; ? rpWfij


,) Ftyahde;jk;
<) khwdy=;fhuk;
?
?
mzpapyf;fzk;
bghUspyf;fzk; [tpil : ,]
1

,ay;
8. rhpahdijj; njh;f.
m) te;J ? bgabur;rk;
M) cah;e;njhh; ? tpidahyiza[k; bgah;
,) ,yhj ? <Wbfl;l vjph;kiwg; bgabur;rk;
<) bt=;fjph; ? tpidj;bjhif [tpil: M]
9. bghUe;jhjijf; njh;f.
m) jkpH;bkhHp ? bghjpif kiy
M) bjhy;fhg;gpak; ? ,yf;fpa E}y;
,) jz]oay=;fhuk; ? jz]o
<) fhtpajh;rk; ? tlbkhHp ,yf;fzk; [tpil: M]
10. bghUj;Jf.
m) bt=;fjph; ? 1. ,ilf;Fiw
M) ,yhj ? 2. tpidbar;rk;
,) te;J ? 3. tpidahyiza[k; bgah;
<) cah;e;njhh; ? 4. gz]g[j;bjhif
m) 4/ 2/ 3/ 1 M) 4/ 1/ 3/ 2 ,) 4/ 1/ 2/ 3 <) 2/ 3/ 1/ 4 [tpil: ,]
11. jkpH; njhd;wpa kiy
m) FlF M) bghjpif ,) ,kakiy <) tpe;jpakiy [tpil: M]
12. jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH; ghlg;gFjpay; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s ghly;
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
m) jz;oay=;fhu ciu nkw;nfhs; ghly;
M) ,iwadhh;fstpay; ciu nkw;nfhs; ghly;
,) ek;gpafg;bghUs; ciu nkw;nfhs; ghly;
<) g[wg;bghUs; btz;ghkhiy ciu nkw;nfhs; ghly;  [tpil: m]
13. ,Uisg; nghf;Fk; ,uz;L
m) fjputd;/ epyt[ M) fjputd;/ jkpH;
,) mwpt[/ jkpH; <) mwpt[/ +hdk; [tpil: M]
14. kpd;diyg; nghd;W xsph;tJ
m) fjputd; M) jkpH; ,) jkpH; <) thdk; [tpil: m]
15. mzpapyf;fzj;ij kl;Lnk TWk; ,yf;fz E}iyf; fz;lwpf.
m) tPunrhHpak; M) ,yf;fztpsf;fk;
,) Kj;J tPhpak;; <) Ftyahde;jk; [tpil: <] 19
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
16. jz;oay=;fhuk; ................ ,yf;fzj;ijf; TWk; E}y;.
12 m) vGj;J M) brhy; ,) bghUs;; <) mzp  [tpil: <]
17. `X=;fypil te;J~ vd;W bjhl=;Fk; ghly; jz;oay=;fhuj;jpd; ................ gFjpapy;
,lk;bgw;Ws;sJ.
m) bghUszpapay; M) bghJtpay; ,) brhy;yzpapay; <) xHpgpay; [tpil: m]

1
18. fhtpajh;rk; vd;gJ
m) tlbkhHp ,yf;fz E}y; M) g[uhz E}y;
,) tuyhw;W E}y; <) kiyahs ,yf;fpa E}y; [tpil: m]
,ay;

19. fhtpajh;rk; vd;Dk; tlbkhHp ,yf;fz E}iyj; jGtp vGjg;gl;l E}y;


m) jz;oay=;fhuk; M) khwdy=;fhuk;
,) tPunrhHpak; <) Kj;JtPhpak;  [tpil: m]
20. jz;oay=;fhuj;jpd; Mrphpah;
m) jz;o M) Iahpdhjh; ,) rkzKdpth; <) gtze;jp [tpil: m]
21. jz;o ................ Mk; E}w;whz;ilr; rhh;ejth;.
m) fp.gp. 11 M) fp.gp. 12 ,) fp.gp. 13 <) fp.gp. 14  [tpil: M]
22. jz;oay=;fhuk; ................ bgUk; gphpt[fis cilaJ.
m) ,uz;L M) @d;W ,) ehd;F <) Ie;J [tpil: M]

FWtpdh
1. jz]oay=;fhuk; ? E}y;/ E}yhrphpah; rpWFwpg;g[ jUf.
mzp ,yf;fzj;ijf; TWk; rpwg;ghd E}y;fspy; xd;W jz]oay=;fhukhFk;.
`fhtpajh;rk;~ vd;Dk; tlbkhHp ,yf;fz E}iyj; jGtp vGjg;gl;l E}yhFk;. ,e;E}iy
vGjpath; jz]o Mthh;. ,tuJ fhyk; fp.gp.12Mk; E}w;whz;L. jz]oay=;fhuk; bghJtpay;/
bghUszpapay;/ brhy;yzpapay; vd @d;W bgUk; gphpt[fis cilaJ.
Mrphpah; : jz;o
fhyk; : 12Mk; E}w;whz;L
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

jGty; E}y; : fhtpajh;rk; vd;Dk; tlbkhHp ,yf;fz E}iy jGtp


vGjg;gl;lJ.
@d;W gphpt[fs; : bghJtpay;/ bghUszpapay;/ brhy;yzpapay;.
2. mzpapyf;fzj;ij kl;Lk; TWk; ,yf;fz E}y;fs; ahit>
jz]oay=;fhuk;/ khwdy=;fhuk;/ Ftyahde;jk;.
3. mzpapyf;fzj;njhL gpw ,yf;fzj;ija[k; TWk; E}y;fs; ahit>
mzp ,yf;fzj;njhL gpw ,yf;fzj;ija[k; TWk; E}y; bjhy;fhg;gpak;/ tPunrhHpak;/
,yf;fz tpsf;fk;/ bjhd;D}y; tpsf;fk;/ Kj;J tPhpak; MFk;.
4. jz;oay=;fhuj;jpd; @d;W bgUk; gphpt[fs; ahit>
bghJtpay;/ khwdy=;fhuk;/ brhy;yzpapay;.
5. xg;g[tik ,y;yhjJkhf ,Ug;gJ jkpnH ? tpsf;Ff.
bghjpif kiyapy; njhd;wp/ rhd;nwhuhy; bjhHg;gl;L/ kf;fspd; mwpahik vd;Dk; mf
20
,Uisg; nghf;FtnjhL xg;g[tik ,y;yhjJkhf ,Ug;gJ jkpnH MFk;.
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
6. g[w ,Uisg; nghf;FtJ vJ>
kf;fshy; nghw;wg;gl;L/ cah;e;j kiyfSf;F ,ilna njhd;wp/ flyhy; R{Hg;gl;l 12
cyfj;jpd; g[w ,Uis nghf;FtJ fjputdhFk;.

rpWtpdh
1. jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpHpd; rpwg;g[f; Fwpj;Jj; jz]oay=;fhu ciu nkw;nfhs; ghly; czh;j;Jk;
bra;jp ahJ >
1
ŠŠ ,e;epy cyfpy; thGk; kf;fs; midtuhYk; nghw;wg;gl;L cah;e;j kiyfSf;F ,ilna

,ay;
njhd;wp/ vg;nghJk; xypj;Jf; bfhz]oUf;Fk; flyhy; NHg;gl;l cyfj;jpd; g[w ,Uis
nghf;FtJ fjputd;.
ŠŠ Fsph;r;rpg; bghUe;jpa bghjpa kiyapy; njhd;wp/ rhd;nwhh;fshy; bjhHg;gl;L/ kf;fspd;
mwpahik vd;Dk; mf ,Uisg; nghf;FtJk; vjndhLk; xg;gpl;Lf; Tw KoahjJkhdJ
jkpH;bkhHp.
ŠŠ g[w ,Uisg; nghf;Fk; fjputidg;nghy mf ,Uisg; nghf;Fk; jkpH;bkhHpf;F epfh;
vk;bkhHpa[k; ,y;iy vd;W jz]oay=;fhu czu nkw;nfhs; ghly; czh;j;Jfpd;wJ.

2. bghUs; ntw;Wikazpiar; rhd;W je;J tpsf;Ff.


mzp ,yf;fzk; :
bra;a[spy; ftp+h; ,UntW bghUs;fSf;fpilna xw;Wikia Kjypy; Twpag;gpd;
xd;wpypUe;J xd;iw ntWgLj;jpf; fhl;LtJ bghUs; ntw;Wik mzp vdg;gLk;.
,J ntw;Wik mzpapd; xU gphpthFk;.
rhd;W :
X=;fypil te;J cah;e;njhh; bjhH tps=;fp
V=;bfhypePh; +hyj;(J) ,Usfw;Wk; ? M=;ftw;Ws;
kpd;ndh; jdpahHp bt=;fjpbuhd;(W) VidaJ
jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;.
mzpg;bghUj;jk; :
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
fjputDk;/ jkpH;bkhHpa[k; kiyapy; njhd;Wfpd;wd vd xg;g[ikiaf;Twp/ mtw;Ws;
jkpH;bkhHpf;F epfuhf ntbwe;j bkhHpa[k; ,t;t[yfpy; ,y;iy vd;W ntWgLj;jpf;
fhl;oajhy; ,g;ghly; bghUs; ntw;Wikazp MFk;
fjputd; g[w ,Uis mfw;Wk;"
jkpH;bkhHp mf ,Uis mfw;Wk;.
tpsf;fk; :
fjputd;
vg;nghJk; xypj;Jf; bfhz]oUf;Fk; flyhy; NHg;gl;l cyfj;jpd; g[w ,Uis mfw;Wk;
fjputd; cah;e;j kiyfSf;F ,ilna njhd;Wk;.
jkpH;:
Fsph;r;rpg; bghUe;jpa bghjpa kiyapy; njhd;wpa jkpH;bkhHp kf;fspd; mwpahik
vd;Dk; mf ,Uis mfw;Wk; mj;jkpH;bkhHpf;F epfuhf ntbwe;j bkhHpa[k; ,y;iy.
21
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org

12 fw;git fw;wgpd; gf;fk;: 9

1. ntw;Wik mzp gapd;W tUk; ,U ghly;fis tpsf;fj;Jld; vGjp tUf.


ghly; : 1
m=;fz; tpRk;gpd; mfdpyhg; ghwpf;Fk;
1 jp=;fSk; rhd;nwhUk; xg;gh;kd; ? jp=;fs;
kWthw;Wk; rhd;nwhh; mBjhw;whh; bjUkUj;J
bja;th; xU khRwpd;. ? ehyoahh;
,ay;

,g;ghlypy;/ jp=;fSf;Fk; rhd;nwhUf;Fk; Kjypy; xg;g[ikf;Twp gpd;dh;


ntWgLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
,UbghUl;fSf;F ,ilna xg;g[ikiaf; Twp mtw;Ws; xd;wpypUe;J xd;W
cah;e;jjhff; TWtJ ntw;Wik mzp MFk;.
tpsf;fk;:
jp=;fs; nja[k;/ rhd;nwhd; njahh; (kdepiy khwhh;) vd;gnjahFk;.
ghly; : 2
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
,UbghUl;fSf;F ,ilna xg;g[ikiaf; Twp mtw;Ws; xd;wpypUe;J xd;W
cah;e;jjhff; TWtJ ntw;Wik mzp MFk;.
rhd;W :
jPapdhw; Rl;lg[z; cs;shWk; Mwhnj
ehtpdhw; Rl;l tL ? Fwl;gh
bghUj;jk;:
jPapdhy; cz;lhd g[z; cs; MwptpLk;.
ehtpdhy; cz;lhd g[z; cs;sj;jpy; Mwhj tLthf ,Uf;Fk;.
2. `jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;~ vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; brhw;nghhpy; g=;nfw;gjw;fhd Ie;J epkpl ciu
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

cUthf;Ff.
midtUf;Fk; tzf;fk;-
,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kw;gl;l jkpH; gHika[k;/ bgUika[k; bfhz;lJ.
,yf;fz/ ,yf;fpa=;fs;/ rpWfhg;gpak;/ bgU=;fhg;gpak;/ bjhif/ ghl;L/ Mw;Wgil vd
vz;zpyl=;fh E}y;fs; cUthfp jkpHpd; rpwg;ig cynf bjhGk; tifapy; mike;Js;sJ.
Kjy; ,il filr;r=;fk; bfhz;lJ. jd;dpfhpy;yh jd;bkhHpahf tps=;fpaJ. jdpj;J
,a=;Fk; Mw;wy; bfhz;lJ/ gpwbkhHp cjtp ,y;yhky;/ ,lh;g;ghLfs; ,y;yhky; ,a=;Fk;
Mw;wy; bfhz;lJ.
jpUe;jpa gz;g[k; rPh;j;j ehfhpfKk; bfhz;l vd; jkpHpd; cjtpapy;yhky; bjY=;F/
fd;dlk;/ kiyahsk; ,a=;f KoahJ. ,ay;/ ,ir/ ehlfk; vd;Dk; @d;W bgUk;
gphpt[fisf; bfhz;L jdf;F epfh; ,y;yhj bkhHpaha; tps=;FfpwJ.
ed;wp- tzf;fk;-
22

Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

12
1
,ay;
Jizg;ghlk;
jk;gp bey;iyag;gUf;F
? ghujpahh;

1
ghlE}y; tpdhf;fs;

,ay;
beLtpdh
1. ghujpapd; fojk; thapyhf eP=;fs; mwpe;J bfhz]l bkhHpg;gw;W/ r@fg;gw;W Mfpatw;iw
tpthpf;f.
bkhHpg;gw;W :
ahkwpe;j bkhHpfspny jkpH;bkhHp nghy ,dpjhd bkhHp vJt[kpy;iy vd;W
Twpa ghujp/ R. bey;iyag;gUf;F vGjpa fojj;jpYk; mjid cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;whh;.
bey;iyag;ghplk; mth; TWk; nghJ/ `eP gpwbkhHpfis mwpe;jpUe;jhYk;/ jkpiH tsh;g;gij
flikahff; bfhs;s ntz]Lk; vd;W TWfpd;whh;. g[jpa g[jpa bra;jpfSk; g[jpa g[jpa cz]
ikfSk;/ g[jpa g[jpa ,d;gKk; jkpH;bkhHpapy; Vw;wk; bgw ntz]Lk;.
jkpH;ehl;oy; tPjpfs; njhWk; jkpH;g;gs;spf;Tl=;fs; bgUf ntz]Lk;. me;jg;
gs;spfspy; vy;yhk; g[jpa g[jpa fiyfs; gapw;rp bgw;W tsu ntz]Lk;. jha;bkhHpapny
fw;gjhy; jkpH; czh;t[ mjpfkhFk;/ jha;ehl;od; kPJ gw;W Vw;gLk;. tlehl;L bkhHpfs;
vy;yhk; mile;Js;s tsh;r;rpiag; ghh;j;j gpd;ghtJ ehk; ek; jha;bkhHpahk; jkpH;bkhHpapd;
kPJ gw;Wf;bfhs;s Kay ntz]Lk;. g[jpa g[jpa rpe;jidfs; jkpH;bkhHpapy; njhd;wy; ntz]
Lk; vd;fpwhh;.
r@fg;gw;W :
r@fj;jpd; mtykhf ,Uf;fpd;w Mz] bgz] ntWghL Kw;wpYkhf mHpa ntz]Lk;.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
Mz] cah;e;jtd; bgz] moik vd;w epiy r@f mtykhFk;. me;epiy khwnt MQk;
bgz]Qk; XUaphpd; ,uz]L jiyfs;" mtw;wpy; xd;wpbyhd;W jhH;tpy;iy vd;fpwhh;.
bgz]izj; jhH;j;jpdhy; r@fnk rhgf;nfl;ow;Fs;shFk; vd;gij czh;j;j bgz]izj;
jhH;j;jpdtd;/ jd; fz]izf; Fj;jpatDf;Fr; rkk; vd;W Mntrj;Jld; TWfpd;whh;.
bgz]iz tPl;ow;Fs; milj;jtd; jd; fz]iz ,He;j FUld; nghyg; ghpjtpg;ghd;
vd;Wk; Twp/ MQk; bgz]Qk; rkk; vd;w r@f ePjpia typa[Wj;Jfpd;whh;.
r@fk; tsh;r;rp mila bjhHpy; bgUfntz]Lk;/ tpahghuk; rpwf;f ntz]Lk;/
bjhHpw;rhiyfs; tsu ntz]Lk; vd;fpwhh;. r@f khw;wk; fhz r=;fPjk;/ rpw;gk;/ ,ae;jpuk;/
g{kp/ thdk;/ ,aw;if rhh;e;j E}y;fs; Mapuk; Mapukhfj; jha;bkhHpapy; cUthfpl ntz]Lk;.
mjidf; fw;W ek; jkpH;r;r@fk; khw;wk; bgw midtUk; vz]zpl ntz]Lk;. mjw;Fhpa
rf;jpia midtUk; bgw;wplt[k; ntz]Lbkd;W ghujpahh; R. bey;iyag;gUf;F vGjpa
fojk; @yk; jd; cs;sf; fUj;ij btspg;gLj;Jfpd;whh;.
23
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
2. ``brhy;nyhtpa=;fs;~~ (ftpij) vd;Dk; E}y; c=;fs; gs;sp Mrphpauhy; vGjg;gl;L c=;fs;
12 gs;spapy; btspaplg;gLfpwJ. mt;btspaPl;L tpHhtpw;fhd epfH;r;rp epuiy cUthf;fp/
ed;wpa[iu xd;iw vGJf.

brhy;nyhtpa=;fs;
1 ftpij E}y; btspaPl;L tpHh
,lk; : muR nkdpiyg;gs;sp/ tpGg;g[uk;.
,ay;

ehs; : 19.06.2019/ g[jd;fpHik.


neuk; : gpw;gfy; 3 kzp
jkpH;j;jha; thH;j;J : khzth;fs;
tuntw;g[iu :
jpU. r. bre;jpy;Fkhh;
(jiyikahrphpah;/ muR nkdpiyg;gs;sp/
tpGg;g[uk;)
E}y; mwpKf ciu : jp.g. gpiwNld; mth;fs; (vGj;jhsh;)
E}y; btspapl;L thH;j;Jiu : jpUkpF. t. rutzd] mth;fs;/
(khtl;lf; fy;tp mYtyh;/ tpGg;g[uk;)
Kjy; gpujpiag; bgw;Wf;bfhs;gth; : jpUkpF. jh. mz]zhkiy mth;fs;
(bjhHpyjpgh; kw;Wk; r@f Mh;tyh;)
Vw;g[iu : jpU. ftp+h;. j. jkpHurd; mth;fs;
(KJfiyj; jkpHhrphpah;/
muR nkdpiyg;gs;sp/ tpGg;g[uk;.)
ed;wpa[iu :
jpU. ,uh. nfrtd;
(cjtpj; jiyikahrphpah;/
muR nkdpiyg;gs;sp/ tpGg;g[uk;)
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

njrpa fPjk;

ed;wpa[iu
``ed;wp kwg;gJ ed;wd;W ed;wy;y
jd;nw kwg;gJ ed;W~~
vd;w ts;Stdpd; tha;bkhHpf;F Vw;g vdf;F tha;g;gspj;j ey;y cs;s=;;fSf;F
khiy tzf;fk;.

vg;bghGbjy;yhk; ek; ngdh jiy Fdpfpwnjh mg;bghGbjy;yhk; eP thH;tpy; jiy


epkph;tha; vd;wgo jd; ngdhitj; jiyFdpa itj;J ,e;j mitapy; jiy epkph;e;J
,Uf;Fk; jkpHhrphpaUf;F ed;wp. ,th; brhy;nyhtpa=;fs; vd;w ftpij E}iy mHFgl
brJf;fpa[s;shh;.
24
www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
,th; brYj;jpaij th;zk; jPl;o FlKGf;F tpHh bra;J ek; iffspy; jtH;e;J
bfhz;oUf;Fk; E}iy btspapl;L thH;j;Jiw tH=;fpa khtl;lf; fy;tp mYtyh; 12
mth;fSf;F ed;wp. ,t;t[yfpy; gpwe;J ,we;J ve;jtpj mwpKfKk; ,y;yhky; bry;fpd;wdh;.
mjw;F khwhf gpiwiaj; jiyapny Noa rptidg; nghy; ,t;tpHhtpw;F tUifj;je;J E}y;
mwpKft[iu je;j Iah gpiwNlDf;F ed;wp. ve;j xU braYk; ,d;nw bjhl=;f ,iwaUs;
njit mnjhL bry;tKk; njit vd;gjw;F Vw;g bry;tj;jpd; ehafdhk; bjhHpyjpgh;
mz;zhkiy mth;fspd; fu=;fshy; Kjy; gpujpiag; bgw;W Jt=;fp itj;jikf;F
ed;wp/ ,t;tpHh eilbgw KG fhuzkhf tps=;fpa jiyik Mrphpah;/ Mrphpa ez;gh;fs;/
1
khzth;fs;/ Vida cwt[fSf;F tpHhf;FG @yk; ed;wpiaj; bjhptpj;Jf; bfhs;fpnwd;.

,ay;
ed;wp - tzf;fk; -

TLjy; tpdhf;fs;
gyt[s; bjhpf
1. jkpH;ehl;oy; tPjp njhWk; ,Uf;f ntz]oaJ vJ vdg; ghujpahh; tpUk;g[fpwhh;
m) Myak; M) bjhHpw;rhiy
,) gs;spf;Tlk; <) ,tw;wpy; vJt[kpy;iy [tpil: ,]
2. ghujpahh; bey;iyag;gUf;F vGjpa foj=;fisg; gjpg;gpj;jth;
m) ,sirkzp M) uh.m. gj;kehgd;
,) fp. uh$ehuhazd; <) ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;rpjh; [tpil: M]
3. fUj;J 1 : MQk; bgz]Qk; XUaphpd; ,uz]L jiyfs; vd;whh; ghujp.
fUj;J 2 : guyp. R. bey;iyag;gh; ghujpapd; ghg;ghg;ghl;ilg; gjpg;gpj;jth;.
m) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; jtW M) ,uz]L fUj;Jk; rhp
,) fUj;J 1 jtW/ 2 rhp <) fUj;J 1 rhp/ 2 jtW [tpil: m]
4. rhpahdijj; njh;f.
m) KuRg;ghl;L ? Fe;jpnfrth; caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
M) bey;iyj; bjd;wy; ? t.c.rpjk;gudhh;
,) ghujp foj=;fs; ? uh.m. gj;kehgd;
<) tk;rkzp jPgpif ? R. bey;iyag;gh; [tpil: ,]
5. rhpahdijj; njh;f.
m) ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;rpjh; ? ghujp foj=;fs;
M) ,sirkzp ? Nhpnahjak;
,) fz]zd;ghl;L ? uh.m. gj;kehgd;
<) t.c. rpjk;gudhhpd; thH;f;if tuyhW ? R. bey;iyag;gh; [tpil: <]
6. bghUe;jhjijj; njh;f.
m) ,sir kzp ? tk;rkzp jPgpif E}ypd; kWkjpg;g[
M) tk;rkzp jPgpif ? ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;rpjh;
,) guyp R. bey;iyag;gh; ? Mrphpah;
<) ghujp thH;j;J ? guyp R. bey;iyag;gh; [tpil: ,] 25
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
7. bghUj;Jf.
12 m) tk;rkzp jPgpif ? 1. R. bey;iyag;gh;
M) ghujp foj=;fs; ? 2. uh.R. gj;kehgd;
,) bey;iyj; bjd;wy; ? 3. ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;rpjh;
m) 1/ 2/ 3 M) 3/ 2/ 1 ,) 2/ 3/ 1 <) 1/ 3/ 2 [tpil: M]

1 8.

bghUj;Jf.
m) jkpH; mHfpay; ? 1. guyp R. bey;iyag;gh;
M) epyt[g;g{ ? 2. jp.R. eluhrd;
,ay;

,) fpil ? 3. rpw;gp. ghyRg;gpukzpak;


<) ca;a[k; tHp ? 4. fp. uh$ehuhazd;
m) 4/ 3/ 2/ 1 M) 1/ 4/ 2/ 3 ,) 2/ 4/ 1/ 3 <) 2/ 3/ 4/ 1 [tpil: <]
9. ghujp bey;iyag;gUf;Ff; fojk; vGjpa ,lk;/ ehs;
m) g[Jr;nrhp/ 19 $^iy 1915 M) bey;iy/ 14 $Piy 1914
,) flY}h;/ 18 Mf!l; 1914 <) fhiuf;fhy;/ 19 $Piy 1915  [tpil: m]
10. bey;iyag;giu ahh; fhj;jpl ntz;Lk; vd;fpwhh; ghujp>
m) rptd; M) KUfd; ,) guhrf;jp <) Jh;f;if  [tpil: ,]
11. bey;iyag;gh; vjidf; flikahff; bfhs;s ntz;Lk; vd;W ghujp Twpdhh;>
m) bgw;nwhiuf; fhg;gij M) tpLjiyf;Fg; nghuhLtij
,) jkpH; tsh;g;gij <) r@f ,Hpit fistij  [tpil: ,]
12. `jk;gp?cs;snk cyfk;~ vd;W ahh; ahUf;Ff; TwpaJ>
m) mwp+h; mz;zh/ fiy+Uf;F M) ghujp/ bey;iyag;gUf;F
,) K.t./ ,is+h;fSf;F <) jpU.tp.f./ jkpHh;fSf;F [tpil: M]
13. cdf;Fr; rpwFfs; njhd;Wf. gwe;J ngh?vd;gjpy; `cdf;F~ vd;gJ ahiu vijf; Fwpf;fpwJ>
m) jkpiH M) bey;iyag;giu
,) Fapiy <) ,is+h;fis [tpil: M]
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

14. bgz;izj; jhH;ik bra;njhd; fz;izf; Fj;jpf; bfhz;lhd; vd;bwGJ?vd;W fojk;


vGjpath;
m) bey;iyag;gh; M) ghujpahh; ,) thzpjhrd; <) ghujpjhrd; [tpil: M]
15. bey;iyag;giug; ghujp ................ vd;W Tt[ vd;fpwhh;.
m) thH;f thH;f M) bjhHpy;fs; bjhHpy;fs;
,) kdpjh;fs; kdpjh;fs; <) bty;f bty;f  [tpil: M]
16. XUaphpd; ,uz;L jiyfs; vd;gd
m) MQk; bgz;Qk; M) mwpt[k; mHFk;
,) thH;t[k; jhH;t[k; <) gpwg;g[k; ,wg;g[k; [tpil: m]
17. jkpH;g; gs;spf; Tl=;fspy; ................ vy;yhk; gapw;rpg; bgw;W tsu ntz;Lk; vd;fpwhh; ghujp.
m) etPd fiyfs; M) tpisahl;L
,) ghuk;ghpa fiyfs; <) mwptpay; fy;tp  [tpil: m]
26
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
18. tk;rkzp jPgpif vd;Dk; E}iy vGjpath; ................ btspapl;l Mz;L ................
m) ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;r[pjh;/ 1879 M) Kj;J rhkp jPl;r[pjh;/ 1879 12
,) ,sirkzp/ 2008 <) rPdp tpRtehjd;/ 2004 [tpil: m]
19. tk;rkzp jPgpif vd;Dk; E}y; ahiug; gw;wpaJ>
m) nrhH kd;dh;fspd; guk;giu tuyhW


M) vl;ilag[uk; kd;dh;fspd; guk;giu tuyhW
,) M=;fpy Ml;rpahshpd; mlf;FKiwfisf; TWtJ
1
[tpil: M]

,ay;
<) ghujpapd; thH;fif tuyhw;iwf; TWtJ 
20. tk;rkzp jPgpif E}ypd; gjpg;igj; jpUj;jp btspapl Mir bfhz;L .6.8.1919,y; Ml;rp
bra;j bt=;fnlru vl;lg;gUf;Ff; fojk; vGjpath; ................
m) ghujpahh; M) rPdp. tpRtehjd;
,) ,sirkzp <) ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;rpjh; [tpil: m]
21. tk;rkzp jPgpif E}ypd; @ytotk; kWgjpg;ghf btspapl;lth; ................ Mz;L ................
m) ftpnfrhp rhkp jPl;rpjh;/ 1879 M) ghujpahh;/ 1919
,) ,sirkzp/ 2008 <) rPdp. tpRtehjd;/ 1921  [tpil: ,]
22. ghujp jdJ gjpide;J tajpy; vl;lag[uk; murUf;F vGjpa ftpijf; fojj;jpy; ntz;lg;gLk;
bra;jp
m) M=;fpy muir mfw;w ntz;o M) ghujp fy;tp fw;f cjtp ntz;o
,) jd; ez;gd; fy;tp fw;f cjtp ntz;o <) vl;lag;g[uj;jpy; ftpau=;fk; elj;j trjp ntz;o
[tpil: M]
23. ghujpapd; filrpf; fojk; ahUf;F vKjg;gl;lJ>
m) vl;lag[uk; murUf;F M) bey;iyag;;gUf;F
,) Fj;jpnfrtUf;F <) rPdp. tpRtehjDf;F [tpil: ,]
24. R{hpnahjak;/ fh;knahfp Mfpa ,jH;fspy; Jizahrpuahf ,Ue;jth;
m) bey;iyag;;gh; M) fz;zjhrd;
,) ghujpjhrd; <) rPdp. tpRtehjd; [tpil: m]
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
25. ghujp elj;jpa ,jH;fspy; Jizahrphpahuhf ,Ue;jth;
m) bey;iyag;;gh; M) fz;zjhrd;
,) ,sir kzp <) ,sir Re;juk; [tpil: m]
26. ghujpapd; gy;ntW ghl;Lfis (fz;zd; ghl;L/ ghg;gh ghl;L cs;spl;lit) gjpg;gpj;jth;
m) bey;iyag;;gh; M) rPdp. tpRtehjd;
,) ,sir kzp <) ,sir Re;juk; [tpil: m]
27. bey;iyj;bjd;wy;/ ghujp thH;j;J/ ca;a[k; tHp Mfpa ftpij E}y;fis vGjpath;
m) rPdp. tpRtehjd; M) bey;iyag;;gh;
,) ,sir kzp <) ,sir Re;juk; [tpil: M]
28. t. c. rpjk;gudhhpd; thH;f;if tuyhw;iw vGjpath;
m) rPdp. tpRtehjd; M) ,sir kzp
,) ,sir Re;juk; <) bey;iyag;;gh; [tpil: <] 27
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org
29. 
nyhnfhgfhp/ njrgf;jd; Mfpa ,jH;fspy; Jizahrphpauhft[k; gpwF Mrphpauhft[k;
12 gzpahw;wpath;
m) rPdp. tpRtehjd; M) ,sir kzp
,) ,sir Re;juk; <) bey;iyag;;gh; [tpil: <]

1 fw;git fw;wgpd; gf;fk;: 13

1. ghujpapd; thH;tpidf; fhyf;nfhlhf cUthf;Ff.


,ay;

1880
ghujpahh; gpwg;g[

1885

1890

ghujp gl;lk;
1895 Ie;jhk; tFg;g[ tiug; gog;g[
bry;yk;khSld; jpUkzk;

1900 fhrpapy; trpj;jy;/ \pe;jp/ rk!;fpUjk; goj;jy;

kJiu nrJgjp gs;spapy; jkpHhrpahph;


1905 epntjpjh njtpia +hd FUthf Vw;wy;
,e;jpah gj;jphpf;if
mutpe;jh;/ jpyfUld; re;jpg;g[
rpiwr;bry;yy;
$d;k g{kp E}y; btsptuy;
1910 kPz;Lk mutpe;jUld; re;jpg;g[
fPij bkhHpbgah;g;g[/ Fapy; ghl;L/ gh+;rhyp rgjk; ,aw;wy;
+hdg;ghiy gj;jphpf;if btspaPL
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

1915

fz;zd; ghl;L btspaPL


Rnjr fPj=;fs; btspaPL
1920 fhe;jpiar; re;jpj;jy;
Rnjrkpj;jpud; cjtp Mrphpah;
1921 ahidapdhy; jhf;fg;gLjy;/ tapw;W neha;/ kiwt[.

2. fhyj;ij btd;w kfhftpahd ghujpf;Ff; fw;gidf;fojk; xd;wpid vGJf.


J}j;Jf;Fo/
18 $%iy 2019.
KWf;fpa kPira[k;/ Kiwj;j ghh;ita[k;/ Kz;lhRf; fl;Lf;Fk; brhe;jfhund/
bre;jkpHpd; vGr;rpna tzf;fk;.
cdJ bghd; vGj;Jfshy; jkpH; md;idf;F ituf;fpuPlk; Nl;o kfpH;e;jha;.
Mdhy;/ filrptiu rhjhuz jiyg;ghifapid eP mzpe;jpUe;jha; vd vj;jidg;
28 ngUf;Fj; bjhpa[k;.
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
ghjfk; bra;gtiuf; fz;lhy; eP ga=;bfhs;syhfhJ ghg;gh/ nkhjp kpjpj;JtpL
ghg;gh/ mtu; Kfj;jpy; ckpH;e;JtpL ghg;gh vd;W ghodhna ghujp. ,d;iwa ghypay; 12
td;bfhLikia Kd;dnu rhodhna ghujp.
gpr;ir th=;fp cz;Qk; thH;f;ifg; bgw;Wtpl;lnghjpYk; mr;rkpy;iy mr;rkpy;iy
vd;W Rje;jpuj;jpd; nkd;ikia kf;fspd; kdjpy; bfhonaw;wp itj;jtd; eP.
jkpHpy; Xh; vGj;Jjhd; Ma;j vGj;J. Mdhy; kw;w 246 vGj;Jfisa[k; Ma[jkhf;fp
bts;isaid tpul;l tpLjiyf; ftpfisg; gho nt=;ifbad tpul;oatd; eP.
1

,ay;
vd; cs;sbkDk; bgU=;nfhtpypy; tPw;wpUf;fpwha;. vd;bwhU ehshtJ cd;ndhL
xnu nkilapy; ftpghl ehd; tpUk;g[fpd;nwd;.
ePtph; rk;kjpj;jhy; tUfpd;w jkpH;g;g[j;jhz;L md;W ehk; ,UtUk; ``jkpnH- cdf;Fj;
jiytz=;Ffpnwhk;~~ vd;w jiyg;gpy; xU ftpijia bghjpif bjhiyf;fhl;rpapy;
ghLnthk;. cd; gjpiy cld; vjph;ghh;f;Fk; md;g[ ez;gd;.
,g;gof;F/
ghujpnerd;.



caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

29
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

12
,ay; 1 jkpHha; vGJnthk;
,yf;fzk;
1
,yf;fzj; njh;r;rp bfhs; gf;fk;: 17
,ay;

1. gpiHahd bjhliuf; fz]lwpf.


m) fhisfisg; g{l;o taiy cGjdh;.
M) kiy kPJ Vwpf; fy;btl;Lfisf; fz]lwpe;jdh;.
,) fhisapy; g{j;j ky;ypif kdk; tPrpaJ.
<) bew;gaph;fs; kiHePhpy; @H;fpd. [tpil: ,]
2. ngr;Rj; jkpHpy; mike;j bjhliu njh;f-
m) mtUf;F ey;yJ bfl;lJ ey;yhj; bjhpa[k;.
M) g[j;jff; fz]fhl;rp eilbgWfpwJ.
,) twl;rp vy;yh ,l=;fisa[k; ghjpj;Js;sJ.
<) kapy;fs; tpwypaiug; nghy; MLfpd;wd. [tpil: m]
3. Koe;jhy; juyhk;/ Koj;jhy; juyhk; ? ,t;tpU brhw;bwhlh;fs; czh;jJ
; k; bghUis mwpe;J
bjhlh; mikf;ft[k; .
Koe;jhy; juyhk; :
Koe;jhy; ? bfhLf;Fk; vz;zk; (,ad;why;)
xU bghUisf; bfhLf;f Koe;jhy; bfhLf;fyhk; vd;w bghUisj; jUfpd;wJ.
cd;dplk; cs;s bghUisf; bfhz]L ViHfSf;F cjt Koe;jhy; juyhk;.
Koj;jhy; juyhk; :
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

Koj;jhy; ? bray; Koe;j gpd;


jug;gl;Ls;s ntiyia Koj;J tpl;nld; vd;why; juyhk; vd;w bghUisj; jUfpd;wJ.
tPl;od; jpwt[nfhiy ntiyfis Koj;jhy; juyhk;.
4. jkpHpy; gpiHapd;wp vGJtjw;F nkw;bfhs;s ntz]oa Kaw;rpfs; ahit >
ŠŠ vGj;jpidj; bjspthf cr;rhpf;fg; gHf ntz]Lk;. e/ z/ d ' y/ s ' H/ w/ u xypg;g[
ntWghL bjhpe;J xypf;f ntz]Lk;.

ŠŠ ,t;btGj;Jf;fs; tUk; Kiwiaa[k; mit Vw;gLj;Jk; bghUs; khw;wj;ija[k; mwpe;J


bfhs;tJ ,d;wpaikahj xd;whFk;. vGJk; nghJ bjhlf;fj;jpy; rpy fhyk; tha;tpl;nlh
my;yJ kdj;Jf;Fs; cr;rhpj;jgonah vGjg;gHFtJ ey;yJ.

ŠŠ ntfkhf vGj Kay;tJ gpiHf;F tHpnfhYk;/ vdnt epjhdkhf vGJtJ ey;yJ.


ŠŠ bf/ nf/ bfh/ nfh nghd;w bfhk;g[ila Fwpy; beoy; ntWghl;oidg; g[hpe;J vGj ntz]Lk;.
30
www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

TLjy; tpdhf;fs; 12

gyt[s; bjhpf
1. ntw;Wikg; g[zh;r;rpapy; yfuj;ijj; bjhlh;e;J ty;ypdk; thpd; yfuk; vt;thW jphpa[k;
m) ,ay;ghfg; g[zUk; M) yfuk; lfukhFk; 1
,) yfuk; dfukhFk; <) yfuk; wfukhFk; [tpil: <]

,ay;
2. ntw;Wikg; g[zh;r;rpapy; sfuj;ijj; bjhlh;e;J bky;ypdk; thpd; sfuk; vt;thW jphpa[k;
m) sfuk; yfukhFk; M) sfuk; dfukhFk;
,) sfuk; lfukhFk; <) ,tw;wpy; vJt[kpy;iy [tpil: <]
3. vGJk;nghJ tUk; gpiHfis ................ tifahff; bfhs;syhk;.
m) 3 M) 4 ,) 5 <) 6 [tpil: M]
4. capbuGj;Jfs;
m) 10 M) 12 ,) 30 <) 18 [tpil: M]
5. capbuGj;Jfspd; tif
m) 2 M) 4 ,) 12 <) 18 [tpil: m]
6. bka;vGj;Jfs;
m) 3 M) 18 ,) 12 <) 30 [tpil: M]
7. bka;vGj;Jfspd; tif
m) 3 M) 12 ,) 18 <) 30 [tpil: m]
8. caph; bka;baGJf;fs;
m) 18 M) 126 ,) 216 <) 247 [tpil: ,]
9. caph; bka;f;Fwpy;
m) 90 M) 126 ,) 247 <) 216 [tpil: m] caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
10. caph; bka; beoy;
m) 90 M) 126 ,) 247 <) 216 [tpil: M]
11. jkpH; vGj;Jfs; bkhj;jk;;
m) 90 M) 246 ,) 216 <) 247 [tpil: <]
12. e/ z/ d/ w/ u/ y/s/H ? ,t;btl;L vGj;Jfspy; brhy;ypd; bjhlf;fkhf tUk; vGj;J
m) u M) y ,) e <) w [tpil: ,]
13. brhy;ypd; ,Wjpapy; tuhj vGj;ijf; fz;lwpf.
m) u M) y ,) e <) w [tpil: ,]
14. ................ brhy;ypd; bjhlf;fkhf bka;baGj;Jfs; tUtjpy;iy.
m) tlbkhHpapy; M) jkpHpy; ,) M=;fpyj;jpy; <) ,e;jpapy; [tpil: M]
15. f;hPlk;/ g;hpah ? vd;git ................ bkhHpr; brhw;fs;.
m) tl M) mug[ ,) jkpHpy; <) bjY=;F [tpil: m] 31
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
16. jkpH;r; brhy; ................ bka;nahL KoahJ.
12 m) ty;ypd M) bky;ypd ,) ,ilapd <) caph; [tpil: m]
17. l;/ w; vd;Dk; bka;fSf;Fg; gpwF mt;btGj;J thpirfSk; ................ vd;Dk; thpirna
tUk;.
m) f/ r/ g M) d/ z/ e ,) u/ w <) g. k. a [tpil: m]

1 18. rhpahd Tw;wpidf; fz;lwpf.


i) ty;ypd bka;fs; <bwhw;wha; thuh
,ay;

ii) l;/ w; vd;Dk; bka;fis mLj;J bka;fs; tUtjpi;iy


iii) f;/ r;/ j;/g/ Mfpatw;wpd;gpd; mtw;wpd; mt;btGj;J thpirfns tUk;
m) i, ii - rhp M) ii, iii - rhp ,) i, iii - rhp <) @d;Wk; rhp [tpil: <]
19. brhy;ypd; Kjypy; tuhj vGj;Jfs;
m) l/ w M) j/ e ,) g/ k <) f/ r [tpil: m]
20. Ma;j vGj;J brhy;ypd; ................ tUk;.
m) Kjypy; M) ,ilapy; ,) filrpapy; <) <w;wpy; [tpil: ,]
21. bky;ypd vGj;Jfspy; brhy;ypd; bjhlf;fkhf tuhjit
m) =/ + M) =/ k ,) z/ d <) e/ k [tpil: <]
22. 
................ vd;Dk; vGj;JfSf;Fg; gpd; tpa=;nfhs; tpidKw;W'fs; tpFjp'ty;ypdj;jpy;
bjhl=;Fk; brhw;fs; tUk;nghJ ,ay;gha; epw;Fk;.
m) a;/ h;/ y;/ H;/ s; M) w;/ l; ,) =. +/ z/ u. k <) f;/ r; l;/ j;/ g; [tpil: m]
23. ................ xw;Wfs; kl;Lnk <buhw;wha; tUk;.
i) a ii) u iii) H
m) @d;Wk; rhp M) @d;Wk; jtW ,) i, iii - rhp <)
i, ii - rhp [tpil: m]
24. jdpf;Fwpiy mLj;J ................ xw;Wfs; thuh.
m) f/ r M) u/ H ,) j/ g <) f/ g [tpil: M]
25. yfuj;ijj; bjhlh;e;J bky;ypdk;thpd; yfuk; ................ jphptJz;L.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

m) dfukha;j; M) zfukha;j; ,) lfukha;j; <) kfukha;j; [tpil: m]


26. sfuj;ijj; bjhlh;e;J ty;ypdk;thpd; sfuk; ................ jphptJz;L.
m) dfukha;j; M) zfukha;j; ,) lfukha;j; <) wfukha;j; [tpil: ,]
27. sfuj;ijj; bjhlh;e;J bky;ypdk;thpd; sfuk; ................ jphptJz;L.
m) dfukha;j; M) zfukha;j; ,) lfukha;j; <) wfukha;j; [tpil: M]
28. rhpahdtw;iwf; fz;lwpf.
i) ,af;Feh; ii) ,af;Fdh; iii) cWg;gpdh; iv) tPl;odh;
m) i - rhp M) ii, iii - rhp
,) iv - rhp <) ii - kl;Lk; jtW [tpil: <]

32
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

FWtpdh 12
1. vGJk;nghJ Vw;gLk; gpiHfis vt;thW tifg;gLj;jyhk;>
ŠŠ vGj;Jg;gpiH.
ŠŠ brhw;bghUl;gpiH.
ŠŠ brhw;bwhlh;g; gpiH. 1
ŠŠ bghJthd gpiHfs; rpy vd tifg;gLj;jyhk;.

,ay;
2. vGj;Jg; gpiHf;F Kjd;ikahd fhuzk; ahJ?
ŠŠ Vy;yh ,l=;fspYk; ngr;Rj;jkpiH vGj KoahJ.
ŠŠ ngRtijg; nghynt vGj vz;Qtnj vGj;Jg;gpiHf;F Kjd;ikahd fhuzk; vdyhk;.
3. 
ve;ehd;if cs;slf;fpaJ xU bkhHpapd; ,yf;fzk; vd;W jkpH;eilf; ifnaL
Fwpg;gpLfpwJ>
xU bkhHpapy; mog;gil mwpt[ vd;gJ me;j bkhHpapy; cs;s vGj;Jfisa[k; brhw;fisa[k;
mtw;wpd; bghUisa[k; thf;fpa mikg;g[]fisa[k; nrh;e;jpUg;gnj. nkny Fwpg;gpl;l
ehd;ifa[k; cs;slf;fpaJ xU bkhHpapd; ,yf;fzk; vd;fpwJ jkpH; eilf; ifnaL.
4. brhy;ypy; Ma;j vGj;jpd; epiy Fwpj;bjGJf.
ŠŠ Ma;j vGj;J brhy;ypd; ,ilapy; kl;Lnk tUk;.
ŠŠ jdpr;brhy;yhapd; @btGj;jhft[k;/ jdpf;Fwpiy mLj;Jk; tUk;.
rhd;W: mBJ/ vBF/ fBR.
5. jdpf;FwpiyaLj;J ufuk; thpd; vt;thW vGj ntz;Lk;>
jdpf;FwpiyaLj;J ufuk; thpd; mjidj; jkpH; ,ay;g[f;nfw;gj; jpUj;jp vGj ntz;Lk;.
rhd;W: eph;thfk; ? epUthfk;" fh;kk; ? fUkk;.

fw;git fw;wgpd; gf;fk;: 17

1. ka=;bfhyp vGj;Jfs; (z/ e/ d/ y/ H/ s/ u/ w) mike;j brhw;fisj; jpul;o/ bghUs;


caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
ntWghL mwpe;J tFg;giwapy; fye;JiuahLf.
khztr; bry;t=;fns/
,d;W c=;fSf;F ka=;bfhyp vGj;Jfs; mike;j brhw;fisa[k;/ mjd; bghUs;
ntWghl;oida[k; fw;gpf;fg; nghfpnwd;.
uhK : zfu dfu ntWghLfis tpsf;F=;fs; Iah.
mz;zk; ? nky;tha;
md;dk; ? czt[ ' nrhW
l ? gf;fj;jpy; tUk; z ? ,ij lz;zfuk; vd;W miHg;gJz;L.
md;dj;jpy;/ w ? gf;fj;jpy; tUk; d ? ,ij wd;dfuk; vd;W miHg;gJz;L.
nrhK : Iah ,jd; gad;ghLfs; gw;wpf; TW=;fs; Iah.
,jd; gad;ghLfs; : l ? z t[k;/ w ? gf;fj;jpy; d t[k; tUk; vdg;g[hpe;jhy;
vGj;Jg;gpiHfs; kpff; Fiwa[k;. 33
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org
kd;wk; ? mit
12 kz;lgk; ? kf;fs; TLkplk;
Fd;W ? rpwpa kiy
Fz;L ? cUz;il (totk;)
,it nghd;W ntWghL fz;L gpiHfisf; fisayhk;.

1 uhK
: ,d;DbkhU tpsf;fk; njit. y?H ntWghLfs; gw;wpa[k; tpsf;fk; njit
Iah.
y?H ntWghL
,ay;

fiy ? El;gk; ' mwpt[ fiH ? @=;fpy;


kiy ? Fd;W kiH ? thd;kiH
jiy ? cly; cWg;g[ jiH ? tsh; ' ,iy
tpiy ? kjpg;g[ tpiH ? tpUg;gk;
,t;thwhd ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fis ngRtJ kw;Wk; vGJtjd; @yk; gpiH
jtph;f;fyhk;.
uhK : kpf;f ed;wp Iah/ bjspthfg; g[hpe;J bfhz;nld; Iah.
u?s ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fSf;F v.fh. jhU=;fs; Iah.
u ? w ntWghL
kuk; ? jhtuk; kwk; ? tPuk;
muk; ? fUtp mwk; ? jUkk;
,t;thwhd ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fisg; ngRtJ kw;Wk; vGJtjd; @yk; gpiH
jtph;f;fyhk;.
nrhK : Iah/ filrpahf yfu dfu ntWghl;ila[k; TW=;fs; Iah.
y s ntWghL
fiy ? mwpt[' El;gk;
fis ? gapupd; eLnt tsh;tJ ' Mil fisjy;
nfhy; ? Fr;rp nfhs; ? brt;tha; (nfhs;)
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

tyk; ? tyg;g[wk; tsk; ? brHpg;g[


 t;thwhd ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fisg; ngRtJ kw;Wk; vGJtjd; @yk; gpiH
,
jtph;f;fyhk; khzth;fns.
khzth;fns kw;bwhU tFg;gpy; re;jpf;fyhk;.

bkhHpia Ms;nthk; gf;fk;: 19

rhd;nwhh; rpj;jpuk;

tHf;F xd;wpy; rhl;rp mspf;f ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fj; jkJ khzth;fSld;


te;jpUe;jhh; jkpHwp+h; xUth;. mf;fhy M=;fpnya ePjpgjpfSf;F
bkhHpbgah;j;Jr; brhy;y mjpfhhpfs; ,Ug;ghh;fs;. jkpHwp+h;/ rhl;rpaj;ij
M=;fpyj;jpnyna brhy;y Muk;gpf;f/ FWfpa kdk; bfhz]l ePjpgjp mij
MWKf ehtyh;
34 Vw;Wf;bfhs;s kdk; xg;ghky; jkpHpy; Twr; brhy;yp cj;jutpl;lhh;. mth; 1822 ? 1879
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
clnd `m+;+hd;W vy;yp vH ehdhHpg; nghjpd;tha; MHptuk; gidj;nj fhnyw;Wf;
fhnyhl;lg; g[f;FHp~ vd;W Jt=;fpdhh;. bkhHpbgah;g;ghsh; jpzwpg; nghdhh;. nfhgKw;w 12
ePjpgjp M=;fpyj;jpy; ngrf; Twp cj;jutpl mth; kWj;Jj; jkpHpnyna twpdhh;. mtuJ
khzth; kw;wth;fSf;Fg; g[upa[k;go tpsf;fpdhh;. `Nhpad; njhd;Wtjw;F ehd;F ehHpif
Kd;dh; flw;fiu Xuk; fhw;W th=;fr; rpWeilf;Fg; g[wg;gl;lnghJ~ vd;gJ mth; Twpajw;Fg;
bghUs;. ,j;jifa bkhHpj;jpwd; iftug;bgw;wth;jhd; MWKf ehtyh;.
`trdeil ifte;j ty;yhsh;~ vdg; g[fHg;gLk; MWKf ehtyh; ahH;g;ghzk; ey;Y} 1
hpy; gpwe;jth;. jkpH;/ tlbkhHp/ M=;fpyk; vDk; Kk;bkhHpg; g[yik bgw;wth;. jkpH;E}y; gjpg;g[/

,ay;
ciueil Mf;fk;/ ghlrhiy epWt[jy;/ mr;Rf;Tlk; epWt[jy;/ fz]ld E}y;fs; gilj;jy;/
irt rkar; brhw;bghHpt[ vdg; gd;Kf MSik bgw;wth;.
jpUf;Fws; ghpnkyHfh; ciu/ Nlhkzp epfz]L/ ed;D}y;?r=;fu ekr;rpthah;
tpUj;jpa[iu vd;W gy E}y;fisg; gjpg;gpj;jhh;. ,yf;fz E}y;fs;/ g{kp rh!;jpuk; Kjyhd
ghl E}y;fs; mtuhy; Mf;fg;gl;ld/ g[uhz E}y;fis trdkhfp vGjp mjid midtUk;
gof;Fk; vspa totkhf khw;wpdhh;. jkJ ,y;yj;jpy; mr;Rf;Tlk; epWtpg; gy E}y;fis
mr;rpl;lhh;. jpUthtLJiw Mjpdk; ,tUf;F `ehtyh;~ gl;lk; tH=;fpaJ. bgh;rpty; ghjphpahh;
tptpypaj;ijj; jkpHpy; bkhHpbgah;f;ft[k; ,th; cjtpdhh;.
tpdhf;fs;:
1. `vy;yp~ vd;gjd; bghUs; vd;d>
2. xU ehHpif vd;gJ vt;tst[ neuk;>
3. MHp/ fhy;; bghUs; jUf.
4. MWKf ehtyh; vt;thW g[fHg;gl;lhh;> mth; mwpe;jpUe;j bkhHpfs; ahit>
5. bgw;wth; ? ,yf;fzf;Fwpg;g[j; jUf.
6. tptpypaj;ijj; jkpHpy; bkhHpbgah;j;jth; ahh;>
7. MWKf ehtyhpd; ,aw;bgah; vd;d> `ehtyh;~ vd;w gl;lj;ij ahh; tH=;fpdhh;>
8. `te;jpUe;jhh;~ ,U bghUs;gLk;go thf;fpak; mikf;f.
tpilfs;:
1. Nhpad;. caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
2. 24 epkplk;.
3. MHp ? nkhjpuk;/ fly;.
fhy; ? cly;cWg;g[/ fhw;W.
4. `trdeil ifte;j ts;syhh;~ vdg; g[fHg;gl;lhh;. jkpH;/ tlbkhHp/ M=;fpyk; vd;Dk;
Kk;bkhHpg; g[yik bgw;wth;.
5. bgw;wth; ? tpidahyiza[k; bgah;.
6. bgh;rpty; ghjphpahh;.
7. ,aw;bgah; ? MWKfk;.
ehtyh; gl;lk; ? jpUthtLJiw MjPdk; tH=;fpajhFk;.
8. te;jpUe;jhh; : cly; eyk; rhpapy;yhj vd; je;ijiaf; fhz vd; khkh ePz]l ehs; fHpj;J
te;jhh;.
te;J ,Ue;jhh; : bghJf;Tl;lk; fhz gy iky; J}uk; ele;j Fkud; fhy; typahy; te;J
,Ue;jhh;.
35
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

jkpHhf;fk; jUf
12
1. Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere. (Chinese Proverb).
fw;wtUf;Fr; brd;w ,lbky;yhk; rpwg;g[.
2. A new language is a new life. (Persian Proverb).
g[jpa bkhHp g[jpa thH;f;if.
1 3. If you want people to understand you, speak their language. (African Proverb).
gpwh; cd;idg; g[hpe;J bfhs;s ntz]Lkhapd; mth; bkhHpapy; ngR.
,ay;

4. Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom. (Roger Bacon).


bkhHpfspd; mwpt[ +hdj;jpd; tHpj;jlk;.
5. The limits of my language are the limits of my world. (Willgenstin).
vd; bkhHpapd; vy;iy vd; cyfj;jpd; vy;iy.
,yf;fpa eak; ghuhl;Lf
Kr;r=;f=; Tl;o
KJg[yth; jikf; Tl;o
mr;r=;fj; Js;ns
msg;ghpa bghUs;Tl;o
brhw;r=;f khfr;
RitkpFe;j ftpTl;o
mw;g[j=;f bsy;yhk;
mikj;j bgUkhl;o- ? fz]zjhrd;
Kd;Diu :
,g;ghliyg; ghoath; ftpauR fz]zjhrd; Mthh;. g[fH;bgw;w jkpH;j;jpiug;glg;
ghlyhrphpaUk; ftp+Uk; Mthh;. jkpHf murpd; muritf; ftp+uhf ,Ue;jth;.
ehd;fhapuj;jpw;Fk; nkw;gl;l ftpijfs; vGjpa[s;shh;. rhfpj;a mfhjkp tpUJ bgw;wth;.
jpuz]l fUj;J :
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

jkpHd;idahdts;/ @d;W r=;f=;fs; mika fhuzkhdts;. Kr;r=;f=;fspYk;


ey;y mDgtKk; ey;y mwpt[k; bfhz]l g[th;fis xd;whff; Tl;oats;. mr;r=;fj;jpw;Fs;
mstplKoahj bghUs;fisf; Tl;o eP cd;Dila brhw;fis mjpfhpj;J mnj neuj;jpy;
Rit kpf;f ftpijfis vy;yhk; xnu ,lj;jpy; TotUkhW g[Jikfs; vy;yhk; mike;j
bgUkfns - jkpHd;idna -
bjhil eak; :
nkhid :
fhl;Lf;F ahid
ghl;Lf;F nkhid
KjbyGj;J xd;wp tUtJ nkhidahFk;.
rhd;W:
Kr;r=;f=; mr;r=;fj; brhw;r=;f mw;g[j=;f
KJg[yth; msg;ghpa RitkpFe;j mikj;j
36
www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
vJif :
kJiuf;F itif
12
bra;a[Sf;F vJif
KjbyGj;J msbthj;jpUf;f ,uz]lhk; vGj;J xd;wp tUtJ vJifahFk;.
rhd;W:
Kr;r=;f brhw;r=;f 1
mr;r=;f mw;g[j=;f

,ay;

,iag[ :
filrp vGj;njh Xirnah xd;wp tUtJ ,iag[ MFk;.
rhd;W:
bgUkhl;o
ftpTl;o
bghUs;Tl;o
jikf;Tl;o
mzp eak; :
mzpaw;w ghf;fs;
gpzpa[s;s tzpij
jkpH; bkhHpahdJ r=;fk; itj;J tsh;f;fg;gl;l bkhHp vd;W ,ay;ghd thh;j;ijfshy;
,g;ghly; mike;Js;sjhy; ,ay;g[ etpw;rpazp ,lk; bgw;Ws;sJ.
re;j eak; :
re;jk; jkpGf;Fr; brhe;jk;
Vw;w fUtpa[ld; ghodhy; nfl;nghUf;Fk;/ ghLnthUf;Fk; ,dpikaj; jUk; tpjj;jpy;
mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ ,g;ghly;.
Rit eak; :
eh czUk; Rit MW
kdk; czUk; Rit vl;L
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
vd;w tifapy; ,g;ghlypy; brhw;r=;f khfr; RitkpFe;j ftpTl;o bgUkpjr; Rit
kpFe;Js;sJ.
Kot[iu:
fw;whUf;Fk;/ fy;yhUf;Fk; Vw;w tifapy; vJif/ nkhid/ ,iag[ ,iae;njhl/
fw;gid fhl;rpaspf;f/ re;jk; jhskpl/ Rit cz;lhfp/ eh Vf;fKw/ mzpnahL mHFbgWk;
tifapy; ,f;ftpij mike;Js;sJ.

fPH;f;fhQk; gj;jpiag; goj;J Ie;J tpdhf;fis cUthf;Ff.


bkhHp vd;gJ kf;fs; gilj;Jf; fhf;Fk; mhpabjhU fiy. bkhHpna kf;fspd;
mwpit tsh;j;J cah;j;Jk; mhpa fUtpahft[k; cs;sJ. bgw;w jhapd; Kjy; ntl;if jd;
FHe;ija[ld; ngRjy;. mts; Kjypy; mila[k; bghpa kfpH;r;rp/ FHe;ijapd; ngr;irf;
nfl;gnj MFk;. FHe;ijapd; kdtsh;r;rpnahL bjhlh;g[ilaJ bkhHp tsh;r;rpna MFk;.
kdk; vd;gJ bgUk;ghYk; bkhHpahy; tsh;e;J mike;jJ. kdj;jpd; tsh;r;rpf;F Vw;gnt
37
ngRnthhpd; bkhHpa[k; tsh;r;rp bgw;W epw;Fk; kf;fs; midtUk; bkhHpf;F Mrphpauhft[k;
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
cs;sdh; " khztuhft[k; cs;sdh;. bkhHpia tsh;g;gtUk; kf;fns " bkhHpahy; tsh;gtUk;
12 kf;fns.
? bkhHp tuyhW (K. tujuhrdhh;)
tpdhf;fs; :
1. kf;fs; gilj;Jf; fhj;JtUk; mhpa fiy vJ> mJ Mw;Wk; bray; ahJ>

1
2. jhapd; Kjy; tpUg;gk; vd;d>
3. bkhHp tsh;r;rp vjndhL bjhlh;g[ilaJ>
4. bkhHpia tsh;g;gtUk;/ bkhHpahy; tsh;gtUk; ahh;>
,ay;

5. bkhHp tsh;r;rp vjidg; bghWj;jJ>

ctikj; bjhlh;fisr; brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;J vGJf.


jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghy/ fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy/ vypa[k; g{ida[k; nghy/ mr;rhzp ,y;yhj
njh; nghy/ cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp nghy.
1. jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghy ? gl;Lk; glhkYk;/ <LghLk; ,y;yhkYk; ,Uj;jy;.
,t;t[yf Mirfspd;kPJ jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghy gw;W ,y;yhky; ,Uj;jy; ntz;Lk;.
2. fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy ? btsp cyfk; bjhpahj epiy.
,d;Dk; rpy fpuhk=;fspy; kf;fs; fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy thH;fpd;wdh;.
3. vypa[k; g{ida[k; nghy ? vjphpfshf.
uFt[k; utpa[k; vypa[k; g{ida[k; nghyr; rz]ilapl;Lf; bfhz]ldh;.
4. mr;rhzp ,y;yhj njh; nghy ? rhpahd tHpfhl;o.
ehl;il tHp elj;j rhpahd jiytd; ,y;yhjjhy; ehl;L kf;fs; mr;rhzp ,y;yhj njh; nghy
rhptu ,a=;fhky; jtpf;fpd;wdh;.
5. cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp nghy ? btspg;gilahf/ bjspthf.
jkpHhrphpah; fw;gpj;j g[zh;r;rp ,yf;fzk; v=;fSf;F cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp nghyj;
bjsptha; tps=;fpaJ.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

gapw;rp
1. gRkuj;jhzp nghy ? vspjhf
2. kiljpwe;j bts;sk; nghy ? ntfkhf
3. moaw;w kuk; nghy ? tYtpHe;J
4. fy;nky; vGj;J nghy ? mHpahky;
5. efKk; rija[k; nghy ? ,iz gphpahik
6. mLj;jJ fhl;Lk; gsp=;F nghy ? btspg;gLj;j
7. ,yt[ fhj;j fpsp nghy ? Vkhw;wk;
8. miy Xa;e;j fly; nghy ? mikjp
9. ,+;rp jpd;w Fu=;F nghy ? tpHpj;jy;
10. fapww;w gl;lk; nghy ? jtpj;jy;/ ntjid

38
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

xU gf;f mstpy; fl;Liu vGJf.


12
jha;bkhHptHpf; fy;tpapd; rpwg;g[fs;.

vz]zj;ij btspapLtjw;Fk;/ rpe;jidahw;wy; bgUFtjw;Fk; jha; bkhHpna Jiz
epw;Fk; ? ,jid typa[Wj;jp gpd;tUk; Fwpg;g[fisf; bfhz]L fl;Liu vGJf.

jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; njit ? jha;bkhHpr; rpe;jid ? mwp+h;fspd; ghh;it ? fw;Fk; jpwd;
? gad; ? ,d;iwa epiy.
1

,ay;
Kd;Diu :
``jha;bkhHp fz] nghd;wJ
gpwbkhHp fz]zho nghd;wJ~~
ekJ vz]z=;fisg; gpwUf;F btspg;gLj;j cjt[tJ bkhHpna. bkhHp xU fUtp.
kdpjd; bkhHpahy;jhd; thH;fpd;whd;. bkhHpahy;jhd; fUj;Jg; ghpkhw;wKk; bra;fpd;whd;.
jdJ vz]zj;ij btspapLtjw;Fk; rpe;jidahw;wiyg; bgUf;ft[k; Jizahf ,Uf;Fk;
jha;bkhHp tHpf; fy;tpapd; rpwg;g[fs; gw;wp ,f;fl;Liuapy; fhz]nghk;.

jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; njit :


kdpjdpd; milahsk; mtdJ jha;bkhHpjhd;. fy;tp vd;gJ jha;bkhHp tHpahf
kl;Lnk fw;gpf;f gl ntz]Lk;. kdpjdpd; rpe;jida[k; fw;gida[k; jha;bkhHpapy;jhd;
cUthfpd;wd. vdnt/ kdpjdpd; rpe;jid tsh;r;rpf;Fj; jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpna rpwe;jJ.
rpe;jpf;fpd;w bkhHpapny gapw;Wtpf;fg;gLfpd;w fy;tp rpe;jidiaf; Tl;Lfpd;wJ.
EQf;f=;fisa[k; mwptpay; gilg;g[fisa[k; cUthf;f kdpjh;fisj; jahh;g;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

jha;bkhHpr; rpe;jid :
jha;bkhHpjhd; rpe;jpf;Fk; jpwdpd; jpwt[nfhyhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. vj;jid bkhHpfs;
fw;whYk; ve;j bkhHpiaf; fw;whYk; xUtdpd; rpe;jid cUbtLg;gJ jha;bkhHpapy;jhd;.
jha;bkhHpahy; rpe;jid bgUFk;. kdpjh;fspd; kdbtGr;rp thH;tpw;F mog;gil. mj;jifa
kdtsh;r;rpiaj; jha;bkhHpahy; kl;Lnk bfhLf;f ,aYk;. jha;bkhHpapy; rpe;jpg;gjhy;
cah;e;j fUj;Jf;fisr; rpwe;j brhw;fisf; bfhz]L czh;j;j Koa[k;. caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
mwp+h;fs; ghh;it :
cyfpy; thH;e;j gy mwp+h;fs; jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; mtrpaj;ijf; TwpapUf;fpd;whh;fs;.
fhe;jpaofs; TWk; nghJ b$fjP&; re;jpu ngh!;/ gp.rp. ,uha; Kjypnahhpd; rhjidfisf; fz]L
ehk; kfpH;r;rpailfpnwhk;. Mdhy;/ jha;bkhHp @yk; ekf;Ff; fy;tp mspf;fg;gl;oUe;jhy;
ek;kpilna gy ngh!;fSk;/ ,uha;fSk; njhd;wpapUg;ghh;fs; vd;fpwhh;. rhfpj; \%ird;
(1938?Mk; Mz]L) FG jha;bkhHpapy; fw;Wf;bfhLj;jiy typa[Wj;JfpwJ/ o.v!].
nfhj;jhhp FGt[k; (1964) njrpaf;fy;tpf; bfhs;ifapy; jha;bkhHp fy;tpia typa[Wj;jpaJ.

fw;Fk; jpwd; :
jha;bkhHpiag; nghw;wp tPH;e;j ehLk; ,y;iy. jha;bkhHpiag; g[wf;fzpj;J thH;e;j
ehLk; ,y;iy. jha;bkhHp @ykhfnt xUth; jhd; Tw tpUk;g[k; fUj;ijj; bjspthft[k;
KGikahft[k; MHkhft[k; bjhptpf;f Koa[k;. fw;Fk; jpwd; mjpfhpg;gJ jha;bkhHp
tHpahfnt/ jha;bkhHp tHpahff; fw;Fk; nghJ rpe;jidj;jpwd; mjpfkhFk;.
39
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH www.nammakalvi.org
jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; gad; :
12 ``fUtpy; cs;s FHe;ij VG khjj;jpnyna @is Kjph;r;rpg; bgw;W xypfisf;
nfl;fpwJ~~ vd;fpd;wdh;. kUj;Jt mwp+h;fs;/ FHe;ij tsUk; NHy; bkhHpj;jhf;fj;jpw;F
mog;gilahf mikfpwJ. mf;FHe;ijfs; jha;bkhHp tHpahff; fw;Fk; NHy; Vw;gl;lhy; kpfr;
rpwe;j mwp+h;fshf/ nkijfshf mf;FHe;ijfs; tsUk;. FHe;ijfs; jha;bkhHp tHpahff;
fy;tpf; fw;why; jukhd fy;tpiag; bgWthh;fs;.
1 ,d;iwa epiy :
,d;W jha;bkhHp tHpapy; fy;tpr; fw;gijf; bfsutf; Fiwr;ryhft[k;/ nftykhft[k;
,ay;

epidf;fpd;wdh;. jha;bkhHpapy; fy;tpf; fw;wth;fisj; juk; Fiwe;jth;fshfg; ghh;g;gJ


r@fj;jpy; epytp tUk; mty=;fSs; xd;whFk;. jha;bkhHpapy; fy;tpf; fw;nghUf;F muRg;
gzpfspy; Kd;Dhpik tH=;Fjy; ntz]Lk;.
Kot[iu :
bkhHp vd;gJ xU jfty; bjhlh;g[r; rhjdk; kl;Lkd;W. xU gz]ghl;od;/ xU ,dj;jpd;
milahsk; vd;gij ahtUk; czh;e;jhny jha;bkhHpia mHptpypUe;J fhf;fyhk;.

bkhHpnahL tpisahL gf;fk;: 21

vz]z=;fis vGj;jhf;Ff.

fz;zhy; fz;ltw;iwf; ifahy;


fiytotkhf;fp
fhz;gth; fz;fSf;Ff;
fhl;rp jUk; tpUe;jhf;fp
fhy=;fs; fle;jhYk; fz;fis
tpl;L mfyh Xtpakhf;fp
fy;iyr; rpiyahf;Fk; rpw;gpna
fhy=;fhykha; epw;gha; vd;Wk;-
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

me;jhjpj; bjhluhy; ftpj;Jtkhf;Ff.


FHe;ijiaf; bfh+;Rk; jhapd; Fuy;
jhapd; Fuypy; caphpd; xyp
caphpd; xypna jhapd; mutizg;g[
mutizf;Fk; mtisna mfj;jpy; vz]Qnthnk-
Fwpg;g[fspy; kiwe;jpUf;Fk; jkpHwp+h;fisf; fz]Lgpog;nghk;.
v.fh. ftp+h;" <w;wpU brhy;yhy; mzpfyd; bra;ayhk; ? ftpkzp.
1. jkpHwp+h; : KjypU vGj;Jfshy; kiwf;fyhk;. tpil : kiwkiy mofs;
2. jha;bkhHp : <w;wpU vGj;Jf;fs; btspr;rk; jUk;. tpil : jkpH; xsp
3. rpWfij Mrphpah; : Kjy; ghjp etPdk; tpil : g[Jikg;gpj;jd;
4. Kd;bdGj;J murd; : gpd;bdGj;J jkpH; khjk; tpil : nfhij
40
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
(jkpH; xsp/ mk;ig/ nfhij/ mnrhfkpj;jpud;/ g[Jikg;gpj;jd;/ Nlhkzp/ b$afhe;jd;/
kiwkiy mofs;) 12

epw;f mjw;Fj; jf

fPH;f;fhQk; bray;ghLfisr; rhp'jtW vdg; gphpj;J/ rhpbadpy; fhuzKk; jtW vdpy;
khw;Wtjw;Fhpa braiya[k; Fwpg;gpLf. 1
bray;ghL rhp ? fhuzk; jtW ? khw;wk;

,ay;
v.fh. bghUl;fis rhp/ bghUl;fisj; njlhJ
vLj;j ,lj;jpy; vLf;f Koa[k;. neuk;
itj;jy; tPzhjy; jtph;f;fg;gLk;.
bghJtplj;jpy; vr;rpy; jtW/ Jg;g[jw;F chpa
Jg;g[jy; ,lj;jpy; Jg;gyhk;.
neha;gut[tijj; jLf;fyhk;.
tFg;gpy; jtW/ Fg;igf;Tilapy;
fhfpj=;fisf; nghLjy;. tFg;giw Rj;jkhf
fpHpj;Jg; nghLjy; itg;gJ flik.
,Uf;if/ nkirfspy; jtW/ ,Uf;if/ nkir
fpWf;Fjy; njhw;wk; tPzhfptpLk;
gs;spapd; brhj;jpidg;
ghJfhg;gJ ekJ flik.

gog;nghk;; ? gad;gLj;Jnthk; (E}yfk;)

Subscription - cWg;gpdh; fl;lzk;


Fiction - g[idt[
Biography - thH;f;if tuyhW caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
Archive - Mtzk;
Manuscript - ifbaGj;Jg;gpujp
Bibliography - E}y; epuy;



41
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH

12
,ay; 1 khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ? 1
tFg;g[ : 12
neuk; : 2.30 kzp kjpg;bgz; : 90
1 I. gyt[s; bjupf.  6×1=6
midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpil jUf.
,ay;

1. ,yf;fpaj;ija[k; bkhHpiaa[k; xUnrug; ngRfpd;w ,yf;fz E}y;


m) ahg;bgU=;fyf; fhhpif M) jz;oay=;fhuk;
,) bjhy;fhg;gpak; <) ed;D}y;
2. †kPz;Lke;jg; gHik eyk; g[Jf;F jw;F‡ ftp+h; Fwpg;gpLk; gHik eyk;
f) ghz;oahpd; r=;fj;jpy; bfhYtpUe;jJ c) bghjpifapy; njhd;wpaJ
௩) ts;sy;fisj; je;jJ
m) f ? kl;Lk; rhp M) f c ? ,uz;Lk; rhp
,) ௩ ? kl;Lk; rhp <) f ௩ ? ,uz;Lk; rhp
3. †kpd;ndh; jdpahHp bt=;fjpbuhd;W VidaJ/ jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;-‡ ? ,t;tofspy; gapd;W
te;Js;s bjhileak;
m) monkhid/ mo vJif M) rPh;nkhid/ rPh; vJif
,) mo vJif/ rPh;nkhid <) rPh;vJif/ monkhid
4. fUj;J 1: ,ay;g[ tHf;fpy;/ bjhluikg;g[ vd;gJ vGtha;/ gadpiy vd;W tUtnj kug[.
fUj;J 2: bjhluikg;g[/ r=;fg;ghly;fs; gytw;wpy; gpwH;e;J tUfpwJ.
m) fUj;J 1 rhp M) fUj;J 2 rhp
,) ,uz;L fUj;Jk; rhp <) fUj;J 1 rhp/ fUj;J 2 jtW
5. bghUj;Jf:
m) jkpH; mHfpay; ? 1. guyp R. bey;iyag;gh;
M) epyt[g;g{ ? 2. jp.R. eluhrd;
,) fpil ? 3. rpw;gp. ghyRg;gpukzpak;
<) ca;a[k; tHp ? 4. fp. uh$ehuhazd;
m) 4/ 3/ 2/ 1 M) 1/ 4/ 2/ 3 ,) 2/ 4/ 1/ 3 <) 2/ 3/ 4/ 1
6. ftp+h; rpw;gp vGjpa ve;jg; gilg;gpyf;fpaj;jpw;F rhfpj;jpa mfhjkp tpUJ fpilj;jJ>
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

m) xU fpuhkj;jpd; fij M) xU fpuhknk mGjJ


,) xU fpuhkj;jpd; ejp <) xU g[spakuj;jpd; fij
II. midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpil jUf. 8×1=8
7. <Wnghjy; Kd;epd;w bka;jphpjy; vd;w tpjpg;go mike;j brhy;
m) jdpahHp M) bt=;fjph; ,) tps=;F <) M=;ftw;Ws;
8. f;hPlk;/ g;hpah ? vd;git ................ bkhHpr; brhw;fs;.
m) tl M) mug[ ,) jkpHpy; <) bjY=;F
9. bghUj;jhjijf; fz;lwpf.
m) ,se;jkpnH ? rpw;gp
M) jkpH;bkhHpapd; eil mHfpay; ? jp.R.eluhrd;
,) jd;ndh; ,y;yhj jkpH; ? jz;o
<) jk;gp bey;iyag;gh;f;F ? bey;iyag;gh;
10. `brk;ghpjp~ ? vd;gjd; ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[ jUf.
m) gz;g[j;bjhif M) vz;Qk;ik ,) bgabur;rk; <) ck;ikj; bjhif
11. Fiction vd;gjd; jkpH;r; brhy;iy njh;e;bjLf;ft[k;.
42 m) g[idt[ M) rl;lk; ,) Mtzk; <) nfhg;g[
www.nammakalvi.org Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
12. fhl;L thj;J vd;w E}ypd; Mrphpah;
m) eh. Kj;Jrhkp M) mfpyd; ,) eh. gpr;r@h;j;jp <) jp.R. eluhrd; 12
13. vGJk;nghJ tUk; gpiHfis vj;jid tifahff; bfhs;syhk;>
m) 3 M) 4 ,) 5 <) 6
14. gpiHahd bjhliuf; fz]lwpf.
m) fhisfisg; g{l;o taiy cGjdh;. M) kiy kPJ Vwpf; fy;btl;Lfisf; fz]lwpe;jdh;.
,) fhisapy; g{j;j ky;ypif kdk; tPrpaJ. <) bew;gaph;fs; kiHePhpy; @H;fpd. 1
III.
FWtpdh 3×2=6

,ay;
m) vitnaDk; @d;wDf;F tpil jUf.
15. ``glhmk; <j;j bflhm ey;ypirf;
 flhm ahidf; fypkhd; ngf~~ ? ,r;r=;ff; ftpijapd; mofspy; Xir eakpf;f brhw;fisa[k;
mtw;wpw;fhd ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[fisa[k; vLj;J vGJf.
16. ftp+h; rpw;gp vtw;iw tpae;J ghl jkpHpd; Jiz ntz;Lk; vd;fpwhh;>
17. tpoay;/ tdg;g[ ? ,Ubrhw;fisa[k; xU=;fpizj;Jj; bjhlh; mikf;f.
18. ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; vGjpa ftpij E}y;fs; rpytw;iw vGJf.
M) vitnaDk; ,uz;lDf;F tpil jUf. 2×2=4
19. eil mHfpay; gw;wpj; bjhy;fhg;gpak; TWk; fUj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLf.
20. ghlypd; jsj;ij Vh; elj;jp gz;gLj;jpg; nghfpd;wdit vit>
21. `fiy KGik~ gw;wpj; bjhy;fhg;gpak; Fwpg;gpLtJ ahJ>
IV. vitnaDk; VHDf;F tpil jUf. 7 × 2 = 14
22. VnjDk; xd;wDf;Fg; gFgj cWg;gpyf;fzk; jUf.
m) tpae;J M) ,Ue;jha;
23. VnjDk; xd;wDf;Fg; g[zh;r;rp tpjp jUf.
m) brk;ghpjp M) thdbky;yhk;
24. kug[g;gpiHia ePf;fp vGJf.
m) ahid fj;Jk; M) fpsp ghLk;
25. ntw;Wikg; g[zh;r;rpapy; sfuj;ijj; bjhlh;e;J bky;ypdk; thpd; sfuk; vt;thW jphpa[k;>
m) sfuk; yfukhFk; M) sfuk; dfukhFk;
,) sfuk; lfukhFk; <) ,tw;wpy; vJt[kpy;iy
26. rhpahd Tw;wpidf; fz;lwpf.
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;
i) ty;ypd bka;fs; <bwhw;wha; thuh
ii) l;/ w; vd;Dk; bka;fis mLj;J bka;fs; tUtjpi;iy
iii) f;/ r;/ j;/g/ Mfpatw;wpd;gpd; mtw;wpd; mt;btGj;J thpirfns tUk;
m) i, ii - rhp M) ii, iii - rhp ,) i, iii - rhp <) @d;Wk; rhp
27. ctikj; bjhlh;fisr; brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;J vGJf.
jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghy/ fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy
28. njitahd ,l=;fspy; ty;ypd bka;fis ,l;L vGJf.
trdeil ifte;j ts;syhsh; vd g[fHg;gLk; MWKf ehtyh; ahH;ghzk; ey;Y}hpy; gpwe;jhh;
29. ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fspd; bghUswpe;J brhw;bwhlh; mikf;ft[k;.
m) miH M) mis
30. fiyr; brhy;yhf;fk; jUf:  Internet
V. rpWtpdh
m) vitnaDk; ,uz;lDf;F tpil jUf. 2×4=8
31. 
brk;ghpjp kiynkl;oy; jiyiar; rha;g;ghd; bre;epwj;Jg; g{f;fhlhk; thdbky;yhk;~? bjhlh; 43
btspg;gLj;Jk; fhl;rp eaj;ij tpsf;Ff.
Nh;ah  ,sikj;jkpnH
32. `V=;bfhyp ePh; +hyj;J ,Usfw;Wk;~ ? ,lk; Rl;og; bghUs; tpsf;Ff.
12 33. r=;fg;ghly;fs; gytw;Ws; mike;Js;s kWjiyj; bjhlhpay; nghf;Ff;Fr; rhd;W je;J tpsf;Ff.
M) vitnaDk; ,uz;lDf;F tpil jUf. 2×4=8
34. r=;fg;ghly;fspy; xypf;nfhyk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f xU gz;ghFk; ? tpsf;Ff.
35. gpd;tUk; ,U ghf;fspd; fUj;JfspYs;s ntw;Wikia vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf.
giHad fHpjYk; g[jpad g[FjYk; kPz]L ke;jg; gHikeyk; g[Jf;F jw;F
1 tGty fhy tifap dhnd
? ed;D}y;
bka;rpyph;f;fj; jkpH;f;Fapny - Ttp th/ th-
? rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak;
,ay;

36. bghUs; ntw;Wik mzpiar; rhd;W je;J tpsf;Ff.


VI. vitnaDk; @d;wDf;F tpil jUf. 3 x 4 = 12
37. ntw;Wik mzp (my;yJ)
X=;fypil te;J cah;e;njhh; bjhHtps=;fp
V=;bfhypePh; +hyj;(J) ? , g;ghlypy; gapd;W tUk; mzpia tpsf;F.
38. fPH;f;fhQk; gj;jpiag; goj;J Ie;J tpdhf;fis cUthf;Ff.
 bkhHp vd;gJ kf;fs; gilj;Jf; fhf;Fk; mhpabjhU fiy. bkhHpna kf;fspd; mwpit tsh;j;J
cah;j;Jk; mhpa fUtpahft[k; cs;sJ. bgw;w jhapd; Kjy; ntl;if jd; FHe;ija[ld; ngRjy;.
mts; Kjypy; mila[k; bghpa kfpH;r;rp/ FHe;ijapd; ngr;irf; nfl;gnj MFk;. FHe;ijapd;
kdtsh;r;rpnahL bjhlh;g[ilaJ bkhHp tsh;r;rpna MFk;. kdk; vd;gJ bgUk;ghYk; bkhHpahy;
tsh;e;J mike;jJ. kdj;jpd; tsh;r;rpf;F Vw;gnt ngRnthhpd; bkhHpa[k; tsh;r;rp bgw;W epw;Fk; kf;fs;
midtUk; bkhHpf;F Mrphpauhft[k; cs;sdh; " khztuhft[k; cs;sdh;. bkhHpia tsh;g;gtUk;
kf;fns " bkhHpahy; tsh;gtUk; kf;fns. ? bkhHp tuyhW (K. tujuhrdhh;)
39. fPH;f;fhQk; ghliy goj;J Vw;g[ila ea=;fis Rl;of;fhl;Lf.
Kr;r=;f=; Tl;o
KJg[yth; jikf; Tl;o
mr;r=;fj; Js;ns
msg;ghpa bghUs;Tl;o
brhw;r=;f khfr;
RitkpFe;j ftpTl;o
mw;g[j=;f bsy;yhk;
mikj;j bgUkhl;o- ? fz]zjhrd;
caphpDk; Xk;gg; gLk;

40. jkpHhf;fk; jUf.


1. Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere. (Chinese Proverb).
2. A new language is a new life. (Persian Proverb).
3. If you want people to understand you, speak their language. (African Proverb).
4. Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom. (Roger Bacon).
VII. gpd;tUk; tpdhf;fSf;F ,U gf;f=;fSf;F kpfhky; tpil jUf :  3 x 6 = 18
41. jkpHpd; rPhpsikj; jpwk; tpae;J ftp+h; rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak; TWtdtw;iwj; bjhFj;J vGJf.
42. ftpijapd; eiliaf; fl;likf;Fk; mHfpay; TWfis vLj;Jf;fhl;o tpsf;Ff.
43. ghujpapd; fojk; thapyhf eP=;fs; mwpe;J bfhz;l bkhHp;g;gw;W/ r@fg;gw;W Mfpatw;iw tpthpf;f
VIII. mokhwhky; bra;a[s; totpy; vGJf.  4+2=6
44. m) `X=;fypil~ ? vdj; bjhl=;Fk; jd;ndhpy;yhj jkpH; vDk; ghly;.
M) `mJ~ vd Koa[k; Fws;.

44
www.nammakalvi.org

Похожие интересы