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1
CHAPTER Physics

e
PH YSI CAL QU AN TI TI ES Pr essur e

s
  Angular D isplacement
U N I TS C.G.S. : dyne/cm 2 or g.wt /cm 2 radians

s
 L engt h M.K.S. : newton/m 2 or kg.wt/m 2  Angular Velocit y
C.G.S. : cent imet er M .K .S. or SI Syst em: km/pascal r adians/sec

b
M .K .S. : met er  Wor k L uminous F lux

r

F.P.S. : foot C.G.S. : er g or dyne cm lumen(L n)

r
 M ass M .K .S. : joule or Nm  Solid angle

/
C.G.S. : gr am  P ow er steradians(Sr )
M .K .S. : kilogr am C.G.S. : er g/sec  L uminous I nt ensit y
F.P.S. : pound M .K .S. : wat t Candela(cd) or L umens

m
 T ime  E ner gy
 Candle Power
C.G.S. : second C.G.S. : er g

o
Candela(cd)
M .K .S. : second M .K .S. : joule
 M agnet ic Pole St r engt h

c
F.P.S. : second  Acceleration due to gravity (g):
M .K .S. : weber

.
 Cur r ent M .K .S. : met er /sec2
S.I . : amper e-met r e (A-m)
S.I . : amper e (A)  M oment of F orce:

fb
 M agn et i c I n du ct i on or
 Temper at ur e C.G.S. unit : dyne cm
M agnet ic F lux Densit y
S.I . : kelvin (K ) S.I . unit : newt on met r e (Nm)
newt on/amper e-met r e
 Ar ea  D ensit y:
 I nt ensit y of M agnet ic field
C.G.S. : cm 2 C.G.S. : gr ams/cm 3
C.G.S. : Gauss
M .K .S. : m 2 M .K .S. : kilogr am/m 3
S.I . : Wb/m 2 or t esla
 Vol ume  H eat
 E lect r ic Power
C.G.S. : cm 3 or cc. C.G.S. : calor ie
S.I . : joule (J) joule/sec or wat t
M .K .S. : met er 3
Specific heat  Resist ance
 D ensit y 

C.G.S. : gm/cm 3 C.G.S. : cal/gm°C Ohm


M .K .S. : kg/met er 3 M .K .S. : J/kg°C  Specific Resist ance
 Speed  Cal or i f i c Val u e of Speci f i c Ohm-met r e
C.G.S. : cm/sec ener gy  Quant it y of heat
M .K .S. : met er /sec C.G.S. : cal/gm calor ies
 Vel ocit y M .K .S. : J/kg  Specific heat
C.G.S. : cm/sec  F r equency Cal/gm°C
M .K .S. : met er /sec her t z or Cycles/sec  H ouse hol d consumpt i on of
S.I . : km/sec  Char ge elect r ical ener gy
 M oment um coulombs (C) Kilowat t-hour s
C.G.S. : gm cm/sec  Capaci t y  Electro Chemical Equivalent
M .K .S. : kg.m/sec far ads (F) gm/coulomb
 F or ce  Pot ent i al  Self induct ance
C.G.S. : dyne volts (V) henr y
M .K .S. or SI unit : newt on (N)  Least Count of Screw Gauge  M ut ual induct ance
 T hr ust mm or cm henr y
C.G.S. : dyne or gm wt  U n i ver sal G r a vi t a t i on al  Elect ro M ot ive F or ce
Const ant (G)
M .K .S. : newt on or kg.wt volt s
Nm 2/kg2
1.2 Physics
VALU ES  Permeability of free space (0) = 4× 10– 7 henry/metre
 Light year(ly) = 9.46 × 1012 km  Rel at i ve per m ea bi l i t y of a di am agn et i c
 Distance of moon from Earth = 3.85 × 105 km substance r  1
 Distance between Earth and the Sun = 1.5×1011 km  Rel at i ve per m eabi l i t y of a pa r am a gn et i c
 N umber of Satellites of Jupitor = 14
substance r  1
 1 Astronomical U nit (1 AU ) = 1496 × 1011 met r es
 Rel at i ve per m eabi l i t y of a f er r om a gn et i c

e
substancer  1
 Per sec(largest unit of distance) = 3.26 light year
1 kilo ohm = 103 ohm

s

 Velocity of light = 3 × 108 met r e/sec
1  1 M ega ohm = 106 ohms

s
 Time period of earth = 365 days
4  Specific resistance of copper at 20°C = 1.7  10– 8
 1 metre = 100 cm

b
 Value of M echanical equivalent of heat
 1 kg = 1000 gr ams

r
= 4.18 joules/calor ies
 Least count of Vernier callipers = 0.01 cm or 0.1 mm

r
 1 Watt H our = 3600 wat t -second
 1 cubic meter = 1000 lit r es

/
 1 Litre = 1000 cubic cms
 1 Kilowatt Hour = 36  105 watt-second = 3.6 × 106 Joule
 1 gm/cubic cm = 1000 kg/met r e  1 M ega watt = 106 wat t
 Relative density of mercury = 13.6 Electro-chemical equivalent of gold = 0.0006812

m

 Density of water = 1 gm/cm 3 gm/Coulomb

o
 1 Square metre = 10,000 cm 2  1 M eV = 1.6  10– 12 joules
 N umerical value of G = 6.67 × 10– 11Nm 2/kg2 1 a.m.u = 931.5 M eV

c

5

.
 1 km/hour = met r es/sec  Energy gap of a conduct or = zer o
18
1 Energy gap of a semi conductor = 1 eV

fb

 1 newton = 105 dynes
 1 gm. weight = 980 dynes
 Velocity of sound in air at 0°C = 330 m/sec
 1 kg. weight = 9.8 newt ons  Velocity of sound is air at 25°C = 351 m/sec
 N ormal temperature of H uman body = 36.9°C or  1 farad = 106 M icr ofar ads
98.4°F  Wave-lengt h ranges
 M elting point of water = 0°C (i ) Visible spect r um: 0.4 m t o 0.7 m
 Boiling point of pure water = 100°C (ii ) I nfr ar ed spect r um: 0.7 m t o 100 m
 M elting point of wax = 60°C (iii ) M icr o waves: 10 m t o 10m
 Freezing point of mercury = – 39°C (iv) Radio waves: 1 m t o 10 km
 Velocity of sound in vaccum = 0 (v) Ult r a violet spect r um: 0.4 m t o 1 nm
 Time period for a seconds pendulum = 2 seconds (vi ) X r ays: 0.001 nm t o 10 nm
 1 H orse Power = 746 wat t s (vii ) Gamma r ays: 0.0001 nm t o 0.1 nm
 1 Kilo watt = 1.34 H or se Power  Ratio of Specific heat of air
 1 Watt = 107 er gs/second Cp
  1.4
 Rat io bet ween coefficient of linear superficial Cv
cubical expansions
 Dielect ric constant value of rubber = 3
 :  : :: 1 : 2 : 3
 H alf life period of radium = 1600 year s
 Audible frequency range = 20 H z t o 20,000 H z
 Dielect ric const ant value of paraffin = 2
 Value of g on M oon = 1.67 m/s2
PH YSI CS F ORM U LAS
 Value of g on Sun = 27.4 m/s2
 Value of g on Earth = 9.8m/s2
Mass M 
 Densit y, d =
 For a freely falling body initial velocity = Zer o Volume  V 
 2 radians = 360° Dist ance t r avel led s
 Speed, V =
 1 radian = 57°18 or 57°29 Time int er val

 Wave length of ruby laser = 6943Å  Displacement s
 Velocit y, V =
 Wave length of H e-N e laser = 6328Å Time t 
 Relat ive permeability of air vaccum = 1  For ce, F = M ass(m)  Acceler at ion (a)
Physics 1.3
 Weight = M ass(m)  Acceler at ion due t o gr avit y (g)  A  Dm 
sin 
Thr ust T   2 
 Pr essur e, P =  Refr act ive index of t he pr ism,  =
Ar ea  A  A
sin
 Thr ust , T = Pr essur e (P)  Ar ea (A) 2
1
 Boyle's law: PV = Const ant  Power of a L ense, P =
Focal lengt h in mt sf 
Number of images for med by t wo plane mir r or s at

e

an angle   Relat ion bet ween I , V, H ; I 2 = V2 + H 2

s
360  Char ge, Q = CV
n= 1
Q

s
  Cur r ent , i =
Size of t he image t
 M agnificat ion = 1 q1 q 2
Size of t he object

b
 Coulomb's inver se squar e law F =
sin i 4 0 r 2

r
 Snell's law 12 =
sin r  Newt on's law of univer sal gr avit at ion

r
Relat ion bet ween u, v and f m 1m 2 Fr 2
 (i ) F = G (ii ) G =

/
2
1 1 1 r m 1m 2
 
f u v r2
 Relat ion bet ween g and G, g =
Equat ions of mot ion GM

m

1  Equat ion of mot ion of a body under gr avit y
(i ) v = u + at (ii ) s = ut + at 2 (iii ) v 2 – u 2 = 2as
2 1

o
(i ) v = u ± gt (ii ) h = ut ± gt 2 (iii ) v 2 – u 2 = ±2gh
 Wor k, W = For ce (F)  Displacement (S) 2

c
 Wor k, W = F  S cos   Equat ion of mot ion for a fr eely falling body

.
Work W  1 2
 Power, P = (i ) v = gt ...(u = 0) (ii ) h = gt (iii ) v 2 = 2gh
Time  T  2

fb
 Pot ent ial Ener gy (P.E.) = mgh  M aximum height r eached by a body t hr own up,
1 2 u2
 K inet ic Ener gy (K .E.) = mv h=
2 2g
 Moment of force, M = Force(F)  Perpendicular distance u
M echanical advant age of wheel and axle  Time of ascent =

g
Radius of t he wheel u
= Time of descent =
Radius of t he axle 
g
 M echanical advant age of scr ew jack
2u
Cir cumference of t he scr ew  Time of flight =
= g
Pit ch of t he scr ew
M ass  Velocit y on r eaching t he gr ound
 Densit y = (i ) v = 2gh (ii ) u = 2gh
Volume
Densit y of t he subst ance Angular displacement
 Specific gr avit y =  Angular velocit y,  =
Densit y of Wat er Time int erval
 Quant it y of heat , Q = mst Also, v = r
Heat pr oduced M agnit ude, L = mvr = mr 2
 Calor ific value = 
Unit mass v2
H eat ut ilised Qu   Cent r ipet al acceler at ion, a =
 Ther mal efficiency = r
Tot al heat pr oduced Q1  mv 2 2
 Cent r al for ce, F =  m r
 Fundamental pr inciple of calorimetr y r
H eat lost by hot body = H eat gained by cold body  v2 
 Banking angle,  = t an – 1  
 Velocit y of sound, V = m  rg 
 Wor k done W 
 Dist ance bet ween a cr est and at r ough =  Elect r ic pot ent ial, V =
2 Char ge Q 
 Distance between two consecutive rests or tr ough =   Potent ial differ ence of cells connect ed in ser ies
 Newt on's for mula : E = E 1 + E 2 + E 3 + ...
E
Velocit y of sound in a gas, V =  Ohm's law : V = iR
P
1.4 Physics
l  Beam Balance: To measur e mass of a subst ance
 Resist ance, R = 
A  Density bottle: To det er mine r elat ive densit y or
A specific gr avit y of liquids
 Specific r esist ance,  = R
l  H ydraulic machine: To pr ess bales of cot t on and
 Resist ances connet ed in ser ies, R = R1 + R2 t o pr ess oil seeds for get t ing oil
R1 R 2
 Resist ance ar e connect ed in par allel : R =  Barometer: To measur e at mospher ic pr essur e
R1  R 2

e
 Altimeter: Used in air cr aft t o measur e alt it udes
V2
Elect r ic power, P = V.i = i R = ...(V = iR) Clinical T hermometer: To measur e t emper at ur e

s
2 

R of human body

s
 Elect r ical wor k done, W = Vq  Six maximum and minimum T hermomet er: To
 Elect r ical wor k done, W = Vit measur e maximum and minimum t emper at ur e at a

b
 Elect r ical wor k done, W = Vq = i 2Rt place

r
i 2 Rt  Pressure cooker: House hold it em or appliance used
 H eat developed, Q = for cooking

r
J
Far aday's fir st law : M = Z.i.t  Periscope: U sed in submar ines t o see object s on

/

 Far aday's second law : t he sur face of wat er
M 1 : M 2 : M 3 = E 1 : E 2 : E 3 = Z 1 : Z2 : Z3  Kaleidoscope: To obser ve a number of images wit h
wonder ful designs and colour s

m
 i
 M agnet ic induct ion, B = 0  Concave mirror: Used as a r eflect or in head light s
2 r
of vechicles; Dent ist s and ENT specialist s used t o

o
 For ce act ing on a cur r ent car r ying conduct or placed
see smal l i nner par t s of t hr oat , nose. used as a
in an ext er nal magnet ic field, F = ilB
shaving mir r or

c
V1 n 1

.
   Convex mirror: U sed in t el escopes; Ar r anged i n
V2 n 2
fr ont of t he dr iver of a vechicle
V1 i 2 n 1

fb
    M agnetic compass: Used t o know posit ion of ship
V2 i 1 n 2 in mid sea and t o dr ive it in r equir ed dir ect ion for
 Alber t Einstein's mass, ener gy equivalence, E = mc2 r eaching t heir dest inat ions
 Electro magnets: Used in tape r ecorders, speaker s,
dynamos and motors
DEVI CES AN D I TS U SES
 Volt aic cell: Chemi cal ener gy i s conver t ed i nt o
 Sonometer: To measur e fr equency of a t unning for k elect r ical ener gy
 Vernier callipers: To measur e lengt hs accur at ely  Dry cell: Used in radios, torch lights, tape records etc.
 M easuring Jar: To measur e volume of liquids in  Telegraph: Used in sending messages t o a dist ance
millilit r es. place in a ver y shor t t ime
 M easur ing flask and pipet t e: To obt ai n fi xed  Electric iron: To pr ess t he clot hes
amount of liquid
 Soldering gun: To connect var ious element s in a
 Burette: To deliver any required volume of a liquid upto cir cuit
its maximum capacity
 Electric stove: For cooking or boiling of wat er, milk
 Common balance: To measur e mass of a body et c.
 Spring balance: To find weight of an object  H ydrometer: To deter mine specific gr avity of liquids
 Compression spring balance: To find weight of a  Calorimeter: To measur e quant it ies of heat
per son  Bomb calorimeter: To det er mine calor ific value of
 Postal balances: Used in Post offices fuels and foods
 Table or scale balances: Used in fancy shops and  Astronomical telescope: To view dist ant st ar s and
sweet shops planets
 Platform balances: Used in Railway st at ions, I r on  Terrestrial telescope: To view dist ant object s on
and har dwar e shops and in par cel offices t o weight ear t h
heavy weight s  Dip circle: To det er mine dip of a place
 M icro balances: To measur e mass of a subst ance  Gold leaf electroscope: To det ect pr esence of st at ic
upt o one micr ogr am elect r icit y over a body
 Electronic balances: Used in jewellar y shops  Coolidge tube: I n pr oduct ion of X -r ays
 Single pan analytical balance: Used in laboratories  Screw Gauge: To measur e t hickness of a t hin glass
 Clocks: To measur e t ime plat e and diamet er of a t hinwir e or a small spher e
Physics 1.5
 Gravity meters: To find value of ‘g’ at a given location  N on-luminous bodies: ear t h, moon, chair
 Spring balance: To det er mine weight of a body  M edium: air, glass, wat er, vaccum
 Cent rifuge: To separ at e par t icles of higher mass  Transparent subst ances: gr ound gl ass, l ayer of
fr om t hose of lower mass in a given mixt ur e par affin wax, oiled paper
 Simple pendulum:: To det er mine ‘g’ value  N atural magnets: ear t h, bar magnet , H or se shoe
 Ripple tank: Used for demonst r at ion of waves. magnet , r ing magnet

e
 Ammeter: To measur e cur r ent in amper es.  M agnetic substances: ir on, st eel, nickel, cobalt
Voltmeter: To measur e pot ent ial differ ence in volt s

s

 N on-magnet ic subst ances: paper, wood, br ass,
 Rheostat: Used t o r egulat e t he value of a cur r ent aluminium

s
in a cir cuit  Physical effort: pushing, pulling, t ur ning, bending
 Resitance: Opposes t he flow of elect r ons t hr ough
M ental effort: memor ising a poem, solving a pr oblem

b

t he conduct or
 Renewable source of energy: sol ar ener gy, wind
Tap-key: Used t o make or br eak an elect r ic cir cuit

r

ener gy, wat er power, biomass ener gy
Cell, battery: Power sour ces

r

 N on-renewable source of energy: coal, oil, nat ur al
 Voltameter or Elect rolytic cell: Vessel i n which

/
gas
elect r olysis t ake place
 Elect ric mot or: Devi ce whi ch conver t s el ect r i cal  Energy crisis: solar ener gy, t idal, nuclear ener gy
ener gy int o mechanical ener gy  Fuels: pet r ol, ker osene, diesel, coal

m
 AC D ynamo or AC Gener at or : Devi ce whi ch  Simple machines: wheel and axle, scr ew-jack
conver t s mechanical ener gy int o elect r ical ener gy  Wheel and axle: winches, capstans, drills, tap handles

o
 Tr ansfor mer : Devi ce whi ch ei t her i ncr eases or  Primary colours: r ed, gr een, blue
decr eases magnit ude of an alt er nat ing volt age and

c
 Secondary colours: yell ow, magent a, cyan.
ior n cor e t o minimise power losses

.
 Lenses: convex, concave
 N uclear reactor: Used in Nuclear Power St at ions
t o dr ive t ur bines of t he elect r ic gener at or syst em  Optical syst ems: t elescopes, micr oscopes

fb
 Diodes: Used in r ect ifier cir cuit s  Conductors of electricity: copper, aluminium, metals
 P-n junction diode: Used as an elect r onic swit ch  I nsulators: r ubber, glass, wood
 Light emitting diodes: Used in digit al clocks and  Capacit or s: L eydenj ar capaci t or, par al l el pl at e
digital calculat or s capacit or, hor izont al t ype capacit or
 Junciton transistor: Used to stabilise power supplies  Cat hode r ay-t ubes: t el evi si on pi ct u r e t u bes,
 Computer: Used in banki ng, i ndust r y, commer ce comput er display t ubes, t ube light s in t he houses
science, educat ion, weat her pr edict ion, war far e et c.  Flourescent substances: zinc sulphide
 St op wat ch: U sed in r unning r aces, l abor at or i es  Gravity meters: boliden gr avit y met er, gulf gr avit y
t ype inst itut es met er
TERM S AN D TH EI R EXAM PLES  L inear mot ion or Tr anslat or y mot ion: mot i on
 Opaque bodies: st one, met als, wood, human body of t he bus
 Transparent bodies: glass, wat er  Oscillatory or Vibratory motion: pendul um of a
 N atural fibres: cot t on, jut e, wool wall clock
 Artificial fibres: nylon, dacr on, or lon  Gaseous laser: helium- neon laser
 Self-luminous body: sun, st ar s, bur ning candle  Solid laser: r uby laser
 Fundamental units: lengt h, mass and t ime  Diamagnetic substances: air, wat er, bismut h, gold
 Derived units: ar ea, volume, densit y  Par amagnet ic subst ances: oxygen, mangenese,
 Scal ar quant i t y: l engt h , mass, t i m e, vol um e, aluminium, plat inum, chr omium
t emper atur e  Ferromagnet ic substances: ir on, cobalt , ni ck el
 Vector quantity: displacement , velocit y, for ce
 Power sources: cell, bat t er y
 Transverse waves: waves pr oduced on str ings, light
 Power consumer: bul b
waves
 Connectors: conduct ing wir es
 Longit udinal waves: sound waves i n a medium,
vibr at ion in spr ing  H eating effects of electric current: elect r ic ir on,
 M usical inst r ument s:
immer sion heat er, elect r ic st ove, elect r ic bulb
(i ) St r inged inst r ument s: sit ar, violen, veena  N at ur al r adi o act i ve subst ances: u r ani u m ,
(ii ) Dr um inst r ument s: mr idangam, tabala t hor ium, r adium, act inium
((iii ) Blow t ype inst r ument s: flut e, clar inet  I sotopes: 2010Ne, 2110Ne, 2210Ne; 1H 1 1H ,21H 3
 I sobars: 4019K , 4020Ca, 136C, 137N
1.6 Physics
 Radio isotopes: r adio act ive sodium, r adio act ive SCALAR AN D VECTOR QU AN TI TI ES
cobalt , r adio act ive iodine Scalar Quant it ies
 Semi-conductors: gr aphite, pur e ger manium, silicon Physi cal quant i t i es possessing magni t ude onl y ar e
 Trivalent atoms: gallium, indium, aluminium, boron called scalar quant it ies.
 Pentavalent atoms: ar senic, ant imony, phosphor us e.g. ar ea, lengt h, volume, mass and speed ar e scalar
quantities.
M OT I ON

e
Pr essur e, elect r ic cur r ent s ar e scaler quant it y.
A body if changes it s posit ion wit h r espect t o anot her,

s
t hen it is called mot ion . Ever y one knows t hat even Vect or Quant it ies
ear t h i s not st at i onar y. H owever, for al l par t i cal Physical quantities that can be r epr esented completely

s
applicat ions, ear t h is asssumed as st at ionar y. Thus a by magnitude and dir ection ar e called vector quantities.
body can be said in mot ion if it changes it s posit ion e.g. velocit y, acceler at ion, weight , momentum, cur r ent

b
wit h r espect t o ear t h. densit y and for ce ar e vect or qunt it ies.

r
Types of M otion VELOCI TY

r
1. U nifor m mot ion. The r at e of change of displacement i n a par t icul ar

/
I f a body cover s equal dist ances in equal int er vals of dir ect ion is called velocit y .
t ime, it is said t o be moving wit h unifor m mot ion or I t is a vect or quant it y. I t s unit is m/s.
mot ion of body is unifor m. 
 Displacement s
  m /s

m
2. N on-uniform mot ion or Var iable mot ion Mathematically, Velocity, V =
Time t 
I f a body cover s unequal distances in equal int er vals
U nifor m velocit y

o
of time, then it is said to be moving with non-unifor m
or var iable mot ion. I t a body moving in a par ticular dir ection, cover s equal

c
dist ances in equal int er vals of t ime, it is said t o be

.
ORI GI N moving wit h unifor m velocit y. Alt er nat ively a body is
Any ar bit r ar ily select ed fixed point wit h r espect t o said t o be moving wit h unifor m velocit y if it s speed
which t he posit ion changes is known as or igin.

fb
and dir ect ion does not change wit h t ime.
DI STAN CE Var iable velocit y
 I t is t he act ual lengt h cover ed by a body dur ing t he
A body is said t o be moving wit h var iable velocit y if it
whole jour ney.
cover s unequal dist ance in equal int er vals of t ime.
 I t is a scalar quant it y.
A body is said t o be moving wit h var iable velocit y if
 I n SI unit s, it is measur ed in met r es(m).
(1) dir ect ion of mot ion changes, or
DI SPLACEM EN T (2) speed changes or
 I t can be defined as t he dist ance t r avelled by a body
(3) bot h dir ect ion and speed changes.
in a par t icular dir ect ion.
 I t is a vect or quant it y. Physi cal Quant ity S.I . U nit s Symbol
 I t is t he shor t est dist ance bet ween any t wo point . Dist ance met r e m
Displacement met r e m
 I n SI unit s, it is measur ed in met r es(m).
M ass kg kg
SPE E D Time second s
 The rate of change of movement (distance) is called speed. Speed met ers per second ms– 1
 I t is a scalar quant it y. Velocit y met ers per second ms– 1
 I n SI units it is measur ed in metr es per second(m/s). Acceleration met ers per second ms– 2
di st ance d  square
 Mathematically, Speed =
Angular veloci ty radians per second rad s
–1
t ime t 
Aver age speed ACCELERAT I ON
I t is t he dist ance t r avelled by body per unit t ime. The r at e of change of velocit y is called acceler at ion .
M at hemat ically, Aver age speed  
 Change in velocit y v  u 
Tot al dist ance t ravelled by t he body Acceler at ion, a =
= Time  t 
Time t aken by t he body t o cover Types of Accelerat ion
t he t ot al dist ance
1. U nifor m acceler at ion.
U nifr om speed
I f a body cover s equal dist ances in equal int er vals of I f velocity of a moving body increase by equal amount
t ime, t hen it is said t o be moving wit h unifor m speed. in equal inter vals of time, then it is said to be moving
wit h unifor m acceler ation .
Physics 1.7
2. Var iable acceler at ion. When body goes away fr om t he ear t h, t hen its velocit y
I f vel ocit y of a moving body changes by unequal goes on decr easi ng cont i nuousl y. The val ue of g i s
amount s in equal inter vals of t ime, t hen it is said t o t ak en as negat i ve for such cases for sol vi ng t he
be moving wit h var iable acceler at ion . pr oblems of physics
RE TARD AT I ON 1 2
Thus v = u – gt , s = ut – gt , and v 2 – u 2 = – 2gs
I f final velocity of a body is less than the initial speed, 2
then it is called deceleration and the body is said t o be or v 2 = u 2 – 2gh

e
u n der goi n g r et ar dat i on . F or al l m at h em at i cal
M OM EN T OF A FORCE

s
calculations, it is taken as acceleration with minus sign.
The turning effect produced by a force is called its moment .
GRAPH S

s
F1 F2
Gr aphs ar e used for conveni ent ly r epr esent ing t he
F 1 l = F 2 l
given dat a on t wo mut ually per pendicular axes.

b
A B
For t he pr oper ly plot t ed gr aphs, we can find out t hose l l

r
values which ar e not given on t he dat a.
wher e, F 1 = F 2 = for ces act ing on t he ends of a bar

r
Average velocit y ( vavg)
l = ar m of moment
It is defined as the velocity of a moving body per unit time.

/
Unit s : N-m in S.I syst em.
Tot al dist ance t ravelled S
M at hemat ically, v avg = = Newt on is a unit of for ce. I t is equal t o t he for ce whi ch
Tot al t ime t ak en t pr oduces accel er at i on of 1 m/s2 i n a mass of 1 k g

m
I n t he case of a unifor mly acceler at ed mot ion,
 1 N = 1 kg  m 2; 1 N = 105 dyne
u+v
v avg = KI N EM ATI CS

o
2 I t is t he st udy of mot ion of object s independent of t he
wher e, u = init ial velocit y, v = final velocit y
causes of mot ion. I t is also gener ally independent of

c
Angular velocit y () t he object t hat is moving.

.
 The r ate of change of angular displacement is called M oment um
angular velocit y . I t is equal t o pr oduct of mass and velocit y of a body. I t

fb
 The velocity of a body moving in a cir cle is measur ed is a vect or quant it y and is r epr esent ed by ‘P’.
in r adians/ seconds (r ad s– 1). P=mv
Angular displacement i n radians  Unit s : kg-m/sec in SI syst em
= or  =
Time t ak en t L aw of Conservat ion of M oment um
wher e,  = angular displacement M oment um can neit her be cr eat ed nor dest r oyed but
E quat ions of mot ion can be changed fr om one for m t o anot her for m.
Consi der mot i on of a body, movi ng wi t h uni for m When t wo or mor e bodies int er act mut ually, t hen sum
acceler at ion. t ot al of moment um r emains unchanged unless t hey
L et u is init ial velocit y and a is acceler at ion of t he ar e act ed upon by some unbalanced ext er nal for ce.
body. Then F ORCE
Final velocit y of t he body v = u + at ...(i ) For ce is agency which pr oduces or t ends t o pr oduce,
destr oys or tends to destr oy, the state of r est or unifor m
Since body is moving wit h unifor m acceler at ion, t hen
mot ion of a body.
uv
Aver age velocit y of t he body, v ar g = I t also changes shape and dir ect ion of a body.
2
I t SI syst em it is measur ed in newt on(N).
1 2
Dist ance cover ed by t he body, s = ut  at For example a ball on a table moves when it is pushed. It
2
shows that the ball needs a force to change its state of rest.
1
Dist ance cover ed in n t h second s = u  a 2n  1 Types of Force
2
M ot ion under gr avit y I n nat ur e we obser ve a number of for ces.
When a body falls t owar ds t he ear t h, it s velocit y goes 1. M uscular force : I t is exer ted in lifting heavy bodies.
in incr easing continuously. The body is said to be falling 2. Force of friction : It helps us to move on smooth roads.
under gr avit y. 3. M agnetic force of at t ract ion : I t i s r esponsi bl e
When a body falls under gr avit y, it cont inuously gains for an ir on r od at t r act ed by a magnet .
acceler at ion g. 4. Gravitational force : I t pulls all bodies towards the
Thus equat i ons of mot i on of a body fal l i ng under centr e of the earth.
gr avit y ar e wr it t en as 5. Cohesion and Adhesion : Ther e ar e for ces of
1 at t r act ion bet ween molecules.
v = u + gt ; s = ut + gt 2 ; v 2 = u 2 + 2gs = u 2 + 2gh 6. N uclear force : Ther e ar e ver y shor t r ange for ces
2
I n t hese equat ions, ‘a’ is r eplaced by g. t hat keep t he nuclear par t icles t oget her.
1.8 Physics
I N ERT I A Angular velocit y ()
I ner t ia is a measur e of mass of a body. Gr eat er t he I t i s def i n ed as t h e r at e of ch an ge of si n gu l ar
mass of a body gr eat er will be it s iner t ia or vice ver sa displacement of a body.
when any vechicle st ar t s suddenly, the passenger falls I f a body descr ibes a small angle  in small int er val
backwar d. I t is due t o iner t ial pr oper t y of t he body. of t ime t , t hen
I M PU L SE 
The pr oduct of for ce and time for which it acts is called =

e
t
impulse. I t is a vect or quant it y. Unit of angular velocit y is r adians per second(r ad s– 1).

s
I mpulse = For ce  Time
TI M E PERI OD

s
The unit s of impulse is Ns.
The time per iod of a body r evolving about a fixed points
N EWTON ’S LAWS OF M OTI ON is defined as t he t ime t aken by it t o complet e one full

b
F irst law r evolut ion. I t is denot ed by T.

r
A body cont inues t o r emain in st at e of r est or unifor m FREQU EN CY ( n)

r
mot ion in t he same dir ect ion in a st r aight line unless Fr equency of a body r evolving about a fixed point (or a
act ed upon by some ext er nal unbalanced for ces. fi xed axi s) i s defi ned as t he number of compl et e

/
Second law r evolut ions made by it in a unit t ime.
The r at e of change of moment um of a body is dir ect ly n = 1/T
pr opor t ional t o t he implied for ce and t akes place in

m
Relat ion bet ween Angular velocit y, Time
t he dir ect ion of t he for ce per iod and F r equency
mv

o
F 1
i.e or F = ma  = 2  = 2 n
t T

c
T hir d law Relat ion bet ween L inear and Angular velocit y

.
To ever y act ion t hr er e is equal and opposit e r eact ion v=r
i .e. F1 = – F2

fb
M agnit ude of t he linear velocit y of a par t icle moving
F or mulae of M ot ion i n a ci r cl e i s pr oduct of t he angul ar vel oci t y and
 For ce = mass  acceler at ion dist ance of t he par t icle fr om t he axis of r ot at ion.
 M oment um = mass  velocit y CEN TRI PETAL FORCE
 Newt on is a unit of for ce. One newt on is t hat much I t is t he for ce t hat comples a body t o keep moving in a
f or ce w h i ch pr odu ces i n a m ass of 1 k g an cir cular path with a constant speed and is directed along
acceler at ion of 1 m/s2 r adius of t he cir cle t owar ds it s cent r e.
 SI unit of moment um is kgm/s, velocit y is m/s
mv 2
Cent r ipet al for ce F = = mr 2 ...(v = r )
 S.I unit of acceler at ion is m/sec2
r
wher e m is mass of a par t icle moving along a cir cle of
RE ACT I ON r adius r wit h a unifor m speed v.
When t wo for ces act ing on t wo bodies in cont act ar e CEN TRI FU GAL FORCE
equal and opposit e, t hen one of the ot her for ce is called
I t is defined as t he for ce of r eact ion
react ion . 
v
exer t ed by a body moving unifor mly 

v
ROTATORY M OTI ON along a cir clular pat h on t he ext er nal

F O
F

A body is said t o possess mot ion of r ot at ion if agen t w h i ch i s pr ov i di n g t h e


(i ) all t he par t icles of t he body move in cir cles wit h cen t r i pet al f or ce, by vi r t u e of i t s v

t heir cent r es lying on t he axis of r ot at ion, and const ant t endency t o t r avel along a st r aight line pat h.
(ii ) all t he posit ion vect or s sweep out t he same angle The cent r ifugal for ce act s along t he r adius but in t he
in a given t ime int er val. out war d dir ect ion.
Angular D isplacement M OM EN T OF I N ERTI A (M .I .)
I f a par t icle moving in a cir cle, t hen it may be defined M .I . of a r igid body, about a given axis of r ot at ion
as the angle swept out by t he posit ion vect or in a given i s su m of t h e pr odu ct s m r 2 t ak en f or al l t h e
t ime int er val. par t icles const it ut ing t he body, wher e m is mass of a
The S.I . unit of measur ement of angular displacement par t icle and ‘r ’ is it s nor mal dist ance fr om t he axis of
is r adians. Radian is t he angle subt ended at t he ent r e r ot at ion
of a cir cle by an ar c of lengt h equal t o r adius of cir cle.  I = mr 2
S Moment of iner t ia is a scalar quantit y. I ts unit is kg m 2.
360
(in r adian) = ; 1 r adian =  57.3
r 2
Physics 1.9
WORK, POWER AN D EN ERGY 3. Square of the per iod of revolution of the planet r ound
W ORK t he sun is dir ect ly pr opor t ional t o t he cube of t he
aver age dist ance bet ween planet and t he sun, i.e.
When a body is displaced by t he applicat ion of a for ce,
wor k is said t o be done by t he for ce. T2  r 3
Wor k = For ce  Displacement , or W = F  S N ewt on’s law of Gravit at ion
Ever ybody in t his univer se at t r act s ever y ot her body
Unit s : I n S.I syst em – newt on-met r e or joule and

e
wi t h a for ce, whi ch i s di r ect l y pr opor t i onal t o t he
I n C.G.S syst em – er gs; 1 joule = 107 er gs pr oduct of t heir masses and inver sely pr opor t ional t o

s
POW E R t he squar e of t he dist ance bet ween t hem.
W m 1m 2 m 1m 2

s
The r at e of doing wor k is called power. P =
t M at hemat ically, F  ; or F = G
d2 d2
1 joule wher e m 1 and m 2 = mass of two bodies and d is distance

b
Unit s : wat t and kilo wat t and 1 wat t =
1 sec between them

r
H orse power is anot her unit of power, G = const ant called uni ver sal gr avi t at i onal

r
1 H .P = 746 wat t const ant .

/
EN ERGY Gravitational constant G between sun and earth
The capacit y t o do wor k is called ener gy. N  mt 2
is 6.7  10– 11
Differ ent for m of ener gy ar e int er nal ener gy, kinet ic kg 2

m
ener gy, pot ent ial ener gy, chemi cal, t her mal ener gy, ACCELERATI ON DU E TO GRAVI TY (g)
elect r ical ener gy et c. I t is t he acceler at ion with which a body falls fr eely it is

o
Kinet ic ener gy i n depen den t of m ass of t h e body. T h e val u e of
It is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion. acceler at ion due t o gr avit y is not const ant at all par t s

c
1 on t he ear t h’s sur face.

.
M at hemat ically, K .E = mv 2 GM
2 The aver age value of g is 9.81 m/sec2. g  2
where, m is mass of the body and v is velocity of the body R

fb
Pot ent ial ener gy Thus we find t hat ‘g’ is independent of mass of a body.
I t is t he ener gy possessed by t he body due t o it s some/ I t depends on mass and r adius of t he ear t h.
r est posit ion. M ass of the Earth
P.E. = mgh gR 2
M=
wher e, g = acceler at ion due t o gr avit y G
h = height of the body above the r efer ence point wher e, M = 5.91  1024 kg
L aw of Conservat ion of Energy R = r adius of ear t h = 6.38 106 m
The total energy of a closed system is constant. I t can G = univer al gr avit at ional const ant
neither be created nor destroyed, but can be converted G = 6.67  10– 11 Nm 2/kg2
into one form to other form.
Variat ions in value of g
Relat ion bet ween M ass and Energy (E inst ein’s
equat ion) 1. Var iat ions wit h alt it ude (height ).
Tot al ener gy of body, E = mc2 gh = g 1  2h 
 g 
wher e, m = r elat ive mass of body
where, gh = acceleration due to gr avity at a height ‘h’.
GRAV I TAT I ON
Al l obj ect s possessi ng mass have t he pr oper t y of The value of ‘g’ decr eases wit h incr easing height
gr avitation. (r adius).
Gr avit at ion is t he for ce of at t r act ion bet ween any t wo 2. Var iat ion wit h dept h.
object s of t he univer se. A chair lying in a r oom att r act s Acceler at ion due t o gr avit y at dept h ‘d’
all ot her object s including t he ear t h.
g = g 1  d 
GRAV I T Y  R
I t is the force of attr action between object and the ear th. The value of ‘g’ decr eases wit h incr easing d.
K epler’s laws 3. Variation due t o shape of the eart h.
1. Each planet moves in an ellipt ical or bit wit h t he Ear t h is not a per fect spher e. I t is slight ly bulging
sun at one of it s foci. at t he equat or and flat t ened at t he poles, whi ch
2. The line joining t he planet t o t he sun sweeps equal means t he pol ar r adi us of ear t h i s smal l er as
ar eas in equal int er vals of t ime (or ) compar ed t o it s equat or ial r adius. Thus value of ‘g’
Velocit y of t he r adius vect or joining planet and t he at poles will be mor e t han it s value at equat or, i.e.
Sun is const ant . gpolar > gequait or ial
1.10 Physics
Gr avit at ional pot ent ial ener gy F r equency
GM m The time after which the body r etr aces its path is called
P.E = – t ime per iod and t he number of vibr at ions made in one
R
Negative sign of gravitational potential at a point shows second is called frequency .
that for ce is applied opposite to the dir ection of mot ion 1 1
Fr equency, n = or 
as to move the body without acceler ation due to gr avity. Time per iod T

e
SATELLI TE D isplacement and Amplit ude
Sat ellit e is like a body t hat is r evolving in an or bit The physcial quantity which varies uniformly with time

s
ar ound a compar at ively much lar ger body. in an oscillat or y mot ion is called displacement .

s
e.g. moon is a sat ellit e of ear t h. The maximum value of displacement is called amplitude.
Geost at ionar y sat ellit e. SI M PLE H ARM ON I C M OTI ON

b
I t is t hat sat ellit e which r evolves ar ound t he ear t h A m ot i on i n w h i ch accel er at i on of t h e body i s

r
wit h t he same angular speed in t he same dir ect ion as pr opor t i on al t o i t s di spl acem ent fr om t he mean

r
t hat of t he ear t h ar ound it s axis. Such a sat ellit e is posi t i on and i s al ways di r ect ed t owar ds t he mean
also called geosynchronous sat ellit e. posit ion is called simple har monic mot ion .

/
M ovement of Planet and Satellit es or
4 r 2 Th e m ot i on of f oot of t he
G.M . =

m
T2 per pendicular dr opped fr om
wher e, r = r adius of t he or bit t h e par t i cl e m ov i n g i n a

o
T = per iod of r evolut ion cir cle on t he hor izont al and
ver t i cal di amet er s i s call ed
M = mass of t he sun (for planet ) or of ear t h (for

c
simple har monic mot ion .
an ear t h sat ellit e)

.
Simple H ar monic mot ion is r epr esent ed by
H eight of Geost at ionary sat ellit e
 2 

fb
h = R0 – R y = A sin  t   ; y = A sin (t + )
wher e, R0 = r adi us of fi xed or bi t ar ound t he ear t h T 
wher e, A = amplitude
(42.250 km)
 = angular fr equency
wher e, R = r adius of ear t h(6380 km)
h = 35,870 km  = phase differ ence
Or bit al velocit y (v0) PH ASE
I t is t hat pr oper t y of wave mot ion which t ells posit ion
I t is t he speed of a sat ellit e in it s or bit of the par t icle at any instant. Phase is measur ed eit her
v0 = gR = 6.4  106  9.8 = 7.92 km/s by t he angle which t he par t icle makes wit h t he mean
Escape velocit y (v e) posit ion or by fr act ion of t ime per iod.
The minimum velocit y wit h which a body should be Energy of a particle execut ing S.H .M .
pr oject ed t o over come the ear t h’s gr avit ational field is 1
called t he escape velocit y. E= m2 A 2
2
v e = 11.2 km/s SI M PLE PEN DU LU M
SI M PLE H ARM ON I C M OTI ON The metal sphere is called bob and the point fr om which
PERI ODI C M OT I ON t h e pen du l u m i s su spen ded i s cal l ed cen t r e of
I t is a mot ion which r epeat it self in definit e int er val of
suspension .
t ime. The dist ance between cent r e of suspension and cent r e
of gr avi t y of t he bob i s cal l ed effect i ve l engt h of
e.g. mot ion of sun ar ound ear t h, mot ion of ar ms of a
clock, mot ion of simple pendulum et c.
pendulum .
Oscillat or y or Vibr at or y mot ion l
Time per iod of t he simple pendulum, T = 2
When a body moves t o and fr o on eit her side of a point g
in definit e t ime int er val, t hen t his mot ion is called Seconds pendulum
oscillat or y or vibr at or y mot ion .
I t is the simple pendulum having a time per iod at 2
T ime per iod seconds. Its effective length is 99.992 cm or approximately
I t is time taken by the body t o complete one oscillation. one meter. On ear th, time period of the pendulum in
e.g. mot ion of a mass suspended fr om a spr ing mot ion mines or up the hills is mor e than that on the sea level
of simple pendulum et c. because at these places ‘g’ is less than that on sea level.
Physics 1.11
GEN ERAL PROPERTI ES OF M ATTER BU OYAN CY
At mospher ic pr essur e The pr oper t y by vir t ue of which a body immer sed in a
Air exerts pressure which is called atmospheric pressure. liquid exper ience an upwar d thr ust is called buoyancy .
I f ‘h’ is height of t he at mospher ic air, ‘d’ is densit y of Buoyant for ce
t he air and ‘g’ is acceler at ion due t o gr avit y, t hen Whenever a body is immer sed in liquid an upwar d force
Atmospheric pr essur e = hdg = 76  13.6  980 dyne/cm 2 act s on t he body by t he liquid. This upwar d for ce is

e
called buoyant for ce.
D ensit y
Buoyant for ce depends upon

s
Densit y of a subst ance is defined as t he r at io of it s
mass t o it s volume. (i ) volume (V) of the solid body immersed in the liquid,

s
m (ii ) densi t y of t he l i qui d() i n whi ch t he body i s
=
v immer sed, and

b
Unit s : kg/m 3 (iii ) acceler at ion due t o gr avit y (g)

r
Relat ive densit y
M at hemat ically, Buoyant For ce = V..g
I t is defined as t he r at io of densit y of t he subst ance t o

r
Buoyant force = Weight of the liquid displaced by the body.
t he densit y of t he wat er at 4C.

/
Cent r e of Buoyancy
F l ui d
A fluid may be defined as t hat st at e of mat t er which The point at which t he buoyant for ce act s is called
cannot indefinit ely or per manent ly oppose or r esist a cent r e of buoyancy and is defined as cent r e of gr avit y

m
shear ing st r ess. of t he displaced liquid.
L iquid KI N ETI C TH EORY OF GASES

o
I t is a fluid which alt hough has no shape of it s own, M OLECU LE

c
occupies a definit e volume which cannot be alt er ed, I t is t he smallest par t icle of t he subst ance which has

.
however gr eat t he for ce applied t o it . al l t he pr oper t i es of t hat subst ance and whi ch can
Cent er of pressure r emain in fr ee st at e.

fb
The point of t he plane (immer sed in a liquid) at which AT OM
the r esult ant pr essur e act s is called center of pressur e. I t is the smallest unit of the substance which is invisible
F luid pr essur e and which can not be dest r oyed.
A liquid cont ained in a vessel exer t s a for ce on t he 13
bot t om of t he vessel and on t he sides of t he vessel.  3A 
Radius of at om, r at om = 
This for ce is nor mal t o t he sur face. The pr essur e is  4  N  
defined as for ce per unit ar ea. Avogadr o’s number
Unit s : newt on/m 2 I t r epr esent s t he number of molecules in one mole of
Ar chimedes’s pr inciple any subst ance.
When a body (t ot ally or par t ially) is immer sed in a I t s value is 6.02  1023 per gm mole.
fluid it appears to lose a par t of its weight and appar ent
loss of weight is equal t o weight of fluid displaced. m
Number of molecules   6.02  1023
Appar ent weight of t he body = Act ual weight of t he M
body – Upt hr ust wher e, m = mass of t he subst ance
L aws of F loat at ion M = moleculer weight
L et a body of weight W is immer sed in a fluid and W  is STATES OF M ATTER
t he upt hrust . Ther e ar e mainly t hr ee st at es of mat t er viz., solid,
1. I f W > W, t hen body will sink. liquid and gas
2. I f W = W, t hen body float s wit h whole of it s volume 1. Solids : The molecules of solid ar e ver y close t o
inside t he liquid. each ot her, t her efor e int er nal for ces of at t r act ion
3. I f W < W, t hen body will float wit h some of it s par t ar e ver y st r ong. M olecules of t he solid can not move
out side t he liquid fr om one place t o another place but they can vibr at e
Pascal’s law simple har monically about t heir mean posit ions.
Pressure applied at any point in the fluid is tr ansmitted 2. Liquids : The molecules of liquids ar e much closer
equally and undiminished t o all par t s of t he fluid. i n compar i son t o t he mol ecul es of a sol i d . The
Boyle’s law inter molecular for ces of at t r act ion ar e smaller than
Volume of a given mass of a gas var ies inver sely as t hat of solid. The molecules of a liquid ar e fr ee to
pressure of gas provided temperatur e remains constant. move with the volume of the liquid but velocit y of
1 the molecules is much less t han that of the gases.
P or PV = const ant .
V
1.12 Physics
3. Gases : I n t his stat e of matt er, t he distance bet ween K i localor i e.
t he mol ecules i s ver y l ar ge. The int er molecular I t i s t h e am ou n t of h eat r equ i r ed t o r ai se t h e
for ces of attr action acting between the molecules ar e t emper at ur e of 1 kg of wat er t hr ough 1C.
ver y small, ther efor e gases do not have a definite 1kcal = 1000 calor ies
shape (or ) definite volume.
T her mal E quilibr ium
Kinet ic t heory and Gas pressure
When t wo bodies come in cont act in such a way t hat
The pr essur e of a gas i s t he r esul t of cont i nuous

e
no t r ansfer of heat t ak es pl ace fr om one body t o
bombar dment of t he gas molecules against t he walls
an ot h er , t h en t h e bodi es ar e sai d i n t h er m al

s
of t he cont ai ner and i s equal t o t ot al moment um
equilibr ium.
impar t ed per second per unit ar ea of t he walls of t he

s
cont ainer by t he bombar ding molecules. T her mal Ener gy
TEM PERATU RE SCALE The sum of i nt er nal k i net i c ener gy and i nt er nal

b
pot ent i al of t he mol ecules of gas i s call ed t her mal
Kelvin scale

r
ener gy (or ) int er nal ener gy of t he gas.
T = (273 + t ) K

r
T E M PERAT U RE
I DEAL GAS
Temper at ur e of a subst ance is t he degr ee of its hot ness

/
I deal gases obey Boyl es and Char l es l aw for al l
condit ions of pr essur e and t emper at ur e. Ther e is no or coldness. Following t hr ee t emper at ur e scales ar e
int er molecular for ce of at t r act ion act ing bet ween t he commonly used for measur ement of t emper at ur e :
1. Celsius scale (C) : Thi s scal e was gi ven by

m
molecules of gases.
Gas equat ion : PV = nRT Cel si us. On cel si us scal e t he t emper at ur e of
melt ing ice, i.e. melt ing point of ice is given t he

o
wher e, P = pr essur e ; T = t emper at ur e ; V = volume
value 0° and t emper at ur e of st eam i s given by
n = number of molecules

c
100°C. This scale has been divided int o 100 equal

.
R = universal gas constant = 8.31 joule/mole-kelvin par t s of degr ees. Since t her e ar e 100 divisions or
Degree of F reedom degr ees on t he cel si us scal e, i t i s al so cal l ed

fb
The t ot al number of co-or di nat es or i ndependent cent igrade scale (cent i = 100 and gr ade = division).
quantities which must be known in order to describe Celsius scale is used par ticular ly in scientific wor k.
completely the position of an object or the state of a system 2. Fahrenheit scale (F) : This scale was given by
is called degrees of freedom of the object or system. Fahr enheit. On Fahr enheit scale, ice point is given
3 t he value of 32° and steam point is given a value of
M onoatomic gas : U = RT 212°, so t hat t her e ar e 212 – 32 = 180 degr ees
2
5 between the t wo fixed points. The Fahr enheit scale
Diatomic gas : U = RT is gener ally used for household t her momet er s.
2
7 6 3. Kelvin scale (K) : This scale was given by Kelvin.
Polyatomic gas : U = RT or RT  3RT On t his scale of temper atur e, ice point has a value
2 2
of 273 K and steam point has a value of 373 K and
Vander Waal equation (Equation of state for real
ther e ar e 372 – 273 = 100 divisions between two
gases)
fixed points. This is also called absolute scale of
 a  temper at ur e.
 P  2   V  b  = RT
V Conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit to Kelvin scale
H E AT TH ERM OM ET RY C F  32 K  273
 =
H EAT 100 180 100
I t is an agent which pr oduces t he sensation of war mt h. Also, K = C + 273
When an object i s heat ed, i t s mol ecul es begi n t o move Types of T hermomet ers
fast er. H eat al ways fl ows fr om a hot t er body t o a
1. L iquid t her momet er s
colder body.
2. Gas t her momet er
H eat is measur ed in calor ie or K ilocalor ie. SI unit of
heat is joule (J). 3. Plat inum t her momet er
H eat ing and Cooling of subst ances 4. Ther moel ect r i c t her momet er
On cooling gases become liquid. When liquids are heated 5. M agnet ic t her momet er
they change to gases and when solids ar e heated, t hey 6. Opt ical pyr omet er.
change to liquids. Liquids solidify on cooling. Specific H eat
Calor ie. I t is defined as t he amount of heat in calor ies r equir ed
I t i s t h e am ou n t of h eat r equ i r ed t o r ai se t h e t o r aise t he t emper at ur e of a unit mass of a subst ance
t emper at ur e of 1 gm of wat er t hr ough 1C. by 1°C(or 1°K).
Physics 1.13
SI unit : joules per kilograme per kelvin, i.e. J- kg– 1 K – 1. Coefficient of linear expansion () : I t i s t he
 Specific heat of wat er is 4200 Jkg– 1 K – 1. incr ease in lengt h per unit lengt h of a solid when
 Specific heat of wat er is maximum. it s t emper at ur e is r aised by 1°C.
 Specific heat of copper is 0.093 cal/gm °C, which means 2. Super ficial expansion.
that 0.093 calor ie of heat is r equir ed to r aise the The expansion in ar ea of an object due t o change in
temperature of 1 gm of copper by 1 degree centigrade. t emper at ur e is called super ficial expansion.

e
T her mal capacit y Coefficient of superficial expansion( ) : I t i s
I t i s t h e am ou n t of h eat r equ i r ed t o r ai se t h e t he incr ease in ar ea per unit ar ea of solid when it s

s
t emper at ur e of whole body t hr ough 1°C. t emper at ur e is r aised by 1C.

s
Ther mal capacit y = M ass of t he body  Specific heat 3. Volume expansion or Cubical expansion().
S.I unit : jouls per kelvin(J/K ). T h e ex pan si on of v ol u m e du e t o ch an ge i n

b
The common unit of t her mal capacit y is calor ies per t emper at ur e is called cubical expansion.

r
degr ee, which is wr it t en as cal/ °C or cal °C– 1. EXPAN SI ON OF LI QU I DS

r
Principle of H eat M easurement L iquids do not have definit e shape and size. Ther efor e
When t wo bodies at differ ent t emer at ur es ar e placed t hey have cubical expansion alone.

/
in cont act wit h each ot her, t hen heat will pass fr om Types of Expansion of liquids
t he body at higher t emper at ur e t o t he body at lower I t is of t wo t ypes.
t em per at u r e u n t i l bot h r each t o a com m on

m
1. Appar ent expansion.
t emper at ur e in t his pr ocess.
I t is the expansion of a liquid in which the expansion
H eat lost by one body = H eat gained by t he ot her body.

o
of it s cont ainer has not been t aken int o account .
H eat lost or gained by a body is given by
Coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid

c
Q = m  s  (T 2 – T 1); Q = m.s.t (a) : I t is incr ease in it s volume per unit volume

.
Subl imat ion which appear s to have taken place when it is heated
Dir ect conver sion of solid int o gases st at e i s cal led t hr ough 1C in a expandable vessel.

fb
sublimat ion . Apparent expansion of t he liquid
H oar F rost a =
Or iginal volume  Temper at ure differ ence
Dir ect conver sion of vapour s int o solid st at e is called
2. Real expansion or Absolut e expansion.
hoar fr ost .
I t is the expansion of a liquid in which the expansion
M elt ing
of it s cont ainer has also been t aken in account .
Conver si on of sol i d i nt o l i qui d st at e at const ant
Coefficient of real expansion of a liquid (r ): I t
t emper at ur e is called melt ing.
is t he incr ease in it s volume per unit volume which
Boil i ng act ually t akes place when it is heat ed t hr ough 1C
Evapor at ion wit hin t he whole mass of t he liquid is
Real expansion of t he liquid
cal l ed boi l i ng. Boi l i ng t ak es pl ace at a const ant r =
t emper at ur e called boiling point . Or iginal volume  Temper at ure differ ence
E vapor at i on Anomalous Expansion of Wat er
Conver sion of liquid int o vapour s at all t emper at ur es Wat er ex pan ds an om al ou sl y ar ou n d 4C. I f
is called evapor at ion . I t is a sur face phenomenon. t emper at ur e of wat er at 0C i s i ncr eased, t hen it s
Effect of pressure on melting point of a solid volume decr ease upt o 4C, becomes minimum at 4C
and t hen incr eases. The peculiar behaviour of wat er
The var iat ion of melt ing point wit h pr essur e is given
by t he for mula ar ound 4C is called anomalous expansion of wat er .
Thus volume of wat er at 4C minimum while densit y
dL JL
 at 4C is maximum.
dt T v 2  v 1 
EXPAN SI ON OF GASES
EXPAN SI ON OF SOLI DS Ther e ar e t wo coefficient s of expansion in gases.
Solids expand on heat ing. Dur ing t he expansion of 1. Volume coefficient ( v)
solids, t he dist ance bet ween it s molecules incr eases.
At constant pr essur e, the change in volume per unit
The expansion of solids does not depend on it s mass. v ol u m e per degr ee cel si u s i s cal l ed vol u m e
Types of Expansion of solids coefficient .
I t is of t hr ee t ypes. 2. Pr essure Coefficient ( P)
1. L inear expansion. At const ant volume t he change in pr essur e per unit
Change in lengt h due t o change of t emper at ur e is pr essur e per degr ee cel si us i s cal l ed pr essur e
called linear expansion . coefficient .
1.14 Physics
BOYLE’S LAW 2. Convect ion
At const ant t emper at ur e, t he pr essur e of a definit e I n t his mode of t r ansfer ence, heat is t r ansmit t ed
mass of gas is inver sely pr opor t ional t o it s volume. fr om one par t of body t o anot her par t by t he act ual
1 movement of heat ed par t icles.
At const ant t emper at ur e, P  or PV = const ant .
V
T H E RM OD YN AM I CS

e
It is the branch of physics which deals with the conversion Cold
Convection cur rent
of heat int o mechanical ener gy and vice ver sa.

s
Hot
TH ERM ODYN AM I CAL STATE

s
St and Burner
I t r efer s t o a st at e of a body (or t he syst em) t hat is
com pl et el y def i n ed by pr essu r e, v ol u m e an d 3. Radi at i on

b
t emper at ur e of t he body. I n t his mode of t r ansfer ence, heat is t r ansmit t ed

r
LAWS OF TH ERM ODYN AM I CS fr om one place t o t he ot her dir ect ly wit hout heating

r
Zer ot h law of T her modynamics t he int er vening medium.

/
Wh en ev er t wo bodi es A an d B ar e i n t h er m al e.g. heat fr om Sun r eached ear t h.
equilibr ium wit h anot her body ‘C’, t hen bodies A and Power t r ansmit t ed, P =  A(T 24 – T 14) wat t
B will also be in t her mal equilibr ium wit h each ot her. wher e A = sur face ar ea

m
F ir st law of T hermodynamics  = emissivit y of t he sur face
The heat ener gy given t o a syst em is equal t o incr ease T 2 = t emper at ur e of t he body

o
in int er nal ener gy of t he syst em and wor k done. T 1 = t emper at ur e of t he sur r oundings
dQ = dU + dW or dU = dQ – dW  = St ef an s con st an t (5.6710 8 wat t

c
m et r e2 K – 4 )

.
wher e, dQ = heat ener gy
dU = change in int er nal ener gy Black body

fb
dW = wor k done A per fect ly black body is one t hat absor bs complet ely
I n case of a cyclic pr ocess, U = 0; t hus all t he r adiat ions falling on it .
K ir choff 's law
dQ = dW
At any t emper at ur e and for par t icular wavelengt h,
Second law of T her modynamics
r at io of t he emissive power t o t he absor pt ive power of
H eat can not flow fr om a colder body t o a hot t er body all subst ances is same and is equal t o t he emissive
wit hout some wor k being done by an ext er nal ener gy. power of a per fect ly black body.
T hir d law of T her modynamics e
i.e. = E
The absolute entr opy of a perfectly crystalline substance a
becomes zero at absolute zero temperature(0K). Now, E  = 1; t hus a = e
M ODES OF TRAN SFER OF H EAT wher e, E  = emissive power ;, a = absor pt ive power
Ther e ar e t hr ee modes of t r ansfer of heat . K ir choff 's law signifies t hat good absor ber s ar e good
1. Conduct i on r adiator s.
I n t his mode of t r ansfer ence, heat is t r ansmit t ed TH ERM ODYN AM I C PROCESS
fr om on e par t i cl e t o t h e ot her par t i cl e i n t he Reversible changes for perfect gas
dir ect ion of fall of t emper at ur e. Ther e is no act ual A reversible change always consists of a succession of states
movement of par t icles. of equilibrium in the absence of any dispersive process.
U nder st abl e condi t ons, t he amount of heat ‘Q’ I sochor ic or I sovolumet r ic pr ocess
flowing in a time ‘t’ at r ight angles to the faces of a I t r efer s t o a pr ocess, in which t her e is no change in
wall of which one face is at temper atur e T 1 while the t he volume of t he syst em pr essur e and t emper at ur e
other face is at temper atur e T 2 (T 2 > T 1) is given by may change in such a pr ocess.
T2  T1 Adiabat ic pr ocess
Q = K .A.  t joules I n t his pr ocess, t her e is change in t he heat cont ent (or
f
wher e, K = t her mal conduct ivit y of t he mat er ial ent halpy H ) of t he syst em, i.e. syst em neit her gains
A = ar ea of faces of t he wall nor losses heat .
Also for a per fect gas, equat ion for r ever sible adiabatic
f = t hickness of t he wall.
change is
Coefficient of thermal conductivity(K). I t is t he
Tv – 1 = const ant (or ) T 1v 1 – 1 = T 2v 2 – 1
amount of heat flowing i n one second acr oss t he
opposi t e faces of a 1 cm cube, mai nt ai ned at a and Tp1– / = constant (or ) T 1p11– / = T 2p21– /
t emper at ur e differ ence of 1C. wher e  = cp/cv
Physics 1.15
I sot her mal pr ocess For a r ever sible pr ocess, change in entr opy is given by
B
I n t his pr ocess, t he t emper at ur e r emains const ant , dq
ds = SB – SA =  r ev
i.e. dT = 0 T
A
I sobar ic pr ocess For adiabat ic changes, ds > 0
This pr ocess occur s at const ant pr essur e, i.e. dp = 0 This is valid for r ever sible changes only.
Thus w = pdv = nRdT
SOU N D

e
Q = n.cp dT
WAVE

s
Efficiency of H eat engine
The differ ent shaped vehicle which is r esponsible for
Q

s
 = 1 2 t r ansmi ssi on of ener gy fr om one pl ace t o anot her
Q1 t hr ough a medium wit hout any t r anslation of medium
Coefficient of per for mance in case of r efr iger at or is called a wave.

b
Q2 Q2 Wave mot ion

r
C.O.P. = 
W Q1  Q2 Pr opagat ion of dist ur bance fr om one place t o anot her

r
CARN OT CYCLE is called wave mot ion .

/
I t is a r ever sible cycle and consist s of M ECH AN I CAL WAVES
t wo isot her mal (A  B and C  D) and The waves or iginat ed in an elast ic mat er ial (air, st eel
and wat er ) ar e called mechanical waves.

m
t wo adiabat ic (B  C, D  A) changes. Types of M echanical waves
These ar e of t wo t ypes.

o
1. Tr ansver se waves. T h e par t i cl es of m edi u m

c
vibr at e at r ight angles in t r ansver se waves

.
e.g. pr opagat ion of waves t hr ough a r ope.
A  B i s an i sot h er m al expr essi on at con st an t 2. L ongit udinal waves. The par t i cl es of medi um

fb
t emper at ur e T 2. vibr at e t o and fr o in longit udinal waves
V e.g. sound waves.
Q2 = w 2 = nRT 2 log B  0
VA E lect r omagnet ic wave
B  C is an adiabat ic change in which t emper at ur e El ect r om agnet i c waves ar e f or med by n at ur al l y
change for m T 2 and T 1 per pendicular vibr at ing elect r ic and magnt ic fields.
w = – n.c dT = – n.c (T 1 – T 2) > 0 Pulse
I t is a wave of shor t dur at ion. I t can also called a wave
C  D i s an i sot her mal compr essi on at const ant
of single dist ur bance.
t emper at ur e T 1.
Ampl i t ude
V
Q1 = w 1 = nRT 1 log d  0 I t is t he maximum displacement of the par ticles of t he
Vc
medium fr om t heir mean posit ion.
D  A is an adiabat ic compr ession. Wavelengt h ()
w = – n.c.dT = – n.c (T 1 – T 2) < 0 I t is t he dist ance bet ween near est par t icles which ar e
For t he complet e cycle, du = 0 in t he same st at e of vibr at ion.
w BC + w DA = 0 T ime period (T )
Qcycle = Q2 + Q1 = w 2 + w 1 = w cycle I t is defined as t he t ime t aken by any par t icle of t he
V medi um t o compl et e one osci l l at i on. I t i s al ways
Area of cycle, w cycle = nR(T 2 – T 1)log 2
V1 measur ed in seconds.
w Q 2  Q1 Q F requency (f)
Efficiency,  =  = 1 1 Number of vibr at ions per second is called fr equency .
Q Q2 Q2
1
T2  T1 T1 Mathematically, f=
or =  1 T
T2 T2 wher e T is in seconds.
 is less t han one for a car not cycle. Phase
E nt r opy(s). The phase of an oscillating particle at any instant denotes
dq r ev the position and dir ection of motion of the par ticle at
ds =
T that instant. I t is r epr esented either by the angle which
For a cyclic pr ocess, ds = 0 the particle makes with the mean position or by fr action
Unit s: J/K of wavelength or by fr action of time per iod.
1.16 Physics
E poch 3. Effect of t emper at ure.
I f the particle does not start from mean position at t = 0, The velocit y of sound in air incr eases on r aising
t hen it is said t o possess an init ial phase called epoch . t he t emper at ur e.
I nt ensit y of wave 4. Effect of humidit y.
The amount of ener gy flowing per unit t ime t hr ough Sound tr avels fast er in humid air and slower in dr y
unit ar ea per pendicular to t he dir ection of pr opagation air.
of t he wave is called int ensit y of t he wave.

e
SH OCK WAVES
Unit s : joule/m 2-sec or wat t /m 2

s
I f speed of a body i n ai r is gr eat er t han t he speed of
Pi t ch sound, t hen i t is cal led super sonic speed. Such a body

s
I t i s t he char act er i st i c of sound t hat depends on leaves behind it a conical r egion of dist ur bance whi ch
fr equency. spr eads cont i nousl y. Such a di st ur bance i s cal l ed

b
I t det er mines t he shr illness or gr aveness of sound. A shock wave.
gr ave not e is called low pitched note while a shr ill note

r
RESON AN CE
is cal led high pit ched not e. Smaller t he fr equency;

r
smaller is t he pit ch. Gr eat er t he fr equency, gr eat er is When a body i s set int o vi br at i ons by an ext er nal
per iodic for ce whose fr equency is equal t o t he nat ur al

/
t he pit ch.
fr equency of t he body, t hen ampl it ude of vibr at i on
Wave velocity (c)
i ncr eases at each st ep and becomes l ar ge. Such
I t is t he dist ance t r avelled by t he wave in one second. vi br at i ons ar e cal l ed r esonant vibr at ions and t he

m
I t is also called velocit y of wave.
phenomenon is called r esonance.
M at hemat ically, velocit y of wave, V = n
Condit ion for Resonance

o
wher e,  = wavelengt h of t he wave
Because the sound has to tr avel down the tube and
n = fr equency of t he wave

c
back dur ing one half vibr at ion of the pr ong, length of
I nfr asonic waves

.
the air column for r esonance must be one four th of the
These ar e t he waves wit h fr equencies below audible wavelength of the sound emitt ed by the tuning for k.
r ange, i.e. less than 20 Hz. I nfrasonic waves ar e usually

fb
 2 3
pr oduced by lar ge sour ces. I f lengt h of t he air column is incr eased by , ,
2 2 2
e.g. waves or iginat ing fr om ear t hquakes ... et c, wher e  is wavelengt h of sound in air, we will
Audible waves again obt ain r esonance in each case.
Sound waves in t he fr equency r ange 20 H z t o 20,000 SU PERPOSI TI ON OF WAVES
H z which pr oduces t he sensat ion of hear ing is called Tw o or m or e pr ogr essi v e w av es can t r av el
audible waves. simult aneously in t he medium wit hout effect ing t he
The audible frequency range of dogs is 15 Hz to 50,000 Hz. m ot i on of on e an ot h er . T h er ef or e r esu l t an t
U lt r asonic waves displacement of each par t icle of t he medium at any
Waves with fr equencies above audible r ange ar e called inst ant is equal t o vect or sum of t he displacement s
ult r asonic waves. Waves wit h fr equency above 20,000 pr oduced by t wo waves separ at ely. This pr inciple is
H z is ult r asonic wave. called principle of superposition .
Refr act ion of sound Applicat ion of Pr inciple of Super posit ion
When sound waves travel fr om one medium to another, 1. I nt er fer ence.
t hey ar e deviat ed fr om t heir pat h. Refr action of sound When t wo waves of same fr equency t r avel in a
follows t he same laws as t hat of light medium simultaneously in the same dir ection, then
sin i v due t o t heir super posit ion, t he r esult ant int ensit y
i .e. = 1
sin r v2 at any point of t he medium is differ ent fr om t he
wher e v 1 and v 2 ar e vel oci t i es of sound in t he t wo sum int ensit ies of t he t wo waves. At some point ,
mediums. int ensit y of t he r esult ant wave is ver y lar ge while
D iffr act ion of sound at some ot her point s it is ver y small or zer o. This
phenomenon is called int er fer ence of waves.
Sound waves easily bend r ound t he edges of t he holes
and t he obst acles, t his is called diffr act ion of sound. 2. Beat s.
F act ors affect ing Velocit y of sound in air When two sound waves of near ly equal fr equencies
1. Effect of pressure. ar e pr oduced simultaneously, t hen int ensit y of t he
The change of pr essur e have no effect on t he r esult ant sound pr oduced by t heir super posi t on
velocit y of sound in air (or any ot her gas). incr eases and decr eases alter nately with t ime. This
2. Effect of densit y. r ise and fall int ensity of sound is called Beat s. The
I f densit y of a gas incr eases, t hen velocit y of sound number of maxima (or ) minima heard in one second
in it decr eases. is called beats fr equency.
Physics 1.17
Applications of Beats : Pencil of light rays
(i ) Fr equency of unk nown t unni ng for k can be I t is a gr oup of inclined r ays of light diver ging fr om a
calculat ed. point sour ce or conver ging t o anot her point .
(ii ) M usical inst r ument s can be t uned by r educing
beats.
3. St at ionar y waves.

e
Stationar y wave is for med when two waves of same (a) (b)
fr equency t r avel l i ng i n opposi t e di r ect i ons ar e Beam of light

s
super imposed on each ot her. This is a par t icular As shown in t he figur e t he
phenomenon of inter fer ence of waves. I n stationar y gr oup of par al l el r ays i s

s
waves, t her e is no flow of ener gy in eit her dir ection. called beam of light .
The medi um get s spl i t up i nt o segment s, each D iver gent r ays

b
segement vibr at ing up and down a whole.Ther e I f r ays of l i ght ar e di ver gi ng fr om a poi nt sour ce

r
ar e some par t icles which ar e per manent ly at r est ,
so t hat di st ance bet ween r ays goes on i ncr easi ng
called nodes ‘N’ while others which suffer maximum

r
as t hey m ove f or war d, t hen t he gr ou p i s cal l ed
displacement fr om t he mean posit ion ar e called
diver gent r ays as shown in fi gur e (a) above.

/
antinodes.
Conver gent rays
L ongit udinal st at ionar y waves
These can be pr oduced in a long flexible spr ing or in I f r ays of light ar e conver ging t o a point so t hat t he

m
air column inside a closed end or open end pipe. dist ance bet ween t he r ays goes on decr easing as t hey
move for war d, then t he gr oup is called convergent rays
E lect r omagnet ic waves

o
as shown in figur e (b) above.
These can be pr oduced by r apid vibr at ion of cur r ent in
Parallel r ays

c
a conduct or. I f r esist ance of conduct or is ver y small,
I f successive light r ays keep equal dist ance t hr ough,

.
t hen fr equency of t he oscillat ion is given by
1 t hen t hey ar e par allel r ays.
f= ...  f  n  I M AGE

fb
2 L C
I f a pencil of diver ging fr om a point ‘O’ is caused by
Spect r um of E lect r omagnet ic waves
r eflect ion (or r efr act ion) t o conver ge or t o appear t o
Fr equency (Hz)  104 106 108 1012 1014 1016 1018 1020 1022 diver ge fr om some ot her point I , t hen I is called image
Wavelengt h (m). of t he object ‘O’.
104 102 100 10 – 2 10 – 4 10 – 6 10 – 8 10 – 10 10 – 12 10– 14 Real image
Radio micro U.V, V.L X-rays,  -r ays I f r eflected (or r efr act ed) r ays fr om fir st point act ually
Visible range is comprised of radiations with frequency meet at the second point, then the second point is called
/ wavelengt h r ange : r eal image of fir st point . Real image can be t aken on
t he scr een.
14
Fr equency : 3.84  10 H z < f < 7.69  1014 H z Virt ual image
Wavelengt h : 7.80  10 7 m > l > 3.90  10 7 I f r eflect ed (or r efr act ed) r ays fr om fir st point appear
t o meet at t he second point , t hen it is called vir t ual
r ed violet image of fir st point . I t can not be t aken on t he scr een.
DOPPLER EFFECT REFLECTI ON AN D REFRACTI ON
Whenever t her e is a r elat ive mot ion bet ween sound
Refl ect i on
sour ce and t he obser ver, t her e is an appar ent change
in fr equency of t he sound sour ce. This effect is called I t is bending of l ight t o t he fir st medium fr om t he
Doppler effect . sur face of separ at ion of t he t wo media. The r ays ar e
sen t back by t h i s pr ocess. T h e ph en om en on of
L I GH T r eflect ion of light is shown in t he figur e.
I t is an agent which pr oduces in us t he sensat ion of I ncident ray Reflected ray
sight . I t it self is
invisible but makes t he ot her object s visible. I t may Plane mirr or
be defined as t he r adiant ener gy which pr oduces t he Refr act i on
sensat ion of light . I t is bending of light fr om it s st r aight pat h as it ent er s
M I RROR fr om one medium t o anot her.
I t is a highly polished sur face fr om which most of light
is r eflect ed.
II
RAY OF LI GH T
I t is a st r aight line pat h along which t he t r ansfer of I

light ener gy t akes place.


l
1.18 Physics
M EDI U M Regular r eflect ion
Opt imal medium When a beam of par allel light r ays falls on a shining
A subst ance or any por t ion of space t hr ough which but plane sur face, t he light r ays ar e r eflect ed back in
light can pass is called opt ical medium . I t can be solid, t he same or der. I t is r egular r eflect ion.
liquid or gas.
H omogeneous or I sot r opic medium I nci dent r ay Reflect i ng r ay

e
M edium possessing same opt ical pr oper t ies in all t he
dir ect ions is called homogeneous medium .

s
A B
Tr anspar ent body I r r egular r eflect ion

s
I t is a body t hr ough which light can pass easily, e.g. When light beam falls on r ough but uneven sur face
air, glass et c. t he light r ays r eflect ed back in many dir ect ions. This

b
Tr anslucent body is known as ir r egular r eflect ion. I t gives scat t er ed or

r
I t is the body through which light can pass only partially, diffused light.

r
so t hat object can be seen only indist inct ly, e.g. oiled
paper.

/
I nci dent r ay Reflect i ng r ay
Opaque body
I t is a body which does not allow light t o pass t hr ough A B

m
i t , e.g. br i ck s, wood et c. N o subst ance i s per fect l y LAWS OF REFLECTI ON
t r anspar ent or per fect ly opaque. The r eflect ion of light fr om a plane sur face like t hat of

o
L uminous body a plane mir r or takes place accor ding to two laws which
A body that emits light itself is called as luminous body, ar e called t he laws of r eflect ion .

c
e.g. st ar, sun, fir e et c. F irst law of Reflect ion

.
N on-luminous body The incident r ay t he r eflect ed r ay, and t he nor mal all
A subst ance t hat does not emit light it self is called lie in t he same plane.

fb
non-luminous body. Second law of Reflect ion
REFLECTI ON OF LI GH T The angle of r eflect ion is always equal t o t he angle of
The pr ocess of sending back t he light r ays which fall incidence.
on t he sur face of an object is called r eflect ion of light . i=r
N N or mal TYPES OF M I RRORS
A B 1. Plane mir r or
I nci dent r ay i Refl ect i ng r ay When a plane mir r or is r ot at ed t hr ough an angle ,
r
  M ir r or t hen t he image is r ot at ed t hr ough an angle 2.
M O M 2. Spher ical mir r or
N I t is t hat mir r or whose r eflect ing sur face is t he par t
I ncident r ay of a hollow spher e of glass. Ther e ar e t wo t ypes
The r ay of light or iginat ing fr om t he sour ce and falling ( i ) Concave mir r or
on t he sur face of a mir r or OA is t he incident r ay. I t is that spher ical mir r or in which the r eflection
Point of incidence of light t akes place at t he concave sur face (or
I t is the point at which the incident r ay comes in contact bent in sur face).
wit h t he mir r or. O is t he incident point . M i r r or
Reflect ed r ay IR
The r ay of light which is sent back by t he mir r or is
called r eflect ed r ay . OB is t he r eflect ed r ay.
N or mal R.R
The nor mal is a line at r ight angles to the mirr or sur face
Concave
at t he point of incidence. ON is t he nor mal.
Angle of incidence (i) Sur face
I t is the angle made by the incident r ay with the nor mal ( ii ) Convex mir r or
at t he point of incidence.
I t is that spherical surface at which the r eflectioin
Angle of reflect ion (r) of l i ght t ak es pl ace i s convex sur face or t he
I t is t he angle made by t he r efl ect ed r ay wi t h t he sur face bulges out war ds.
nor mal at t he point of incidence.
Physics 1.19
FOCAL LEN GTH L aws of Refr act ion
Focal lengt h of a concave or convex mir r or is equal t o 1. The incident ray, nor mal to the sur face of separation
half of t he r adius of cur vat ur e at t he point of incidence and r efr act ed r ay lie in t he
r same plane.
f=
2 2. Sine of angle of incidence bear s a const ant r at io t o
Relat ion bet ween Conjugat e dist ances (M ir r or t he sine of angle of r efr act ion, i.e

e
for mul a) sin i
1 1 1 I I = Snell's law 

s
 
I
sin r
v u f wher e, I I I is r efr act ion index of I I medium wit h

s
1 1 1
  r espect t o medium I .
I mage dist ance Object dist ance Focal lengt h
TOTAL I N TERN AL REFLECTI ON

b
L inear M agnificat ion I f angle of incidence is incr eased beyond cr it ical angle,

r
I t is defined as t he r at io of image dist ance t o object ive t hen t he r ay is r eflect ed back int o t he fir st medium.

r
distance. This phenomenon is called t ot al int er nal r eflect ion .

/
v Cr it ical angle
m=
u At a par t i cul ar angl e of i nci dence, t he angl e of
(or ) I t is the r atio which the size of image bear s to the r efr act ion (r ) becomes 90. The angle of incidence(c)

m
size of object. for which t he angle of r efr action is 90, is called cr itical
I angle.
m=

o
O Angle of Disper sion
Ar eal magnificat ion The differ ence in angles of deviat ion of any t wo r ays is

c
called angle of disper sion for t hose r ays.

.
M agnificat ion in ar ea is called ar eal magnificat ion. I t
is given by D i sper si on

fb
Area of image v 2 The separation of white light into its constituent colours
m2 =  by r efr act ion(or ) ot her means is called disper sion of
Area of object u 2
light .
Sign convent ion used in M irrors
A
(1) All dist ances ar e measur ed fr om t he pole of t he
mi r r or. IR
Red
Bl ue
(2) Dist ances opposit e t o t he dir ect ion of incident r ay Whit e l i ght
Yel l ow
ar e t aken as negat ive.
(3) Dist ances in t he dir ect ion of incident r ay ar e t aken B C

as posit ive. D isper sive power


(4) When image is r eal, v is t aken as negat ive. I t is r at io of t he disper sion bet ween any t wo colour s t o
When image is vir t ual, v is t aken as posit ive. t he deviat ion suffer ed in t he same pr ism by t he mean
(5) Focal lengt h of a concave mir r or is negat ive. r ay.
Focal lengt h of a convex mir r or is posit ive.  v  R
(6) Downwar d dist ances ar e t aken as negat ive (– ve). W =  1
y
Upwar d dist ances ar e t aken as posit ive (+ve). CU RVED SU RFACES
REFRACTI ON OF LI GH T I f cur ved sur faces ar e spher ical, t hen t he lenses ar e
When a r ay of light passes fr om one medium t o ot her, called spher ical lenses.
it suffer s a change in dir ect ion at t he boundar y of Types of curved surfaces
separ at ion of t wo media. This is called r efr act ion .
Cur ved sur faces ar e of t wo t ypes.
AON = i = angle of incidence
1. Convex lens (convergent ).
A N Nor mal r ay
I ncident ray
The dist inguishing char acter ist ic of a convex lens is
Medium I
t hat it is t hicker at t he cent r e t han at t he edges.
O Plane mir ror Focal lengt h of convex lens is posit ive.
M M
Medium I I r 2. Concave lens (diver gent ).
i Refr act ion r ay The dist inguishing char act er ist ic of a concave lens
N B
NN = nor mal t o t he sur face at point A is t hat , it is t hinner at t he cent r e t han at edges.
Focal lengt h of concave lens is negat ive.
BON = r = angle of r efr act ion
1.20 Physics
LEN S H ypermet r opia or L ong sight edness
Power of lens I t is t he defect of t he eye when i t cannot see near
I t is it s abilit y t o conver ge or diver ge t he r ays of light . object clear ly. This defect can be cor r ect ed by using a
I t is measur ed as r ecipr ocal of t he focal lengt h of a conver ging lense of cor r ect focal lengt h.
lens expr essed in met r es. At igmat i sm
1 I t is a defect of t he eye when a st r aight object looks as
Power of lens (P) =

e
f  mt s cur ved. I t occur s due t o asymmet r ic cur vat ur e of eye
lens. This defect is cor r ect ed by using cylindr ical lens.

s
L ens formula
T ELESCOPES
The gener al for mula for connect ing object and image

s
dist ance, for bot h t he convex and concave lens is They ar e used t o br ing t he dist ance object s closer and
hence incr eases t he visual angle (i). I t is an opt ical
1 1

b
1 inst r ument .
= 
f v u

r
Types of Telescopes
L ens-M aker 's formula

r
1. Ast r onomical t elescope 2. Ter r est r ial t elescope
For mula for t he r efr act ion t hr ough a lens is 3. Galellion t elescope 4. Reflect ing t elescope.

/
1  1 1  M I CROSCOPE S
=    1  
f  R1 R 2  M icr oscope is an opt ical instr ument which for ms lar ge

m
wher e,  = r efr act ive index of t he lens i mage of a cl ose and mi nut e obj ect . Th i s i m age
subt ends a lar ge visual angle at t he eye so t hat t he
N ewt on's formula for lenses

o
2 object looks lar ge.
x 1x 2 = f
Types of M icroscopes

c
wher e, x 1 = dist ance of object fr om t he fir st focus
1. Compound micr oscope 2. Simple micr oscope

.
x 2 = dist ance of image fr om t he second focus.
3. Elect r onic micr oscope
Combinat ion of t wo lenses in cont act
ABERRATI ON OF LEN SES

fb
1 1 1
Focal lengt h f is given by, =  The image for med by t he lense suffer fr om following
f f1 f 2 t wo main dr awbacks :
Power, P = P1 + P2 1. Spher ical aber r at ion
H U M AN EYE Aber r at i on of t he lens due t o which all t he r ays
Human eye for ms r eal image on the r etina. The eyeball passes thr ough t he lense ar e not focussed at a single
is near ly spher ical chamber and can be r ot at ed in t he point and t he image of a point object placed on t he
socket by means of it s six muscles. The out er coat ing axis is blur r ed, is called spher ical aber r at ion .
called scler ot ic consist s of fibr ous whit e t issues. The
fr ont par t of scler ot ic is t r anspar ent . M ar ginal rays
Fm
A nor mal eye has power of accommodat i on whi ch
Par axi al r ays Fp
enables object s as far as infinit y and as close as 25 cm
t o be focussed on r et ina. Fm
N ear point
The shor t est dist ance at which an eye can see clear ly I t can be r educed by using
is called near point . (i ) stops
L east point (ii ) lens of lar ge focal lengt hs
I t is t he dist ance at which an eye can see clear ly. I t is (iii ) plano-convex lenses
t aken as 25 cm for a nor mal eye. (iv) cr ossed lenses
Visual angle (v) combining convex and concave lenses
The angle which an object subtends at our eye is called 2. Chr omat ic aber r at ion
visual angle. The appar ent size of an object as seen by
our eye depends upon t he visual angle. I mage of a whit e object for med by lens is usually
col our ed and bl ur r ed. Thi s defect of t he i mage
M yopia or Shor t sight edness
pr oduced by lens is called chr omat ic aber r at ion .
I t is t he defect of t he eye when it cannot see far -off
WAVE N ATU RE OF LI GH T
object s clear ly.
M yopia occur s due t o Wavefr ont
(i ) elongat ion of t he eye ball, or The focus of all such par t icles of t he medium which
ar e vibr ating in the same phase at any inst ant is called
(ii ) decr ease in focal lengt h of t he lens.
wavefront .
M yopia is cor r ect ed by a concave lens.
Physics 1.21
I nt erference of light M agnet ic axis
When two light waves of exactly equal fr equency having I t is t he line joining t he t wo poles of a magnet inside
a phase differ ence which is const ant wit h r espect t o it s body.
t ime t r avel in t he same dir ect ion and over lap each M agnet ic mer idian
ot her, t hen t he int ensit y is not unifor m shape. This I t is t he ver t ical plane passing t hr ough axis of fr eely
phenomenon is called int er fer ence of light . suspended magnet .

e
Polar isat ion of light Geogr aphic mer idian
I t is t he only phenomenon in physics which pr oves I t is t he ver t ical plane passing t hr ough t he axis of

s
t hat light is a t r ansver se wave. r ot at ion of t he ear t h.

s
Plane of vibrat ion D eclinat i on
The plane cont aining dir ect ion of vibr at ion and t he I t is t he angle bet ween geogr aphic mer idian and t he

b
di r ect i on of pr opagat i on of l i ght i s cal l ed plane of magnet ic mer idian at t he place.
vibr at ion .

r
M agnet ic lengt h
Plane of polar isat ion The dist ance bet ween poles of t he magnet is called

r
The plane passing thr ough the dir ection of pr opagation magnet ic lengt h . I t is denot ed by ‘2 l ’.

/
an d con t ai n i n g n o vi br at i on s i s cal l ed pl ane of Unit s: met er in S.I . syst em.
polarization .
M agnet ic moment (M )
Br ewest er ’s law

m
I t is pr oduct of t he pole st r engt h (m) and lengt h of
Br ewest er discover ed t hat t her e is a simple r elat ion magnet (2l ) is called magnet ic moment .
bet ween polar ising angle ‘i p’ and r efr act ive index  of

o
 M = m  2l = 2lm
the mater ial r elat ive t o the sur r ounding medium. This
Unit s: Amper e-met er 2 or joule/t esla

c
is called Brewest er ’s law .

.
sin i p M agnet ic flux ()
 = t an i p = The t ot al number of magnet ic lines of for ce nor mal t o
cos i p

fb
a sur face is called magnet ic flux .
The polar ising angle for air glass is 57. Unit s: weber
DOU BL E REFRACTI ON
I ntensity of M agnet ic field (H )
I t was discover ed by Er asmous Bar t hdinous. A r ay of When a magnetic mat er ial is place in a magnetic field,
unpol ar i sed l i ght i nci dent on a cal ci t e (or quar t z) it becomes magnetised. The capability of magnetic field
cr y st al , spl i t s u p i n t o t w o r ef r act ed r ays. T h e t o magnet ise a mat er ial is called magnet ic intensit y of
phenomenon is called double r efr act ion . t he field.
DI FFRACTI ON OF LI GH T B
Bending of light ar ound t he edges of an obst acle, or H =
0
encr oachment of light wit hin t he geomer t ical shadow
Unit s : amp/met r e.
is called diffr act ion of light .
M agnet ic pot ent ial
At mospher e is t r anspar ent t o visible r adiat ion, but
M agnet ic pot ent ial at a point is defined as t he wor k
almost opaque t o infr ar ed r adiat ions.
done car r ying a unit nor t h pole fr om infinit y t o t hat
L ow lying clouds pr event infr ar ed r adiat ions t o pass point against t he field. or
t hr ough t hem and t hey keep t he ear th’s sur face war m
at night . This effect is called gr een house effect . Magnetic potential is defined as a quantity whose space
r at e of var iation in any dir ect ion gives int ensit y of t he
The differ ence bet ween int er fer ence and diffr act ion is
magnet ic field.
t hat super -posit ion effect bet ween wavelet s st ar t ing
Unit s : joule/weber
fr om t wo coher ent sour ces whi l e di r ect i on i s t he
diffr act ion in t he super posit ion. M AGN ETI C SU BSTAN CES
M AGN E T I SM 1. D iamagnet ic subst ances
These ar e subst ances which on being placed in a
M agnet ic Poles (m)
magnet ic field get feebly magnet ised in dir ect ion
When a magnet is br ought near a heap of ir on filling
opposi t e t o t hat of t he magnet i si ng fi el d. Such
t he ends of t he magnet show t he gr eat est at t r act ion.
substances get r epelled when br ought near a st r ong
These ends wher e the magnetic attr action is maximum
magnet. This pr oper t y of diamagnet ic subst ances is
ar e called poles of a magnet .
called diamagnetism .
I n ever y magnet ther e ar e t wo poles e.g. Bi smut h (BI ), H ydr ogen (H 2), Ni t r ogen (N 2),
1. Sout h pole ; 2. Nor t h pole. Water (H 2O), Common salt (NaCl), Diamond (C), Gold
S.I . unit of st r engt h of a magnet ic pole: amper e met er (Au), Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) et c
1.22 Physics
2. Par amagnet ic subst ances connect i ng wi r e, as shown i n Fi g. (b), t he posit i ve
These ar e subst ances which on being placed in a char ge passes on t he ear t h as shown in Fi g. (c). N ow
di amagnet i c fi el d get feebl y magnet i sed i n t he i f we fi r st r emove t he connect i ng wi r e and t hen t he
dir ect ion of t hese magnet ic field. Such subst ances, char ged r od, t he negat i ve char ge spr eads on t he
get at t r act ed t owar ds t he magnet , when br ought whol e conduct or as shown i n Fi g. (d).
near a str ong magnet. This pr operty of paramagnetic I nsulat or + Insulator +
+ + + +
subst ances is called paramagnet ism .

e
B A B A
e.g. Aluminum (Al), Sodium (Na), Plat inum (Pt ),

s
M anganese (M n), Copper (I I ) chlor ide (CuCl 2) et c Glass r od Glass r od
(a) (b)

s
3. F er r omagnet ic subst ances +
I nsulat or + + Insulator
These ar e those which on being placed in a magnet ic
B A B A

b
field get st r ongly magnet ised in t he dir ect ion of t he
magnet ic field. Such subst ances when br ought near

r
Glass r od
t he magnet get ver y much at t r act ed t owar ds t he (c) (d)

r
magnet . This pr oper t y of fer r omagnet ic subst ances ELECTRI C F ORCE

/
is called ferr omagnet ism . I t is t he for ce exper ienced by a char ge ‘q’ placed at a
e.g. Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), Magnetite (Fe3O4) point in an elect r ic field of int ensit y ‘E’.
E L E CT ROSTAT I CS Mathematically, F = Eq

m
ELECTRI CI TY Unit s : newt on

o
Amber, glass, ebonit e, sulphur et c. on being r ubbed Coulomb's I nverse square law
at t r act l i ght bodi es. Thi s pr oper l y i n mat er i al s i s I t st at es t hat t he for ce of at t r act i on (or ) r epul sion

c
developed due to electrification by friction. On acquiring bet ween two char ges is

.
t his pr oper ty, the mat er ial is called elect rified and t his
(i ) dir ect ly pr opor tional to the pr oduct of two char ges,
pr oper t y is called electr icity . The elect r icit y developed
(ii ) inver sely pr opor tional to the squar e of the distance

fb
on bodies, when t hey ar e r ubbed wit h each ot her is
called fractional elect r icity (or ) stat ic elect r icity . bet ween t hem.
Types of E lect ricit y q1 q 2 1 q1 q 2 qq
i.e. F  or F=  k 12 2
1. Posit ive char ges r2 4 0 d 2 r
2. Negat ive char ges
1
Rules : L ike char ges r epel and unlike char ges at t r act wher e, k
each ot her. 4 0
Test : Repulsion is a super t est of elect r ificat ion. k = constant called permitivity or dielectric constant
E lect r oscope = 9  109 Nm 2/c2
I t is an inst r ument used t o det ect and det er mine t he Value of k depends upon
kind of elect r icit y pr esent on a char ged body. (i ) unit s in which for ce, char ge and dist ance
Electric field (E) (ii ) nat ur e of int er vening medium
The r egion in t he neighbour hood of an elect r ic char ge Unit s : Nm 2/c2
wher e its influence can be exper ienced is called electric
SEM I CON DU CT OR
field.
I t allows t he cur r ent par t ially when t he t emper at ur e
Unit s : newt on/coulomb (or ) volt /met r e
is incr easing conduct ivit y also incr easing r esist ance
CH ARGE I N DU CTI ON wi l l be decr easi ng. Thi s i s t he speci al pr oper t y of
L et a conduct or AB is mount ed on an insulating st and semiconduct or.
as shown bel ow. Br i ng a posi t i vel y char ge i n t he e.g. Ge, Si
conduct or is at t r act ed t owar ds t he glass r od while t he
posit ive char ge is r epelled. Thus near end A of t he ELECTRI C FI ELD I N TEN SI TY (E)
conduct or acquir es negat ive char ge and it s far end B I nt ensit y of t he elect r ic field at a point is defined as
acquir es posit ive char ge. When posit ively char ged r od t he for ce exper ienced by a unit posit ive char ge when
is r emoved, t he conductor against becomes elect r ically placed at t hat point .
neut r al. I f a small t est char ge q0 exper iences a for ce F at a
T h i s sh ow s t h at du r i n g i n du ct i on , equ al an d point in a elect r ic field, t hen int ensit y E of t he elect r ic
opposi t e char ges ar e i nduced at t he t wo ends of field at t hat point is given by
t he conduct or. Holding the positively char ged r od near
E = F/q0
t he conduct or, i f far end is connect ed t o ear t h wi t h a
Physics 1.23
I t is a vect or quant it y and has t he same dir ect ion as Elect ric pot ent ial energy (U )
t hat of t he for ce on a unit posit ive char ge. Electr ic potential ener gy of a system of char ges is the
Unit : S.I unit of electr ic int ensity is newton/Coulomb. wor k done in br inging these char ges fr om infinity to
ELECTRI C LI N ES OF FORCE near each other to for m the syst em.
The pat h t r aced by a t est char ge fr ee t o move under Pot ent ial ener gy U of a syst em of char ges q1 and q2
t he effect of an elect r ic field is called a line of for ce. separ at ed by a dist ance (r ) a par t is given by

e
The line of for ce is a cur ve so dr awn t hat a t angent t o
it at any point gives dir ect ion of t he r esult ant elect r ic 1 q1q 2
U= .

s
field at t hat point . 4 0 r

s
Pr oper t ies. Capacit or (or ) condenser
(1) A line of for ce st ar t s fr om a posit ive char ge and I t is a device, which is used for st or ing elect r ic char ge.

b
ends on a negat ive char ge.
Two met al plat es separ at ed by an insulat or const it ut e
(2) No t wo lines of for ce cr oss each ot her.

r
a capacit or or condenser.
(3) I t is always nor mal t o t he sur face of t he conduct or.

r
Types of Condensers
(4) These do not pass int o a closed conduct or.

/
1. Fixed condenser 2. Var iable condenser
(5) These cont r act lengt hwise and expand sidewise.
3. Elect r olyt ic condenser 4. L eyden jar
(6) The dir ect ion of for ce is given by t he dir ect ion in
which a fr ee posit ive char ge t ends t o move. Capaci t ance

m
I t is t he r at io of char ge of a conduct or t o it s pot ent ial

o
Q
+Q –Q C= far ad
V

c
CAPACI TY (C)

.
Electric int ensity at a point in an Electric field The capacit y of a conductor may be defined as t he r at io
I t is equal t o t he for ce in dynes exper ienced by a unit bet ween t he char ge ‘Q’ given t o t he conduct or and t he

fb
positive charge when placed at that point. The dir ection pot ent ial V t o which it is r aised.
of elect r ic int ensit y is t he same as t hat for ce. Q
i .e. C= far ad
1 q V
Elect r ic int ensit y at a point , E =  2 Capacity of conductor is 1 far ad if a char ge of 1 coulomb
4 E d
Unit s : dynes/e.s.u (or ) is r equir ed t o r aise it s pot ent ial 1 volt
ELECTRI C DI POLE 1 coulomb
 1 far ad =
I t is a pair of equal and opposite char ge separ at ed by a 1 volt
fixed dist ance is called elect r ic dipole. Unit : Pr act ical unit of capacit y is far ad.
ELECTRI C POTEN TI AL Far ad is t he capaci t y of conduct or whose pot ent i al
The electric potential at a point in an electric field is r aises by 1 volt when char ge of 1 coulomb is given t o it
measured by the amount of work done in taking a unit 3  109 st at coulomb
1 coloumb
+ve charge from infinity to that point against electric forces. 1 far ad = =
1 volt 1 / 300 st at volt
1 far ad = 9  1011 st at far ad
+Q +Q
Capacit y of a parallel plat e condenser
t
Unit : volt X Y

1 volt = 1 joule/1 coulomb = 1/300 e.s.u. of pot ent ial


Pot ent ial difference (V)
The potential difference between two points in an electric
field is defined as the amount of wor k done in moving a d
unit posit ive char ge fr om one point to t he other. K 0 A
C= Far ad
I f W amount of wor k is r equir ed t o move a char ge Q d
fr om one point t o anot her in t he elect r ic field, t hen I f t her e i s vacuum (or ai r )
pot ent ial differ ence bet ween t wo point s is given by bet ween plat es, t hen k = 1
W 0 A
V= or W = QV
Q  C0 =
d
S.I . unit Volt
1.24 Physics
I f t her e is a dielect r ic medium (inst ead of vacuum) E lect r omot ive for ce
bet ween t he plat es, t hen capacit ance of t he capacit or I t is t he pot ent ial differ ence at t he poles of t he cell
incr eases k t imes
when no cur r ent is flowing (open cir cuit ).
C = kC
E lect r ic cir cuit
wher e, k = dielect r ic const ant of medium
I t is t he closed pat h along which an elect r ic cur r ent
d = dist ance bet ween t he plat es in cm
flow.

e
A = ar ea of t he plat e in sq. cm
Cu r r en t f l owi ng t hr ough t he ci r cui t ( cl osed
Capacit or s in Ser ies combinat ion

s
ci r cui t )
When a number of capacitor s having capacit ies C1, C2,

s
When t he cell is in closed cir cuit , a par t of e.m.f is
C3 ... Cn ar e joi ned i n ser i es, t hen t hei r combi ned
capacity is used up t o over come int er nal r esist ance ‘r ’ of t he cell.

b
I n such a case, cur r ent flowing t hr ough cir cuit
1 1 1 1 1

r
=    ...  R
C C1 C2 C3 Cn

r
+q +q +q +q
i
E

/
+ v1 v2 v3 vn r
V
Capacit or s in Par allel combinat ion E

m
i=
When ‘n' number of capacit or s having C1, C2, C3 ... Cn Rr
ar e joined in par allels t heir combined capacit y is wher e, E = e.m.f of t he cell

o
C = C1 + C2 + C3 + ... + Cn r = int er nal r esist ance of t he cell

c
Wh en ‘n ’ capaci t or s ar e con n ect ed i n par al l el R = ext er nal r esist ance of t he cir cuit

.
combinat ion, t hen pot ent ial r emains const ant and t he
I f V is pot ent ial differ ence bet ween t he poles, t hen
r esult ant capacit y should be incr easing.

fb
C1 q1
V = E – ir
Ammet er
C2 q2 I t is an inst r ument used t o measur e elect r ic cur r ent
in amper es.
+q C3 q3 –q Vol t met er
A B
I t i s an i n st r u m en t u sed t o m easu r e pot en t i al
differ ence bet ween t wo point s in volt s.
Cn qn
Ohm’s law
LI GH TN I N G CON DU CTOR
I t st at es t hat cur r ent flowing t hr ough a conduct or is
When a char ged cloud passes by a t all building, t he
direct ly pr opor t ional t o the pot ential differ ence across
char ge on t he cloud passes t o t he ear t h t hr ough t he
it s ends, if t emper at ur e and ot her physical condit ions
building. This causes a big damage t o t he building.
r emain unchanged.
Thus t o pr ot ect t he t all building fr om light ing, t he
light ing conduct or s, (which ar e point ed met al r oads) Vi or V = iR
passes over t he char ge on t he clouds t o ear t h, t hus wher e, V = pot ential differ ence
pr ot ect ing the buildings. i = cur r ent , R = r esist ance
CU RRE N T E L E CT RI CI T Y S.I . unit of r esist ance is ohm .
EL ECTRI C CU RREN T L imit at ion of Ohm’s law
I t is defined as t he r at e of flow of char ge t hr ough any (1) Only small cur rent should be allowed to flow through
sect ion of a conduct or. I f a char ge ‘q’ passes t hr ough
t he ci r cui t so t hat t emper at ur e shoul d r emai n
any sect i on of a conduct or i n t ime t , t hen cur r ent
const ant .
flowing t hr ough it is given by
(2) The conduct or should not be subject ed t o any kind
q
i= of st r ess or st r ain or t ension.
t
ELECT RI C RESI STAN CE
Unit : amper e
The elect r ic r esist ance of a conduct or is t he pr oper t y
When one coulomb of char ge flow t hr ough any sect ion
of t he conduct or by vir t ue of which it opposes t he flow
of a conduct or in one second, t hen cur r ent fl owi ng
of cur r ent t hr ough it .
t hr ough it is called one amper e.
Physics 1.25
L aws of Resist ance ELECTRI C EN ERGY (JOU LE’S LAW)
Resist ance of t he conduct or, Joule found t hat t he amount of heat (H ) pr oduced in a
R  L engt h of conduct or (l) conduct or is dir ect ly pr opor t ional t o
l (i ) squar e of cur r ent (i) flowing thr ough the conductor,
R
Ar ea of cr oss-sect ion a  (ii ) r esist ance (R) of t he conduct or and
1 (iii ) t ime (t ) for which t he cur r ent flows.

e
R = 
a
 H  i 2RT

s
wher e  = specific r esist ance.
This r elat ion is called Joule's law
Specific r esist ance () is also called r esist ance and it s

s
1 I 2 Rt
r eciprocal   is called conductivity (k) of the mater ial. or H = (in calor ies)
J

b

wher e J = 4.18

r
1 EL ECTRI C POWER
k=

r

Elect r ic power of an appliance is defined as t he r at e

/
Specific resist ance (or) Resist ivit y () of consumpt i on of el ect r i c ener gy or as i t s r at e of
I t is defined as t he r esist ance offer ed by 1m lengt h of doing wor k.
the conductor having an area of cross-section of 1 square W

m
met er. P=
t
Ra wher e, W = elect r ic wor k done in t ime t

o
=
l Unit : S.I . unit of power is wat t .

c
Unit s of  : ohm-met er or ohm-cm
1 j oul e

.
CON DU CTAN CE (C) 1 wat t =
second
1
I t is t he r ecipr ocal of r esist ance, i.e. C =

fb
or 1 joule = 1 wat t
R
Unit s : mho or ohm – 1 Commer cial unit of elect r ic ener gy is kilowat t hour
Conduct ivit y (K ) 1 kilowat t hour = 1000J/s  3600 s = 3.6  108 J
Colour code for Carbon Resist ances
T h e val u e of r esi st ances used i n el ect r i cal an d
elect r onic cir cuit s var y over a ver y wide r ange.
R These r esi st ances ar e usual l y car bon r esi st ances
4
t em p and a col our code i s used t o i ndi cat e val ue of t he
r esist ance.
I t is r ecipr ocal of t he specific r esist ance (or ) r esist ivit y
(), i.e. N ot e : You can l ear n t he or der of col our by t he
sent ence,
1
k= “ B B R Y of Gr eat Br it ain has Ver y Good Wife”

L etter s as an Colour F i gur e M ulti plier
Unit s : M ho (or ) ohm – 1
aid to memor y
Super conduct ivit y 0
B Black 0 10
I n case of most of t he met als, t her e occur s a decr ease 1
B Br own 1 10
in r esist ance wit h decr ease in t emper at ur e and t he
2
r esi st an ce appr oach es zer o as absol u t e zer o of R Red 2 10
temper atur e is appr oached. This phenomenon is called O Or ange 3 103
super conductivity . Y Yellow 4 10
4

e.g. r esist ance of mer cur y becomes zer o at 4K . 5


G Gr een 5 10
T her mi st or s 6
B Blue 6 10
T h ese al l ow sem i con du ct or m at er i al s, w h ose 7
V Violet 7 10
r esistance var ies appr eciably with r ise in temper atur e.
8
Ther mist or s ar e used in elect r onics indust r y, e.g. t o G Gr ay 8 10
safeguar d t he heat er of a t elevision t ube against t he W Whit e 9 10
9

var iat ions in cur r ent .


1.26 Physics

PRACTI CE EXERCI SE
OBJECTI VE TYPE QU ESTI ON S 9. Magnets attract magnetic substances such as ir on,
nickel, cobalt et c. They can also r epel :
1. A Jet engine wor ks on the principle of conser vation
of : (a) par amagnet ic subst ances.
(a) linear moment um (b) angular moment um (b) fer r omagnet ic subst ances.

e
(c) ener gy (d) mass (c) diamagnet ic subst ances.

s
2. The sur face t emper at ur e of t he Sun is near ly : (d) non-magnet ic subst ances.
10. When a r ay of light is going fr om one medium t o

s
(a) 2000K (b) 4000K
anot her, it s :
(c) 6000K (d) 8000K

b
(a) wavelengt h r emains same.
3. I f t he elect r ical r esist ance of a t ypical subst ance

r
(b) fr equency r emains same.
suddenly drops to zero, then the substance is called :

r
(c) fr equency incr eases.
(a) super conduct or (b) semiconduct or
(d) wavelengt h incr eases.

/
(c) conduct or (d) insulat or
11. A body init ially at r est is acted upon by a const ant
4. A spher ical air bubble is embedded in a piece of for ce. The r at e of change of i t s ki net i c ener gy
glass. For a r ay of light passing thr ough the bubble,

m
var ies :
it behaves like a :
(a) linear ly wit h squar e r oot of t ime.

o
(a) conver ging lens.
(b) linear ly wit h t ime.
(b) diver ging lens.

c
(c) linear ly wit h squar e of t ime.

.
(c) piano-conver ging lens. (d) inver sely wit h t ime.
(d) piano-diver ging lens. 12. Whi ch one among t he fol l owi ng st at ement s i s

fb
5. ‘The st ar s seem t o be higher on t he sky t han t hey cor r ect ?
act ually ar e'. This can be explained by : (a) Convex mir r or s ar e used by doctor s to examine
(a) at mospher ic r efr act ion. or al cavit y
(b) disper sion of light . (b) Concave mir r or s ar e used as r eflect or s
(c) t ot al int er nal r eflect ion. (c) Convex mir r or s ar e used as r eflect or s
(d) diffr act ion of light . (d) Convex mir r or s should be used for shaving
6. Which one among t he following is not a sour ce of 13. Bat s can ascer t ain dist ances, dir ect ions, nat ur e
r enewable ener gy ? and size of t he obst acles at night . This is possible
by r eflect ion of t he emit t ed :
(a) H ydr oelectr icit y
(a) ult r asonic waves fr om t he bat .
(b) Solar ener gy
(b) ult r asonic waves fr om t he dist ant object s.
(c) Fuel cell
(c) super sonic waves fr om t he bat .
(d) Wind ener gy
(d) super sonic waves fr om t he dist ant object s.
7. M ass of B is four t imes t hat of A, B moves wit h a
14. L ight t r avels slower in glass t han in air because:
velocit y half t hat of A. Then B has :
(a) r efr act ive index of air is less t han t hat of glass.
(a) kinet ic ener gy equal t o t hat of A.
(b) r efr act ive index of air is gr eat er t han t hat of
(b) half t he kinet ic ener gy of A.
glass.
(c) t wice t he kinet ic ener gy of A.
(c) densit y of glass is gr eat er t han t hat of air.
(d) kinet ic ener gy one-four t h of A. (d) densit y of glass is less t han t hat of air.
8. I n a pr essur e cooker cooking is "fast er because 15. The lines of for ce of a unifor m magnet ic field :
t he incr ease in vapour pr essur e :
(a) must be conver gent .
(a) incr eases t he specific heat .
(b) must be diver gent .
(b) decr eases t he specific heat .
(c) must be par allel t o each ot her.
(c) decr eases t he boiling point .
(d) int er sect .
(d) incr eases t he boiling point .
Physics 1.27

LEVEL-1 m1  m 2
(a) g (b) g
1. As t he speed of char ged par t icl e incr eases in a m1
cycl ot r on, (choose Tr ue (T) or False (F))
m1  m 2 m2
(a) t he par t i cl e moves t o a lar ger ci r cle (c) g (d) .g
m2 m1  m 2
(b) t her e i s r elat ivist ic change in t he mass of t he
par t icle [RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]

e
(c) fr equency of t he cycl ot r on has t o be adjust ed 7. Which of t he fol lowing st at ement s is cor r ect ?

s
(a) F, F, F (b) T, T, T (a) Speed of light in vacuum is 3 × 108 m/s

s
(c) T, F, T (d) T, T, F (b) Speed of light is differ ent for differ ent colour s
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ] (c) Speed of li ght i s differ ent in differ ent media

b
(d) Al l of t he above

r
R1 R 2
2. The for mula R = r epr esent s [RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
R1  R 2

r
8. I n H ei sen ber g's U ncer t ai ni t y pr i nci pl e, t he
(a) ser i es connect i on

/
uncer t ai ni t y of moment um and posi t i on of a
(b) par allel connect ion par t icle can be
(c) br idge connect i on (a) r educed usi ng smal ler wavelengt h of pr obing

m
(d) linear connect i on light
(b) r educed usi ng lar ger wavel engt h of pr obi ng

o
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
3. The ear t h conduct or pr ovides a pat h t o gr ound light

c
for (c) r educed usi ng hi gh ener gy pr obe par t i cl es

.
(a) ci r cui t cur r ent (b) leak age cur r ent acceler at ed by cyclot r on
(d) can 't be r edu ced as i t i s f u n dam en t al l y

fb
(c) over cur r ent (d) hi gh vol t age
inher ent
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
4. I f t he mass of sun, ear t h and di st ance bet ween
t hem is r espect i vel y M , m and r ; wor k done by 9. The speed of sound in air is approximately equal
t he sun's gr avi t y on ear t h for one r evol ut i on to :
r ound t he sun is (a) 3 × l08 m/sec (b) 330 m/sec
GM m (c) 5000 m/sec (d) 1500 m/sec
(a) zer o (b)
r2 [RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]

GM m GM m 10. 'When a body is wholly or partially, immersed in


(c) 2 (d) 2 a fluid, it experiences an upthrust equal to the
r r2
weight of the fluid displaced'. This is known as:
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(a) Pascal's principle
5. The choke of a t ube light wor k s on t he pr i nciple
of (b) Archimedes principle
(a) bi-met allic (b) capacitance (c) Stoke's law
(c) induct ance (d) ionizat ion (d) Newton's Laws of Motion
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ] [RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]

6. I n t he fi gur e below, what is t he acceler at ion of 11. Which one of the following is not a scalar
body wit h mass m 2, gi ven g i s t he acceler at i on quantity?
due t o gr avit y (assume pulley and sur faces ar e (a) Volume (b) Mass
smoot h) (c) Force (d) Length
m1 [RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]
12. The resultant of two forces P and Q acting at an
angle 0, is given by :

m2 (a) P 2  Q 2  2PQt an 

(b) P 2  Q 2  2PQsin 
1.28 Physics
4. What is the boiling point of water in Kelvin Seale?
(c) P 2  Q 2  2PQcos 
(a) 100 K (b) 273 K
(d) P  Q  2PQtan  (c) 373 K (d) 300 K
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ] [RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]

13. A cyclotron is a : 5. Acid r ain is caused by:

e
(a) Bunch of Gamma Rays (a) CO & CO2 (b) SO2 & O2
(c) SO2 & N O2 (d) NO2 & O2

s
(b) High Frequency Oscillator
(c) Particle Accelerator [RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]

s
(d) None of these 6. Whi ch pl anet has hot t ur bul ent at mospher e
dominat ed by car bon-di-oxide?

b
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]
(a) Venus (b) Mars

r
14. The nucleus of an atom generally, contains :
(c) Jupiter (d) Nept une

r
(a) Protons and Neutrons
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]

/
(b) Protons and Electrons
(c) Electrons and Neutrons 7. A tunic fork when sounded together with another
t uni ng for k of k nown fr equency of 240 H z, emi t s
(d) Only Neutrons
2 beat s. On l oadi ng t he t uning for k of known

m
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ] fr equency t he number of heat s hear d ar e one
per second. The fr equency of the t uning for k is:

o
15. A bullet is fired vertically upwards with a velocity
of 196 m/sec. What is the maximum height (a) 241Hz (b) 242 H z

c
reached by the bullet ? (Assuming g = 9.8 m/sec2)
(c) 239 H z (d) 238 H z

.
(a) 1960 m (b) 196 m
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(c) 980 m (d) 490 m

fb
8. Tachymet er (or Tacheomet er i s an i nst r ument
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ] for measur ing-
LEVEL-2 (a) rpm
1. I n a cl assi cal bl ood pr essu r e m easu r i n g (b) Tor que
inst r ument in which t he doct or obser ves t he r i se (c) Rot at ional kinet ic ener gy
and fall of mer cur y, the hand air pump is attached
(d) Dist ances
t o a-
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(a) I sobar (b) Tr ansducer
9. W h i ch of t h e f ol l ow i n g i s N OT u sed f or
(c) M anomet er (d) M er cur y column
measur ement of t emper at ur e?
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(a) Ther mocoupl es (b) Ther most at s
2. Conser vat ion of ener gy cor r esponds t o which law
(c) Pyr omet er s (d) Al l ar e used
of t her modynamics?
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(a) Zer ot h l aw (b) Fi r st l aw
10. Al um i n i u m i s comm onl y used as con du ct or
(c) Second l aw (d) Thir d l aw
material in tr ansmission lines compar ed to copper
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ] because:
3. I n our house when we swi t ch on heavy l oad (a) I t i s mor e conduct i ve
appl iances, we not i ce t hat t her e is sl ight di p in
(b) I t s t ensi le st r engt h is mor e
t he gl ow of t he bulb t hat was al r eady swit ched
on. Thi s i s due t o- (c) I t i s cost li er
(a) H eavy cur r ent dr awn by heavy load (d) I t i s cheaper and l ight er
(b) Addi t ional r esist ance added t o t he cir cuit [RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT ]

(c) Resi st ance of elect r ical wi r i ng 11. Find t he dist ance of object fr om a concave mir r or
of focal lengt h 10 cm so t hat t he si ze of i t s r eal
(d) Resi st ance of par t of t he ci r cuit decr easi ng
image i s four t imes t he si ze of t he object .
fr om infi nit y t o a posit ive val ue
(a) 7.5 cm (b) 5 cm
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(c) 2.5 cm (d) 12.5 cm
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT ]
Physics 1.29
12. A bar omet er measur es :
4
(a) Absolut e pr essur e 14. The r efr act ive i ndex of wat er is . What is t he
3
(b) At mospher i c pr essur e speed of li ght i n wat er ?
(c) Gauge pr essur e (a) 2.25 × 108 m/sec (b) 4 × l08m/sec
(d) Vacuum [ RR B SSE 2014 RE D (c) 1.5 × l08m/sec (d) 2.67 × 108 m/sec

e
SH I F T ]
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT ]
13. Which one of t he foll owi ng has t he dimensions

s
15. I f t he electr on in hydr ogen or bit jumps fr om t hir d
of pr essur e ?
or bi t t o second or bit t hen t he wavelengt h ( o f

s
(a) MLT – 2 t he emit t ed r adi at ion i s given by : (wher e R =
(b) ML – 1T – 2 Rydber g const ant )

b
(c) ML – 2T – 2 R R

r
(a)   (b)  
(d) ML – 1T – 1 6 5

r
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT ] 36 5R

/
(c)   (d)  
5R 36
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT ]

co m
fb .
1.30 Physics
AN SWERS
OBJECTI VE TYPE QU ESTI ON S
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (b)
11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (c)
LEVEL-1

s e
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (b)

s
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (a)
LEVEL-2

r b
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (* ) 7. (* ) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (b)

r
11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (d)

m /
EXPLAN ATI ON S
OBJECTI VE TYPE QU ESTI ON S 10. When a r ay of light is going fr om one medium t o

o
an ot h er i t s f r equ en cy r em ai n s sam e an d
1. A jet engine wor ks on the pr inciple of conservation

c
wavelengt h decr eases.
of linear moment um.

.
11. A body init ially at r est is acted upon by a constant
2. Sur face temper atur e of t he sun in near ly 6000K.
for ce. The r at e of change of it s ki net ic ener gy

fb
3. Wh en t he el ect r i cal r esi st an ce of a t ypi cal var ies linear ly wit h squar e of t ime.
su bst an ce su dden l y dr ops t o zer o t h i s
12. Conver e lense of lar ge focal lengt h is used for
phenomenon is called as super conduct or s.
shar ing. I t is also used in solar cooker.
4. A spherical air bubble behaves like a diverging lens.
13. Emission of r eflect ed super sonic waves fr om t he
6. (c) Fuel cell is not a sour ce of r enewable ener gy. bat can ascer t ain distance, dir ect ions, nat ur e and
7. Suppose mass of A = m size of obst acle at night .
 mass of B = 4m 14. L ight t r avels sloveen in glass t han in air because
Velocit y of A = v r efr act ive index of air is less t han t hat of glass.
15. The lines of for ce of a unifor m magnetic field must
V
Velocit y of B = be par allel t o each ot her.
2
1 LEVEL-1
K inet ic ener gy of A = mv2
2 1. All 3 points are true about charged particle in
2 cyclotron whose speed increases. Particle moves
1  v
K int enic ener gy of B = 4m  
 2
to a larger circle, its relativistic mass changes
2 because of speed change and frequency of
1 v2 cyclotron has to be adjusted.
=  4m 
2 4 2. When two resistances are in parallel, the formula
1 gives the value of combined resistance of the
= mv2 circuit.
2
3. Earth conductor allows path for the leakage
So kinet ic ener gy B = K inet ic ener gy A
current in the body of the equipment or tool to
8. We know t hat ground.
Pr essur e Temper at ur e 4. Work done is zero because force is always
as t he incr ease in vapour pr essur e, incr eases t he perpendicular to the direction of movement of
boiling point . the earth. Also another way to look at this is
9. Magnet s at tr act magnetic substance such as ir on, earth returns to the same point after one
ni ck l e, cobal t et c t hey al so r epel di amagnet i c revolution so work done must be zero as there
subst ances. are no latent energy forms involved.
Physics 1.31
5. Choke works on inductance principle. The Second law of thermodynamics states hot the
function of choke is to provide high voltage entropy of an isolated system always increase.
enough for ionization to take place in a tube light
and after establishment and sustenance of Third law of thermodynamics states that
ionization, limit the voltage across the tube. That entropy of a system approaches a confound
is the reason why a tube fuses when the choke is value as the temperature approaches absolute
shorted. zero.

e
6. Force = m.a Here m = m1+ m2 But force applied  Option (b) is correct.

s
is m2g. Therefore acceleration = F/m.
3. a Heavy current drawn by heavy load because

s
7. All the statements are correct. Speed of light it has low resistance and takes more power.
changes in different media and it is different for

b
4. c Boiling point of water is 373K.
different colours in media other than vacuum.

r
5. c Acid rain is caused by chemical reaction when
8. The uncertainty of position and momentum of

r
compounds like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen
particle in Heisenberg's Uncertainly principle

/
oxides are released into air, these substance
cannot be reduced because it is inherent.
rize very high into atmosphere, where they
10. Archimedes' principle states that the upward mix and react with water, oxygen and other

m
buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed chemicals to form acid rain.
in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged,
 Option (c) is correct.

o
is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body
displaces and acts in the upward direction at the 6. * Planet Venus has hot-turbulent atmosphere

c
center of mass of the displaced fluid. dominated by CO2.

.
11. Force is a vector quantity. F = m.a and the 7. * The frequency of tuning fork is

fb
direction of acceleration will determine the = 240 – 2 = 238 Hz
direction of force.
8. a Tachymeter can measure rpm.
12. Whenever two vector quantities are added, their
resultant vector is given by this formula.  Option (a) is correct.
9. d All devices are used to measure temperature.
2 2
P  Q  2PQ cos 
10. b Copper has highest conductivity but low tensile
13. A cyclotron accelerates charged particles strength compare to aluminium as copper is
outwards from the center along a spiral path. must costly so it is no used for transmission
The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a line.
static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly
varying (radio frequency) electric field. 1 1 1
11. d  
u 4u f
14. Both protons and neutrons are found in the
nucleus and are together called nucleons. 5u 1
2

However, electrons revolve in orbits outside of 4u 10
the nucleus.
 u = 12.5 cm.
15. v2 – u2 = 2as
12. b A barometer is an instrument used to measure
 0 – (196)2 = – 2 × 9.8 × S atmospheric pressure.
S = 1960  Option (b) is correct
LEVEL-2 Force mass  acceleration
13. b Pr essure  
1. c Manometer is an instrument in which doctor Area Area
observes the rise and fall of mercury.
M1  L1 T 2
2. b First law also known as law of conservation
L2
of energy, states that energy can neither the
created not be destroyed in an Isolated M1 L1 T 2
system.
 Option (b) is correct
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1.32 Physics

C 15. d Emitted radiation


14. a Refractive index 
V
1 1  1 1
  4R  2  2   4R  
4 3  108 4 6   16 36 
 
3 V
 36  16   20 
 4R    4R 
8  16  36   16  36 

e
9  10
V  = 2.25 × 108 m/s
4 5R

s
 Option (a) is correct 
36

s
 Option (d) is correct

/ r r b
co m
fb .
2
CHAPTER Chemistry

s e
Composit ion of M at t er F or mul a

s
Classificat ion of mat t er I t is a gr oup of symbols of element s which r epr esent s
one molecule of a subst ance

b
M at t er e.g. H y dr ogen H 2 ; Ox y gen O 2 ; N i t r ogen N 2 ;
Chlor ine Cl 2 ; Car bondioxide CO2 et c.

r
Pur e subst ances M i xt ur es
Chemical E quat i on

r
I t is a way of wr iting a chemical r eaction inter ms of

/
El ement s Compounds H omogenous H et er ogenous

1. M atter. Anything that has mass and occupies space chemical symbols and for mulae. The equat ion should
is matt er . r epr esent a tr ue chemical r eactionwhich can be done
in an labor ator y. Reactant s ar e wr it t en on left hand

m
2. Pure Substance. A subst ance is t he for m of mat t er side and pr oducts on r ight hand side and these ar e
w h i ch h as def i n i t e com posi t i on el em en t an d separ ated by an ar r ow (). Each r eactant and pr oduct
compounds and pur e subst ance.

o
ar e seper at ed by(+) si gn.The physi cal st at es ar e
3. M ixture. A combination of two or more substances in r epr esented in br acket s.  r epr esents heat changes. I f

c
which the substances r etain their identity is mixture. H is negat ive, t he r action is exothermic and if its is

.
Types of M ixt ures. posit ive, t he r eact ion is endot her mic. The equat ion
( i ) H omogeneous mixt ur e : I t has a uni for m should be balanced.

fb
composit ion t hr oughout it s mass and no visible e.g. 2H 2(g) + O2(g)  2H 2O(l ); H = – 136 K .cal
bou n dr i es of separ at i on bet w een v ar i ou s N ote: Unbalanced r eaction viocates low of conser vation
const it uent s. of mass.
e.g. solut ion of sugar in wat er.
( ii ) H et erogeneous mixt ure : I t i s a subst ances I on s
having different composition throughout its mass. When electr ons ar e r emoved fr om or added to a neutr al
I t has visible boundar ies of separ ation between atom or molecule, a charged particle called ion is formed
various constituents. or ions ar e for med by the heter olytic fission of a covalent
e.g. mixture of sand and cement bond. An ion that bear s a ‘+’ ve char ge is called cations
4. Element. A subst ance that cannot be separ at ed into while those which bears a ‘-’ ve charge ar e called anions.
simpler subst ances by chemical means is element . Types of I ons
Types of Element s. 1. M onoatomic ions. These cont ain only one at om.
( i ) M etal: It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. e.g. M g+2, Fe+3
( ii ) Nonmetal: It is poor conductor of heat and electricity. 2. Polyatomic ions. These contain more than one atom.
( iii ) M et alloid: I t has int er mediat e pr oper t ies of e.g. OH – , SO4– 2
metals and nonmetals.
5. Compound. A subst ance composed of at oms of t wo I oni c Compounds
or m or e el em en t s ch em i cal l y u n i t ed i n f i xed Neut r al compounds containing cations and anions ar e
proportions is compound. I n compound elements loss called ionic compounds. Cat ions ar e most ly der ived
t heir ident it ies. fr om met al at oms.
Monoatomic anions ar e named by the addit ion of suffix
Symbol -ide t o a st em der ived fr om t he name of element .
I t is an abbr eviat ion or shor t ened for m for t he full e.g. Car bide C– 4, Oxide O– 2, Nit r ide N – 3, Fluor ide F – et c
name of an element . This pr esent syst em of symbols
Polyatomic ions containing oxygen are called oxyanions.
was int r oduced by Ber zelius.
Types of I onic Compounds.
Symbols and t heir L at in names
These ar e of t wo t ypes
English name Symbol L atin name
1. suffix-ate : I t is used for ion wit h lar gest number
Ant imony Sb St i bium of oxygen at oms.
Copper Cu Cupr um
Gold Au Aur um e.g. NO3 – nit r at e
I r on Fe Fer r um 2. Suffix -ite : I t is used for ion with smallest number
L ead Pb Plumbum of oxygen at oms.
Sodium Na Nat r ium e.g. N O 2 – nit r it e
2.2 Chemistry
When an element for ms mor e than two oxyanions, e.g. 2KCI O3(s)  2K CI (s) + 3O2(g)
the prefix per meaning more and hypo meaning less D i ssociat i on.
ar e used in addition to suffixes-ite and - at e. I t is a r ever sible decomposit ion r eact ion.
e.g. Cl O 4 – per chlor at e; Cl O 2 – chlor it e e.g. PCl 5(s)PCl 3 + Cl 2
3. D isplacement React ions
Cl O 3 – chlor at e; ClO– – hypochlor it e React ions in which one element r eplaced anot her

e
When t wo or mor e ani ons di ffer i n number of element for m a compound ar e called displacement
hydr ogen at oms, t hey ar e named as hydr ogen or reactions.

s
dihydr ogen . e.g. Zn(s) + H 2SO4(eq)  ZnSO4(aq) + H 2(g)

s
e.g. PO 43 phosphat e These ar e r edox r eact ions; i.e. t hey involve t r ansfer
of elect r ons fr om one subst ance t o anot her.
H PO42 hydr ogen phosphat e

b
4. M etathesis Reactions or Double Decomposition
React ions in which t wo compounds r eact t o for m

r
H 2PO4 dihyr ogen phosphat e
t wo new compounds and no changes in oxidat ion

r
The subscr ipt of t he cat ion is numer ically equal t o number t ake place ar e called met at hesis r eact ions.
t he char ge on t he anion and subscr ipt of t he anion

/
e.g. pr ecipit at ion r eact ions, neut r alisat ion r eact ion
is numer cially equal t o t he char ge on t he cat ion. AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
e.g. sodium car bonat e H Cl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaCl(aq) + H 2O(l)
Na + CO3– 2

m
1 2 5. I somer i sat ion
N a2 CO3 The i nt er conver si on of one for m of i somer i nt o

o
Common name F or mula Systematic name anot her is called isomer isat ion.

Dr yice CO2 Solid car bondioxide e.g. NH 4CNO   NH 2CONH 2

c
Ammonia NH 3 Tr ihydr ogen nitr ide

.
Table salt NaCl Sodium chlor ide L aws of Chemical Combinat ion
Caust ic soda NaOH Sodium hydr oxide
1. L aw of con ser va t i on of m ass or L aw of

fb
Caust ic potash K OH Pot assium hydr oxide
indest r uct ibilit y of mat t er
Soda ash Na2 CO3 Sodium car bonat e
I n a chemical change, t ot al mass of t he r eact ant s is
Pear l ash K 2 CO3 Pot assium car bonate
equal t o t he t ot al mass of t he pr oduct s;
Quick lime CaO Calcium oxide
M ar ble CaCO3 Calcium car bonat e
or
Slaked lime Ca(OH )2 Calcium hydr oxide M at t er can neit her be cr eat ed nor dest r oyed;
M ilk of M g(OH)2 M agnesium or
managesia hydr oxide Dur ing a chemical r eact ion, t her e is no det ect able
Baking soda NaH CO3 Sodium hydr ogen loss or gain in t he t ot al mass.
ar bonate
Bleacking CaOCl 2 Calcium oxy 2. Law of definite (or) constant proportions (Proust)
powder chlor ide A chemical compound al ways cont ai ns t he same
L aughing gas N 2O Nit r ous oxide element s combined t ogether in t he same pr opor t ion
Cane sugar Cl 2 H 22 O11 Sucr ose by weight
Epsom salt M gSO4. M agnesium sulphate or
7H 2O heptahydr at e A chemical compound has a fixed composition by weight.
Gypsum CaSO4. Calcium sulphat e 3. L aw of mult iple propor t ions (D alt on)
2H 2O dihydr at e
When t wo element s combine t o for m t wo or mor e
compounds, t he di ffer ent wei ght s of one of t he
Types of Chemical React ions
element s combining with the const ant weight of the
1. Combinat ion React ions
ot her bear a simple r at io t o one anot her.
React ions in which t wo or mor e subst ances combine
t o f or m a com pou n d ar e cal l ed com bi n at i on 4. L aw of combining volumes (Gay-L ussac)
reactions. When gases combine, t hey do so in volume which
e.g. 2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2M gO(s) bear a simple r atio t o one anot her and to t he volume
Synt hesis is t he for mat ion of a compound fr om it s of the product pr ovided all gases are measur ed under
const it uent element s. t he same condit ions of t emper at ur e and pr essur e.
e.g. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g)  2NH 3(g) 5. L aw of r ecipr ocal pr opor t ions (Rit cher )
2. D ecombinat ion React ions When two elements combine separately with a fixed
React i ons i n whi ch a compound decomposes t o weight of a thir d element, the ratio of their weights in
pr oduce t wo or mor e differ ent subst ances ar e called which they do so is either the same or a whole number
decomposit ion r eact ions. of multiple of the r atio in which they react together.
Chemistry 2.3

At oms conditions of temperature and pressure (STP) or normal


condit ions of t emper at ur e and pr essur e (NTP).
At om
At STP, 22.4 lit r es of all gases have t he same number
I t is the smallest par ticle of an element that maint ains
of molecul es and mass of each vol ume i n gr ams is
chemical ident it y t hr ough all t he chemical changes.
numer ically equal t o it s molecular mass.
That cannot have a st able independent exist ance.
Avogadr o’s H ypot hesi s

e
M ol ecul e
I t is t he smallest par t icle of an element or compound Equal volumes of all gases under similar condit ions of

s
t hat can have a st able independent exist ence. t emper at ur e and pr essur e cont ain equal number of
mol ecul es.

s
At omi ci t y 2  volume densit y = M olecular weight
N umber of at oms const it ut i ng a mol ecul e is cal led

b
atomicity . Relat ive D ensit y

r
e.g. Nit r ic acid - 5 H NO3 ; H ydr ochlor ic acid - 2H Cl I t is t he r at io of mass a cer t ain volume of a gas t o t he

r
Ozone - 3O3 mass of t he same volume of hydr ogen under similar
condit ions of t emper at ur e and pr essur e.

/
At omic M ass
Mass if cer t ain volume of t he gas
I t is t he r at io of mass of one at om of an element t o 1 Relative density =
Mass of same volume of hydrogen
12

m
par t of mass of car bon -12 at om.
1 amu = 1.667  10– 24g M ass of 22.4 lit r es of any gas at S.T.P is equal t o it s
molecular mass in gr ams.

o
or Avogr am = 1.667  10– 31 kg
Avagadr o’s N umber

c
Aver age At omic M ass

.
I t is an aver age based on t he abundance of isot opes of I t is t he number of at oms pr esent in one gr am at om of
t hat element in nat ur e. an element

fb
e.g. Car bon – 12.01 amu; Clor ine – 35.46 amu or
I t is t he number of molecules pr esent in one gr am
Gram Atomic M ass or Gram Atom molecular mass of a subst ance
I t is the numer ical value of t he atomic mass expr essed
or
in gr ams.
I t is t he number of molecules pr esent in one gr am
M ass of el ement s in gr ams molar volume of a gaseous sust ance.
Number of gram atoms =
At omic mass of t he el ement
I t is denot ed by N A , N 0 or N and has a value of 6.023 
M ol ecul ar M ass 1023 and it s unit is mol – 1.
M olecular mass of a substance (element or compound)
is defined as t he r at io of t he mass of one molecule of L oschmi dt N umber
t he subst ance t o 1/12 par t of mass of car bon-12 at om. The number of molecules pr esent in 1 ml of a gas or
M olecular mass of a subst ance vapour at STP is called L oschmidt number .
M ass of one molecule of t he subst ance I t s value is 2.689  1019 ml – 1
=
1
par t of mass of car bon -12 at om M ol e
12
I t is t he amount of subst ance t hat cont ains as many
M ol e element ar y ent it ies as t her e ar e at oms in 0.012 kg of
The numer i cal val ue of t he mol ecul ar mass of a car bon -12
subst ance when expr essed in gr ams is cal led gr am
molecular weight or gr am molecule or gr am mole or or
molar mass or mole. I t i s t he amount of subst ance whi ch cont ai ns one
Mass of subst ance in grams Avagadr o’s number
Number of moles =
Molecular mass 6.023  1023 of par t icles
No. of at om on M olecules or
Number of moles =
6.023  1023 1 mole r epr esent s 22.4 lit r es of a gas at STP
Volume of gas at STP (in lit re)
Number of moles = Gram atomic mass (or gr am at om).
22.4
M ass of 6.023  1023 at oms of an element .
ST P Condi t ions
0C or 273K t emper at ur e, 1 at mospher e or 760 mm of Gram molecular mass
K g or 76cm of H g pr essur e ar e cal l ed st an dar d M ass of 6.023  1023 molecules of any subst ance.
2.4 Chemistry

At omic St r uct ur e (6)The empt y space ar ound nucleus i s cal led ext r a
nucluear part . The volume of atom is about 1015 times
F undament al Par t icles t he volume of nucleus.
The t hr ee basic subat omic par t icles; elect r on, pr ot on
(7)This model is called planetary model as it r esembles
and neutr on which for m the building blocks of all atoms
sloar syst em.
ar e called fundamental par ticles.
At omic number, Z
E lect r on

e
I t is a subat omic par ticle which car r ies a unit negat ive The at omic number of an element is defined as t he
char ge. I t is discover ed by Sir J.J Thomson dur ing t he number of unit post ive char ges or t he pr ot ons pr esent

s
st udy of cat hode r ays in a dischar ge t ube. The name in t he nuclues of an at om.

s
was int r oduced by St oney. Z = number of unit posit ive char ges
e/m of elect r on = 1.76  108 coulomb/g = number of pr ot ons

b
M ass of elect r on = 9.11  10-28 g or 9.11  10 – 31 kg = number of elect r ons (I n case of at om)

r
1 = ser ial number of elements in periodic table
I t is the mass of hydr ogen, i.e. 0.0005486 amu M oseley’s r elat ionship is,

r
1837

/
 (Nu) = a(Z – b)
Rest mass of elect ron
M ass of moving elect r on = wher e,  = fr equency of X - r ay
2
v 
1   Z = at omic number

m
c
a and b = const ant s.
wher e, v = velocit y of elct r on M ass number (A)

o
c = velocit y of light I t is t he t ot al number of pr ot ons and neut r ons pr esent

c
Pr ot on in t he nucleus of an at om of an element .

.
I t is a subat omic par t ilce which car r ies a unit post ive A = Z + n (atomic number + number of neutrons)
char ge. or n =A– Z

fb
The name pr ot on was suggest ed by Rut her for d.
A
Char ge = + 1.602  10– 19 coulomb
M ass = 1.007276 amu Z
e/m = 9.58  104 c/g wher e, A = mass number
Goldst ein discover ed t he posit ive r ays or canal r ays. Z = at omic number
N eut r on ‘  ’ = symbol of element
I t is a subat omic par t icle which car r ies no char ge. I t is e.g. 11H , 73 L i, 2311Na, 42H e
discover ed by Chadwick.
I sot opes
M ass of neut r on = 1.675  10– 24 g or 1.675  10– 27 kg
These ar e atoms of same element which have t he same
or 1.008665 amu
at omic number but differ ent mass number s.
Pr ot ons and neut r ons ar e found in t he nucleus at t he
They di ffer i n number of neut r ons pr esent i n t he
cent r e of t he at om. The elect r ons r evolve out side t he
nucleus.
nucleus in shells or ener gy levels called unit .
e.g. 3517Cl, 3717Cl
At omic models
Thomson pr oposed wat er melon model of an at om. H e I sobar s
assumed it to be a spher e of positive electr icity in which The at oms of di ffer ent el ement s whi ch have same
t he elect r ons ar e embedded like seed. mass number but differ ent at omic number s ar e called
isobars.
Rut her for d’s -r ay Scat t er ing E xper iment They di ffer i n number of el ect r ons, pr ot ons and
H is model of at om is called nuclear model . neut r ons.
(1)At om is spher ical and has a lot of empt y space in it . e.g. 146C, 147N
(2)The entir e mass of at om is concentr ated in its cent r e
which is post ively char ged and lies at t he cent r e. I sot ones
(3)The nucleus is sur r ounded by elect r ons which move These ar e t he at oms of differ ent element s which have
in cir cular pat h called or bit s. t he same number of neut r ons.
(4)Number of elect r ons is equal t o number of pr ot ons. e.g. 146C and 168O
H ence t he at om is neut r al. L i ght
(5)Diamet er of nucleus is 10– 13 t o 10– 12 cm and t hat of L ight is a for m of ener gy. I t i s an el ect r omagnet i c
at om is 10– 8 cm. r adiation.
Chemistry 2.5
N ewt ons cor puscular t heory of light T ype of Wavelength Gener at ion
Accor di ng t o N ewt on, l i ght i s composed of mi nut e r adiation in Å sour ce
par t icles or cor puscules which t r avel in st r aight lines
in all dir ect ions. Gama r ays 0.01 t o 0.1 Nuclei of
r adioact ive
Wave theory of light
element s
Accor ding t o H uygens, l ight t r avels i n t he for m of
X-r ays 0.1 t o 150 By placing a
waves fr om a luminous object in all dir ect ions.

e
met al obst acle in
Char act er ist ics of Wave pat h of fast

s
Wavelengt h moving e –

s
The dir ect distance between any two adjacent ident ical Ultra violet 150 t o 3800 Sun r ays
poi nt s of t he wave, i .e. t he di st ance bet ween t wo rays
Visi ble 3800 t o 7600 St ar s, ar c l amps

b
adj acent cr est s or t wo adj acent t r oughs i s cal l ed
wavelengt h . I t is denot ed by . light

r
U nit s : m, cm, A 0 or nm; 1 A 0 = 10– 8 cm= 10– 10 m; I nfr ar ed 7600 to 6 106 I ncandescent

r
1nm=10– 7cm = 10– 9m r ays object ive
M icr o 6 106 t o K lyst r on t ube

/
F r equency
I t is t he number of wave cr est s or t r oughs passing or waves 3 109
t r ough a given point in one second. I t is denot ed by Raido 3 1014 t o Fr om an
waves alt er nat ing

m
(Nu). 3 1014
Unit s : cycle per second or H er t z(H z) cur r ent wit h
c c high fr equency

o
h= c or  or  =
  Quant um t heor y

c
wher e, c = speed of pr opagat ion of wave A black body is a per fect absor ber of ener gy, i.e. it

.
Fr equency and wavelength ar e inver sely pr opor t ional absor bs complet ely all t he r adiat ions falling on it .
t o each ot her.
Phot o elect ric effect

fb
Vel ocit y
When a beam of light of suit able fequency falls on t he
I t is t he dist ance t r avelled by a wave in one second.I t
sur face of a met al, elect r ons ar e eject ed fr om it . This
is denot ed by ‘c’.
is called phot o elect r ic effect . This was fir st obser ved
Unit s : cms– 1 or ms– 1
by H er t z. The l i ber at ed el ect ons ar e cal l ed phot o
Velocit y of light is 3  1010 cms– 1 or 3 108 ms– 1. electrons.
Wave number
E inst ein’s concept
I t is t he number of waves in one uni t lengt h. I t is
L ight i s pr opagat ed in space in bundles or packet s
denoted by  (Nu bar ). called phot on . Phot on has no mass, t hus one quant um
1 of light is called phot on .
 
 Ener gy of phot on, E = h
= c 
wher e, n = element const ent
Unit s : cm – 1 or m – 1
Ampl i t ude Bohr ’s T heor y of H yr ogen At om
H eight of t he cr est or dept h of t he t r ough of a wave is 1. Electr ons r evolve r ound the nucleus in cer tain fixed
called it s amplit ude. I t is denot ed by A. I t is a measur e closed cir cular pat hs called or bit s.
of int ensit y or br ighness of a beam of light .
The angular momentum of or bit becomes quantised.
Spect r um nh
Wh i t e l i gh t i s com posed of sev en di f f er en t 2. mvr =
2
colour s(VI BGYOR). When a beam of whi t e l ight i s
passed t hr ough a pr ism, it split s int o seven colour s; wher e, m = mass of elect r on
t his is called disper sion . This ar r ay of colour s similar v = velocit y of elect r ons
t o a r ain bow is called spect r um . r = r adius of or bit
The r ange of visible r egion is 3800 t o 7600Å. n = number of or bit in which t he e– pr esent .
The r adi at i ons wi t h fr equenci es l ower t han r ed l i ght Angular moment um is an int egr al mult iple of h/2
ar e cal l ed infr a r ed and t hose whose fr equenci es ar e
mor e t han vi ol et ar e cal l ed ult r a viol et r adi at i on . 3. As l ong as an el ect r on r evol ves i n an or bi t , i t
nei t her gai n nor l oses ener gy; such or bi t s ar e
The ar r angement of var i ous t ypes of el ect omagnet i c
r adi at i ons i n t he i ncr easi ng or der of wavel engt h or cal l ed st at i onar y st at es. Ener gy l evel s ar e t he
d ecr easi n g or d er of f r equ en ci es i s cal l ed st at ionar y st at es associat ed wit h a difinit e amount
elect r omagnet ic spect r um . of ener gy.
2.6 Chemistry
4. The most st able st at e of an at om is it s gr ound or Wave nat ure of elect ron
nor mal st at e. M at t er has dual char act er and it behaves like a wave
5. When an elect r on jumps fr om one st at ionar y or bit and a par t icle. This was pr oposed by de Br oglie.
t o anot her, t he emission or absr opt ion of ener gy DeBr oglie equat ion wavelengt h of r evolving elect r on
takes place. Emission of ener gy takes place in ter ms
h
of light .  =
mv
E = E 2 – E 1 = h

e
wher e,  = wavelengt h
When an electr on moves for m inner to outer or bit
m = mass of par t icle

s
by absorbing a definite amount of energy, the electron
is said to be in an excited st ate. v = velocit y of par t icle

s
Radius of or bit , r = 0.529  10– 8 n 2 cm h = Planck’s const ant
wher e, n = number of t he or bit M oment um, p = mv

b
When n = 1, r = 0.529 Å or 5.29  109 cm. h

r
 p=
This is called Bohr ’s r adius and is denot ed by a0. 

r
Energy of an electron, wher e, = wave nat ur e
2.179  10 11

/
p = par t icle nat ur e
En = erg per atom
n2 Or bi t
13.6 I t is a well defined closed pat h ar ound t he nucleus in
or En = eV per at om which t he elect r on r evolves.

m
n2
313.6 Quant um N umber s
or En = k.cal per mol

o
n2 Electrons of an atom are characterised by four quantum
13.12 numbers.

c
or En = kJ per mol
1. Principle quant um number (N ei ls Bohr )

.
n2
The negat i ve val ue of ener gy E n wou l d k eep on I t is denot ed by’n’.
incr easing as t he elect r on moves t o t he ener gy level

fb
Values of n = 1,2,3,4 ....... 
near er t o t he nucleus. I f n = 1, K shell
2 e2 I t denot es t he ener gy of r evolving elect r on. I t also
Velocit y of elect r on in nt h or bit , V n=
nh gives t he r elat ive dist ance of el ect r on fr om t he
Split t ing of spect r al lines in an elect r ical field is called nucleus.
st ar k effect and in appli ed magnet i c field is call ed The maximum number of elect r ons t hat can be
Zeeman effect. pr esent in an ener gy shell is given by 2n 2
When an elect r on is excit ed int o n t h ener gy level, t he wher e, n = number of shells.
number of spect r al l i nes for med i n t he emi ssi on H ence K shell has 2 e– n=1
spect r um is given by L shell has 8 e– n=2
n(n  1) M shell has 18 e –
n=3
2 N shell has 32 e– n=4
wher e, n = number of shell in which t he elect r on is 2. Azimuthal quant um number (Sommer feld)
present in excited state. I t is denot ed by ‘l ’.
Values r anges fr om 0 t o (n– 1)
Sommer feld ext ension t o Bohr ’s M odel
l = 0,1,2,..........(n – 1)
Electrons revolve round the nucleus in an elliptical orbits.
They have a major axis and a minor axis with different The main shells ar e made up of ener gy shells called
wavelengths AB and CD respcetively. The nucleus of atom sub ener gy st at es. I t descr ibes shape of t he or bit al
is pr esent at one of t he focii of ellipse.The angular and hence called or bit al quant um number.
momentum of revolving electr on in an elliptical orbit is Shell Value of n Value of l
an integral multiple of h/2 and is given by K 1 0
h L 2 0, 1
mvr = k M 3 0, 1, 2
2
N 4 0, 1, 2, 3
K shell; n = 1, k = 1 cir cular O 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
L shell; n = 2, k = 1,2
M shell; n = 3, k = 1,2,3 ellipt ical  l  0, it r epresent ed s  orbit al 
 l  1, it r epr esent ed p  or bit al 
N shell; n = 4, k = 1,2,3,4  
 l  2, it r epr esent ed d  orbit al 
The t ot al ener gy of t he elect r on r emains same in an  
at om.  l =3, it r epresent ed f  orbit al 
Chemistry 2.7
3. M agnet ic quantum number (L ande) E l ect r oni c Confi gur at i on
I t is denot ed by ‘m’. Ar r angement of el ect r ons i n t he space ar ound t he
Values of m ar e all whole number s r anging fr om nucleus in an at om is called elect onic configuar at ion .
– l t o + l including zer o. Pauli’s exclusion pr inciple
m = – l , – l +1 ...... – 1, 0, +1 ......+ l – 1, + l . No t wo elect r ons in an at om can have t he same set of
Tot al number of values of m = (2l + 1). value for all t he four quant um number s.

e
This denot es the spat ial or ient ation of t he or bit als. An or bit al can hold a maximum of 2 e- wit h opposit e
4. Spi n qu an t u m n u m ber (U h l en beck an d spins.

s
Gouldsmit) Aufbau pr inciple

s
I t is denot ed by m s or s. The newly ent er ing elect r on of an atom enter s int o
I t indicat es dir ect ion of spin of e– . that orbital with lower ener gy among the available ones.

b
1 1
I t has only t wo values + and – or 

r
2 2

r
Par allel spin   : Elect r ons spinning in t he same
dir ect ion. Two elect r ons of par allel spin never be

/
accomodat e in an or bit al.
Opposite spi n: Electr ons spinning in the opposite
dir ect ions.

m
Quantum Symbol Per mit ted Total number

o
values of permitted F i g. M ot her ’s or bit al ener gy di agr am
values The or der of incr easing ener gies of or bit als is found t o

c
be

.
Pr inciple n 1,2,3,4,...... n
Azimut hal l 0,1,2, ..... n 1s < 2s < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5d < 6s.........

fb
(n– 1) (n+l) r ule is used t o know t he sequence of ener gies of
M agent ic m – l......0....+l 2l+1 or bit als.I t st at es t hat , t he or bit al wit h t he lowest (n+l)
Spin m s or s +1/2 and 2 value is filled fir st . I f t wo or mor e or bit als have same
– 1/2 (n+l) values, t hen one wit h lower ‘n’ is filled fir st .

Per iodic Classificat ion of E lement s

Repr esent at ive L ON G F ORM OF PERI OD I C T ABL E Repr esent at ive element s
I ner t
element s gases
A 0
1 2
H He
1.00797 I I A III A IV A VA VI A VI I A 4.0026
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li Be B C N O F Ne
6.939 9.0122 Transit ion met als 10.811 12.01115 14.0067 15.994 18.9984 20.183
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
22.9898 24.312 III B IV B VB VI B VI I B VI I I VI I I VI I I IB I I B 26.9815 28.086 30.9738 32.064 35.453 39.948
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
39.098 40.08 44.956 47.90 50.942 51.996 54.9380 55.847 58.9332 58.71 63.54 65.37 69.72 72.59 74.9216 78.96 79.909 83.80
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
85.47 87.62 88.905 91.22 92.906 95.94 (99) 107.07 100.905 106.4 107.870 112.41 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.60 126.9044 131.30
55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
 Ba *La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Cs 137.33 138.91 178.49 180.948 183.85 186.2 190.2 192.2 195.09 196.967 200.59 204.37 207.19 208.980 (210) (210) (222)
132.905
87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110
Fr Ra † Ac Rf Ha Unh Uns Uno Une Uun
(223) (226) (227) (257) (260)

I nner t r ansit ion met als


* L ant hani de 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
ser ies Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
140.12 140.907 144.24 (147) 150.35 151.96 157.25 158.924 162.50 164.930 167.26 168.934 173.04 174.97
† Act ini de 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
ser ies Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
232.038 (231) 238.03 (237) (242) (243) (247) (247) (249) (254) (253) (256) (253) (257)
2.8 Chemistry
 L avoisier classified element s simply into met als and Classificat ion of E lement s int o Blocks
non-met als. s-block element s
 Dober einer ar r anged gr oup of t hr ee element s such The element s in which differ enciat ing elect r on ent er s
that the atomic mass of centr al element is ar ithmatic t he s-or bi t al of out er most shel l ar e cal l ed s-bl ock
mean of ot her t wo el ement s. These wer e cal l ed elements.
t r aids. Gener al elect r onic configur at ion of s-block element s

e
e.g. L i, Na, K . ar e ns1-2.
Newland pr oposed law of oct aves which st at es t hat p-block element s

s

when element s ar e ar r anged in incr easing or der of The element s in which differ enciat ing elect r on ent er s

s
t heir at omic masses, t he pr oper t ies of ever y eight h t he p-or bit al of t he out er most shell ar e called p-block
element ar e r epet it ion of fir st . elements.

b
 L ot har M eyer plot t ed a gr aph of at omic volumes Gener al elect r onic configur at ion of p- block element s

r
ver sus at omi c wei ght s of di ffer ent el ement s and ar e ns2 np1-6.

r
showed t hat si mi l ar el ement s occupi ed si mi l ar d- block element s
post ions on cur ve. The elements in which differ enciat ing elect r on enter s

/
int o d-or bit al of penult imat e shell ar e called d-block
Mass number
At omic volume = elements.
Densit y

m
Gener al electr onic configur ation of d-block element ar e
M andeleef’s per iodic law ns1-2 (n-1)d1-10.

o
The physical and chemical pr oper t ies of element s ar e f-block element s.
a per i odi c funct i on t o t hei r at omi c wei ght s. The The element s in which differ enciat ing elect r on ent er s

c
element s pr edict ed by him ar e called eka element s. int o t he ant ipenult imat e shell (n-2) of f or bit als ar e

.
e.g. Scandium is called Eka Bor on . called f-block element s.
General electronic configur ation of f-block element ar e

fb
Per i odi c L aw ns2 (n-1)d 0 t o 1 (n-2)f 1 t o 14.
The physical and chemical pr opet ies of element s ar e
per iodic funct ion of t heir at omic number s. Classificat ion of E lement s
Based on el ect r oni c confi gu r at i on, el ement s ar e
Per i odi ci t y
classified int o four t ypes.
I t is t he occur ance of element s wit h similar pr oper t ies
at r egular int er vals when ar r anged in incr easing or der 1. I nert gas element s
of t heir at omic number s. Element s in which the out er most s and p subshells
ar e complet ely filled ar e called iner t gas element s.
M odern Periodic law (M osel ey)
Gener al el ect r oni c configur at i on is ns2 np 6.
The physical and chemical pr oper t ies of element s ar e
T h ese el em en t s ar e cal l ed r ar e gases. T h ey
a per iodic funct ion of t heir elect r onic configur at ion.
const it ut e zer o gr oup of per iodic t able.
L ong form of Periodic t able
2. Repr esent at ive element s.
The table is called extended form or long form of periodic
E l em en t s i n w h i ch t h e ou t er m ost sh el l i s
table. incompletely filled are called representative elements.
I t h as 18 ver t i cal col um n s cal l ed gr ou ps and 7 Gener al elect r onic configur at ion is ns1, ns2, ns2,np1
hor izontal r ows called per iods. 18 ver tical columns ar e t o ns2 np5.
made int o 16 gr oups or families.
M etals, non-metals and metalloids come under this
Shortest period. Fir st per iod wit h only 2 element s. cat egor y. These ar e also called nor mal element s.
Short period. The second and t hir d per iods ar e called 3. Transit ion element s
shor t per iods as t hey cont ain 8 element s. Elements which have incompletely filled outer most
and penultimate shells are called transition elements.
L ong Per i od
Gener al elect r onic configur at ion is ns1-2 (n-1)d1-9.
The four t h and fift h per iods cont aining 18 element s
each ar e called long per iods. Each of t hese per iods 4. I nner t ransit ion element s
cont ains El ement s i n whi ch t hr ee out er most shel l s, i .e.
valence penultimate and the antipenutlimate shells
t wo s-block element s, t en- d-bolck element s and six p-
ar e incomplet ely filled ar e called inner t r ansit ion
block elements. elements.
Longest period. Sixt h per iod Gener al el ect oni c con fi gur at i on i s n s2(n -1)d 0-1
I ncomplet e priod. Sevent h per i od. (n-2)f 1-14.
Chemistry 2.9
Per i odi c Pr oper t i es Salt: I t is a subst ances which can neit her give H +
The pr oper t i es whi ch ar e r epeat ed aft er cer t ai n or OH – ions in aqueous solut ions.
i n t er val of at om i c n u m ber s ar e cal l ed per i odi c e.g. NaCl, K 2SO4
properties. Strengt h of Acids and Bases
At omic size I t depends on t he degr ee of dissociat ion().
The di st ance bet ween nucl eus and t he out er most Degr ee of dissociat ion,

e
elect r on of an at om is called at omic r adius. Number of moles dissociat ed
At omic r adium does not det er mined dir ect ly. =
Tot al number of moles of subst ance

s
Cr yst al radius or M et allic radius
St r ong acid : I t pr oduces lar ge number of H + ions

s

I t is one-half of t he dist ance bet ween nuclei of t wo
in aqueous solut ion.
adjacent met al at oms.
e.g. H Cl, H 2SO4, H NO3

b
Covalent r adius
Weak acid : I t pr oduces less number of H + ions.

r
I t is one-half of t he dist ance bet ween cent r es of nuclei
of t wo similar at oms bonded by a covalent bond. e.g. CH 3COOH , H 3BO3

r
V ander Waal’s r adius [H + ][X – ]

/
Dissociat ion const ant of acid, K a =
I t is one half of t he int er nuclear dist ance bet ween t wo [HX]
at oms faci ng each ot her bel ongi ng t o t wo near est Strong base dissociates to a larger extent in aqueous
molecules of t he element in solid st at e. solution and produces lar ger number of OH – ions

m
r covalent < r met allic ; r covalent < r vander waals while weak bases dissociates to a lesser extent.
I onic r adius e.g.NaOH , K OH , Ba(OH )2 ar e st r ong bases.

o
I t is t he effective dist ance fr om nucleus of t he ion upt o NH 4OH , Ca(OH )2, Al(OH )3 ar e weak bases.

c
which it has an influence on it s elect r on cloud. + –
[M ][OH ]

.
Dissociat ion const ant of a base, K b =
Val ency [M OH ]
N umber of hydr ogen at oms or number of chlor i ne K a and K b ar e lar ge for st r ong acids and bases and

fb
at oms or double t he number of oxygen at oms t hat small for weak acids and bases. The K a values of
combi ne wi t h an at om of t he el ement . El ect r ons H Cl , H N O3, H 2SO4, K b val ues of N aOH , K OH
pr esent in out er most shell ar e called valence electrons. cannot be det er mined as they dissociat e t o a lar ger
ext ent and do not exist in equilibr ium.
Acids and Bases
N eut r alizat ion.
All substances ar e basically classified int o acids, bases
When acids r eact s with equal quantit y of base, both
and neutr al substances. Robert Boyle defined acids and
l oose t hei r char act er i st i c pr oper t i es and gi ve
bases based on t heir pr oper t ies.
neutr al solution. H er e H + ions of acid combine wit h
Aci ds OH – ions of base t o give undissociat ed wat er.
These substances ar e sour in taste, tur ns blue lit mus e.g. H Cl  N aOH    N aCl  H 2O

red liberate hydrogen when reacts with metals, conducts Acid base salt wat er

electr icity in solut ion st ate and neutr alized bases. About 13.67 K.cals of heat is evolved which is called
B ases heat of neut r alization .
These subst ances ar e bit t er in t ast e, t ur ns r ed lit mus The opposite reaction of neutralisation is Hydrolysis.
blue, soapy t o t ouch, conduct elect r icit y in aqueous 2. Bronst ed- Lowry theory (Pr ot on t heor y )
solut ions and neut r alized acids. An acid is a subst ance t hat exhibit s a t endency t o
M oder n D ef i n i t i on of A ci ds a n d B a ses loose one or mor e pr otons and a base is a substance
t hat exhibit s a t endency t o gain pr ot ons.
(Based on T hr ee T heor ies)
Acid : pr ot on donor
1. Ar r heni us t h eor y (T h eor y of i on i zat i on or
elect r olyt ic dissociat ion.) Base : pr ot on accept or
Acid: I t is a subst ance which cont ains hydr ogen A pr ot on t r ansfer r eact ion is called pr ot olysis.
and ionizes in aqueous solut ion t o give H + ions. When an acid loses a pr ot on, t he r emaining par t
Their gener al for mula is H X. has a t endency t o gain it and it behaves as base.
e.g. H Cl, H 2SO4, H NO3, H SO4, CH 3COOH 
H A  H*  A
 pr oton base
Base: I t i s a subst ance whi ch i oni ses i n wat er
pr oducing hydr oxyl (OH – ) ions and ar e r epr esented 
H Cl   H   Cl 
as M OH .   H O*  A 
H A  H 2 O   3
e.g. NaOH , Ca(OH )2, NH 4OH et c. acid – 1 base– 2 acid – 2 base– 1
2.10 Chemistry
A – is called conjugat e base of acid, H A and H 3O+ is Amphoteric substances or Ampholyte : These
conjugat e acid of base H 2O. ar e t he subst ances whi ch can act as an aci d as
Conjugate acid-base pair : I t is acid– base pair w el l as a base, i .e. capabl e of donat i n g and
differ ing by a pr ot on. accept ing a pr ot on.
e.g. H Cl + H 2 O 
  H 3O*  Cl 
 e.g. Be(OH )2, Al 2O3, ZnO, Cr 2O3 et c.
H 2O + N H 3 
 NH *4  OH 
 3. L ewis t heory or Elect ronic t heory

e
These ar e r ever sible r eact ions. Acid : An acid is any molecule or ion that can accept

s
Conjugat e base of st r ong acid is always weak. a pair of electr ons and for ms a co-or dinat e covalent
N eutralization: Tr ansfer of a pr ot on fr om acid t o bond.

s
a base is called neut r alizat ion . e.g. H +, AlCl 3, BF 3
Elect r on-pair acceptor.

b
e.g. H 3O+ OH +   H 2O + H 2O
Classification of Slovents: These are of four types. Base : A base is any molecule or ion that can donate

r
(i ) Pr ot ophilic solvent s : These have t endency t o a pair of electr ons and for ms a co-or dinat e covalent

r
accept pr ot ons e.g. wat er, alcohol, liquid NH 3 bond.

/
(ii ) Pr ot ogenic solvent s : These have t endency t o e.g. NH 3H 2O, OH –
pr oduce pr ot ons e.g. wat er, H Cl Elect r on pair donor is a base.
(iii ) Amphipr ot ic solvent s : These act s as ei t her N eut r ali zat ion : F or mat i on of a co-or di nat e

m
pr ot ophilic or pr ot ogenic covalent bond bet ween an acid and a base is called
e.g. wat er, NH 3 neutralization .

o
(iv) Aprotic solvents : These solvents which neither
Types of Lewis acids.
donat e nor accept pr ot ons

c
(i ) M ol ecul es i n whi ch t he cent r al at om has
e.g. benzene, CCl 4

.
incomplet e oct et of elect r ons in valence shell
St rengt h of Acids and Bases : St r ong aci d i s (i.e. having a vacant or bit al).

fb
one whi ch has a gr eat er t endency t o donat e a
pr ot on and i f t he t endency i s l ess, t he aci d i s e.g. BF 3, SO3, AlCl 3; t he cent r al at oms ar e B,S
weak . and Al.
HCl+ H 2O    H 3O+ + Cl (ii ) Posit ive heavy met al wit h incomplet e st able

or bitals
H Cl is a st r ong acid t hen wat er
e.g. Ag+, Cu +2, Fe+2, Fe+2 et c.
Cl – is conjugat e base which is a weak base as it has
less t endency t o be at t ached t o a pr ot on. I n cr ease of ch ar ge an d decr ease of si ze
 H 3 O+ +CH 3 COO  incr eases acidic st r engt h of t he ion.
CH 3 COOH +H 2 O  
(iii ) M olecules cont aining double bonds bet ween
CH 3COOH weak acid.
differ ent at om
CH 3COO– conjugat e base is a st r ong base as it has
gr eat er t endency t o accept a pr ot on . e.g. CO2
The conjugate base of a strong acid and the conjugate All Bronst ed– L owry’s acids are L ewis acids.
acid of a st r ong base ar e weak. The conjugat e acid Br onsted– Lowry’s acid is a pr oton donor, Lewis acid
of a weak base and t he conjugat e base of a weak is an elect r on pair accept or.
acid ar e st r ong. e.g. H Cl is an acid.
L eveling effect : St r ong aci ds such as H N O3, H Cl + NH 3  [NH 4] + + Cl –
H 2SO4, H Cl when pr esent in aqueous solut ion all H Cl fur nishes a pr ot on – Br onst ed L owr y’s acid
of t hem have same st r engt h, because al l t hese The pr ot on of H Cl accept s a lone pair of elect r ons
aci ds compl et ely di ssoci at e and donat e H + i ons from NH 3 to for m a co-or dinate covalent bond-Lewis
easily t o water which exists as H 3O+ in wat er. Since acid.
t hese acids pr oduces H 3O+ ions in wat er and H 3O+
is the st r ongest acid in wat er, the str engt h of above Al l L ew i s a ci ds n eed n ot be Br on st ed –
acids come down t o t he level of H 3O+ st r engt h in L owr y’s acids.
water. Similar ly str ong bases such as NaOH, KOH, L ewi s aci d i s an el ect r ophil e. I t i s an el ect r on
Ba(OH )2 come down t o it s st r engt h of OH – ions deficient molecule or ion.
which ar e st r ong bases i n wat er. This i s call ed Br ownst ed – L owr y’s acid is a pr ot on donor and
levelling effect . elect r on pair accept r or but all elect r on deficient
The strength of acid and base depends on the natur e molecules cannot be defined as pr ot on donor s.
of t he solvent used. BF 3 is a L ewis acid, but not a Br onst ed acid.
Chemistry 2.11
Types of Lewis bases. wher e, K w is called ionic pr oduct of wat er which is
These are of t hr ee t ypes. influenced by t emper at ur e only. I t s val ue
(i ) All at oms cont aining negat ive char ge; lar ger incr eases wit h t emper at ur e.
t he char ge densit y on t he ion, gr eat er is it s At 25 t he value of K w is 1.0  10– 14.
abilit y t o donat e an electr on pair and st r onger [H +][OH – ] = 1.0  10– 14
is basic char act er. I n pu r e wat er and neut r al sol ut i ons, t he mol ar
e.g. Cl – , F – , O– 2, et c.

e
concent r at i ons of hydr ogen i on [H +] and hydr oxide
(ii ) At oms and molecules cont aining one or mor e ion[OH – ] ar e equal.

s
lone pair of elect r ons.
(iii ) M olecules having C = C. The cloud of C = C [H +] = [OH – ] = 1.0  10 14 = 1.0  10– 7 mole/lit r e

s
wi l l for m coor di nat e bond t o gi ve compl ex [H +] = 1.0  10– 7 mole/lit r e
compound. All Br onsted bases ar e Lewis bases. [OH – ] = 1.0  10– 7 mole/lit r e

b
 Br onst ed-L owr y’s base is a pr ot on accept or. The r el at i onshi p K w = [H +][OH – ] hol ds good i n al l

r
L ewis base is an elect r on pair donor . aqueous solut ion.

r
e.g. br omide is a base H + + Br –  H Br [H +] = [OH – ] neut r al solut ion
 Br omide is pr oton acceptor – Bronsted-Lowr y’s

/
[H ] > [OH ]
+ –
acidic solut ion
base, br omide i s el ect r on pai r donor -L ewi s
[H +] < [OH – ] basic solut ion
base.
As it has 4 lone pair of e– on it and donat es a [H +] = 10– 1 M  10 7 M  10 14 M

m
acidic neut r al basic
pair t o H +.
The degr ee of acidic or basic nat ur e of a solut ion can
All Lewis bases need not be Bronsted– Lowry’s

o
be expr essed in t er ms of hydr ogen ion concent r at ion.
bases.
Kw 1.0  1014

c
L ewis base is a nucleophile. I t is an accept or of all [H +] = =

.
posit ive ions and elect r on deficient molecules. [OH  ] [OH  ]
Br onst ed-L owr y’s base is a pr ot ophile. I t accept s Kw 1.0  1014
Similar ly, [OH – ] =

fb
onl y pr ot ons. CaO i s a L ewi s base, but not a +

[H ] [H + ]
Br onst ed base.
Pr ot on concent rat ion of Acids and Bases
N eut r alizat ion. I n solut ion of st r ong acids
An acid and a base r eact t oget her t o for m salt and [H +] = nor malit y of t he solut ion
w at er w i t h t h e l i ber at i on of h eat i s cal l ed
neutralization . or [H 3O ] or [H +] = Molar ity of the solution  Protocity
+

T h e am ou n t of h eat ev ol v ed du r i n g t h e Pr ot ocit y of an acid : I t is defined as t he number of


neut r alizat ion of one gr am equivalent of a base in pr otons pr ovided by each acid molecule upon ionization.
di l u t e aqu eou s sol u t i on i s cal l ed h eat of I t is also called basicit y .
neutralization . I n solut ions of st r ong bases
The heat of neut r alizat ion of a st r ong acid and a [OH – ] = nor malit y of t he solut ion
st r ong base is 13.7 K . cal/mole (at 25C). or [OH – ] = molar it y of t he solut ion  acidit y
Acidi t y of a base : I t i s defi ned as t he number of
I onic Pr oduct of Wat er hydr oxyl ions pr ovided by each base molecule upon in
Th e pr oduct of h ydr ogen i on concen t r at i on an d
ionization.
hydr oxyl i on concent r at i on of pur e wat er or any
aqueous solut ion is called ionic pr oduct of wat er . pH and pOH
The concept was int r oduced by Sor ensen.
H 2O 
 H   OH 
 p H : I t i s n egat i v e l ogar i t h m of h y dr ogen i on
concent r at ion.
H 2O H 2O 
 H 3O  OH 
 1
base acid acid base
pH = – log10 [H +] = log10 [H + ]
 H  OH 
 
 H 3O  OH  
K  K  p OH : I t i s n egat i v e l ogar i t h m of h y dr ox y l i on
 H 2 O H 2OH 2O concent r at ion
2 1
K H 2O  H   OH  or K  H 2O  H 3 O   OH   pOH = – log10 [OH – ] = log10 [H – ]
wher e, K = equilibr ium const ant
For pur e wat er at 25C, pH + pOH = 7 + 7 = 14
Si n ce t he i oni zat i on of wat er i s ver y smal l , t he
concent r at ion of wat er can be t aken as const ant . For pur e wat er and neut r al solut ions
Then K[H 2O] = K w or K [H 2O] 2 = K w (another constant) pH = pOH = 7
K w = [H +][OH – ] or K w = [H 3O+] [OH – ] pH = 0  7  14
Acidic neut r al basic
2.12 Chemistry
The lower the pH , the mor e acidic is t he solution and 2. Quinonoid t heor y
higher concentr ation of [H +] the higher the pH , the mor e pH r ange of indicat or s.
basic is t he solution and higher concent r ation of [OH].
The pH value can be deter mined exper imentally using I f indicat or is weak acid, H ln + H 2O 
 H 3O + ln
+ –

a pH mat er. On heat i ng, t he i oni zat i on of wat er Dissociat ion const ant of indicat or
incr eases t he concent r at ion of bot h H + and OH – ions.
The value of bot h pH and pOH decr eases. The pH of an [H  ][ln  ]

e
K ln =
acidic solut ion incr eases upon dilut ion. [Hln]

s
Buffer Solut i on [ln  ]

s
Sol ut i ons whi ch can r esi st t he change of p upon H pH = pK ln + log
[H ln]
addit ion of small amount of a st r ong acid or a st r ong

b
base is called Buffer solut ion . I f pH of solut ion is equal t o or gr eat er t han Pk ln+1

r
Types t hen solut ion exhibit t he colour of indicat or ions and
Buffer s ar e of t wo t ypes.

r
if pH of solut ion is equal t o or less t han pK n– 1 , t hen
1. Acid buffer : The solut ions wit h const ant pH r ange solut ion exhibit s t he colour of indicat or molecule;

/
of 0 t o 7 ar e called acid buffer s. t hus aci d-base indicat or s funct i on in p H r ange of
An acid buffer consists of a weak acid and its salt (pK ln+1) t o (pK ln– 1)
with a str ong base.

m
e.g. CH 3 COOH + CH 3 COO Na; H 3PO4 + NaH 2PO4 Colour pH
I ndicator
r ange

o
2. Basic buffer : The solut ion wit h const ant pH r ange Acid Alkali
of 7 t o 14 ar e called basic buffer s.

c
M ethyl or ange r ed yellow 3.1 – 4.4
A weak base and it s salt wit h a st r ong acid for ms

.
basic buffer. M ethyl r ed r ed yellow 4.2 – 6.3
e.g. NH 4OH + NH 4Cl

fb
Fe(OH )3 + FeCl 3 L it mus r ed blue 4.6 – 8.3
Buffer capacit y
The number of moles of an acid or a base added per Bromothy molblue yellow blue 6.0 – 7.6
lit r e of buffer t o change it s pH value by one unit is
Thymol blue yellow pur ple 8.0 – 9.6
called buffer capacity .

Acid – Base I ndicator s Phenolpht halein colour less r ed 8.3 - 10


I ndicat or s ar e used t o find equivalence point bet ween
an acid and a base in volumet r ic analysis. Select ion of I ndicat or
I t depends on t he change in pH value at the equivalence
Types
Ther e ar e t wo t heor ies of indicat or s. poi nt i n an aci d-base neut r al i zat i on r eact i on. The
change of pH just at t he end-point is called pH r ange of
1. Ost wald’s t heor y.
(i ) All indicat or s ar e eit her weak or ganic acids or
t it r at ion . An indicat or will show a shar p change in it s
bases. colour if pH r ange of the indicator is within t he pH r ange
of t he t it r at ion.
(ii ) I n solut ion t hey dissociat e t o give ions which
exist in equilibr ium. T it r at ion.
acid indicator H ln + H 2O  H O + ln 1. Tit r at ion of st r ong acid wit h a st r ong base :
 3
  pH r ange is about 3.3 t o 10.5. All t he indicat or s in
undissociated indicat or ion t he above t able can be used.
indicat or molecule 2. Tit r at ion of weak acid wit h a st r ong base :
base indicat or ln + H 2O  
H in + + OH pH r ange 8 t o 10 phenolpht halein and t hymol blue
indicat or molecule indicat or ion only fall in t his r ange.
(iii ) The mol ecul ar and i oni c for ms of indicat or 3. Tit r at ion of weak base wit h a st r ong acid :
have differ ent colour s.
pH r ange is 6 t o 3 met hyl or ange.
(iv) Depending on [H +], t he ionization equilibr ium
4. Tit r at ion of weak acid wit h a weak base:
shift s eit her t o r ight or left .
pH change near the end point is not shar p and hence
(v) The colour changes with change in pH of the
solution. it cannot be det ect ed wit h an indicat or.
Chemistry 2.13
Types of salts Sol ut i ons
1. N ormal salt s A sol ut i on i s defi ned as homogenous mi xt ur e of t wo
These ar e obtained by complete neutralization of an or mor e subst ances. Subst ances whi ch mak e up a
acid with a base. sol u t i on ar e cal l ed com ponen t s. Th e component
e.g. NaCl / CaCO3 havi ng t he same physi cal st at e as t he sol ut i on and
2. Acidic salt s pr esent i n excess over t he ot her component i s cal l ed
These ar e obt ained by par t ial neut r alizat ion of a solvent .

e
pol ybasi c aci d wi t h a base. Gi ves H + i on s on
secondar y ionizat ion. Ot her s whi ch ar e i n same or di ffer ent physical st at es

s
e.g. NaH SO4, Na2H PO4 and pr esent i n smal l er por t i ons ar e cal l ed sol ut es.

s
3. Basic salt s For mat i on of a sol ut i on i s a physical pr ocess.
These ar e obt ai ned by par t ial neut r al i zat ion of
Types of Sol ut i ons

b
polyacidic base. These give OH – ions on secondar y
ionization. These ar e of t hr ee t ypes.

r
e.g. Mg(OH )Br, Zn(OH)I 1. Gaseous solut ion. These ar e sol ut i ons i n whi ch

r
4. M ixed salt s. gases and vapour s mi x i n al l pr opor t i ons and for m

/
These ar e obt ained by neut r alizat ion of a mixt ur e homogeneous mi xt ur es.
of t wo acids wit h a base or a mixt ur e of t wo bases Sol vent Sol ut e E xampl e
wit h an acid.
gas gas at mospher i c ai r
e.g. CaOCl 2, K (NH 4) C2O4 et c.

m
liquid per fumes
Salt H ydr olysis sol id smok e

o
The pr ocess in which t he cat ion or anion of t he salt 2. L i qui d sol ut i on. T h ese ar e t h e sol u t i on s i n
r eacts with water to pr oduce acidic or alkaline solution. whi ch sol vent i s l i qui d and sol ut e i s gas, l i qui d or

c
The fr act i on of t he t ot al salt t hat is hydr olyzed at
sol id.

.
equilibr ium is called degr ee of hydr olysis.
1. Salt of a weak acid and a strong base Sol vent Sol ut e E xampl e
liquid gas aer at ed dr i nk s

fb
Salt s of t his t ype under go anionic hydr olysis.
salt + wat er acid + base liquid al cohol i n wat er
– + + –
CH 3COO + Na + H 2O CH 3COOH + Na + OH sol id sugar sol ut i on
H ence, CH 3COO– + H 2O CH 3COOH + OH

Sol ubi l i t y of a gas i n a l i qui d i s gover n ed by
The aqueous solut ion cont ains fr ee OH ions, hence H enr y’s l aw, whi ch st at es t hat “ at a con st ant
t heir solut ion is basic hydr olysis const ant . t emper at ur e, sol ubi l i t y i s di r ect l y pr opor t i on al
Ot her examples ar e K CN, Na2CO3, H COOK et c. t o pr essur e of gas” .
2. Salt of st rong acid with, weak base 3. Solid solut ion. At oms or molecul es of one soli d
Salt s of t his t ype under go cat ionic hydr olysis. As r epl ace t hose i n t he second sol i d t o for m sol i d
t he aqueous solut i on cont ains fr ee pr ot ons, t he
solut ions.
solut ion is acidic hydr olysis const ant .
Sol vent Sol ut e E xampl e
e.g. N H 4  Cl –  H 2 O NH 4 OH + H + + Cl
sol id gas sol i d i ce-cr eam
H ence, NH 4  H 2 O NH 4 OH + H + liquid t oot h past e
sol id all oy
3. Salt of weak acid and weak base
Salt of this type undergo both anionic and cationic Types of Sol ut i ons
hydr olysis. The nature of their solution is almost (Based on r elat ive amount of dissolved solut e
neutral.
pr esent in a solut ion at a given t emper at ur e)
e.g. N H 4 + CH 3COO– + H 2O NH 4OH + CH 3COOH These sol ut i ons ar e of t hr ee t ypes
As bot h H 3O and OH i ons ar e r el eased, t he
+ –
1. Sat urat ed solut ion. I t i s t he sol ut i on cont ai ni ng
solut ion is neut r al wit h PH 7. maxi mum amount of sol ut e i n di ssol ved st at e at
e.g. NH 4CN, CaCO3, AlPO4 a gi ven t emper at ur e. I n t his solut ions t wo phases
4. Salt of st rong acid and strong base ar e in equilibr ium.
Salt of t his t ype do not under go hydr olysis, hence 2. U n sa t u r a t ed sol u t i on . I t i s t h e sol u t i on
nat ur e of t heir solut ion is exact ly neut r al. cont ai ni ng l ess t han t he maxi mum quant i t y of a
The hydrolysis constant (K h) in aqueous solution of sol ut e i n di ssol ved st at e at a gi ven t emper at ue.
these salts is equal to ionic product of water (K w), i.e.
3. Super sat ur at ed sol ut i on. I t i s t he sol ut i on
Kh = Kw
cont ai ni ng mor e amount of sol ut e di ssol ved t han
Na+ + Cl – + H 2O Na+ + OH – + H + + Cl –
i n a sat ur at ed sol ut i on. I t i s met a st abl e and
H ence, H 2O H + OH –
+
becomes sat ur at ed by shak ing or st i r r ing.
e.g. NaNO3, N 2SO4, NaClO4
2.14 Chemistry

Sol ubi l i t y 2. Percentage by weight. I t is t he number of gr ams


I t is t he amount of solut e r equir ed t o sat ur at e 100 of solut e pr esent in 100 gr ams of solut ion
gr ams of solvent at a given t emper at ur e. weight of solut e
% by weight =  100
Weight of solut e weight of solut ion
Solubilit y =  100
Weight of solvent 3. Volume fraction. I t is t he volume(in ml) of t he
F act or s affect ing Solubilit y of subst ance solut e pr esent in 1.0 ml of solut ion.

e
1. N ature of Solvent and Solute. I onic subst ances volume of solut e
Volume fr act ion =

s
ar e sol u bl e i n pol ar sol v en t s an d n on -i on i c volume of solut ion
subst ances ar e soluble in non-polar solvent s.
4. Percentage of volume. It is the volume (in ml) of

s
Rat e of dissolut ion of a solid in a liquid depends on
( i ) Size of solute particles : I ncrease in surface the solute present per 100 ml of the solution is volume

b
area increases the rate of dissolution as dissolution volume of solut e
is a surface phenomenon. percent % by volume =  100

r
volume of solut ion
( ii ) Agitat ion of t he mixture : St ir r i ng speeds 5. M ole fraction. I t is t he r at io of number of moles

r
dissolution. of a component t o t he t ot al number of t he moles

/
( iii ) Temperature : Rise of t emper at ur e speeds up of all component s pr esent in solut ion.
dissolut ion as t he t emper at ur e is incr eased, n
M ole fr act ion of slout e, X solut e =
t he k i net i c ener gy and hence t he r at e of nN

m
diffusion of bot h solut e and solvent par t icles n
incr eases. Some t ime solubilit y decr eases on M ole fr act ion of solvent , X solvent =
nN
I nver se of t emp.

o
 X +X =1
2. Pressure. The effect of pr essur e on solubilit y of a solut e solvent

c
gas in a liquid is gover ned by H enr y’s law. 6. M ole per cent age.

.
M ole per cent age = M ole fr act ion  100
3. Temperat ur e. The sol ubi l i t y of gases i n wat er
generally decreases with increase of temperature. 7. M olality. I t i s t he number of gr am mol es of a

fb
solute pr esent in one kilogr am(1000g) of a solvent.
H eat of Solution
I t is t he amount of ener gy evolved or absor bed when weight of solut e 1000
m= 
one mole of solute is dissolved in large excess of solvent. molecular weight weight of solvent
H eat of solut ion = lat t ice ener gy + hydr at ion ener gy
10  solub ilit y
m=
H ydr at i on E ner gy gram molecular weight of solut e
I t i s t he amount of ener gy r eleased when ions ar e
pr oduced fr om one mole of ionic subst ance in wat er. Unit : mol kg-1
8. M olarity. I t is t he number of gr am moles of solut e
L at t ice E ner gy
pr esent in one lit r e of t he solut ion.
I t is t he amount of ener gy r equir ed t o separ at e one
weight of solut e  1000
mole of ionic cr yst al int o it s const it uent ions. M=
gr am molecular weight  solut ion in ml
If lat t ice ener gy > hydr at ion ener gy, t he syst em cools
weight %  densit y  10
down . M=
molecular weight of solut e
If lat t ice ener gy < hydr ation ener gy, the system heats
up. Unit : mol lit – 1
If lat t ice ener gy = hydr at ion ener gy, t he syst em 9. N ormality. I t is t he number of gr am equivalent s
has little effect of t emper ature of solut e pr esent in one lit r e of solut ion.
weight of solut e  1000
Solubi li t y Cur ves N=
volume of solut ion  eq. (m 1 ) weight of solut e
Cur ves which show t he var iat ion of solubili t y wit h
percent weight
t emper at ur e ar e called solubilit y cur ves. N=
equivalent weight
Concent r at i on
molecular wei ght
The amount of solut e pr esent in definit e quant it y of Equivalent weight =
solut ion is called concent r at ion . n
M et hods of expr essing Concent r at ions Nor malit y = n  M olar it y
1. Weight fr act ion. I t i s t he number of gr ams of U nit : gm eq. lit – 1
solut e pr esent in one gr am of t he solut ion. 10. Formality. I t is t he number of for mula weight
W weight of solut e of solut e pr esent in 1lit r e of solut ion.
Weight fr action = 
w  W weight of solut ion Unit s. for mula weight lit r e-1
Chemistry 2.15
Char act er ist i cs of E qul i br i um st at e Col l oi dal St at e
1. The equi l i br i um st at e can be obt ai ned fr om bot h Tr ue sol ut i on
di r ect i ons I t i s a homogenous mi xt ur e of sol ut e and sovl ent
2. Chemi cal equi l i br i um i s dynami c i n nat ur e. f or m i n g on e ph ase i n wh i ch t h e m ol ecu l es ar e
mi xed r andoml y. The sol ut e par t i cl es never set t l e
3. Cat al yst cannot shi ft t he posi t i on of equi l i bur i m down size of par t i cl es < 10– 7cm.
but hel ps i n at t ai ni ng i t qui ck l y.

e
e.g. sal t sol ut i on
4. T h e equ i l i br i u m can be sh i f t ed by ch an gi n g Suspen si on .

s
condi t i ons l i k e t emper at ur e, pr essur e et c. The sol ut i on i n whi ch t he par t i cl es can be seen wi t h

s
5. The syst em whi ch i s in equil i br i um st at e wi l l be nak ed eye and whi ch set t l e on st andi ng ar e cal l ed
i n equl i br i um as l ong as i t r emains undi st ur bed. suspensions.

b
Si ze of par t i cl es > 10 – 5cm.
6. At equi l i br ui m st at e t he change i n fr ee ener gy

r
(G = 0) i s zer o. C ol l oi ds

r
A col l oi dal syst em i s het r ogeneous and consi st s of
Sur face Chemi st r y

/
at l east t w o p h ases t h e d i sp er sed p h ase an d
A dsor pt i on di sper sed medi um possessi ng cer t ai n char act er i st i c
T h e pr ocess of accu m u l at i on of a su bst an ce i n pr oper t i es. T h e si ze of par t i cl es r an ges f r om
10 – 5 -10– 7 cm.

m
hi gher condi t i ons at t he sur face whi ch separ at es
t wo phases. D i sper sed phase

o
Adsor ben t Subst ances whose par t i cl es ar e di st r i but ed i n a
I t i s t he subst ance whi ch t ak es up or adsor bs t he medi um. I t i s al so cal l ed di scont i nuous phase or

c
gas or l i qui d. inner phase.

.
Adsor at e D i sper si on medi um
The medi um i n whi ch t he col l oi dal par t i cl es ar e

fb
I t i s t he subst ance whi ch i s adsor bed.
Types of adsor pt i on di sper sed. I t i s al so cal l ed cont i nuous phase or
1. Physi cal or Vander waal ’s adsor pt i on. out er phase.
When a gas i s adsor bed on t he sur face of a sol i d D i sper sed M edium N ame E xample
by weak vander waal ’s for ce, t he phenomenon phase
i s cal l ed ph ysi cal adsor pt i on . M u l t i l ay er ed 1. gas liquid foam soap lather
pr ocess i nvol ves heat of adsor pt i on 1-10 K cal /
m ol e. 2. gas solid solid foam cor k
2. Chemical or Act i vat ed adsor pt i on. 3. liquid gas aerosol fog, cloud,
When a gas i s adsor bed ont o t he sur face of a mist
sol i d by for ces si mi l ar t o t hose of a chemi cal 4. liquid liquid emulsion milk
bond, i t i s cal l ed chemi sor pt i on or L angmui r 5. liquid solid gels cheese
adsor pt i on . I t i nvol ves heat of adsor pt i on 10-
6. solid gas smoke dust
100 K cal /mol e.
7. solid liquid sols proteins
A dsor pt i on
I t i s t he phenomenon of i ncr ease i n concent r at i on 8. solid solid solid sol or gel minerals
t hr oughout t he body al ong wi t h t he sur face.
Sol
Sor pt i on I f disper sion medium is a fluid, it is called sol .
I t i s t h e pr ocess i n wh i ch bot h absor pt i on an d
H ydr osol
adsor pt i on t ak es pl ace. I t i s al so cal l ed r ever se
I f disper sion medium is wat er, it is called hydr osol .
pr ocess.
I f alcohol or benzene ar e used, t hey ar e called alcosol
F act or s affect i ng adsor pt i on or benzosol.
(1) N a t u r e of a d sor ben t a n d a d sor ba t e:
Types of colloids
Per manent gases ar e adsor bed l ess and easi l y
1. Lyophilic colloids.
l i qui fi abl e gases ar e adsor bed much.
These ar e susbst ances which passes int o colloidal
(2) Pr essu r e st ate simply by br inging it in contact with a solvent.
(3) Temper at ur e I t is also called r ever sible colloid.
(4) Sur face ar ea of adsor bent . e.g. gum, gelat in.
2.16 Chemistry
2. Lyophobic colloids. D e- emulsificat ion
These ar e insoluble substances which do not r eadily T he pr ocess of con ver t i n g an em u l si on i nt o i t s
yield colloidal solut ions when br ought in cont act com pon en t s, i .e. oi l an d w at er i s cal l e de-
wit h solvent . I r r ever sible colloids ar e also called emulsificat ion .
suspensoids. Coagul at ion
I f wat er is used, t hey ar e called hydr ophilic and
The phenomenon of change of col l oi dal st at e t o
hydr ohobic colloids.

e
suspension st at e is called coagulat ion or flocculat ion .
M i scel l s The amount of electr olyte r equir ed to coagulate a fixed

s
Subst ances behave as nor mal, st r ong elect r olyt es at amount of a sol depends on t he valency of flocculat ing

s
low concentr ations but at higher concentrations exhibit i on.
colloidal pr oper ties due to aggregation of par ticles; such H ardy-Schulze rule

b
aggr egat ed par t i cl es ar e call ed micelles and t hese
Gr eat er t he valency of flocculat ingion, higher is it s
subst ances ar e called associat ed colloids.

r
capacit y t o cause pr ecipit at ion.
e.g. soap or det er gent s

r
Gold number
These ar e amphit het ic, i.e. t hey have bot h lyophilic
Weight in milligr ams of a pr otective colloid to be added

/
and lyophobic gr oups.
t o pr event t he coagulat ion of 10ml of a given gold
Br ownian movement solut ion on adding 1ml of 10% solut ion of NaCl.
Th e r an dom an d con t i n uou s m ot i on of col l oi dal

m
D onnan membr ane equlibr ium
par t icles in a disper sion medium is called Br ownian The pot ent ial differ ence devel oped due t o unequal
movement . This er at ic mot ion is a r esult of const ant

o
concent r at ion of ions on t wo sides of t he membr ane.
bombar dment of colloidal par t icles by t he molecules
E lect r ophor esi s

c
of disper sion medium in all dir ect ions. These impar t
When an elect r ic cur r ent is passed t hr ough a colloidal

.
moment um t o colloidal solut ion.
solut ion cont aining opposit ely char ged solid par t icles
and liquid medium and t he pr ocess in which only t he

fb
sol i d par t i cl es can move i s cal l ed cat aphor esi s or
electophoresis.
Zet a pot ent ial or Elect okinet ic pot ent ial
I t is t he differ ence of pot ent ial bet ween fixed and
Tyndall effect diffused par t s of t he double layer.
When a beam of light is passed t hr ough a colloidal Gel
solut ion, it becomes visible as a br ight st r eak. This Colloidal solut ions cont aining a liquid disper sed in
phenomenon is called tyndall effect and the illuminated solid. The pr ocess of for mat ion of gel is called gelat ion .
pat h is called t yndall cone. e.g. cur d, soap, boot polish.
EM U L SON S Cat al ysi s
Emulsions ar e for med by disper sion of one liquid in Substances which alter s the r ate of a chemical r eaction
another liquid. Disper sion of tiny par ticles of one liquid wi t hout under goi ng a chemi cal change i s cal led a
in another liquid is called an emulsion and the pr ocess cat alyst and t he phenomenon is called cat alysis.
is called emulsificat ion.
Types of Emulsions Char act erist ics of Cat alyst
1. Oil in-wat er. 1. Cat alyst r emains chemically unchanged dur ing a
Oi l i s di sper sed phase and wat er i s di sper si on r eact ion.
medium. 2. Small quant it y is enough t o br ing about a r eact ion.
e.g. M ilk 3. I t does not effect equlibr ium of r ever sible r eact ions.
2. Wat er-in-oil. 4. I t h as m ax i m u m ef f i ci en cy at i t s opt i m u m
Wat er is disper esed phase and oil is disper sion
t emper at ur e.
medium.
e.g. But t er 5. I t does not init iat e a r eact ion t hat does not occur.

Emulsifier s (or) E mulsifying agent s 6. Cat al yst i c pr om ot er s : Su bst an ces w h i ch


incr ease act ivit y of cat alyst ar e called pr omot er s.
To get st abl e emul si ons, smal l amount of anot her
subst ances ar e added; t hese ar e called emulsifer s or 7. Specificity : Ever y cat alyst is specific in act ion and
emulsifiying agents. act s only on a par t icular subst r at e.
Chemistry 2.17

PRACTI CE EXERCI SE
OBJECTI VE TYPE QU ESTI ON S 8. Whi ch one among t he fol l owi ng i s t he mai n
ingr edient in cement ?
1. The mat er ial used for elect r ic fuse is an alloy of
t in and lead. This alloy should have: (a) Gypsum
(a) high specific r esistance and low melting point. (b) L ime st one

e
(b) low specific r esistance and high melting point. (c) Clay

s
(c) low specific r esist ance and low melt ing point . (d) Ash

s
(d) high specific resistance and high melting point. 9. Glass is act ually :
2. Silver war e tur ns black aft er a per iod of t ime due (a) a cr yst alline solid.

b
t o for mat ion of : (b) an ionic solid.

r
(a) nit r at e coat ing on silver. (c) an elast ic solid.

r
(b) sulphide coat ing on silver. (d) a vitr ified liquid.

/
(c) chlor ide coat ing on silver. 10. Solutions in test tubes containing H 2O and aqueous
(d) oxide coat ing on silver. NaOH can be differ ent iat ed wit h t he help of :
3. When concent r at ed H 2SO4 spilt s on t he sur face, (a) r ed lit mus. (b) blue lit mus

m
it should be immediat ely cleaned : (c) Na2CO3 (d) HCl (aqueous)

o
(a) wit h a piece of clot h. 11. H uman st omach pr oduces acid ‘X' which helps in
(b) by adding cold wat er. digest ion of food. Acid ‘X' is :

c
(c) by adding solid Na2CO3. (a) acet ic acid. (b) met hanoic acid.

.
(d) by adding solid BaCl 2. (c) hydr ochlor ic acid. (d) cit r ic acid.

fb
4. A bee-sitting leaves an acid which causes pain and 12. Whi ch one among t he fol l owi ng i s used as a
ir r it at ion. The inject ed acid is : moder at or in nuclear r eact or s?
(a) acet ic acid. (a) Ozone (b) H eavy hydr ogen
(b) sulphur ic acid. (c) H eavy wat er (d) H ydr ogen per oxide
(c) cit r ic acid. 13. Which one of t he following cont ains maximum
per cent age of nit r ogen by mass?
(d) met hanoic acid.
(a) Ur ea
5. I r on nails ar e dipped int o blue copper sulphat e
solut ion. Aft er some t ime ir on nails ar e : (b) Ammonium cyanide
(a) dissolved and blue colour is dischar ged. (c) Ammonium car bonat e
(b) dissolved but blue colour is not dischar ged. (d) Ammonium nit r at e
(c) not dissolved and blue colour is not discharged. 14. Oxygen and ozone ar e
(d) not dissolved but blue colour is dischar ged. (a) Allotr opes (b) isomer s
6. A st udent by chance mixed acet one wit h alcohol. (c) isot opes (d) isobar s
Thi s mi xt ur e of acet one and al cohol can be 15. When applied t o t he affect ed ar ea, which one of
separ at ed by : t he following will r elieve t he pain due t o ant -bit e
(a) filt r at ion. or bee-st ing?
(b) separ at ing funnel. (a) L emon juice (b) Vinegar
(c) fr act ional cr ystallization. (c) Baking soda (d) Caustic soda
(d) fr act ional dist illation.
LEVEL-1
7. Which one among t he following met hods is not
1. H adr ons and Bar yons ar e
effect ive in r emoving ar senic fr om cont aminat ed
gr ound wat er ? (a) I ndust r ial chemicals
(a) Boiling (b) Types of subat omi c par t i cl es
(b) Rever se osmosis (c) Alkalies
(c) I on exchange (d) Cyclot r ons
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ]
(d) Coagulation-adsorption
2.18 Chemistry
2. Wh i ch of t h e f ol l owi n g i s a h et er ogen eou s 11. Major contributing activity towards Global
mixt ur e? Warming by Greenhouse gases
(a) Br ass (a) Agriculture
(b) Sugar sol ut ion in wat er (b) Deforestation
(c) Air (c) Energy
(d) Milk

e
(d) lndustry
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ] [RRB JE 2014 YEL L OW SH I FT ]

s
3. A class of compounds which ar e used as fragr ances 12. Electrostatic Precipitators are devices for
when molecular wei ght i s low and ar e nat ur al ly

s
(a) Particulate Emission Control
occur r i ng fat s when molecular wei ght i s high in
t he ser ies, is call ed (b) Water Pollution Control

b
(a) amino aci ds (b) ar omat ic compounds (c) Noise Pollution Control

r
(c) est er s (d) or ganic aci ds (d) Energy Pollution Control

r
[RRB JE 2014 GREEN SH I FT ] [RRB JE 2014 YEL L OW SH I FT ]

/
4. Disinfection of drinking water is done to remove: 13. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure
(a) Odour (b) Bacterias of

m
(c) Turbidity (d) Colour (a) Oxygen utilized during oxidation of organic
matters
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]

o
(b) Suspended particles in water
5. Global warming is caused by :

c
(c) Suspended particles in air
(a) N2 (b) CO2

.
(d) Noise level in air
(c) Ozone (d) None of these
[RRB JE 2014 YEL L OW SH I FT ]
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]

fb
14. Biodegradable pollutants are
6. What is the General formula of Alkanes ?
(a) quickly degraded by natural means
(a) CnH2n+2 (b) CnH2n
(b) can not be degraded
(c) CnH2n – 2 (d) CnH2n + 4
(c) can be degraded by burning only
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]
(d) disposed in flowing water only
7. The pollutant responsible for ozone holes is :
[RRB JE 2014 YEL L OW SH I FT ]
(a) CO2 (b) CO
15. The state in which molecular attractions are very
(c) SO2 (d) CFC
strong is
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ]
(a) Solid (b) Liquid
8. Ammonia is prepared commercially by the :
(c) Gas (d) Vapour
(a) Oswald process [RRB JE 2014 YEL L OW SH I FT ]
(b) Hall process
(c) Contact process LEVEL-2
(d) Haber process 1. What is t he common pr oper t y bet ween L iAlH 4,
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ] Sodium amalgam and NaBH 4?
9. The elements which have same mass number (a) They ar e used in r emoving slag fr om molt en
but different atomic numbers are know as : met als
(a) Isotones (b) Isobars (b) They ar e used in manufact ur ing est er s
(c) Isotopes (d) Halogens (c) They ar e r educing agent s
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ] (d) They ar e coat ed on welding elect r odes
10. Which one of the following is not a Noble Gas ? [RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT]
(a) Helium (b) Bromine 2. Soaps ar e manufact ur ed by:
(c) Argon (d) Neon (a) React ion of alkalies wit h glycer ol
[RRB JE 2014 RED SH I FT ] (b) React ion of fat s wit h soluble hydr oxides
Chemistry 2.19
(c) React ion of calcium and magnesium ions wit h (c) su m of t h e n u m ber of pr ot on s an d t h e
dilute sulphur ic acid neut r ons in t he nucleus of an at om
(d) React ion of dodecyl benzene wit h H 2SO4 and (d) number of pr ot ons or elect r ons in one gr am
t hen NaOH of Sodium
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT] [RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
3. Chemical bonding which r esult s in for mat ion of 10. I sot opes of t he same element have

e
molecules fr om at oms is basically- (a) Same number of neut r ons

s
(a) Nuclear for ce (b) Same at omic mass

s
(b) Shor t r ange for ces (c) Same number of pr ot ons
(c) Elect r ost at ic for ce (d) Differ ent at omic number

b
(d) Gr avitat ional for ce

r
[RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT] 11. I n a r eaction between Zinc and I odine. Zinc I odide

r
4. Glycer ol can be r epr esent ed by chemical for mula: is for med. What is being oxidised ?

/
(a) C2HSO2 (b) C3H 7OH (a) Zinc ions (b) I odide ions
(c) C3H 5OH (d) C3H 8O3 (c) Zinc At om (d) I odine

m
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT] [RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
5. The most ideal di si nfect ant used for dr i nki ng 12. Whi ch of t he fol l owi ng hal ogens i s t he best

o
wat er is : oxidising agent ?

c
(a) Alum (b) Chlor ine (a) F 2 (b) Cl 2

.
(c) L i me (d) Nit r ogen (c) Br 2 (d) l 2

fb
[RRB SSE 2014 GREEN SH I FT] [RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
6. Which one of t he following is gener ally added t o 13. Nit r ogen is used t o fill elect r ic bulbs because it
Table Salt t o make it flow fr eely in r ainy season ? (a) is light er t han air
(a) Ca3(PO4)2 (b) Na3PO4 (b) makes t he bulb t o give mor e light
(c) KCI (d) KI (c) does not suppor t combust ion
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT] (d) is non-t oxic
7. Valence elect r ons in t he element A ar e 3 and t hat [RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
i n el ement B ar e 6. M ost pr obabl e compound
14. Fr ot h float at ion pr ocess for t he concent r at ion of
for med fr om A and B is :
Or es is an illustr ation of t he pr act ical applicat ion
(a) A2B (b) AB2 of
(c) A2B3 (d) A3B2 (a) Adsor ption
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT] (b) Absor ption
8. At oms of t he element s bel ongi ng t o t he same (c) Coagulation
gr oup of per iodic t able will have :
(d) Sediment ation
(a) Same number of pr ot ons
[RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
(b) Same number of neut r ons
15. The pr esence of ni t r ogen i n t he pr oduct s of
(c) Same number of elect r ons combust ion ensur es t hat
(d) Same number of elect r ons in t he valence shell (a) Complet e combust ion of fuel t akes place
[RRB SSE 2014 RED SH I FT] (b) I ncomplet e combust ion of fuel t akes place
9. Avogadr o's number, N A means (c) dr y pr oduct s of combust ion ar e analysed
(a) number of pr ot ons in nucleus of an at om (d) air is used for t he combust ion
(b) number of at oms i n one gr am at om of an [RRB SSE 2014 YELLOW SH I FT]
element
2.20 Chemistry

AN SWERS
OBJECTI VE TYPE QU ESTI ON S
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (a)
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (c)

e
LEVEL-1

s
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (b)

s
11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (a)

b
LEVEL-2

r
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (c)

/ r
11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (d)

o m
EXPLAN ATI ON S

c
OBJECTI VE TYPE QU ESTI ON S 13. I n Ur ea (NH 2 CO NH 2)

.
1. The mat er ial should have high specific value and 28
Per cent age of Nit r ogen =
 100  46.6%

fb
low melt ing point which is used for elect r ic fuse 60
is an alloy of t in and lead. I n Ammonium Cyanide (NH 4CN)
2. Silver conver t s int o silver sulphide in pr esence 28
of air and H 2S, which is black in colour Per cent age of Nit r ogen =  100  63.6%
44
 Ag 2S  2H+
2Ag  H2S  I n Ammonium Car bonat e (NH 4)2 CO3
Black
3. When concent r ated H 2SO4 split s on t he sur face it 28
Per cent age of Nit r ogen =  100  29.2%
should be immediat ely cleaned by adding solid 96
Bacl 2 (Bar ium Chlor ide). I n Ammonium nit r at e (NH 4)2 NO3
4. A bee-sting leaves methanoic acid (HCOOH) which 28
causes pain and ir r it at ion. Per cent age of Nit r ogen =  100  42.8%
98
5. I r on i s mor e r eact i ve t han copper, so r epl ace So, in ammonium cyanide per centage of nit r ogen
copper fr om copper sulphat e solut ion. is maximum
Fe  CuSO4 
 FeSO4  Cu
reddish brown
14. Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) ar e allotr opic for ms of
blue green
oxygen.
Copper submitted on iron nails by which the colour
of solut ion become light . 15. I n ant bit e and bee st ing for mic acid (H COOH ) is
pr esen t , wh i ch i s r espon si bl e f or pai n an d
6. Acet one and alcohol have differ ent boiling point s
ir r it at ion. For mic acid is a weak acid it can be
so it can be separ at ed by fr act ional dist illat ion.
neut r al so bak i ng soda (sodi um bi -car bonat e-
9. Glass is an elast ic solid. Na2CO3) is used in r elieve in pain due t o ant i-bit e
10. Red lit mus is uneffect ed by wat er (H 2O) because or bee st ing.
it is neut r al in nat ur e while NaOH is basic in
LEVEL-1
nat ur e so r ed lit mus t ur ns int o blue colour.
11. H uman st omach pr oduces H ydr ochl or i c (H cl ) 1. Hadrons and Baryons are types of subatomic
which helps in digest ion of food. particles. Baryons are heavy subatomic particles
that are made up of three quarks.
12. H eavy wat er i s used as moder at or i n nuclear
r eact or s which r educes t he velocit y of neut r ons. 2. Milk is an example of a heterogeneous mixture.
Mixtures can be separated into two (or more)
Chemistry 2.21
individual substances by physical means. Our 12. Electrostatic Precipitators are devices for
glass of ice water is a mixture because we can particulate emission control.
easily separate the ice from the liquid water by 13. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called
filtration. Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of
3. A class of compounds which are used as dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by
fragrances when molecular weight is low and are aerobic biological organisms to break down

e
naturally occurring fats when molecular weight organic material present in a given water sample
is high in the series, is called esters. at certain temperature over a specific time

s
period. The BOD value is most commonly
4. Disinfection of drinking water is done to remove expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per

s
Bacteria. Water disinfection means the removal, litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20
deactivation or killing of pathogenic °C. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a

b
microorganisms. measure of Oxygen utilized during oxidation of

r
Microorganisms are destroyed or deactivated, organic matters.

r
resulting in termination of growth and 14. Biodegradable pollutants are quickly degraded by

/
reproduction. When microorganisms are not natural means. Biodegradable pollutants: Such
removed from drinking water, drinking water pollutants are quickly degraded by microbes
usage will cause people to fall ill. (bacteria and fungi) in nature e.g. sewage, ...
Examples of such pollutants are: DDT, mercury,

m
5. CO2 causes green house effect trading to global
lead, arsenic, some pesticides, radioactive
warming.
substances, glass, plastic, aluminium pieces, etc.

o
6. The alkanes comprise a series of compounds that 15. Solid has the highest molecular attractions hence

c
are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms with is dense and compact.

.
single covalent bonds. This group of compounds
comprises a homologous series with a general LEVEL-2

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molecular formula of C n H 2 n+2.
1. a In organic chemistry we normally learn
7. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other about two important reducing reagents,
halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) and lithium
are mainly responsible for man-made chemical aluminum hydride (LiAlH4 or LAH). We learn
ozone depletion. The total amount of effective
that NaBH4 is a “weak reducing agent” and
halogens (chlorine and bromine) in the
can only take aldehydes and ketones to alcohols
stratosphere can be calculated and are known as
easily. NaBH4 can handle esters, but it is very
the equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine
(EESC). slow at converting them and thus not
preferable.
8. The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the
air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural 2. b Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides;
gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is three molecules of fatty acids attach to a
reversible and the production of ammonia is single molecule of glycerol. The alkaline
exothermic. The catalyst is actually slightly more solution, which is often called lye (although
complicated than pure iron. the term “lye soap” refers almost exclusively
9. Atoms of chemical elements having same atomic to soaps made with sodium hydroxide), brings
mass but a different atomic number are called about a chemical reaction known as
Isobars. The sum of the number of protons and saponification.
neutrons together form the atomic mass.
3. c A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between
10. Among the given options, Bromine is not a Noble
atoms, ions or molecules that enables the
Gas.The six noble gases that occur naturally are
helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), formation of chemical compounds. The bond
xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). may result from the electrostatic force of
11. A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits attraction between oppositely charged ions as
radiant energy within the thermal infrared in ionic bonds or through the sharing of
range. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions electrons as in covalent bonds.
cause the greenhouse effect.
2.22 Chemistry

4. d The glycerol chemical formula is C3H8O3 and 11. a Zinc powder is added to a solution of iodine in
its extended formula is CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH. ethanol. An exothermic redox reaction occurs,
The IUPAC name for glycerol is 1, 2, forming zinc iodide, which can be obtained by
3- Trihydroxypropane or 1, 2, 3- Propanetriol. evaporating the solvent. In reaction between
5. b The most ideal disinfectant used for drinking Zinc and Iodine. Zinc Iodide is formed. Zinc
atom is being oxidised.

e
water is Chlorine. Chlorine is one of the most
commonly used disinfectants for water 12. a Fluorine is such a powerful oxidising agent

s
disinfection. that you can’t reasonably do solution reactions

s
6. a Ca3(PO4)2 is generally added to Table Salt to with it.
make it flow freely in rainy season. 13. c Filling a bulb with an inert gas such as argon

b
7. b Valence electrons in the element A are 3 and or nitrogen slows down the evaporation of

r
that in element B are 6. Most probable the tungsten filament compared to operating

r
compound formed from A and B is A2B3. it in a vacuum. This allows for greater

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8. d Atoms of the elements belonging to the same temperatures and therefore greater efficacy
group of periodic table will have Same number with less reduction in filament life.

m
of electrons in the valence shell. 14. a Froth floatation process for the concentration
9. b In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro of Ores is an illustration of the practical

o
constant, named after scientist Amedeo application of Adsorption.

c
Avogadro, is the number of constituent 15. d The presence of nitrogen in the products of

.
particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are combustion ensures that air is used for the
contained in the amount of substance given combustion.

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by one mole.
10. c The atoms of a chemical element can exist in
different types. These are called isotopes. They
have the same number of protons (and
electrons), but different numbers of neutrons.
Different isotopes of the same element have
different masses.
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