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STUDY THE USE OF WASTE MATERIAL/ BY-PORODUCT IN

CONCRETE

SUBMITTED BY
Nazim Ali T1CT033R15-021
Barkat Ali T1CT033R15-013
Salman Umar T1CT033R15-032

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY(CIVIL)

IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF BUSINESS STUDIES


LAHORE, PAKISTAN
In The Name of ALLAH, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful

DEDICATION
This humble Effort, The fruit of my thoughts and study, to my parents who inspired me to
higher ideas of life, for their prayers, for their sacrifices, and for their endless patience, they are
"Heaven on Earth" for me. And I will also dedicate this to all the Respected Teachers that gave
sound Knowledge and trained me to face the challenges of projects.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All admirations to almighty ALLAH, the creator of infinite kingdom. The most beneficent and
the most merciful, bestowed us the prophet of mercy Muhammad (PBUH) for our spiritual
guidance and general amelioration.

We would like to express our heartiest feelings, appreciations to our respected supervisor for his
sensible guidance, professional cooperation and caring attitude. Due to his generous support
and coaching we have been able to finish the project successfully and it is a privilege to
acknowledge his guidance.

We are also very thankful to all the teachers of the Civil Technology Department.

We would like to extend sincere thanks to our family, friends and colleagues for their
support and encouragement that we received from.

.
ABSTRACT

In this research work, Effect on compressive strength of concrete by replacing different quantity
of cement with fly ash and recycled bricks with aggregate will be studied. In this study the
properties of concrete will be studied by adding fly ash and recycled bricks as by-products. This
study includes detail description about properties of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and
industrial by-products.
CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURE ........................................................................................................................xii
LIST OF TABLE......................................................................................................................... xiv
CHAPTER - 1 ................................................................................................................................ 1
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Objective and scope of work ................................................................................................... 3
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCHE ........................................................................................ 3
1.4 THESIS OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................. 3
CHAPTER - 2 ................................................................................................................................ 5
LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER-3 ................................................................................................................................ 15
CONCRETE ................................................................................................................................. 15
3.1. CONCRETE AS CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL .............................................................. 15
3.2. Concrete Constitute .............................................................................................................. 15
3.2.1 Cement ............................................................................................................................. 15
3.2.2 Aggregate ......................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.2.1 Classification of Aggregates ..................................................................................... 15
3.2.2.2 Fine Aggregate .......................................................................................................... 16
3.2.2.3 Coarse Aggregate ...................................................................................................... 16
3.2.3 Water................................................................................................................................ 17
3.3 Properties of Concrete ............................................................................................................ 17
3.3.1 Fresh Concrete ................................................................................................................. 17
3.3.1.2 Segregation and Bleeding ......................................................................................... 18
3.3.1.3 Curing........................................................................................................................ 18
3.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete ........................................................................................... 19
3.4.1 Strength ............................................................................................................................ 19
3.4.2 Modulus of Elasticity....................................................................................................... 20
3.4.3 Durability ......................................................................................................................... 20
3.4.4 Expansion and Shrinkage ................................................................................................ 20
3.4.5 Creep ................................................................................................................................ 20
3.5 Compressive Strength of Concrete ......................................................................................... 21
3.6 Significance ........................................................................................................................... 21
3.7 Determination Of Compressive Strength ............................................................................... 21
3.8 Factor effecting Compressive Strength .................................................................................. 22
3.9 Water / Cement Ratio ............................................................................................................. 22
3.10 Air Entrained ........................................................................................................................ 23
3.11 Cement Type ........................................................................................................................ 23
3.12 Aggregate ............................................................................................................................. 23
3.13 Mixing Water ....................................................................................................................... 24
3.14 Admixture............................................................................................................................. 24
3.15 Temperature.......................................................................................................................... 24
3.16 Curing Condition .................................................................................................................. 24
3.17 Hydration of Port Land Cement ........................................................................................... 25
3.18 Testing & Specimen Parameters .......................................................................................... 25
3.19 Effects of specimen .............................................................................................................. 25
3.20 Effects of specimen shape .................................................................................................... 26
3.21 Effect of Age ........................................................................................................................ 26
3.22 Cement.................................................................................................................................. 26
3.24 Chemical Composition of cement ........................................................................................ 27
3.25 Types of Cement .................................................................................................................. 28
3.25.1 Other Special Cement .................................................................................................... 28
3.26 Properties of slandered Test for Port land Cement ............................................................... 29
3.26.1 Chemical Test ................................................................................................................ 29
3.26.2 Physical Test .................................................................................................................. 30
CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................................. 31
WASTE MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL BY PRODUCT ................................................... 31
4.1 ADVERSE EFFECTS OF USING CEMENT ....................................................................... 31
4.1.1 Environmental issues ....................................................................................................... 31
4.1.1.1Metals & their compound .......................................................................................... 31
4.1.2 Economic issue ................................................................................................................ 31
4.1.2.1 Energy Consumption................................................................................................. 31
4.1.2.2 Fuel Consumption ..................................................................................................... 32
4.1.2.3 Waste And Recycle Materials ................................................................................... 32
4.1.2.4 Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag(GGBS) ....................................................... 32
4.1.2.5 Meta Kaolin (MK) .................................................................................................... 32
4.1.2.6 Recycle Waste Plastic ............................................................................................... 33
4.1.2.7 Scrap Tires ................................................................................................................ 33
4.1.2.8 Fly Ash (FA) ........................................................................................................... 33
4.1.2.9 Rich Husk Ash (RHA) ............................................................................................. 33
4.1.2.10 Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) ....................................................................................... 34
4.1.2.11 Paper pulp ............................................................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................................. 35
FLY ASH ..................................................................................................................................... 35
5.1 Modern Technology Rooted in Ancient Art: ......................................................................... 37
5.2 Production .............................................................................................................................. 37
5.2.1 Handling: ......................................................................................................................... 38
5.3 Structure Of Fly Ash: ............................................................................................................. 38
5.4 Chemical Composition: .......................................................................................................... 40
5.4.1 Quality of Fly Ash ........................................................................................................... 40
5.4.2 LOI................................................................................................................................... 40
5.4.3 Fineness ......................................................................................................................... 422
5.5 Chemical Composition ......................................................................................................... 422
5.5.1 Uniformity ..................................................................................................................... 422
5.5.2 Pozzolanic Reaction....................................................................................................... 422
5.6 Disposal and Market source ................................................................................................. 433
5.6.1 Fly Ash Reuse ................................................................................................................ 433
5.6.2 Portland Cement replacment: ........................................................................................ 444
5.6.3 Embankment: ................................................................................................................. 455
5.6.4 Soil Stabilization:........................................................................................................... 455
5.6.5 Flow able Fill ................................................................................................................ 466
5.6.6 Asphalt Concrete ........................................................................................................... 466
5.6.7 Geo polymer: ................................................................................................................. 477
5.6.8 Roller Compact Concrete: ............................................................................................. 477
5.7 Bricks: .................................................................................................................................. 477
5.7.1 COMPOSITION: ............................................................................................................. 48
5.7.2 MANUFACTURE: .......................................................................................................... 48
5.7.3 COMPARISON OF CLAY BRICKS AND FLY ASH BRICKS: .................................. 49
5.7.3.1 Metal Matrix Composites: ........................................................................................ 49
5.7.3.2 Waste Treatment and Stabilization: .......................................................................... 50
5.7.3.3 As A Catalyst: ......................................................................................................... 500
CHAPTER-6 .............................................................................................................................. 511
EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE .................................................. 511
6.1 Quality Concrete: ................................................................................................................. 511
6.2 Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Durability and Strength: .................................................. 511
6.3 Fly Ash Contributes to Workability: ................................................................................... 522
6.4 Fly Ash Protect Concrete: .................................................................................................... 533
6.5 Fly Ash Reduce Heat Of Hydration In Concrete: ................................................................ 544
6.6 Reduce Water demand: ........................................................................................................ 544
6.7 Greater Consolidation: ......................................................................................................... 555
6.8 Paste Volume Increase: ........................................................................................................ 555
6.9 Economical Mixture: ............................................................................................................ 566
6.10 Fly Ash Check List for workability: ................................................................................... 566
6.10.1 Workability: ................................................................................................................. 566
6.10.2 Ease to Pumping: ......................................................................................................... 566
6.10.3 Improve Finishing:....................................................................................................... 566
6.10.4 Reduce Bleeding .......................................................................................................... 566
6.10.5 Reduce Segregation ..................................................................................................... 566
6.7 Environmental Problems ........................................................................................................ 57
6.7.1 Present Production Rate Of Fly Ash ................................................................................ 57
6.7.2 Ground Water Contamination.......................................................................................... 57
6.7.3 Spills Of Bulk Storage ..................................................................................................... 57
6.8 Contaminants .......................................................................................................................... 58
6.9 Fly Ash Drawback .............................................................................................................. 58
6.10 Fly Ash Benefits ................................................................................................................... 59
CHAPTER-7 .............................................................................................................................. 600
RECYCLED BRICKS ............................................................................................................... 600
7.1 Bricks.................................................................................................................................... 600
7.2 Types of Bricks – Their Properties and Uses: ...................................................................... 600
Based on the manufacturing process, bricks are broadly classified into two types, 1. Sun-
Dried or un-burnt bricks 2. Burnt bricks ................................................................................ 600
7.2.1 Sun-Dried or Un-burnt Bricks ....................................................................................... 600
................................................................................................................................................ 600
7.2.2 Burnt Bricks ................................................................................................................... 611
Burnt bricks are good quality bricks but however they also consist some defected bricks. So,
burnt bricks are classified into four types and they are... ....................................................... 611
7.2.2.1 First Class Bricks .................................................................................................... 611
7.2.2.2 Second Class Bricks ................................................................................................ 611
7.2.2.3 Third Class Bricks ................................................................................................... 622
7.2.2.4 Over Burnt Brick ..................................................................................................... 622
7.3 Recycled Bricks ...................................................................................................................... 63
7.3.1 Recycled Reds - B Grade ................................................................................................. 63
7.3.2 Recycled Clinkers ............................................................................................................ 64
7.3.3 Handmade Hawthorns ..................................................................................................... 64
.................................................................................................................................................. 64
7.3.4 Mixed Wirecuts: .............................................................................................................. 65
7.3.5 Mixed Solids: ................................................................................................................... 65
7.3.6 Recycled Creams: ............................................................................................................ 65
7.4 Identification of Bricks Quality at Construction Site: ............................................................ 66
To build a good quality structure, observing quality of materials is important. Here we discuss
about how good bricks are identified at construction site. ....................................................... 66
7.5 Properties of recycled Bricks: ................................................................................................ 67
Following are the properties of bricks which represents the importance of bricks in
construction. i. Hardness ii. Compressive strength iii. Absorption .......................................... 67
7.5.1 Hardness of recycled Bricks: ........................................................................................... 68
7.5.2 Compressive strength of recycled Bricks ........................................................................ 68
7.5.3 Absorption of recycled Bricks: ........................................................................................ 68
7.6 Effloresce of recycled Bricks: ................................................................................................ 69
We know that efflorescence is a fine, white, powdery deposit of water-soluble salts left on the
surface of masonry as the water evaporates. These efflorescent salt deposits tend to appear at
the worst times, usually about a month after the building is constructed, and sometimes as
long as a year after completion. Effloresce of recycled bricked is very slightly. ..................... 69
7.7 Sizes of recycled Bricks: ........................................................................................................ 69
The size of recycled bricks is (240*115*75)mm ...................................................................... 69
7.8 Uses of Different Types of recycled Bricks ........................................................................... 69
7.9 Type of Test On recycled Bricks:........................................................................................... 69
7.9.1 Types of Tests On Bricks for Construction Purpose: .................................................... 690
7.9.1.1 Absorption Test on Bricks ...................................................................................... 690
................................................................................................................................................ 690
7.9.1.2 Crushing Strength or Compressive Strength Test on Bricks .................................. 691
7.9.1.3 Hardness Test on Bricks ......................................................................................... 701
7.9.1.4 Shape and Size Test on Bricks ................................................................................ 701
7.9.1.5 Color Test of Bricks: ............................................................................................... 712
7.9.1.6 Soundness Test of Bricks: ....................................................................................... 712
7.9.1.7 Structure of Bricks ................................................................................................. 723
CHAPTER-8 ................................................................................................................................ 74
CONCLUSION AND RECMMONDATION.............................................................................. 74
Conclusions .................................................................................................................................. 74
Recommendation .......................................................................................................................... 75
References .................................................................................................................................... 76
...................................................................................................................................................... 77
...................................................................................................................................................... 78
LIST OF FIGURE

Fig 3.1 Close up of fine Aggregate (Sand) ................................................................................... 16


Fig 3.2 Close up of Coarse Aggregate ......................................................................................... 16
Fig 3.3 Segregation and Bleeding of Concrete ............................................................................. 18
Fig 3.4 Relationship b/w moist curing time and strength gain of concrete .................................. 19
Fig 3.5 Relationship Between Stress and Strain ........................................................................... 21
Fig 3.6 Compression Testing Machine......................................................................................... 22
Fig 3.7 Water Cement Ratio ......................................................................................................... 23
Fig 3.8 Cement Manufacturing Process ....................................................................................... 27
Fig 5.1 Method of Fly Ash Transfer............................................................................................. 35
Fig 5.2 Photomicrograph made with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and back-scatter
detector: cross section of fly ash particles at 750x magnification. ............................................... 39
Fig 5.6 The upper reservoir of Ameren's Taum Sauk Hydroelectric Plant was constructed of
roller-compacted concrete that included fly ash from one of Ameren's coal plants. .......................
.................................................................................................................................................... 497
Fig 6.1 Microscopic view of Fly Ash ......................................................................................... 533
Fig 6.2 Typical VEBE Time vs Slump....................................................................................... 555
Fig 7.1 Fig Sun-Dried or Un-burnt Bricks ......................................................................................... 600
Fig 7.2 First Class Bricks ..................................................................................................................... 611
Fig 7.3 Second Class Bricks ................................................................................................................ 622
Fig 7.4 Third Class Bricks ................................................................................................................... 622
Fig 7.5 Over Burnt bricks ...................................................................................................................... 63
Fig 7.6 B- Grade Recycled Bricks ........................................................................................................ 63
Fig 7.7 Recycled Clinker........................................................................................................................ 64
Fig 7.8 Handmade Hawthorns ............................................................................................................... 64
Fig 7.9 Mixed Wirecuts .......................................................................................................................... 65
Fig 7.10 Mixed Solid .............................................................................................................................. 65
Fig 7.11 Recycled Creams ..................................................................................................................... 66
Fig 7.12 Influence of Using Crushed Bricks on compressive strength ............................................ 68
Fig 7.13 Absorption of recycled Bricks ............................................................................................... 69
Fig 7.14 Absorption of recycled Bricks ............................................................................................... 69
Fig 7.15 Absorption Test on Bricks .................................................................................................... 690
Fig 7.16 Crushing Strength or Compressive Strength Test on Bricks ........................................... 701
Fig 7.17 Hardness Test on Bricks ....................................................................................................... 701
Fig 7.18 Shape and Size Test on Bricks ............................................................................................. 712
Fig 7.19 Color Test of Bricks .............................................................................................................. 712
Fig 7.20 Soundness Test of Bricks ..................................................................................................... 713
Fig 7.21 Structure of Bricks ................................................................................................................. 723
LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1 Description of Workability and Compacting Factor. ................................................... 18


Table 3.2 Main Type of Port land Cement ................................................................................... 29
Table 5.1 2001 Fly ash production and use. ................................................................................. 37
Table 5.2 Fly ash uses. ................................................................................................................. 37
Table 7.1 Compressive strength of recycled Bricks ..................................................................... 67
CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION
STUDY THE USE OF WASTE MATERIAL/ BY-PORODUCT IN
CONCRETE (REVIEW STUDY)
1.1. GENERAL

Concrete is the most common used in construction industry that it why whenever word
"Construction" it used it refers "Concrete" mostly. Concrete is produced worldwide in large
quantity and its production is 1.5 to 3 ton per capita per year. Hence, concrete production will
improve the construction industry that will lead to industrial development of any country. The
reason for such a high demand of concrete is it ability to with stand compressive strength and its
versatility to be used in any required shape.

For the preparation of concrete commonly used materials are cement, sand , aggregate and
water. Cement is a basic ingredient of concrete and is used as a binding material. When water is
added in the cement hydration of cement takes place the developed the strength in concrete.
Production of cement is a costly process because it consumes large power, also result in
generation of harmful gases that cause environmental pollution. For producing 1 ton of port land
cement about 1.5 tons of raw materials is required and it release 1 tons of carbon oxide in
atmosphere that is the basic reason of environmental pollution.

Because of high cost of environmental issues Govt. and other authorities are working on
different raw materials to obtain a materials that is less costly and can be used as cement
replacing materials. Researchers and scientific have work on different materials and their
quantities to obtain materials having quantizes of cement that can produced concrete of desired
quantities. They have determined the effects of different proportion of components on the
cement and also the effects of various materials as cement replacement and their properties of
concrete. Some raw materials such as fly ash, Rich husk and silica fumes are used in industry to
get a concrete which is less expensive and environmental friendly.

The use of fly ash in concrete has increased worldwide in the past few years, which indicates a
greater acceptance of it as a mineral admixture for port land cement concrete. Berry, EE &
Molhotra V.M (1980) showed that fly ash can be used as a component of port land cement
concrete, either as an admixture with the cement or as a replacement for 15 to 50 % of the port
land cement. Cassasquiol R.L snow G.P (1987) showed that low calcium fly ashes are type 'F'
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pozzolans and have shown excellent strength and durability. High calcium fly ashes are type C
due to their self hardening properties and have been increase finding application in all types of
concrete. High strength concrete in particular have been found to benefit from incorporation of
fly ash.

In this study the strength development of fly ash concrete with fly ash contents 20% and 35% as
a part of cement replacement in concrete , is examined. Although permeability of concrete and
porosity are indirectly associate with strength of concrete, yet it is affected by numerous variable
including interconnected voids space.

Deterioration due to sulfate attack occur when sulfate react with the aluminates in the cement.
The calcium sulfoaluminate, which result yields a greater volume, causing expansion and
deterioration.

With fly ash in the mixture, silica in the fly ash reacts with lime liberated during the hydration
of cement to form calcium silicate hydrate and also reduce the amount of calcium aluminates in
the cementations matrix.

Because the cost of fly ash in generally less then cement often one third to one half the price of
cement, concrete mixture are less costly even when greater quantizes of fly ash are used then the
cement, which they replace.

Volume change, or drying shrinkage, is basically a function of the volume of paste, the water
cement ratio, and the type of aggregate. However, if the water content is reduce as a result of use
of fly ash, shrinkage appears to be slightly reduced.

The reaction of cement in concrete of exothermic, i.e. liberating heat and resulting in a
temperature rise. The amount and rate of heat generation depends on the chemical and physical
of the cement and the amount of use of concrete. Use of fly ash generally reduce the amount of
cement in the concrete mixture and consequently, reduce both the amount and rate of
temperature.

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1.2 Objective and scope of work

1. To study the comparison between compressive strength of fly ash mix concrete and
concrete without fly ash to give final results.
2. Study the optimum value of fly ash & recycled bricks to increase the compressive
strength objective.
3. Study of Waste materials used in different project like waste fly ash and recycled bricks.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCHE

For the economic development of any country construction industries plays in important role.
Concrete is a considered as the back bone of the construction and has the major role for the
development of the infrastructure. During this periods of time our country is taken major step
for the development of infrastructure and for fulfilling this aim a huge amount of concrete is
required. Concrete is the made of about 20% cement, 25% fine aggregates, 45% coarse
aggregates and 10% water. Cement is the most important and expensive component of concrete
and it make construction process is a costly process. Also it requires a large consumption of
energy and is a big source of environment pollution. Almost 0.8 to 0.9 kg of co2 emits during 1
kg production of cement that is the major reason of environment pollution.

Out of total production of cement in the world of 60% cement is produce in Asia but the
contributions of Pakistan is very small. In Asia almost 900 million metric tons of cement is
produce annually and the production of cement in Pakistan is only 18 million tons. Also
problems of power generation is increase in our country day by day. So for the development of
progress of our infrastructure and construction we must need a suitable waste material as cement
replacement that can minimum construction cost.

Fly ash and Recycled Bricks waste material and one of the big reason of environment problem.
Hence by using the fly ash and recycled bricks powder as cement replacement material will not
only play important in the development of the country by reducing the cost of construction but
also it will be a major step for solving the problems of environment pollution that the whole
world is facing now a day.

1.4 THESIS OVERVIEW

Basic properties of cement and fly ash and recycled bricks in second chapter "Literature
Review". Also the reasons for the using of Fly Ash and Recycled Bricks and its advantages and
disadvantages in the same chapter. This chapter also include the details of other Fly Ash
3
Recycled Bricks used previously and compressive strength of concrete. In third chapter .
"Methodology and Experimentation " the explanation of all the test performed on the material is
given. Also the method adopted for the preparation of mixture along with method of curing are
discussed there. Tests performed on concrete specimen are also explained in third chapter.
Results of all the test performed on materials and concrete specimen i.e workability test, Bulk
Density and compressive strength test are given in chapter Four "Results and Discussion "
Chapter No. Five contain "Conclusion and Recommendation".

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CHAPTER - 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The use of concrete cannot be overemphasized in civil engineering structures such as building,
pavement, bridge, etc. Concrete curing enhances strength of concrete. It is the process by
which concrete element remain in contact with water for a period of time. The need of curing is
that hydration of cement which can take place only in water filled capillaries. Hydration is
indication to strength development in concrete. This is why proper strength developments need
complete prevention of loss of water from fresh concrete and entrance of water into the
concrete. Neville (2000) also states about Curing as techniques used for supporting the
hydration of cement, and consists of temperature control and moisture transfer, from and into,
the concrete. Apart from hardening, curing also minimizes shrinkage and cracking of concrete.

M.Swaroopa Rani states that the specific gravity and fineness modulus, bulk density (at both the
states) and pH value of crushed spent fire brick are nearly equal to that of river sand. Hence,
sand can be suitably replaced by crushed spent fire brick. By varying the crushed spent fire brick
content from10% to 40%, the optimum quantity of crushed spent fire brick is found to be 30%
of sand by weight based on 7 days compression test. High early strengths are observed due to
replacement of sand by optimum % of crushed spent fire brick. After experimental investigation
it can be concluded that sand can be replaced through crushed fire brick. It is also economical
and efficient. The compressive strength has shown marginal increase to that of concrete with
the river sand at the age of 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days when water cured. The increase in 7
days, 14 days and 28 days compressive strength is 14.10 %, 10.51% and 1.73% respectively.
The method of curing has effect on the strength of concrete. Water cured concrete mixes showed
better results compared to self-cured concrete. The compressive strength of self-cured concrete
have shown lower values compared to water cured concrete (both with replacement of sand by
optimum % of crushed spent fire brick) at the age of 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. 9. The
decrease in 7days, 14 days and 28 days compressive strength is 35.80 %, 23.18 % and 26.02 %
respectively.

Nyiutsa Samson Apebo conducted experimental investigation on effects of water to cement ratio
of over burnt bricks and gravel. Trial concrete mixtures were casted using the over burnt bricks
in crushed form as aggregate replacement, it is set as control mix, mixture of crushed over burnt
bricks as replacement of aggregate and gravel and gravel as coarse aggregates only (it is taken
as control mix) at water to cement ratios of 0.4, 0.5,0.55 and 0.6. Cubes of concrete were casted

5
and tests are performed to check compressive strength at different water to cement ratio. The
investigation results showed that the concrete using over burnt bricks as aggregates can be
characterized as light weight concrete (medium) and its density varies from 2000 kg/m3 to 2200
kg/m3 and that by falling the water to cement ratio from 0.6 to 0.4 raises the compressive
strength greater than 30%. Use of over burnt bricks in crushed form as coarse aggregate for
structural concrete is suggested when natural aggregate is not accessible so easily, very high
performance of concrete is not essential and the load bearing capacity of the soil is small.

The investigation of Fadia S. Kallak reported in his paper that possibility of using crushed bricks
to replace the gravel in concrete. Two types of concrete mix are casted. The first mix is 1:2:4
with gravel only and is used as a reference mixture (control mix) .The second mix is made of
different percentages of crushed bricks (by weight of the gravel as coarse aggregate). A total of
30 numbers of concrete specimens were prepared with and without crushed bricks, compression
and split tensile tests are performed .Test results shown that using crushed bricks decreases the
strength of concrete. And water demand for a designed slump is increased.

Neville (2000) reported that to achieve ultimate high strength of concrete(at 90 days), moist
curing for 28 days is very benefical. .

Ali H. Hameed Diyala (2009) concluded that a higher drop in concrete strength is observed for
high performance concrete as compared to ordinary Portland cement concrete and the small
samples of concrete are more affected by typical air curing technique than large samples of
concrete. Since the variance in the compressive strength between the two groups of concrete is
minor, hence water adding techniques for early 7 days after concrete pouring is adequate to
advance of targeted strength (compression and tensile).

From the study of K Praveen, Dhanya Sathyan, K M Mini it is observed that the quality of
concrete can be improved by conducting proper quality check for brick aggregate. The optimum
percentage of micro-silica as a replacement of cement is 10% for M30 concrete. There is an
increase in mechanical properties of concrete when micro silica is added because of its high
pozzolanic nature to form calcium silicate hydrate. It can also act as a grout material which
upturns density of the concrete and improves its durability. Hence the use of waste over burnt
bricks along with micro-silica promises a sustainable way of construction by reducing the
excess use of naturally available coarse aggregate and cement.

Apebo, N. S. conducted research to study the appropriateness of crushed over burnt bricks as
alternative coarse aggregates for concrete casting. Physical properties of crushed over burnt

6
bricks as aggregate is found out through different tests. The test results of aggregate crushing
value, impact value and water absorption are 22.8%, 28.2% and 4.4% respectively. The concrete
mixes were casted using crushed over burnt bricks as coarse aggregates at varying water to
cement ratios as 0.40, 0.50, 0.55 and 0.60. Cubes of concrete were prepared and tested to study
the compressive strength. The results were matched with concrete made with gravel as a coarse
aggregate.

The results indicate that over burnt brick concrete is medium light weight concrete when bricks
are used in crushed form. Densities are compared, crushed over burnt concrete have density
value varies between 2000kg/m3 to 2200 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 29.5 N/mm2,
while simple concrete have density between 2300-2400 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 30.8
N/mm2. It can be determined that by dropping the water to cement ratio from 0.60 to 0.40, the
compressive strength of crushed over burnt brick concrete and gravel concrete rise by more than
30%. Use of over burnt bricks in crushed form as coarse aggregate for structural concrete is
suggested when natural aggregate is not effortlessly obtainable, high strength of concrete is not
essential and the bearing capacity of the soil is low.

According to the investigation of Gaurav Kumar the effect of replacing clay bricks in concrete
as an aggregate. Clay bricks were collected from the debris of a demolished structure. Bricks
were collected and broken bricks were hand crushed and sieved. Nominal size was taken as
40mm (1.5”). Aggregates passing through 40mm (1.5”) sieve and retaining on 20mm (3/4”)
sieve were separated.

A Nominal mix of 1:1.5:3 was selected for test and 50% replacement of aggregates with crushed
clay bricks was done by volume. 6 cubes were casted with 50% replacement of aggregate, 6
more cubes were casted with no replacement of aggregates the cement content and the mix ratio
similar. The compressive strength of the all cubes was tested. The age of cubes at time of test
was 3, 7 and re28 days respectively. The effect of replacement is determined by comparing the
compressive strength of concrete with replacement and without replacement. Densities of both
types of concrete were also compared. The compressive strength of concrete with crushed bricks
was found to be lower in early ages, but with the passage of time, the development of strength
gain increased and compressive strength of concrete with replacement was greater than concrete
with no replacement.

In research of Anisur Rahman Mazumder the properties of over burnt bricks are compared
with normal bricks.it was concluded that over burnt brick are much stronger, less absorptive,
and denser in common than the normal bricks. Therefore, these bricks can be suitably and
7
economically used as highway pavement coarse aggregates. Manufacturers of bricks should
produce over burnt bricks in adequate numbers under controlled conditions.

Siddamreddy studied feasibility of fly ash as cement replacement. He concluded that


consistency of cement depends upon its fineness. Fineness of fly ash is greater than cement;
consistency of fly ash concrete is greater for increasing quantity of fly ash as cement
replacement. The normal consistency escalates about 40%, when fly ash percentage increases
from 0% to 20% and workability was also greater than before. The average 7 and 28-day
compressive strength have been attained in the range of 20 % fly ash replacement. Increase in
split tensile strength is noted beyond 20 % fly ash replacement. Fly ash concrete has noticeable
effect on the flexural strength than the split tensile strength. When compared to other designed
mix, the loss in weight percentage was found to be reduced by 3.99 to 2.84. And compressive
strength was reduced when the cement was replaced by 0% to 20% of fly ash.

P. R. Wankhede, V. A. Fulari concluded by studying the effect of fly ash on compressive


strength of concrete with mix proportion of M25 .It was concluded that by increasing the water
to cement ratio of concrete, the slump value increases. For w/c ratio 0.35 deprived of any
admixtures, slump cannot be noted by slump cone test as it is very less. The compressive
strength of concrete show reducing trend with increase in water to cement ratio of concrete.
Value of slump for concrete goes on increasing with increasing quantity of fly ash. Concrete
with 10% and 20% replacement of fly ash with cement achieved greater strength at 28 days than
normal mix concrete. While 30% replacement of cement with fly ash reduces ultimate
compressive strength of concrete.

According to Rahul Bansal, Varinder Singh and Ravi Kant Pareek substituting percentage of fly
ash with cement decrease the compressive strength. It is checked at the age of 7 and 28 days. It
was observed with replacement of 20% fly ash concrete compressive strength was improved by
7% and 11% than normal concrete cubes. It was observed that with 30% replacement of fly ash,
increase in compressive strength is 23% and 25% at 7 and 28 days of curing. It was seen that as
age of concrete increases the compressive strength also increased for fly ash replaced concrete.

Sarath Chandra Kumar studied the utilization of fly ash in concrete as partial replacement of
cement. Because it is gaining enormous importance today due to improved durability and
environmental benefits (landfills problems and greenhouse effect). The consistency of fly ash
has improved a lot due to technological betterment in thermal power plants and collection of fly
ash. This research study has been performed on concrete mixes at 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%
replacement of cement. In this work the effect of fly ash on properties of concrete is studied. For
8
this purpose workability, setting time, density, air content, and compressive strength, modulus
of elasticity, shrinkage and permeability by Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT) are
planned.

It can be seen from experiments of S L Pati1, J N Kale, S Suman that rate of strength
development at no replacement of fly ash in cement give maximum result at 60 days and
becomes constant afterwards. 5% replacement of fly ash has maximum rate of compressive
strength growth up to the age of 21 days and then afterwards its rate declines. Strength
improvement afterwards is insignificant. At 10% replacement of fly ash, the rate of compressive
strength development is achieved at 21 days and then afterwards rate becomes slight for few
days, after 28 days it upturns uniformly. Its final strength development is also extreme than any
other fly ash blends. After 90 days of storage the concretes comprising 10 % of fly ash, related
to cement mass, gained a compressive strength about 6 % higher than the simple concrete( using
ordinary Portland cement). For fly ash concrete (having greater than 10% replacement), the rates
of strength development as well as ultimate strengths both decrease. Concrete with higher
percentage of fly ash attained lesser ultimate strength than normal concrete mix.

Adam M. Neville, [1984] said that strength is not only important properties of concrete but it is
a vital properties, regardless of the strength level required. Suitable their role and influence. Fly
ash is no exception use of suitable fly ash can lead to high strength at the desired age.

Babu & Rao [1993], stated that use the pozzolaic minerals admixture like fly ash is well
accepted in recent years, not only because of the resulting economy through the saving of
cement, but also due to the fact that if well designed, can produced highly durable materials.
One of the important application of fly ash concrete could be in mass concrete works like in
dam, where heat of hydration is a problem to contend with. Of the many other promising
application concrete for roads and pavement may also be of significance. However, there have
been doubts express regarding is potential as a structure construction materials due to low early
age strength reported for the fly ash concrete.

Berry and Malhotra [1980], said that the inclusion of fly ash in concrete mixes affects all aspects
of concrete properties. As a part of composite that forms the concrete mass, fly ash has a role in
part as fine aggregate and in part as cementations component. It influences the durability in
service of concrete structure i.e. its resistance to weathering and attacks by aggressive
environments.

9
They further emphasize that the small size and essentially the spherical form of the particles
comprising fly ash usually influence the rheological properties of cement pastes, causing a
reduction in the amount of water required for a given degree of workability from that required
for an equivalent paste without fly ash. In this respect, fly ash differs from other pozzolans
which usually increase the water requirement of concrete mixes. In line with the improved
plastic properties and as a result of the fine particulate content, fly ash in concrete gives a very
marked improvement in finish when it is used as a replacement for either sand or cement.
Effects such as these make fly ash particularizes valuable in lean mixes and in concrete made
with aggregate deficient in fines.

Can- asquillo and snow [1987] reported that for mixture proportion with or without fly ash
mortat-bar expansion increase as the alkali content of the cement increases. The replacement of
the portion of cement with fly ash effectively reduces the expansion in mortar bar caused by
alkali-aggregate reaction, regardless of aggregate reactivity and the chemical composition of the
cement, providing and adequate replacement with fly ash is used. The Available alkali-
aggregate reaction in concrete. In general, for similar mixture proportions, mortar-bar expansion
increases as the alkali content of the fly ash increases.

Cook [1987] also state that the pore structure of fly ash blends becomes relatively discontinuous
after approximately 28 days of curing. The continuous the nature of pores in ordinary port land
cement pastes, however, persists with age.

Dan Ravina [1986], stated that the expansion in fresh mortar mix is affected by the inclusion of
fly ash in concrete the larger the cement replacement percentage increased amount of fly ash in
the mix, the higher the expansion values and the longer its duration. However, the affect on the
fly ash on plastic shrinkage during dry has no clears trends, as it is governed both by the
preceding expansion and shrinkage under constant environmental condition are influenced by
the specific chemical composition and physical properties of the fly ash and the cement used.

Dunstan [1976] reported that lignite and sub-bituminous fly ash concretes generally exhibited
reduced resistance to sulphate attack. The basic postulates of Dunstan's thesis is that Cao &
Fe2o3 in fly ash are the main contributors to the resists of susceptibility of fly ash concrete to
sulphate. He further extended that, as the calcium oxide content of ash increases above a lower
limit of 5 % or as a ferric oxide content decrease is reduced. To select potentially sulphate
resistance fly ash or more important fly ash that can improve the sulphate resistance of concrete,
Dunstan proposed the use of a resistance factor R.

10
E.A. Absun-Nur [1984], said in the real world of modern concrete, fly is as essential an
ingredient of the mixture as are port land cement, aggregates, water and chemical admixtures. In
most concretes, i used it in larger amounts (by volumes) then port land cement, and therefore it
is not an admixture, i.e. an addition to the admixture. Concrete without fly ash and chemical
admixture should be only found in museum showcase.

Faebiarz & Carrasquillo [1987], suggested that the addition of fly ash could effectively reduce
alkali-aggregates expansion. Nevertheless, for fly ash with > 1,5 % alkali content there is a
pessimism limit for the percentage of the fly ash below which no beneficial effect can be
achieved. This limit is inherent to each particular fly ash.

Glasser [1987], concluded that the major influence of fly ash incorporation does not necessarily
result from chemical reaction but rather derives from physic-chemical effects. Fly ash inclusion
may have a significant effects on the size distribution and structure of the individual floes
present in fresh cement pastes. The change floes structure is ordinary carried over into changes
in the primary structure of the hardened paste, especially it pore size distribution and
permeability.

Hedegaard & Hansen acknowledged that the cementing efficiency factor of the fly ash with
respect to water permeability is approximately 0.3 and is independent of the type of cement and
curing time m practical term this means that 1 kg of cement would have to be replace by
approximately 3 kg of fly ash in order to maintain the same water tightness of the hardened fly
ash concrete. Thus, addition of fly ash is not likely to improve the water tightness of concrete.

Hobbs [1982], said that the partial replacement of high-alkali cement by fly ash reduce the long
term expansion due to alkali-silica reaction but, when 30 or 40 % of the cement is replaced,
most of the blended cement mart or cracks at earlier

Ages as the port land cement mortars. The effectiveness of the fly ash in reducing the long term
expansion varies widely. It suggested that the effectiveness of the fly ash may be dependent
upon their alkali content or fineness.

Kovacs [1975], showed that fly ash used as a replacement for port land cement has an indirect
influence on the compendious components produced during hydration and the physical
properties that influence the resistance of concrete to chemical action and its permeability. At
early ages, fly ash serves only as an inert component. At larges ages, it contributes to the
formation of cementations components. it converts some of the calcium hydroxide which is
produced when cement hydrates, to less reactive calcium silicates and aluminates through the
11
pozzolanic reaction. This process leads to long term again in water tightness, strength, and
resistance to aggressive environment.

Massazza [ 1991], reminds that natural pozzolanic and fly ash hydrate later and at a slower rate
then cement clinker. Thus, the CSH precipitates with in an already rigid structure and is
deposited in the capillary pores, which are previously form hydration of the clinker fraction. The
mass precipitating in the pores is unable to fill the larger pores completely but the amount is
sufficient to abs truck and even block the smaller capillaries connecting the larger pores or at
least reducing their opening considerably.

Mather [1982], reported festiveness of various pozzolans in reducing sul phate expansion from
best to worst, as follower: condensed silica fume, volcanic glass, sub bituminous fly ash,
bituminous fly ash and lignite fly ash. He suggested that a pozzolanic of high fineness, high
silica content and highly amorphous silica is the most effective for reducing expansion due to
sulphate attack on mortar made non-sul-phate resistance cement.

It might be added that the ranking of sub-bituminous ashes as better than the one bituminous ash
examined is in direct contradiction with the finding of Dunstan- clearly the influence of fly ash
on the sulphate resistance of concrete is not completely understood, and mush more research is
needed to stabilized guidelines on the important aspect of concrete durability.

Nasser & Lohtia [1971], and Nasser & Marzouk [1979], stated that the incorporation of fly ash
appears not to influence the behaviors of concrete at elevated temperature. Lose of strength and
changes in other structural properties occur at approximately the same temperature for both
types of concrete.

Malhotra & Ramzanianpour [1994], stated that ta early ages, fly ash concrete behaves as a lean
mixture concrete and is thus permeable. At larges ages permeability is reduced as a result of the
reaction of the fly ash. They further emphasized that the air permeability of blended cement
mortars is greater than that of port land cement mortars but it can be reduced by extending the
early moisture curing.

Naik [1992], stated that the abrasion resistance of concrete containing <30% fly ash was similar
to that of the control concrete. However, abrasion resistance of concrete containing >40% fly
ash was lower than that of control concrete without fly ash.

Regourd [1987], presented the same view that even if the total porosity of blended cement is
similar to that of port land cement, the pore size distribution are pore structure are different.

12
When minerals additives react there is a trend to form the fineness pores and discontinuous
pores subtitled.

Swamy [1990], said that fly ash concrete is inherently resistance to sul phate and marine
environment because of the reduction of the free lime and reactive alumina. However, the role
of the pore refinement of the ash needed to be emphasized fly ash concrete having a
water/cementations ratio 0/3 to 0.45 and adequately cured for a sufficient periods of time, are
unlikely to show depth of carbonation large enough to affect the steel reinforcement. He added
that both class F & class C fly ash are effective in controlling the penetration of chloride ions,
and that whilst some ashes are better than others.

Thomas & Mathew [1992], emphasize on the important of abdicate curing to achieved concrete
of low permeability, especially when the ambient the relative humidity is low, in addition, the
considerable that can be archived by the use of fly ash in concrete. They state that, even under
condition of poor curing, fly ash concrete is significantly less permeability than equal grade
OPC concrete, the difference being more marked for higher grade concrete. Attempts were made
to correlate strength parameter with permeability but it is concluded that neither the strength at
the end of the curing nor 28 days strength provides a reliable indicator of concrete permeability.

Treval C. [1968], said that a concrete mixture may be also designed from the mixture may be so
designed that when it is discharged from the mixture it is bulky and non-plastic and remains so
during handling. When so designed, it can be molded only by pressure, temperature or vibrating
and it is process it does not become plastic. Compacting and molding such a mixture involves
overcoming inertial resistance to movement of one part of the materials with respect to another
part, and thus it involves internal strain and stress.

V. Sivasundaram, Carette & Malhotra [1991],reported the performance of seven low calcium
(ASTM Class F) fly ashes in the high-volume fly ash in concrete system. The fly ash concrete
did not perform alkali either in the plastic or hardened condition. An excessive dosage of super
plasticizer used to obtain the workability delay the setting of concrete with exception, the
concrete in corpora ting fly ashes with higher fineness and higher index achieve higher
compressive strength and elasticity.

The durability properties of high volume fly ash concrete(HVFA) blends with respects sulphate
resistance and resistance to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement of concrete have been
examined, and found that (HVFA) concrete with 40% water of fly ash in its binder have

13
superior resistance to plane cement made from the general propose or low heat PLC. It sulphate
resistance is likely to be comparable or slightly better than the resistance port land cement

14
CHAPTER-3

CONCRETE

3.1. CONCRETE AS CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

Since a long time human being was trying to investigate the versatility of different materials to
achieve a materials that can be casted in plastic condition and after Harding provides a solid
rock like product. Concrete with other materials have provided the solution of the problems.
With the help of concrete now it's possible to have a structure which is strong enough, durable
as well as esthetically pleasing.

3.2. Concrete Constitute

Concrete is basically consisting of stone and sand , which when mixed together by cement gel
give a form which is strong and durable mass after hardening. The properties of concrete depend
upon the types and quantities of these material.

3.2.1 Cement

Cement is the most important component of concrete and most commonly used cement in
concrete construction is Hydraulic Cement. Cement is basically responsible for strength
development in concrete. There are different type of cement that are available in market and
there use depends upon the required properties and there use depends upon the required
properties of concrete.

3.2.2 Aggregate

Aggregate are considered as inert materials that play a major role in the production of concrete.
Almost three quarter volume of concrete is consisting of aggregates. Aggregates affect the
strength of concrete and the use of undesired aggregates may not produce the concrete having
enough strength. It also participate in the structural performance and durability of concrete.

3.2.2.1 Classification of Aggregates

According to the source from which aggregates have been obtained and the method of
production, these can be classified as natural or artificial. The aggregates which are available
naturally as a result of weathering action are known as "Natural Aggregates". Which those
obtained from crushing rocks are known as "Artificial Aggregates".
15
There are three basic source of abstaining aggregates i.e. igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks,
metamorphic rocks. It is a geologically classification but this classification doesn't play role in
suitability of their use in concrete. The quality of aggregate and its records in past is determine
to check its behaviors of concrete. ASTM C 33 provides the specific test for determination of
coarse aggregates and fine aggregates.

3.2.2.2 Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate is mostly obtained from crushed stone or natural occurring sand. The size of
particles smaller then 5mm(3/16 in )is considered as fine aggregates. [fig 2.2]

Fig 3.1 Close up of fine Aggregate (Sand)

3.2.2.3 Coarse Aggregate

The aggregate having particles size grater then 5mm (3/16 in) is consider as coarse aggregate.
Mostly this size from 9.5 mm to 37.5 mm (3/8 in to 11/2 in). It may different gravels stone in
crushed form.

Fig 3.2 Close up of Coarse Aggregate

16
3.2.3 Water

Properties of molecular structure of water affect the properties of fresh cement paste and
concrete. Water is the main component of the concrete for compaction and the hydration process
the develop the strength in concrete But excessive amount of water in concrete reduce the
strength and workability of concrete mix.

For the hydration of all the cement about 20 % water is required by weight. Water is also
essential for the workability of concrete. Almost 0.60 W/C is considered best for the good
quality of concrete.

3.3 Properties of Concrete

3.3.1 Fresh Concrete

Fresh Concrete is the concrete as plastic phase when it can be molded in any required shape.
Several tests are performed on the site on freshly mix concrete to determine its performance.
These tests are done the perform the quantity of cement, water content and grading of aggregate.
It provides the scheme to control the quality of concrete by checking its after regular intervals.
 All the tests which are performed on fresh concrete based on segregation of cement
from of other constitute of concrete. Because of apparatus required for these tests . it is
not preferable to done at small sites but for large site these tests should be perform
necessarily. The main properties of fresh mixed concrete are
 Setting time
 Workability
 Segregation
 Bleeding
 Air Entrainment
 Curing.

3.3.1.1 Setting Time

Setting time of concrete depends on the temperature, W/C ratio fineness of cement, aggregate
grading, humidity and admixture used in concrete.

17
Table 3.1 Description of Workability and Compacting Factor.

Description of Compacting Facto Corresponding


workability Slump
Very low 0.78 0-25
Low 0.85 25-50
Medium 0.92 50-100
High 0.95 100-175

3.3.1.2 Segregation and Bleeding

Segregation of concrete is caused by in sufficient mixing or by falling of concrete from height.


Segregation can be avoided by properly compacting of concrete through vibrators. If the
parameter such as grading shape, size, size, surface texture have given important consideration,
then the concrete will not allow segregation.

Fig 3.3 Segregation and Bleeding of Concrete

3.3.1.3 Curing

Strength is concrete is developed by the hydration process of cement. To continue the process of
hydration and absorption extra water should be provided. This is called "curing". So for the
proper hydration curing is considered essential in the early age of concrete. Concrete is done on
freshly demoded concrete to maintain the moisture content and temperature. Properties of
concrete are greatly affected by the curing process. Durability, strength, absorption resistance,
freeze-thaw is increase if proper curing is done.

18
Fig 3.4 Relationship b/w moist curing time and strength gain of concrete source : (Gonne man & Shuman
1982)

3.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete

A solid material made up of aggregate, sand, water and a cementing material is called
"Hardened Concrete". Concrete has developed certain strength after chemical reaction b/w some
of these materials. Certain other materials are added in the concrete to achieve particular
properties of concrete. These materials are known as "Admixture". The main properties of good
quality hardened concrete are
 Strength
 Modulus of Elasticity
 Durability
 Expansion & Shrinkage
 Creep

3.4.1 Strength

Concrete is used as construction materials for nearly all kinds of structures. Strength of concrete
is most important factor for using the concrete in construction. Concrete is considered as brittle
materials although is show plastic action in small amount. Concrete with high strength shows
more brittleness as compare to normal strength concrete. There are basically three type of
strength required for any materials use in construction.

These are compressive and tensile strength


I. Compressive Strength
II. Tensile Strength
III. Flexural Strength

19
3.4.2 Modulus of Elasticity

Elasticity can be defined as the property of material to gain its original shape after receiving the
load. For determining the deformation of any structure modulus of elasticity is considered as the
basic factory especially for the members under flexure. Modulus of elasticity is directly
proportional to the compressive strength square root.

The modulus of elasticity with the increase in compressive strength and their relationship is as
under.

3.4.3 Durability

Durability of any material is very important factor while using it in any kind of construction activity.
Structure should perform well and maintain strength during it service life. If concrete has ability to resist
weathering action and deterioration process, it is considered durable. Some chemical like carbon, sulfate
chloride chemically affects the durability. High temperature, thermal expansion, freezing and thawing are
physical cause of deterioration.

3.4.4 Expansion and Shrinkage

When concrete is exposed, its volume is changed and this process continues from the time of
casting to several months. The reason for changing the volume is important as it affects the
concrete structure and special consideration should be give to minimize these effects. The
phenomena of shrinkage and expansion are caused by external and eternal stress induce in the
concrete. Water cement ratio is also effects the shrinkage and expansion. The processes of
expansion and shrinkage increase with increase in W/C ratio.

3.4.5 Creep

Relation between stress and strain depends upon time and this strain increase due to stress is
called creep. ASTM 6 define creep as the time dependent increase in strain in a solid resulting
from force. Phenomena of creep are common in almost all type of materials when stress is
applied but in case of concrete it is observed at all stress level in normal conditions. This process
is affected by the time as the rate of hydration changes with time that change the pore structure
and elastic properties. Size of sample, temperature and humidity also affected the creep. Creep is
noticed to the decrease with increase specimen size. It is also observed that the sample undergo
high shrinkage also show high creep value.
20
3.5 Compressive Strength of Concrete

Concrete is used as building material because of it load carrying and it can be molded in any
desired shape. Compressive strength is most important property of concrete to use it in
structures by Engineers and Designers. Concrete is a brittle material and is gain value because of
its behavior under compression. Compressive strength of concrete is much greater as compared
to its tensile strength. Compressive strength is used to determine the behavior of concrete. A
graph b/w stress and strain is shown in fig. fc' is the compressive strength at 28 days. From
graph is clear that up to 0.4 fc' relationship b/w stress and strain is linear. The behavior of
concrete becomes non liners after this value.

Fig 3.5 Relationship Between Stress and Strain

3.6 Significance

Compressive strength is the most commonly used property to determine the described properties
of concrete as compared to other method such as chemical analysis with requires proper and
well manage laborites. It is used to determine that weather the mix concrete meets the desired
quality as required as site. Quality control acceptance of concrete and structure requirements can
also be estimated with the help of impressive strength.

3.7 Determination Of Compressive Strength

ASTM C 39/C 39 M is most commonly used method for determination of concrete compressive
strength. In this test two or more sample are tested after curing for 28 days. Compressive
strength of concrete is determined by applying axial load on the specimen in compression
testing machine show in fig. By dividing the failure load with cross section area compressive
strength of concrete is determined. Concrete having strength 17 Mpa (2,500 psi) can be used in
21
residential building. Strength vary from 17 Mpa (2,500 Psi) to the range 28 Mpa (4,000 Psi).
For commercial building concrete with strength 28 Mpa can be used. High strength can be
achieved by adding admixture to use for specific purposes. fig

Fig 3.6 Compression Testing Machine

3.8 Factor effecting Compressive Strength

Compressive is most commonly used and very critical property of concrete. So care must be
taken while casting the specimen for determination of compressive strength. There can be large
variation in the strength by the small mistake. Errors and effects by small change from standard
method, on the compressive strength.

Concrete is a mixture of any materials each of which effects the strength of concrete. These
factors have major influence on the strength of concrete and are discussed below.

3.9 Water / Cement Ratio

Water is required in the concrete for hydration process which is responsible for developing
strength in concrete. The unused water after hydration results in producing interconnecting
voids in concrete. These voids weaken the concrete and cause early strength lose. Researchers
have proved that compressive strength is increase by decreasing water cement ratio.

For hydration process the required W/C ratio is 0.30. But a low quality of water affect the
follow ability of concrete. Also water is evaporated when concrete is exposed to atmosphere.
Hence such a low quality of water will cause to much dry concrete and it will be difficult to
handle the concrete. Therefore usually W/C ratio is maintain from 0.4 to 0.6 for a good quality
of concrete.

22
Fig 3.7 Water Cement Ratio

3.10 Air Entrained

When concrete is mixed a large numbers of air bubbles are formed that produces voids in the
hardened concrete. These air voids results in lowering the concrete strength. When an air-
entraining admixture is added in the concrete mix, it converts the large voids to small stabilized
voids.

3.11 Cement Type

Strength is also affected by the micro cracks produced in the cement paste. So we can say that
strength of cement of cement paste has great influence on the strength of concrete. Also concrete
strength is affected by the hydration of cement.

3.12 Aggregate

Usually it is noticed that the strength of aggregate is greater as compared to the strength of
concrete. So it can be said that aggregate size don't affect the strength of concrete. Strength
depends upon the bond present b/w aggregate and cement paste. The effected of aggregate
volume in concrete is also not completely understood. It is observed that up to 20% increasing
the volume that compressive strength is decrease and from 40% to 80% increase in volume,
strength is increased.

23
3.13 Mixing Water

Water used for concrete strongly affected the compressive strength of concrete. If water used
have impurities it will cause corrosion, efflorescence and even the time of setting. It is proved
from research that the compressive strength of concrete having sea water in 6 to 8 % less as
compared to concrete made with fresh water. Water used for drinking purposed is considered
good for concrete. As drinking water usually not available in such a high quantity, recycled
water may be used for concrete.

3.14 Admixture

Admixture are added in the concrete during the mixing of concrete to improve the quality of
concrete. These are used to gain specific property in concrete and hence affected the structure of
concrete. Strength is affected by the type of admixture used. Water reducing admixture are
added to reduce the water quantity that increase the strength from 15 to 20 %.

3.15 Temperature

Strength of concrete is also affected by the temperature at that time of concrete b/w cement and
water. Dormant period is increased if temperature is low and it causes the late establishment in
the formation of hydrated cement paste. If temperature is high cement paste in hydrated earlier
that increase the early age strength but reduce the strength after 7 days. This is because the early
hydration result in poor physically structure that has pores in it. This porous structure leads the
concrete having less compressive strength. The early hydration caused non uniform distribution
of hydration products because of less solubility and low diffusivity sufficient time is not
available to create a significant distance from cement gel.

3.16 Curing Condition

Curing is defined as the process of controlling temperature and moisture control during
hydration of concrete. Hydration start from the mixing of cement and water and his process may
continue for several weeks so curing should be for reasonable time to develop strength. When
concrete gain strength during hydration, evaporation takes place and curing his required for
moisture control. Curing effects the durability, strength resistance to freezing and other
properties of concrete. At construction area curing can done different ways. Method of curing
time humidity and temperature of curing all affects the strength of concrete.

24
Humidity in atmosphere effects the evaporation of water from concrete surface and affects the
curing. Strength of concrete will decrease if curing is not done in moisture condition.

3.17 Hydration of Port Land Cement

The setting and hardening of port land cement occurs as a result of reaction b/w the compounds
of cement and water. The major compounds of cement that react with water to produce reaction
products are tri calcium silicate (C3S), declaim silicate (C2S), tri calcium aluminates (C3A), and
tetra calcium alumino-ferrite (A4AF). The hydration products from the two calcium silicates are
similar and differ only in the amount of calcium hydroxide formed, as shown below:

2C3S + 6H C3S2H3 + 3CH

2C2S + 4H C3S2H3 + CH

The reaction of C3A with water is very fast and involves reaction with sulphate ions supplied by
the dissolution of gypsum. The reaction can be presented by the following quotation.

C3A + 3CSH2 + 26H C3A(CS) 3H32

C3A + CHS2 + 10H C3ACSH12

A4AF forms hydration products similar to those of C3A with iron substituting partially for
alumina in the crystal stretcher of ettringite and monosulpo aluminate hydrate.

In the absence of sulphate, C3A may form C3AH6 or C4AH19

C3 + 6H C3AH6

C3A + CH + 18H C4AH19

3.18 Testing & Specimen Parameters

There are also many other factors that affect the compressive strength of concrete these
including the shape and size of specimen end condition capping and application of load.

3.19 Effects of specimen

Concrete strength is inversely proportional to the size. As the size increase compressive strength
decrease. But this phenomena of decrease in strength is up to a certain size of specimen. Size

25
also effects depends upon the size of concrete. Lean mix is less affected by the increase in size
as compared to rich mix.

3.20 Effects of specimen shape

Shape of the specimen has strong influence on the compressive strength of concrete. According
to BS 1881 : Part 120 : 1983, cylinder strength is 0.8 of the cube strength. But in case of higher
strength more than 100 MP (1400 psi) this ratio is about 1. This is because in case of cube
restraining effects is applied along the full length while for cylinder some part remains
unaffected.

3.21 Effect of Age

Compressive strength is usually considered to increase with age. Although the rate of strength
gain is different for the different type of concrete, concrete gain strength with the completion of
hydration process. Strength of concrete is usually determined at 7, 14. 28, & 63 days for
research. The process of hydration complete in many years and it is considered that process of
strength gain continue till the completion of hydration. The strength of concrete is 2.3 times
greater at the age of 30 years as compared to 28 days.

3.22 Cement

Properties of concrete depends upon the quantity of quality of the components used in the
production of concrete. As cement is the most effective & usually most expensive component of
concrete that is why is selection is most important for achieving the desired properties of
concrete.
Concrete is material that is made by combining a binder like cement chemically inert mineral
aggregate (sand gravel crush & stone) water and chemical additives that must have adhesive and
cohesive properties. For the preparation of concrete the basic property of cement is setting in
presence of water by some chemical reaction to provides a hardened and durable mass.

According to ASTM Portland cement can be define as Cements the sets and hardened by
chemical interaction with water and that is capable of doing so under water. Cement that is
mostly used in the preparation of concrete is Portland cement. Portland cement is basically
composed of pulverized port land cement clinker that contains hydraulic calcium silicate with
small quantity of other supplements materials is added into mix. These are called admixture.

26
3.23 Production of Cement

Portland cement is basically obtained by grinding some raw materials such as calcium oxide
(CaO ), silica (SiO2), Iron Oxide(Fe2O3) & Alumina (Al2O3). This mixture is heated to a high
temperature and after heating it is grinding along with some quantity of calcium Sulfate
(CaSo4). These substance are first of all crushed to the maximum size of less than 25 mm (1 in).
This raw material is then grounded in ball mills or roller process. It is now send to blending silos
and check for obtaining the materials that has uniform chemical composition.

After blending it completely this mixture is send to kiln for the process of burning. It is a rotary
kiln made up of a steel and inclined a few degree. mixture is entered at the higher end and
moves towards the lower end of kiln. This temperature in the kiln is about 1400 to 1600 C.
Gases are emitted at this stage which contains water and carbon dioxide. There is clinkering
zone new chemical compounds are formed. A large amount of energy is consumed at this stage.
These gases are also use to increase the temperature of the kiln for the coming mix and this
process is known Preheated.

The mixture obtained at this stage is dark gray and know as clinker. These clinker are hot and
send to ball mils after cooling. These clinker is grinded to fine powder along with some quantity
of gypsum. Gypsum is added to control strength setting behavior and the volume of cement.
These kilns have air separator where fine particles are separated and coarse particles are send
back for further grinding. The process of cement manufacturing is shown in fig.

Fig 3.8 Cement Manufacturing Process

3.24 Chemical Composition of cement

Port land cement is a combination of calcium carbonate, alumina silicate and gypsum. For the
production of concrete calcium carbonate is mixed with alumina silicate and burnt in a kiln.
27
Then this mix is grinded with 5% gypsum to produce cement. There are four basic compounds
in cement known as tri calcium silicate 3CAO, SIO2, Declaim silicate 2CAO SIO2 tri calcium
aluminates are tetra calcium.

The four components play the major and different role in cement hydration process. C3s and
C2S produce CHS gel which is the main hydration product, which C3S plays important role in
the development of early age strength.

3.25 Types of Cement

Two common type of cement generally used in preparation of concrete are port land cement and
Hydraulic cement. Port land cement is basically calcium silicates crystals which provides
hardened concrete and gives strength to the concrete after hydration process. While hydraulic
cement can be define as any kind of cement which after chemical reaction which water gives
hardness and strength to the concrete. We can say any kind of port land cement is basically
hydraulic cement but all hydraulic cements are not in the category of port land cement.

Port land cement having not more than 5% of some other inorganic material in is known as port
land cement. Or it can be define as cement that is in pure condition and contain small amount of
gypsum or other grinder material is called "port land" cement. It one or more than one inorganic
material is added in the port land cement, that cement is known as " Blended cement" Another
case is possible if some inert cementation materials is added that has catalytic effects on the
hydration property of cement. These are known as "Filler". Filler effects the physical property of
cement.

On the basis of composition cement is classified in different categories. This classification on


the basis of physical and chemical properties of cement. For Example rate of strength gain,
hydration rate, heat of hydration or behavior against and sulfate attack. The classification of
cement according to ASTM standard C150-94 or C595-94 is given in table.

3.25.1 Other Special Cement

An addition to a cement describe above there are also many types of cement that are available
according to the requirements. Different are added in it to attain special type of properties. Some
of them are as follow.
 Water Repellent Cement
 Masonry Cement
 Mortar Cement
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 Plastic Cement
Table 3.2 Main Type of Port land Cement

Traditional British Description ASTM Description


Ordinary Port Land Cement Type 1
Rapid hardening port land Cement Type 2
Extra rapid hardening port land No ASTM Description
Low heat pot land cement Type 4
Modified Cement Type 2
Sulfate resistance Port land cement Type 5
Port land Blast furnace Type IS & Type I (SM)
White port land cement Type IS & Type I (SM)
Port land Pozzollane Type IS & Type I (SM)
Slag Cement Type IS

3.26 Properties of slandered Test for Port land Cement

The quantity of any type of cement can be determined with the test perform on it. The result of
these test depends upon the method used for test. For this reason some country have developed
specification and special procedure for testing on cement. Some standard known as ASTM, BS
standard, ISO and CEN are used internationally for the countries those didn't have their own
slandered procedures. For the preparation of desired quality cement is it necessary that cement
should fulfill these physical, Chemical and performance specific ions.

3.26.1 Chemical Test

ASTM C 114 provides the stander for chemical analysis of port land cement. For the
determination of cement presents in cement in these standard gives the rapid method. If any type
of cement in analyzed in two different laboratories and provides different result of chemical test
then the method the method of refree is used to resolve the problems. Any type of cement
cannot be rejected without conducting the refree method. The cement and concrete reference
laboratory(CCRL) at the National Institute Of Standard and Technology(NIST) conducts test to
establish standard for testing of cement. To assure the test quality of cement according to ASTM
C1157 in laboratories CCRL also inspects the procedure of testing and equipment available in
those laboratories. Many years ago technique of wet chemistry was used for chemical analysis

29
of cement. But now a day more widely used technique are instrumental analysis with atomic
adsorption and X-ray.

3.26.2 Physical Test

To obtain the cement of desired quality and according to National Standard several test are
performed on cement. To use cement in special type of concrete it is preferred for the purchaser
or individual to examine the cement independently. Fineness setting behaviors false setting
soundness Heat of Hydration strength are basic physical test performed on cement before using
in it concrete mix. ASTM has set standard for all these test.

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CHAPTER 4

WASTE MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL BY PRODUCT

4.1 ADVERSE EFFECTS OF USING CEMENT

Cement industry is very important for the economic growth of any country. But during the
cement production process a large amount of harmful gases are emitted along with some
dangerous metals. Also it requires huge energy consumption there are basically two major issues
while producing cement.

a) Environmental issues

b) Economic issue

4.1.1 Environmental issues

During the production cement a large amount CO2 is emitted as by product. It is estimated that
the intensity of CO2 is about 222 kg of C/t of cement. CO2 is the major reasons of the
environmental pollution and harmful effect the Ozon layer that the protecting our earth.
Substance that are emitted as pollutant during manufacturing of cement are NOx , So2, Co,
volatile organic compound and dust. Most of these gases are produce in kiln process.

4.1.1.1Metals & their compound

In cement production a large quantity of harmful metals are formed that is mostly defused to
water. This is one of basic reason of water pollution that make water dangerous. There is always
presence of metals in the raw materials obtain in manufacturing of cement.

4.1.2 Economic issue

4.1.2.1 Energy Consumption

During the process of cement production a large amount of energy is required. Cement
production process is consists of three step.

Formation of clinker requires high temperature. For grinding of clinker and operating the kiln
system electrical energy is required. Also for cooling process large amount of electrical energy
process.

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4.1.2.2 Fuel Consumption

Large amount of heat is required for the formation of clinker. this heat is generated through
burring of plastic paper, wood, oil, tires, textile waste and many other mean.

4.1.2.3 Waste And Recycle Materials

The amount of waste materials is increase with the development in industry and increase in
pollution. During the process of manufacturing many by products and waste materials is
produced. This waste may be non-decaying or remain thousands of years and cause
environmental pollution. Because of this problem, the use of waste materials in other industries
for other useful purpose is now gained major important. Use of this waste materials is a good
solution for environment problems.

From many years large, large emphasis has been given for using these waste as the byproduct of
construction industry. It also gives benefits in energy saving, land fill cast and providing
production from environmental pollution. These waste products may be used as cement
replacing materials because they may effects the properties of concrete by improving its
microstructure, mechanical properties and durability which may not be achievable from ordinary
port land cement.

4.1.2.4 Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag(GGBS)

During the manufacturing process of iron, Ground Granulated Blast furnace slag is product as
a byproduct of heating of lime stone, coal and lime stone. Two products, molten slag and molten
iron are formed during melting of these materials. Molten slag contain silicate and alumina
along with oxides. High pressure water jet are use for cooling process and its known as
granulating the slag.

4.1.2.5 Meta Kaolin (MK)

It is a pozzolanic materials and obtain when kaolin tic clay is calculated at temperature 500-800
C. For the production of Meta Kaolin raw materials used is Kaolin clay. Mineralogical term
used for Kaolin clay is Kaolin it. It behaviors of heating depends upon structure, size of crystal
and degree of crystallization. It loses the absorb water just above 100 C. MK has silica in it that
reacts with Ca(OH2) to from silica gel that is of important consideration in strength
development of concrete.

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4.1.2.6 Recycle Waste Plastic

Plastic have gained major important in our lives because of its strength, light weight low
density and low cost. Because of its too much use, the volume of solids waste produced by it is
increasing rapidly. The waste produced by it almost 8% of total solid waste. It is use in
construction industries because of it long life and durability. It has low cost of production and
transportation. Concrete produced by it is resistance to chemical attacks and water penetration. It
has good thermal and electrical properties and has ability to mix with other materials such as
paper and aluminum.

4.1.2.7 Scrap Tires

Scrap tires are produce worldwide in large quantity. More than 270 million tires are produced
and 300 million are stock piled in U.S.A every year. To dispose these stockpiled tires is very
important as they produce environmental threats and breeding grounds for mosquitoes, mice,
rats and vermin's. By using these waste in concrete the problem of dispose them is solved to a
large extent.

4.1.2.8 Fly Ash (FA)

When combustion of pulverized coal is done in thermal power plant by product is formed
known as Coal Fly Ash. Very fine particles are produced during the combustion which is
collected before discharging into atmosphere. Diameter of particles produce is finer as compared
to port land cement and smaller than 1µ-150µ. Alumina, silica and oxides of calcium and iron
are major component of fly ash. It is widely used in cement and concrete because of its fines and
composition. The work ability of fresh concrete and durability increase by using fly ash. It
decrease the permeability and expansion because of Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR). Concrete
having FA doesn't have high early as compared to concrete having port land cement. Heat of
hydration is also low that makes it effective for massive structure.

4.1.2.9 Rich Husk Ash (RHA)

Rich husk is obtained as a byproduct of agriculture industry. It has 15 to 20 % silica in it with


25to 30 % amount of lignin and 50% cellulose. Upon burning the rich husk ash is formed and
silica ash is obtained. Cellulose and lignin is removed after burning which also affects the size
of particles and surface area.

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4.1.2.10 Cement Kiln Dust (CKD)

CKD is obtained as the byproduct during production of cement. During clinker formation
process micronized particles are collected known as kiln dust. The composition of CKD depends
upon the raw materials and fuel used for heating. The coarse particles presents near the kiln
contain free lime in it. Whiles alkalis are presents in the form of finer dust particles. Chemical
composition is same as that of ordinary cement that's why it can use as a replacement of cement.
It has same properties and effects on concrete such as cement.

4.1.2.11 Paper pulp

During the production of paper, byproduct are formed are known as paper pulp. It is obtained by
chemical or mechanical means by separating fibers from wood. Low quality paper are separated
to gain slug of paper. It has silica and magnesium in it that make it similar to cement. It can be
used as cement replacing up to a certain percentage.

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CHAPTER 5

FLY ASH

Fly ash is generated as a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in the boilers of electricity
generate station. It is removed from the combustion gases before they are discharge to the
atmosphere and collected by bag filter and electrostatic precipitators. This collected materials is
very fine and fry is readily blown out by the wind and is called fly ash. The amount of fly ash
collected depends upon the quality of the coal, design of combustion chamber, dust- collecting
efficiency of the equipment used. In modern plants, 99% of ash is removed from the fuel gas by
bag filler or electrostatic precipitator. France and Japan are utilized almost 100 % of fly ash for
producing cement and concrete.

Fig 5.1 Method of Fly Ash Transfer

Fly ash must be distinguished from the coarse ash that collects at the bottom of furnace in the
power station. The bottom ash also called clinker ash is used for making light weight aggregate
in place of natural aggregates. This materials is crushed or screened into different grade and
used in manufacturing of various types of block. Such locks are used for general purpose load
bearing or non- load bearing masonry units.

Fly ash is artificial pozzolanic materials which is activated by calcium hydroxide and is then
capable of hydraulic hardening. When water and CaO as activator are added to fly ash,

35
hydration of glass aluminates silicate matrix gives rise to the formation of crystalline calcium
silicate and eliminate hydrates. The higher the glass content, the more is the hardening.

The major consideration that influence the criteria for selection and proportioning on the fly ash
as the mineral admixture in concrete are related to the performance of concrete such as
durability, carbonation, porosity and permeability, and reinforcement corrosion. There is
considerable evidence now to confirm that a major factor contributing to the superior resistance
of PFA concrete to chemical attack, and particularly to sulphate attack, is the pore refinement
resulting from the pozzolanic action in the fly ash. Similarly the most important factor that
influence the penetration of carbonation into concrete are the water/cementation ratio and
compressive strength, and most effective way of limiting carbonation depends upon these two
parameter.

Further, the impermeability of concrete also depends on the pore reinforcement capability of the
ash, i.e. the transformation of large pores, and the discontinuous nature of the pore structure.
Thus durability consideration also lead to the same most important single parameter for PAF
concrete mix proportioning the water/cementations ratio.

In case of fly ash the primary reaction step is the deposition of hydrates on the sphere surface as
a duplex film, composed of amorphous CH and C-S-H gel.

The densification of this film gives rise to hydrate shells. Progressively, in a pore solution rich
in lime and alkaline the glassy materials begins to dissolve, forming C-S-H phase apparently
more amorphous than obtained from OPC. This C-S-H also contain more A1 and alkalis.

The process of C-S-H formation from the reaction of fly ash with CH, called pozzolanic
reaction, lowers the CH cement, reduces the Ca/Si ratio in calcium-silicate-hydrates and there
occurs a change in the porosity of blended cement paste. The last phenomenon is due to the fact
that C-S-H from fly ash occupies the space previously filled with pore solution and occupied by
CH.

36
5.1 Modern Technology Rooted in Ancient Art:

Long before modern power plants began producing coal fly ash, Roman builders turned to
volcanic ash to harness the power of pozzolans. In fact, the term “pozzolan” is derived from the
name of an Italian city — Pozzuoli — that is regarded as the birthplace of ash concrete
technologies. Famed Roman structures such as the Pantheon and Colosseum, as well as many
roads and aqueducts, are still standing over 2,000 years after their construction — in part
because of the durability of their ash-based concrete.

5.2 Production

Fly ash is produced from the combustion of coal in electric utility or industrial boilers. There are
four basic types of coal-fired boilers: pulverized coal (PC), stoker-fired or traveling grate,
cyclone, and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) boilers. The PC boiler is the most widely used,
especially for large electric generating units. The other boilers are more common at industrial or
cogeneration facilities. Fly ashes produced by FBC boilers are not considered in this document.
Fly ash is captured from the flue gases using electrostatic precipitators (ESP) or in filter fabric
collectors, commonly referred to as baghouses. The physical and chemical characteristics of fly
ash vary among combustion methods, coal source, and particle shape.
Table 5.1 2001 Fly ash production and use.

Million Metric Tons Million Short Tons Percent


Produced 61.84 68.12 100.0
Used 19.98 22.00 32.3

Table 5. 2 Fly ash uses.

Million Metric Tons Million Short Tons Percent


Cement/Concrete 12.16 13.40 60.9
Flowable Fill 0.73 0.80 3.7
Structural Fills 2.91 3.21 14.6
Road Base/Sub-base 0.93 1.02 4.7
Soil Modification 0.67 0.74 3.4
Mineral Filler 0.10 0.11 0.5
Mining Applications 0.74 0.82 3.7
Waste Stabilization /Solidification 1.31 1.44 6.3
Agriculture 0.02 0.02 0.1

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Million Metric Tons Million Short Tons Percent
Miscellaneous/Other 0.41 0.45 2.1
Totals 19.98 22.00 100

5.2.1 Handling:

The collected fly ash is typically conveyed pneumatically from the ESP or filter fabric hoppers
to storage silos where it is kept dry pending utilization or further processing, or to a system
where the dry ash is mixed with water and conveyed (sluiced) to an on-site storage pond.

The dry collected ash is normally stored and handled using equipment and procedures similar to
those used for handling portland cement:

 Fly ash is stored in silos, domes and other bulk storage facilities
 Fly ash can be transferred using air slides, bucket conveyors and screw conveyors, or it
can be pneumatically conveyed through pipelines under positive or negative pressure
conditions
 Fly ash is transported to markets in bulk tanker trucks, rail cars and barges/ships
 Fly ash can be packaged in super sacks or smaller bags for specialty applications

Dry collected fly ash can also be moistened with water and wetting agents, when applicable,
using specialized equipment (conditioned) and hauled in covered dump trucks for special
applications such as structural fills. Water conditioned fly ash can be stockpiled at jobsites.
Exposed stockpiled material must be kept moist or covered with tarpaulins, plastic, or
equivalent materials to prevent dust emission.

5.3 Structure Of Fly Ash:

Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is one of the coal
combustion products, composed of the fine particle that are driven out of the boiler with the flue
gases. Ash that falls in the bottom of the boiler is called bottom ash. In modern coal fried power
plant, fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration
equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys. Together with bottom ash removed from
the bottom of the boiler, it is known as coal ash. Depending upon the source and makeup of the
coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes
substantial amounts of silicone dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and cry line , aluminum

38
oxide (Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO), the main mineral compounds in coal-bearing rock
strata.

Constituents depend upon the specific coal bed makeup but may include one or more of the
following elements or substances found in trace concentrations (up to hundreds. Arsenic,
beryllium, boron, cadmium, and along with very small concentrations of and

In the past, fly ash was generally released into the atmospheric but air pollution control
standards now require that it be captured prior to release by fitting Pollution control equipment.
In the US fly ash is generally stored at coal power plants or placed in landfills. About 43% is
recycled,] often used as a Pozzlanic to produce hydraulic gradient or hydraulic plaster and a
replacement or partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete production. Pozzolans
ensure the setting of concrete and plaster and provide concrete with more protection from wet
conditions and chemical attack.

After a long regulatory process, the EPA published a final ruling in December 2014, which
establishes that coal fly ash is regulated on the federal level as "non-hazardous" waste according
to the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA). Coal Combustion Residuals (CCR's)
are listed in the subtitle D (rather than under subtitle C dealing for hazardous waste, which was
also considered).

In the case that fly or bottom ash is not produced from coal, for example when solid waste is
used to produce electricity in an incinerator this kind of ash may contain higher levels of
contaminants than coal ash. In that case the ash produced is often classified as hazardous waste.

Fig 5.2 Photomicrograph made with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and back-scatter detector: cross
section of fly ash particles at 750x magnification.

39
5.4 Chemical Composition:

Fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected by electrostatic
precipitators or filter bags. Since the particles solidify rapidly while suspended in the exhaust
gases, fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 0.5 to 300 µm.
The major consequence of the rapid cooling is that few minerals have time to crystallize, and
that mainly amorphous, quenched glass remains. Nevertheless, some refractory phases in the
pulverized coal do not melt (entirely), and remain crystalline. In consequence, fly ash is a
heterogeneous material. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and occasionally CaO are the main chemical
components present in fly ashes. The mineralogy of fly ashes is very diverse. The main phases
encountered are a glass phase, together with quartz mullet and the iron oxides hematite
megnetite. Other phases often identified
are cristobalite, anhydrite, freelime, periclase, calcite, Sylvie, halite, portlandite, retile and anati
ne.

The Ca-bearing minerals anorthite, gehlenite, akermanite and various calcium silicates and
calcium aluminates identical to those found in port land cement can be identified in Ca-rich fly
ashes. The mercury content can reach 1 ppm but is generally included in the range 0.01 - 1 ppm
for bituminous coal. The concentrations of other trace elements vary as well according to the
kind of coal combusted to form it. In fact, in the case of bituminous coal, with the notable
exception of boron, trace element concentrations are generally similar to trace element
concentrations in unpolluted soils.

5.4.1 Quality of Fly Ash

Quality requirements for fly ash vary depending on the intended use. Fly ash quality is affected
by fuel characteristics (coal), co-firing of fuels (bituminous and sub-bituminous coals), and
various aspects of the combustion and flue gas cleaning/collection processes. The four most
relevant characteristics of fly ash for use in concrete are loss on ignition (LOI), fineness,
chemical composition and uniformity.

5.4.2 LOI

is a measurement of unburned carbon (coal) remaining in the ash and is a critical characteristic
of fly ash, especially for concrete applications. High carbon levels, the type of carbon (i.e.,
activated), the interaction of soluble ions in fly ash, and the variability of carbon content can
result in significant air-entrainment problems in fresh concrete and can adversely affect the

40
durability of concrete. AASHTO and ASTM specify limits for LOI. However, some state
transportation departments will specify a lower level for LOI. Carbon can also be removed from
fly ash. Some fly ash uses are not affected by the LOI. Filler in asphalt, flow able fill, and
structural fills can accept fly ash with elevated carbon contents.

41
5.4.3 Fineness

Of fly ash is most closely related to the operating condition of the coal crushers and the grind
ability of the coal itself. For fly ash use in concrete applications, fineness is defined as the
percent by weight of the material retained on the 0.044 mm (No. 325) sieve. A coarser gradation
can result in a less reactive ash and could contain higher carbon contents. Limits on fineness are
addressed by ASTM and state transportation department specifications. Fly ash can be
processed by screening or air classification to improve its fineness and reactivity.

Some non-concrete applications, such as structural fills are not affected by fly ash fineness.
However, other applications such as asphalt filler, are greatly dependent on the fly ash fineness
and its particle size distribution.

5.5 Chemical Composition

Of fly ash relates directly to the mineral chemistry of the parent coal and any additional fuels or
additives used in the combustion or post-combustion processes. The pollution control
technology that is used can also affect the chemical composition of the fly ash. Electric
generating stations burn large volumes of coal from multiple sources. Coals may be blended to
maximize generation efficiency or to improve the station environmental performance. The
chemistry of the fly ash is constantly tested and evaluated for specific use applications.

Some stations selectively burn specific coals or modify their additives formulation to avoid
degrading the ash quality or to impart a desired fly ash chemistry and characteristics.

5.5.1 Uniformity

of fly ash characteristics from shipment to shipment is imperative in order to supply a consistent
product. Fly ash chemistry and characteristics are typically known in advance so concrete mixes
are designed and tested for performance.

5.5.2 Pozzolanic Reaction

This reaction b/w pozzolanic and calcium hydroxide liberated by the hydration of cement is
called the pozzolanic reaction. The pozzolanic reaction produced hydrate calcium silicates of
similar but this reaction is slow and increase as the hydration reaction of cement takes place.

Pozzolanic reacts chemically with the alkalis of the port land cement as well as with calcium
hydroxide or hydrated lime liberated during the hydration of port land cement to form a table
42
strength compound. the rate of reaction depends upon the chemical composition and fineness of
material.

A comparison of hydration b/w port land cement and port land pozzolanic is given as under:
Port land Cement Port land Pozzolanic Cement
C3S + aq. Fast > C-S-H + CH Pozzolan + CH + aq. slow > C-S-H

5.6 Disposal and Market source

In the past, fly ash produced from coal combustion was simply entrained in flue gases and
dispersed into the atmosphere. This created environmental and health concerns that prompted
laws that have reduced fly ash emissions to less than 1% of ash produced. Worldwide, more
than 65% of fly ash produced from coal power stations is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds,
although companies such as Duke Energy are starting initiatives to excavate coal ash basins due
to the negative environmental impact involved.

The recycling of fly ash has become an increasing concern in recent years due to increasing
landfill costs and current interest in sustainable development. As of 2005, U.S. coal-fired power
plants reported producing 71.1 million tons of fly ash, of which 29.1 million tons were reused in
various applications. If the nearly 42 million tons of unused fly ash had been recycled, it would
have reduced the need for approximately 27,500 acre·ft (33,900,000 m3) of landfill space. Other
environmental benefits to recycling fly ash includes reducing the demand for virgin materials
that would need quarrying and cheap substitution for materials such as Portland Cement.

As of 2006, about 125 million tons of coal-combustion byproducts, including fly ash, were
produced in the U.S. each year, with about 43% of that amount used in commercial applications,
according to the American Coal Ash Association Web site. As of early 2008, the United State
Environmental Protection Agency hoped that figure would increase to 50% as of 2011.

5.6.1 Fly Ash Reuse

There is no U.S. governmental registration or labelling of fly ash utilization in the different
sectors of the economy - industry, infrastructures and agriculture. Fly ash utilization survey data,
acknowledged as incomplete, are published annually by the American Coal Ash Association.

Many of the following uses are discussed further below. Coal ash uses include (approximately
in order of decreasing importance.

 Concrete production, as a substitute material for Portland cement and sand


43
 Embankments and other structural fills (usually for road construction)
 Grout and Flow able Fill Production.
 Waste stabilization and solidification
 Cement Clinkers production - (as a substitute material for clay)
 Mine Reclamation
 Stabilization of soft soil
 Road sub base construction
 As Aggregates substitute material (e.g. for brick production)
 Mineral filler in asphaltic concrete
 Agricultural uses: soil amendment, fertilizer, cattle feeders, soil stabilization in stock
feed yards, and agricultural stakes
 Loose application on rivers to melt ice.
 Loose application on roads and parking lots for ice control.

Other applications include cosmetics, toothpaste, kitchen counter tops, floor and ceiling tiles,
bowling balls, flotation devices, stucco, utensils, tool handles, picture frames, auto bodies and
boat hulls, cellular concrete, geopolymers, roofing tiles, roofing granules, decking, fireplace
mantles, cinder block, PVC pipe, Structural Insulated Panels, house siding and trim, running
tracks, blasting grit, recycled plastic lumber, utility poles and crossarms, railway sleepers,
highway sound barriers, marine pilings, doors, window frames, scaffolding, sign posts, crypts,
columns, railroad ties, vinyl flooring, paving stones, shower stalls, garage doors, park benches,
landscape timbers, planters, pallet blocks, molding, mail boxes, artificial reef, binding
agent, Pints and undercoatings, Mattel casting and filler in wood and plastic products.

5.6.2 Portland Cement replacment:

Owing to its pozzolanic properties, fly ash is used as a replacement for portland cement in
concrete. The use of fly ash as a pozzolanic ingredient was recognized as early as 1914,
although the earliest noteworthy study of its use was in 1937. Roman structures such
as aqueducts or the pantheon in Rome used volcanic ash or pozzolanic (which possesses similar
properties to fly ash) as pozzolanic in their concrete. As pozzolan greatly improves the strength
and durability of concrete, the use of ash is a key factor in their preservation.

Use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement is particularly suitable but not
limited to Class C fly ashes. Class "F" fly ashes can have volatile effects on the entrained air
content of concrete, causing reduced resistance to freeze/thaw damage. Fly ash often replaces up
to 30% by mass of Portland cement, but can be used in higher dosages in certain applications. In
44
some cases, fly ash can add to the concrete's final strength and increase its chemical resistance
and durability.

Fly ash can significantly improve the workability of concrete. Recently, techniques have been
developed to replace partial cement with high-volume fly ash (50% cement replacement). For
roller-compacted concrete (RCC)[used in dam construction], replacement values of 70% have
been achieved with processed fly ash at the Ghatghar dam project in Maharashtra, India. Due to
the spherical shape of fly ash particles, it can increase workability of cement while reducing
water demand. Proponents of fly ash claim that replacing Portland cement with fly ash reduces
the greenhouse gas "footprint" of concrete, as the production of one ton of Portland cement
generates approximately one ton of CO2 compared to no CO2 generated with fly ash. New fly
ash production, i.e., the burning of coal, produces approximately 20 to 30 tons of CO2 per ton of
fly ash. Since the worldwide production of Portland cement is expected to reach nearly 2 billion
tons by 2010, replacement of any large portion of this cement by fly ash could significantly
reduce carbon emissions associated with construction, as long as the comparison takes the
production of fly ash as a given.

5.6.3 Embankment:

Fly ash properties are unusual among engineering materials. Unlike soils typically used for
embankment construction, fly ash has a large uniformity coefficient and it consists of clay
sized particles. Engineering properties that affect the use of fly ash in embankments include
grain size distribution, compaction characteristic, shear strength compressibility permeability
and frost susceptibility. Nearly all the types of fly ash used in embankments are Class F.

5.6.4 Soil Stabilization:

Soil stabilization is the permanent physical and chemical alteration of soils to enhance their
physical properties. Stabilization can increase the shear strength of a soil and/or control the
shrink-swell properties of a soil, thus improving the load-bearing capacity of a sub-grade to
support pavements and foundations. Stabilization can be used to treat a wide range of sub-grade
materials from expansive clays to granular materials. Stabilization can be achieved with a
variety of chemical additives including lime, fly ash, and Portland cement. Proper design and
testing is an important component of any stabilization project. This allows for the establishment
of design criteria, and determination of the proper chemical additive and admixture rate that
achieves the desired engineering properties. Stabilization process benefits can include: Higher
resistance (R) values, Reduction in plasticity, Lower permeability, Reduction of pavement
45
thickness, Elimination of excavation - material hauling/handling - and base importation, Aids
compaction, Provides "all-weather" access onto and within projects sites. Another form of soil
treatment closely related to soil stabilization is soil modification, sometimes referred to as "mud
drying" or soil conditioning. Although some stabilization inherently occurs in soil modification,
the distinction is that soil modification is merely a means to reduce the moisture content of a soil
to expedite construction, whereas stabilization can substantially increase the shear strength of a
material such that it can be incorporated into the project's structural design. The determining
factors associated with soil modification vs soil stabilization may be the existing moisture
content, the end use of the soil structure and ultimately the cost benefit provided. Equipment for
the stabilization and modification processes include: chemical additive spreaders, soil mixers
(reclaimers), portable pneumatic storage containers, water trucks, deep lift compactors, motor
graders.

5.6.5 Flow able Fill

Fly ash is also used as a component in the production of flow able fill (also called controlled low
strength material, or CLSM), which is used as self-leveling, self-compact backfill material in
lieu of compacted earth or granular fill. The strength of flow able fill mixes can range from 50 to
1,200 lbf/in (0.3 to 8.3 MPa), depending on the design requirements of the project in question.
Flowable fill includes mixtures of Portland cement and filler material, and can contain mineral
admixtures. Fly ash can replace either the Portland cement or fine aggregate (in most cases, river
sand) as a filler material. High fly ash content mixes contain nearly all fly ash, with a small
percentage of Portland cement and enough water to make the mix flow able. Low fly ash content
mixes contain a high percentage of filler material, and a low percentage of fly ash, Portland
cement, and water. Class F fly ash is best suited for high fly ash content mixes, whereas Class C
fly ash is almost always used in low fly ash content mixes.

5.6.6 Asphalt Concrete

Asphalt concrete is a composite material consisting of an asphalt binder and mineral aggregate.
Both Class F and Class C fly ash can typically be used as a mineral filler to fill the voids and
provide contact points between larger aggregate particles in asphalt concrete mixes. This
application is used in conjunction, or as a replacement for, other binders (such as Portland
cement or hydrated lime). For use in asphalt pavement, the fly ash must meet mineral filler
specifications outlined in ASTM D424. The hydrophobic nature of fly ash gives pavements
better resistance to stripping. Fly ash has also been shown to increase the stiffness of the asphalt
matrix, improving rutting resistance and increasing mix durability.
46
5.6.7 Geo polymer:

More recently, fly ash has been used as a component in geo polymers, where the reactivity of
the fly ash glasses can be used to create a binder similar to a hydrated port land cement in
appearance, but with potentially superior properties, including reduced CO2 emissions,
depending on the formulation.

5.6.8 Roller Compact Concrete:

Another application of using fly ash is in roller compact concrete dams. Many dams in the US
have been constructed with high fly ash contents. Fly ash lowers the heat of hydration allowing
thicker placements to occur. Data for these can be found at the US Bureau of Reclamation. This
has also been demonstrated in the Ghaghara Dam Project in India.

Fig 5.6 The upper reservoir of Ameren's Taum Sauk Hydroelectric Plant was constructed of roller-
compacted concrete that included fly ash from one of Ameren's coal plants.

5.7 Bricks:

There are several techniques for manufacturing construction bricks from fly ash, producing a
wide variety of products. One type of fly ash brick is manufactured by mixing fly ash with an
equal amount of clay, then firing in a kiln at about 1000 °C. This approach has the principal
benefit of reducing the amount of clay required. Another type of fly ash brick is made by mixing
soil, plaster of paris, fly ash and water, and allowing the mixture to dry. Because no heat is
required, this technique reduces air pollution. More modern manufacturing processes use a
greater proportion of fly ash, and a high pressure manufacturing technique, which produces high
strength bricks with environmental benefits.

In the United Kingdom, fly ash has been used for over fifty years to make concrete building
blocks. They are widely used for the inner skin of Cavity Wall. They are naturally more
thermally insulating than blocks made with other aggregates.

47
Ash bricks have been used in house construction in Windhoek, Namibia since the 1970s. There
is, however, a problem with the bricks in that they tend to fail or produce unsightly pop-outs.
This happens when the bricks come into contact with moisture and a chemical reaction occurs
causing the bricks to expand.

In India, fly ash bricks are used for construction. Leading manufacturers use an industrial
standard known as "Pulverized fuel ash for lime-Pozzolana mixture" using over 75% post-
industrial recycled waste, and a compression process. This produces a strong product with good
insulation properties and environmental benefits.

5.7.1 COMPOSITION:

The important compositions of fly ash bricks are as follows;


 FLY ASH
 CEMENT
 SAND
 WATER

5.7.2 MANUFACTURE:

The fly ash brick is nothing but a slow setting pozzalona cement mix. The process is same as
making cement in cement factories whereas the clay and limestone are burnt with coal and
gypsum. And it is mixed and ground to cement.

In fly ash mix also the fly ash, which is burnt clay particles (oxides of clay) obtained from
burning coal, which contains clay from the mines. When hydrated lime powder, gypsum are
mixed and ground in a pan, the mixture gives a slow setting pozzalona cement.

While the mix is pressed at low pressure at low moisture content in hydraulic machine, which is
specially designed to give high pressure load at a slow rate, in the order of 350kg/square inch.

At this of rate of pressure and with holding the pressure for a desired time gives ultimate
strength

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Fig 5.3 Manufacturing of Bricks

5.7.3 COMPARISON OF CLAY BRICKS AND FLY ASH BRICKS:

PROPERTIES RED BRICKS FLY ASH BRICKS REMARK


Density 1600-1750 kg/m3 1700-1850 kg/m3 Higher load bearing
Compressive strength 30-35 kg/cm2 90-100 kg/cm2 Higher load bearing
Absorption 15-25% 10-14% Less dampness
Dimensional stability Very low tolerance High tolerance Saving in mortar up to
25%
Wastage during Up to 10% Less than 2% Saving in cost up to
transit 8%
Plastering Thickness vary on the Even on both sides Saving in plaster up to
both 15%.

5.7.3.1 Metal Matrix Composites:

Hollow fly ash can be infiltrated by molten metal to form solid, alumina encased spheres. Fly
ash can also be mixed with molten metal and cast to reduce overall weight and density, due to
the low density of fly ash. Research is underway to incorporate fly ash into lead acid batteries in
a lead calcium tin fly ash composite in an effort to reduce weight of the battery.

49
5.7.3.2 Waste Treatment and Stabilization:

Fly ash, in view of its alkalinity and water absorption capacity, may be used in combination with
other alkaline materials to transform sewage sludge into organic fertilizer or befoul.

5.7.3.3 As A Catalyst:

Fly ash, when treated with Sodium hydroxide appears to function well as a catalyst for
converting polyethylene into substance similar to crude oil in a high-temperature process
called paralysis.

50
CHAPTER-6

EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

6.1 Quality Concrete:

To fully appreciate the benefits of fly ash in concrete, the basics of producing exceptional
concrete must be understood. Concrete is a composite material, which essentially consists of
two components: aggregates and cementitious paste. To produce exceptional concrete, it is
extremely important to have a smooth gradation of material from rock down to the finest
particles (in other words, a good mix of particle sizes, so that the largest practicable rock fills the
majority of the volume, while the progressively smaller rock and sand fill the voids left between
the larger particles). Ideally, it is best to have as much volume as possible filled with strong,
durable aggregate particles, with enough paste (comprised of as much CSH and as little lime as
possible) to coat every particle. Also, voids should not be present in the paste unless they are
specifically provided as microscopic entrained air bubbles to provide durability in freeze-thaw
environments. In real life, though, economics and local aggregate sources dictate the quality of
materials used. The result is that excess voids often exist between the aggregate particles that
must now be filled by paste and air. The challenge becomes producing an appropriate amount of
the best possible quality paste, so that the resulting hardened paste will fill the excess voids with
durability and strength approaching that of the aggregate.

6.2 Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Durability and Strength:

Most people don’t realize that durability and strength are not synonymous when talking about
concrete. Durability is the ability to maintain integrity and strength over time. Strength is only a
measure of the ability to sustain loads at a given point in time. Two concrete mixes with equal
cylinder breaks of 4,000 psi at 28 days can vary widely in their permeability, resistance to
chemical attack, resistance to cracking and general deterioration over time — all of which are
important to durability. Cement normally gains the great majority of its strength within 28 days,
thus the reasoning behind specifications normally requiring determination of 28-day strengths as
a standard. As lime from cement hydration becomes available (cements tend to vary widely in
their reactivity), it reacts with

Fly ash. Typically, concrete made with fly ash will be slightly lower in strength than straight
cement concrete up to 28 days, equal strength at 28 days, and substantially higher strength
within a year’s time. Conversely, in straight cement concrete, this lime would remain intact and
51
over time it would be susceptible to the effects of weathering and loss of strength and durability.
As previously described, the paste is the key to durable and strong concrete, assuming average
quality aggregates are used. At full hydration, concrete made with typical cements produces
approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix. Most people have
seen concrete or masonry walls or slabs with the white, chalky surface coating or streaks called
efflorescence. Efflorescence is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried
repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry
side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete, block
or mortar. A typical 5 sack concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the
potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create
more CSH, the same “glue” produced by the hydration of cement and water, thereby closing off
the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is concrete
that is less permeable, as witnessed by the reduction in efflorescence.

6.3 Fly Ash Contributes to Workability:

First, fly ash produces more cementitious paste. It has a lower unit weight, which means that on
a pound for pound basis, fly ash contributes roughly 30% more volume of cementitious material
per pound versus cement. The greater the percentage of fly ash “ball bearings” in the paste, the
better lubricated the aggregates are and the better concrete flows. Second, fly ash reduces the
amount of water needed to produce a given slump. The spherical shape of fly ash particles and
its dispersive ability provide water-reducing characteristics similar to a water reducing
admixture. Typically, water demand of a concrete mix with fly ash is reduced by 2% to 10%,
depending on a number of factors including the amount used and class of fly ash. Third, fly ash
reduces the amount of sand needed in the mix to produce workability. Because fly ash creates
more paste, and by its shape and dispersive action makes the paste more “slippery”, the amount
of sand proportioned into the mix can be reduced. Since sand has a much greater surface area
than larger aggregates and therefore requires more paste, reducing the sand means the paste
available can more efficiently coat the surface area of the aggregates that remain.

52
Fig 6.1 Microscopic view of Fly Ash

6.4 Fly Ash Protect Concrete:

An extremely important aspect of the durability of concrete is its permeability. Fly ash concrete
is less permeable because fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump,
and through pozzolanic activity, creates more durable CSH as it fills capillaries and bleed water
channels occupied by water soluble lime (calcium hydroxide). Fly ash improves corrosion
protection. By decreasing concrete permeability, fly ash can reduce the rate of ingress of water,
corrosive chemicals and oxygen — thus protecting steel reinforcement from corrosion and its
subsequent expansive result. Fly ash also increases sulfate resistance and reduces alkali-silica
reactivity. At this point a distinction between Class C and Class F fly ashes needs to be made.
While both improve the permeability and general durability of concrete, the chemistry of Class
F ashes has proven to be more effective in mitigating sulfate and alkali-silica expansion and
deterioration in concrete. Some Class C fly ashes have been used to mitigate these reactions, but
must be used at higher rates of cement replacement. Fly Ash in concrete can reduce sulfate
attack in two additional ways: – Fly ash reduces calcium hydroxide, which combines with
sulfates to produce gypsum. Gypsum is a material that has greater volume than the calcium
hydroxide and sulfates that combine to form it, causing damaging expansion. – Aluminates in
the cement also combine with sulfates to form expansive compounds. By replacing cement, the
amount of available aluminates is reduced, thereby lowering the potential for this type of
expansive reaction. In reducing alkali-silica reactivity, fly ash has the ability to react with the
alkali hydroxides in portland cement paste, making them unavailable for reaction with reactive
silica in certain aggregates. Certain studies suggest that greater than 30% replacement with fly
ash for cement has a dramatic effect in combating this expensive reaction.

53
6.5 Fly Ash Reduce Heat Of Hydration In Concrete:

The hydration of cement is an exothermic reaction. Heat is generated very quickly, causing the
concrete temperature to rise and accelerating the setting time and strength gain of the concrete.
For most concrete installations, the heat generation is not detrimental to its long-term strength
and durability. However, many applications exist where the rapid heat gain of cement increases
the chances of thermal cracking, leading to reduced concrete strength and durability. In these
applications, replacing large percentages of cement with fly ash (fly ash generates only 15 to 35
percent as much heat as compared to cement at early ages) can reduce the damaging effects of
thermal cracking. While the first structures to apply this concept in earnest were hydroelectric
dams built in the

1930s and 1940s with 40% to 50% cement replacement, warm weather concreting and the risk
of thermal cracking is a problem that exists today for all concrete. Warm weather will naturally
raise the temperature of concrete aggregates, which make up the majority of the mass in
concrete. This natural heating of the aggregates, coupled with solar heating at the construction
site, can cause even thin concrete slabs to suffer the damaging effects of thermal cracking, along
with finishing difficulties caused by rapid uncontrolled setting. Replacing 20% to 35% of the
cement for “everyday” concrete in warm conditions will help reduce thermal cracking and
provide the time needed to obtain the desired finish.

6.6 Reduce Water demand:

Approximately 25 pounds (three gallons) of water are normally required to hydrate 100 pounds
of cement1. A normal concrete mix will generally contain twice the required amount of water to
hydrate the cement – enough to facilitate handling and placing of the concrete. This additional
water called “water of convenience”, increases slump but at the cost of decreased cohesiveness.
Water of convenience is reduced when fly ash is added to the mix because the plasticizing
action results in a 2% to 10% water reduction in the plastic concrete to produce the same level
of slump as plain concrete. Reduced water of convenience at the same level of slump makes for
more cohesive concrete and decreases the occurrence of costly segregation.

54
Fig 6.2 Typical VEBE Time vs Slump

6.7 Greater Consolidation:

Fly ash concrete is actually more workable than plain cement concrete at equivalent slump. The
VEBE test measures the time and energy necessary for consolidation of concrete under
vibration. Figure 1 shows the remarkable difference in time and energy required for
consolidation of plain and fly ash concretes. Great benefits can be obtained when using more
completely consolidating fly ash concrete in areas of difficult placement where rock pockets and
other placing defects often occur. Engineers understand the effectiveness of

using fly ash concrete in tall thin walls, such as those used in water tanks. They know they have
better chance of getting the dense, void free concrete they have specified when fly ash is
included the mix.

6.8 Paste Volume Increase:

The specific gravity of fly ash is lighter than cement. When replacing fly ash on a pound for
pound basis, the result is a greater solid volume of cementitious fines. Proportioning concrete
mixtures with only water-reducing admixtures results in a greatly diminished volume of
cementitious fines. In effect, this amounts to taking cement out of the mix and replacing it with
sand and gravel. The strengths may

be acceptable, but the workability may not be.Proportioning performance concrete with fly ash
virtually guarantees a greater solid volume of cementitious materials, which in itself helps
promote cohesiveness and workability. Cementitious fines are very important to the contractor
who finishes flatwork. These fines are necessary to allow proper leveling, sealing, and
densification of the surface. Fly ash spheres help ease the contractor’s job by lubricating the
surface, making it much easier and faster to finish the job. In lean mixes, or where aggregates
55
are deficient in fines, an increase in the volume of paste and an improvement in consistency will
be advantageous for workability and may also increase strength by allowing more complete
compaction.

6.9 Economical Mixture:

Pound for pound, no other solid material improves the workability, strength, and other
properties of a concrete mix like fly ash can, resulting in the most economical of mixtures.
Placing and finishing concrete becomes easier because of the improved workability from the
spherically shaped fly ash particles. Lower slump concrete can be placed more easily (and at
lower water content) because of the plasticity provided by fly ash spheres. Segregation and
bleeding are reduced because of to the increased cohesiveness of fly ash concrete, so form finish
and sharpness of detail are enhanced. And coarse, clean sands can be used in concretes utilizing
fly ash and still have good workability.

6.10 Fly Ash Check List for workability:

6.10.1 Workability:

Concrete is easier to place with less effort, responding better to vibration to fill forms more
completely.

6.10.2 Ease to Pumping:

Pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.

6.10.3 Improve Finishing:

harp, clear architectural definition is easier to achieve, with less worry about in-place integrity.

6.10.4 Reduce Bleeding

Fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack. Bleed streaking is reduced for
architectural finishes.

6.10.5 Reduce Segregation

Improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces segregation that can lead to rock pockets and
blemishes.

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6.7 Environmental Problems

6.7.1 Present Production Rate Of Fly Ash

In the United States about 131 million tons of fly ash are produced annually by 460 coal-fired
power plants. A 2008 industry survey estimated that 43% of this ash is re-used.

6.7.2 Ground Water Contamination

Since coal contains trace levels of trace elements (like e.g. arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron,
cadmium, chromium, thallium, selenium, molybdenum and mercury), fly ash obtained after
combustion of this coal contains enhanced concentrations of these elements, and therefore the
potential of the ash to cause groundwater pollution needs to be evaluated. In the USA there are
documented cases of groundwater pollution which followed ash disposal or utilization without
the necessary protection means.

In 2014, residents living near the Buck Steam Station in Dukeville, North Carotina, were told
that "coal ash pits near their homes could be leaching dangerous materials into groundwater.

6.7.3 Spills Of Bulk Storage

Where fly ash is stored in bulk, it is usually stored wet rather than dry to minimize fugitive dust.
The resulting impoundments (ponds) are typically large and stable for long periods, but any
breach of their dams or bunding is rapid and on a massive scale.

In December 2008, the collapse of an embankment at an impoundment for wet storage of fly ash
at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant caused a major releases of 5.4 million
cubic yards of coal fly ash, damaging 3 homes and flowing into the Emory River. Cleanup costs
may exceed $1.2 billion. This spill was followed a few weeks later by a smaller TVA-plant spill
in Alabama, which contaminated Widows Creek and the Tennessee River.

In 2014, tens of thousands of tons of ash and 27 million gallons (100,000 cubic meters) of
contaminated water spilled into the Dan River near Eden NC from a closed North Carolina coal-
fired power plant that is owned by Duke Energy. It is currently the third worst coal ash spill ever
to happen in the United States. A 48-inch (120 cm) pipe spilled arsenic and other heavy metals
into the river for a week, but was successfully plugged by Duke Energy. The U.S. federal
government plans to investigate, and people along the river have been warned to stay away from
the water. Fish have yet to be tested, but health officials say not to eat them.

57
New regulations published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2015, stipulate a
comprehensive set of rules and guidelines for safe disposal and storage. Designed to prevent
pond failures and protect groundwater, enhanced inspection, record keeping and monitoring is
specified. Procedures for closure are also included and include capping, liners, and dewatering.

6.8 Contaminants

Fly ash contains trace concentrations of heavy metals and other substances that are known to be
detrimental to health in sufficient quantities. Potentially toxic trace elements in coal
include arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, barium, chromium, cooper, lead, mercury, selenium,
thorium, uranium, vanadium and zinc. Approximately 10% of the mass of coals burned in the
United States consists of unburnable mineral material that becomes ash, so the concentration of
most trace elements in coal ash is approximately 10 times the concentration in the original
coal. A 1997 analysis by the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) found that fly ash typically
contained 10 to 30 ppm of uranium, comparable to the levels found in
some granitic rocks, phosphate rock, and black shale.

In 2000, the United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) said that coal fly ash did not
need to be regulated as a hazardous waste. Studies by the U.S Geological Survey and others of
radioactive elements in coal ash have concluded that fly ash compares with common soils or
rocks and should not be the source of alarm. However, community and environmental
organizations have documented numerous environmental contamination and damage concerns.

A revised risk assessment approach may change the way coal combustion wastes (CCW) are
regulated, according to an August 2007 EPA notice in the Federal Register. In June 2008, the
U.S. House of Representatives held an oversight hearing on the Federal government's role in
addressing health and environmental risks of fly ash.

6.9 Fly Ash Drawback

Smaller builders and housing contractors are not that familiar with fly ash products which could
have different properties depending on where and how it was obtained.

For this reason, fly ash applications are encountering resistance from traditional builders due to
its tendency to effloresce along with major concerns about freeze/thaw performance.

Other major concerns about using fly ash concrete include:


 Slower strength gain.
 Seasonal limitation.
58
 Increase in air entraining admixtures.

6.10 Fly Ash Benefits

Fly ash can be a cost-effective substitute for Portland cement in some markets. In addition, fly
ash could be recognized as an environmentally friendly product because it is a byproduct and
has low embodied energy. It's also is available in two colors, and coloring agents can be added
at the job site. In addition, fly ash also requires less water than portland cement and it is easier to
use in cold weather. Other benefits include:
 Produces various set times.
 Cold weather resistance.
 Higher strength gains, depending on its use.
 Can be used as an admixture.
 Can substitute for Portland cement.
 Considered a non-shrink material.
 Produces denser concrete and a smoother surface with sharper detail.
 Great workability.
 Reduces crack problems, permeability and bleeding
 Reduces heat of hydration.
 Produces lower water/cement ratio for similar slumps when compared to no fly ash
mixes.
 Reduces CO2 emissions.

59
CHAPTER-7

RECYCLED BRICKS

7.1 Bricks

For a brick masonry construction, it is desirable to know different types of bricks, their field
identification, properties, uses and suitability for different construction works.

A brick is an important construction material which is generally available in rectangular shape


manufactured from clay. They are very popular from olden days to modern days because of low
cost and durability.

7.2 Types of Bricks – Their Properties and Uses:

Based on the manufacturing process, bricks are broadly classified into two types, 1. Sun-Dried
or un-burnt bricks 2. Burnt bricks

7.2.1 Sun-Dried or Un-burnt Bricks

Sun-dried or un-burnt bricks are less durable and these are used for temporary structures. Un-
burnt bricks preparation involved in 3 steps they are preparation of clay, molding and drying.
After molding, bricks are subjected to sunlight and dried using heat from sun. So, they are not
that much strong and they also have less water resistance and less fire resistance. These bricks
are not suitable for permanent structures.

Fig 7.1 Fig Sun-Dried or Un-burnt Bricks

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7.2.2 Burnt Bricks

Burnt bricks are good quality bricks but however they also consist some defected bricks. So,
burnt bricks are classified into four types and they are...

 First class bricks


 Second class bricks
 Third class bricks
 Fourth class bricks

7.2.2.1 First Class Bricks

First class bricks are good quality bricks compared to other classes. They are molded by table-
molding and burnt in large kilns. So, these bricks contain standard shape, sharp edges and
smooth surfaces. They are more durable and having more strength. They can be used for
permanent structures. However, because of their good properties they are costly than other
classes.

Fig 7.2 First Class Bricks

7.2.2.2 Second Class Bricks

Second class bricks are moderate quality bricks and they are molded by ground-molding
process. These bricks are also burnt in kilns. But because of ground molding, they do not have
smooth surfaces as well as sharp edges. The shape of bricks also irregular due to unevenness in
ground. These also will give best results in strength and durability. Smooth plastering is required

on the brick structure.

61
Fig 7.3 Second Class Bricks

7.2.2.3 Third Class Bricks

Third class bricks are poor quality bricks which are generally used for temporary structures like
un-burnt bricks. These are not suitable for rainy areas. They are ground-molded type bricks and
burnt in clamps. The surface of this type of bricks are rough and they have unfair edges.

Fig 7.4 Third Class Bricks

7.2.2.4 Over Burnt Brick

There can be many defects in bricks. Identifying defective bricks is important for the
consideration of stability and durability of load bearing brick masonry walls and structures.
Following are the defects found in bricks:

Bricks should be burned at temperatures at which incipient, complete and viscous vitrification
occur. However, if the bricks are over burnt, a soft molten mass is produced and the bricks lose
their shape. Such bricks are not used for construction works.

Very poor quality bricks and these are not used as bricks in the structure. They are crushed and
used as aggregates in the manufacturing of concrete. They are obtained by over burning,
because of this they gets overheated and obtains brittle nature. So, they can break easily and not
suitable for construction purpose.

62
Fig 7.5 Over Burnt bricks

7.3 Recycled Bricks

Recycled is a demolished structure. This bricks is commonly used for the foundation as a P.C.C.
This bricks is very low cost. This bricks is used for the foundation work.

7.3.1 Recycled Reds - B Grade

Each of our B-Grade recycled red bricks are reclaimed from demolished buildings around
Melbourne. These bricks are hand-cleaned and repalleted by professional brick cleaners. B-
Grade recycled red bricks have a more rustic and varied finish than the A-Grade bricks - making
them ideal for building feature walls. Each B-Grade brick is solid with one clean front face. Due
to their varied condition, these bricks are not recommended for paving.

The white dust you can see on many recycled bricks can be easily washed off using water or by
professional brick cleaners making the finished result brighter and more consistent than it may
appear in photos.

Fig 7.6 B- Grade Recycled Bricks

63
7.3.2 Recycled Clinkers

Clinkers are a distinctly Melbourne brick characterised by their red colour mottled with flecks of
dark blue. Each brick is reclaimed locally and hand-cleaned in preparation for re-use. These
bricks have great character and work well for paving, garden walls or edgings because of their
period charm. They are also excellent for feature walls inside and outside the home.

The white dust you can see on many recycled bricks can be easily washed off using water or by
professional brick cleaners making the finished result brighter and more consistent than it may
appear in photos.

Fig 7.7 Recycled Clinker

7.3.3 Handmade Hawthorns

1890s. These unique, characterful bricks are rare and highly sought-after for their unique colour,
texture and appearance which cannot be replicated through modern brick-making practices. All
our handmade Our Hawthorn bricks are all handmade and date back as far as the hawthorn
bricks are cleaned carefully by hand and re stacked on pallets ready for reuse in a variety of
applications including interior and exterior feature walls, fire surrounds, garden fencing etc.

The white dust you can see on many recycled bricks can be easily washed off using water or by
professional brick cleaners making the finished result brighter and more consistent than it may
appear in photos.

Fig 7.8 Handmade Hawthorns

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7.3.4 Mixed Wirecuts:

Wire cut bricks are lighter than solids, making them easier to handle and a favourite of many
bricklayers. Our wire cut bricks are all unused and reclaimed from building site waste. Wire cuts
are fantastic for rendering, painting or bagging over. Colours vary. For large quantities, ask
about our bull nose wire cuts.

Fig 7.9 Mixed Wirecuts

7.3.5 Mixed Solids:

Our mixed solid bricks are perfect for building situations that require solid bricks but don't
require a particular colour of brick. Mixed solid bricks can be used for footings, structural walls,
internal walls or any application in which the bricks will be rendered, painted or bagged over.

All our mixed solid bricks are recycled from building sites around Melbourne. Each brick is
individually hand-cleaned and repalleted ready for reuse in a variety of applications.

Fig 7.10 Mixed Solid

7.3.6 Recycled Creams:

Our cream bricks are all reclaimed locally. Each brick is cleaned and repallated ready for reused.
The creams are a great value solid brick and are a fantastic option for paving, garden walls or
building.
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The white dust you can see on many recycled bricks can be easily washed off using water or by
professional brick cleaners making the finished result brighter and more consistent than it may
appear in photos.

Fig 7.11 Recycled Creams

7.4 Identification of Bricks Quality at Construction Site:

To build a good quality structure, observing quality of materials is important. Here we discuss
about how good bricks are identified at construction site.

 The color of bricks should be bright and uniform.


 They should be well burned and having smooth surfaces and sharp edges.
 Thermal conductivity of bricks should be less and they should be sound proof.
 They shouldn’t absorb more than 20% by weight when we placed it in water.
 When we struck two bricks together, ringing sound should be delivered.
 Structure of bricks should be homogeneous and uniform.
 The bricks should not break when we dropped it form 1m height.
 There should not be any scratch left on the brick when we scratched with finger nail.
 There should not be any white deposits on brick, when we soaked it in water for 24 hrs.

7.5 Properties of recycled Bricks:

Following are the properties of bricks which represents the importance of bricks in construction.
i. Hardness ii. Compressive strength iii. Absorption

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7.5.1 Hardness of recycled Bricks:

A good quality brick will have resistance against abrasion. This property is called hardness of
brick which helps to give permanent nature of brick structure. Because of this property bricks do
not damaged by scraping.

7.5.2 Compressive strength of recycled Bricks

Compressive strength or crushing strength is the property of brick which represent the amount
of load carried by brick per unit area. According to BIS the minimum compressive strength of
brick should be 3.5N/mm2. Crushing strength of bricks reduced when they are soaked in water.
The compressive strength of recycled bricks 16.14Mpa

Table 7. 1 Compressive strength of recycled Bricks

Crushing strength of Bricks Grads


7 – 14 N/mm2 CLASS A
>14N/mm2 CLASS AA

Fig 7.12 Influence of Using Crushed Bricks on compressive strength

7.5.3 Absorption of recycled Bricks:

Bricks are generally absorbs water but having limits. Absorption limit percentage by weight for
different classes of bricks is tabulated below. Bricks are generally absorbs water but having
limits. Absorption limit percentage by weight for different classes of bricks is table below. The
water absorption of Recycled brick 12.54% .
Fig 7.13 Absorption of recycled Bricks

Class of Bricks Water Absorption % by weight


Heavy duty bricks (special made) Only 5%
First class 20%
Second Class 22%
Third Class 25%

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Fig 7.14 Absorption of recycled Bricks

7.6 Effloresce of recycled Bricks:

We know that efflorescence is a fine, white, powdery deposit of water-soluble salts left on the
surface of masonry as the water evaporates. These efflorescent salt deposits tend to appear at the
worst times, usually about a month after the building is constructed, and sometimes as long as a
year after completion. Effloresce of recycled bricked is very slightly.

7.7 Sizes of recycled Bricks:

The size of recycled bricks is (240*115*75)mm

7.8 Uses of Different Types of recycled Bricks

Bricks are widely used in construction industry for different purposes as following.

 Good quality bricks (1st and 2nd class) are used in the construction of buildings, tunnels,
pitching works etc.
 3rd class and unburnt bricks are used for temporary structures.
 4th class bricks are used as aggregate for making concrete.
 Bricks are also used for architectural purposes to give aesthetic appearance to the
structure.

7.9 Type of Test On recycled Bricks:

Various types of tests on bricks are conducted to check the qualities of bricks for construction
purposes. Tests on bricks are conducted at construction site as well as in laboratory. Bricks are
oldest and important construction materials because of their durability, reliability, strength and
low cost. To produce good quality of structure, good quality materials are required. To decide

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the quality of the materials some tests are to be conducted on bricks. The tests which are
required to find the suitability of bricks for construction purposes are discussed below.

7.9.1 Types of Tests On Bricks for Construction Purpose:

Following tests are conducted on bricks to determine its suitability for construction work.

1. Absorption test
2. Crushing strength test
3. Hardness test
4. Shape and size
5. Color test
6. Soundness test
7. Structure of brick
8. Presence of soluble salts (Efflorescence Test)

7.9.1.1 Absorption Test on Bricks

Absorption test is conducted on brick to find out the amount of moisture content absorbed by
brick under extreme conditions. In this test, sample dry bricks are taken and weighed. After
weighing these bricks are placed in water with full immersing for a period of 24 hours. Then
weigh the wet brick and note down its value. The difference between dry and wet brick weights
will give the amount of water absorption. For a good quality brick the amount of water
absorption should not exceed 20% of weight of dry brick.

Fig 7.15 Absorption Test on Bricks

7.9.1.2 Crushing Strength or Compressive Strength Test on Bricks

Crushing strength of bricks is determined by placing brick in compression testing machine.


After placing the brick in compression testing machine, apply load on it until brick breaks. Note
down the value of failure load and find out the crushing strength value of brick. Minimum

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crushing strength of brick is 3.50N/mm2.if it is less than 3.50 N/mm2, then it is not useful for
construction purpose.

Fig 7.16 Crushing Strength or Compressive Strength Test on Bricks

7.9.1.3 Hardness Test on Bricks

A good brick should resist scratches against sharp things. So, for this test a sharp tool or finger
nail is used to make scratch on brick. If there is no scratch impression on brick then it is said to

be hard brick.

Fig 7.17 Hardness Test on Bricks

7.9.1.4 Shape and Size Test on Bricks

Shape and size of bricks are very important consideration. All bricks used for construction
should be of same size. The shape of bricks should be purely rectangular with sharp edges.
Standard brick size consists length x breadth x height as 19cm x 9cm x 9cm. to perform this test,
select 20 bricks randomly from brick group and stack them along its length , breadth and height
and compare. So, if all bricks similar size then they are qualified for construction work

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Fig 7.18 Shape and Size Test on Bricks

7.9.1.5 Color Test of Bricks:

A good brick should possess bright and uniform color throughout its body.

Fig 7.19 Color Test of Bricks

7.9.1.6 Soundness Test of Bricks:

Soundness test of bricks shows the nature of bricks against sudden impact. In this test, 2 bricks
are chosen randomly and struck with one another. Then sound produced should be clear bell
ringing sound and brick should not break. Then it is said to be good brick.

Fig 7.20 Soundness Test of Bricks

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7.9.1.7 Structure of Bricks

To know the structure of brick, pick one brick randomly from the group and break it. Observe
the inner portion of brick clearly. It should be free from lumps and homogeneous.

Fig 7.21 Structure of Bricks

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CHAPTER-8

CONCLUSION AND RECMMONDATION

Conclusions

 Fly Ash Produces various setting times.


 Fly Ash used as cold weather resistance.
 Fly Ash act as higher strength gains, depending on its use.
 Fly Ash can be used as an admixture.
 Fly Ash can substitute for Portland cement.
 Fly Ash considered a non-shrink material.
 Fly Ash produces denser concrete and a smoother surface with sharper detail.
 Great workability.
 Fly Ash reduces crack problems, permeability and bleeding
 Reduces heat of hydration.
 The use of crushed bricks as course aggregate decrease the compressive strength of
concrete
 Using optimum value 25 %-50% of over burnt bricks as aggregate replacement the
strength of concrete increases.
 The splitting tensile strength of crushed brick concretes are lower than that of normal
concrete when fully replaced. The ratio ranged from (0.2-1.4) .
 Use of crushed bricks as coarse aggregate in concrete increases the water to cement ratio
as it increases the absorption of concrete to the water, when used in unsaturated form and
decreases workability.
 Recycled bricks when used in saturated form it increases workability and decreases w/c
ratio.

Recommendation

 The life of road can be increased by improving the concrete durability and quality of
brick sub base.
 The purpose of fly ash mixed with recycled bricks may be used in road concrete.
 The use of recycled aggregates is beneficial in rural roads where the supply of natural
aggregate (gravel) is a big problem.

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