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UNIT 1

VECTORS, LINES
and PLANES in
SPACE
OBJECTIVES
By the end of the unit, you must be
able to:
 enumerate and apply properties of
vectors in the plane and in space;
 perform and interpret vector
operations;
 find the equations of a line and
equation of a plane in space; and
 identify and sketch cylinders and
quadric surfaces.
1.1
VECTORS IN THE
PLANE
NOTION

VECTOR
quantity that has both
magnitude and direction
SCALAR
quantity that only has
magnitude
Examples
SCALARS VECTORS
speed velocity
length displacement
time acceleration
temperature force
mass magnetic field
density electric field
energy momentum
EXAM SCORE LIFE
JUST FOR FUN

LIFE IS NOT JUST


MAGNITUDE
ABOUT MAGNITUDE.
DIRECTION
IT NEEDS DIRECTION.
-something I overheard
Geometric representation

magnitude

 terminal point

direction
initial point
5
4
3
2
1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1

-2
-3 A or A
-4
-5
Illustration 1.

Consider a vector A with


initial point at  2 ,  4  and
terminal point at  5 ,6 .
Determine its magnitude and
direction.
Solution
5  5 ,6 
4

magnitude
3
2
1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-2
-3
-4
 2 ,  4  -5
Solution (continued)

magnitude of A
 d 2 ,4  ,  5 ,6 

 5   2   6   4 
2 2
2
 7  10 2
 149
Solution (continued)
5  5 ,6 
10
tan   4
7 3
10
   Arc tan 2
7 1 10
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-2

-3
-4
 2 ,  4  -5
7
Solution (continued)

Hence, vector A has a


magnitude of 149 and in
the direction of Arc tan 10 .
7
Representations . . .
A vector has several representations
on the plane depending on the initial
and terminal point.

Position Representation
• initial point at the origin
• direction is measured from the
positive x-axis in counter
clockwise direction
Illustration 2. The following are
different representations of one
vector.

Initial point Terminal point

 3 , 2  1 ,1 
 5 ,1   1 ,  4 
 1 ,5   5 ,2 
5
41 ,5 
3
2
 3 , 2  1  5 ,2 

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
 5 ,1  1 ,1 
-2
-3
-4  4 , 3 
 1 ,  4-5
Vector in the plane

A vector is an ordered pair of


real numbers a , b . a and b
are called components of the
vector.
Representation

Position representation of a , b

initial point:  0 ,0 
terminal point:  a ,b 
MUST!!!

 x i , yi 
Initial point:
Terminal point:  xt , yt 

VECTOR COMPONENTS:

xt  xi , yt  yi
Example 1.
Determine the components of
the vector with initial point at
 2 ,  4  and terminal point at
 5 ,6  .
Solution:
xt  xi , yt  yi
 5    2  ,6    4 
 7 ,10
5  5 ,6 
4
3
2
1
7 ,10
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-2
-3
-4
 2 ,  4 -5
Example 2.
Determine the components of
the vector with initial point at
 3 , 2  and terminal point at
1 ,1  .
Solution:
xt  xi , yt  yi
 1   3  ,  1  2
 4 , 3
5

4
3
2 4 , 3
 3 , 2  1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-2
1 ,1 
-3
-4  4 , 3 
-5
Equality of vectors

Two vectors are equal if their


magnitudes and directions are
equal.
Vectors a , b and c , d are
equal if and only if a  c and
bd.
Consider nonzero vector A.
The magnitude of A, A , is the
length of any of its
representations.

The direction angle of A,  A , is


the measure of the angle formed
by the vector with the positive x-
axis in the counterclockwise
direction.
Magnitude and direction

Consider vector A  a ,b .
A  2
a b 2
b
tan  A 
a
Also, A  A cos A , A sin A .
Example 3.
Determine the magnitude and
direction of vectors A   4 , 4
and B  1 ,  3 .
Solution:
A   4 ,4
A    4   4  32  4 2
2 2
4
tan A   4  1  A  Arc tan  1
Solution (continued)
5
4
A   4 ,4
A
3
2
1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1

-2 Arc tan  1  
-3
4
-4
-5
Solution (continued)
4
tan A   4  1
 A    Arc tan  1
 
  
 4
3
A 
4
Solution (continued)

B  1 , 3

B  1   3 
2 2  4 2

 3
tan B  1   3

 B  Arc tan 3 
Solution (continued)
B  1 , 3 2

 B  Arc tan 3  1

B  
3
-2 -1 1 2

-1 B
5
Also,  B  . -2
3
Example 4.
Determine the components of
the vector with a magnitude of
5
6 units in the direction of .
3
Solution:
A cos A , A sin A
5 5
 6 cos 3 ,6 sin 3
Solution (continued)

A cos A , A sin A
5 5
 6 cos 3 ,6 sin 3
1  3
 6   ,6   
2  2 
 3 , 3 3
5
Solution (continued)
4

5 3
2
3
vertical component
1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-2 6 units
-3
-4 3 , 3 3
-5

horizontal component
Operations on vectors
Consider vectors
A a1 , a2 B  b1 , b2
SUM: A  B  a1  b1 , a2  b2

NEGATIVE:  A   a1 ,  a2

DIFFERENCE:
A  B  a1  b1 , a2  b2
Operations on vectors
SCALAR PRODUCT:
cA ca1 , ca2
where c is a constant
If c  1 , cA stretches A .
If 0  c  1 , cA shrinks A .

If c  0 , cA reverses A .
Geometrically

cA , c  0

cA , c  1
A
cA , 0  c  1
Geometrically

AB
Geometrically
AB
B
 A   B 

A
B AB
Example 5.
If A   2 , 4 and B  4 , 3 ,
evaluate the following:
1
1. A  B 4. 2 A
2. A  B 5. 2 A  3 B
3. 2 A
Also, determine the respective
direction and magnitude.
Solutions
A   2 ,4 B  4 ,3
1. A  B   2  4 , 4  3
 2 ,7
A  B  53
7
 A B  Arc tan
2
Solutions
A   2 ,4 B  4 ,3
2. A  B   2  4 , 4  3
  6 ,1
AB  37
1
 AB  Arc tan 
6
Solutions
A   2 ,4 B  4 ,3
3. 2 A  2  2  , 2 4 
  4 ,8
2 A  80  4 5  2 A
2 A  Arc tan 2      A
Solutions
A   2 ,4 B  4 ,3

4. 1 A  2  2  , 2 4 
1 1
2
  1 ,2
1 A  5 1 A
2 2
 1 A Arc tan 2      A
2
Solutions
A   2 ,4 B  4 ,3

5. 2 A  3 B  2  2 , 4  3 4 , 3
  4 , 8  12 , 9
  16 ,  1
2 A  3 B  257
2 A3 B  Arc tan 16  
1
Illustration 15
A   2 ,4 12
2A
B  4 ,3 9
6
3

-15 -12 -9 -6 -3 3 6 9 12 15
-3
-6

2 A  3B  3B -9
-12
  16 ,  1 -15
Unit vector
A unit vector has a
magnitude of 1.
i  1 , 0 : unit vector in the
direction of positive
x-axis
j  0 ,1 : unit vector in the
direction of positive
y-axis
Unit vector

Given A  a , b .

A  ai  bj
or A  a 1 , 0  b 0 ,1
Unit vector
Given A  a , b .

Unit vector in the direction of A:

a b
UA  ,
A A
 cos A , sin A
Example 6.
Determine a unit vector in the
direction of 12 ,  5 .
Solution:
Let A  12 ,  5 .

A  12 2   5 2
 144  25 12  5
UA  ,
 169  13 13 13
Illustration 3 10
8 12  5
6
UA  ,
13 13
4
2

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8 10
-2
-4
-6
A  12 ,  5
-8
-10
Example 7.
Determine a unit vector in the
direction of the vector with a
magnitude of 10 in the direction

of 6 .
Solution: Let B be the given vector.
U B  cos B , sin B
  3 1
 cos 6 , sin 6  ,
2 2
END