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UCSP REVIEWER 1ST QUARTER o Positivist Tradition - believed that social

research should not criticize existing

DOING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH beliefs and practices.
 Science and Common Sense
o People often do inquiries to answer DEFINING CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND
specific questions; often experience POLITICS
predicting the future. To answer  Culture – way of life/living; all the
questions, many people turn to common shared products of human groups.
sense or the prevailing opinion among o Material – physical objects that
people. people create and use.
o Common Sense is prone to: o Non-material – abstract human
 Overgeneralization creations such as traditions, beliefs,
 Inaccurate Observation language, etc.
 Illogical Reasoning  Politics
 The Emancipatory Potential of the Social o Branches of Government
Sciences  Executive – responsible for
o Social Sciences – contribute greatly to carrying out or administering laws
the elimination of the prejudices against enacted by legislature.
certain groups of people. - President, Vice President,
 It helps people to better understand Cabinet Members
other people's way of life.  Legislative – responsible for the
 They challenge the common sense creation of laws administered by
beliefs and refuse to follow executive branch of government.
unexamined traditions. If the bill is not signed by the
 Open System of the Social Sciences - Pres. in 30 days, the legislature
open systems applies to society, politics, will have to vote for the bill.
culture, and the world. - Senate, House of
o Two Basic Methods in the Social Representative
Sciences  Judiciary – responsible for
 Quantitative – research involving the evaluating laws; determines
collection of data in numerical form whether or not there has been a
for quantitative analysis. grave abuse of discretion
 Qualitative – research that amounting to lack or excess of
investigates aspect of social life. jurisdiction on the part and
- Case Study – attempts to shed instrumentality of the government
light on a phenomenon by - Supreme Court, lower courts
studying in depth a single case  Gender
example of the phenomena. The o Sex – chiefly centers on the
case can be an individual person, biological differences: male and
an event, a group, or an female.
institution. o Gender - culturally learned difference
- Ground Theory – theory between men and women.
developed inductively from a  Socio-economic Status
corpus of data acquired by a o Upper Class
participant-observer.  New Rich – people who first
- Phenomenology – describes the experienced hardships before
structures of experience as they they became rich.
present themselves to  Traditional Rich – people whose
consciousness, without recourse wealth were passed down on to
to theory, deduction, or them.
assumptions from other o Middle Class - composed of small
disciplines. business and industry operators.
- Ethnography – focuses on the o Lower Class - Farm employees,
sociology of meaning though skilled and unskilled, artisans,
close field observation of service workers, and people who
sociocultural phenomena. may be unemployed or
Typically, the ethnographer underemployed or those who belong
focuses on a community. to indigent families or informal
- Historical – systematic collection sectors fall to lower class.
and objective evaluation of data
related to past occurrences in
order to test hypothesis
concerning cause, effects, or
trends of these events that may  A family could hardly eat three
help to explain present events decent meals a day.
and anticipate future events.
 The daily income could hardly Great. Alexander spread this
feed the entire family. knowledge to his conquest.
 Does not have a permanent job. o Before the birth of modern social
 Ethnicity - The expression of set of sciences in the West, the study of
cultural ideas held by a distinct ethnic of society, culture and politics were based
indigenous group. on social and political philosophy.
o Language  Natural and Social
 Based of 2000 census of o Natural Science - The study of physical
NSO, the 8 major ethno and natural world which also pertain to
linguistic groups the natural events that occur in nature.
(Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano o Social Science - the study of human
13.1%, Ilocano 9%, society and the relationship of human
Bisaya/Binasaya 7.6%, behavior to his society.
Ilonggo/ Hiligaynon 7.5%,  Political Philosophy and Social
Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, Philosophy
Others 2.3%) o Political Philosophy – begins with the
o Ancestry assumptions that such public questions
o Origin as obedience to the law, the best
o Customs government possible, or the justice of
o Traditions public policies are in need of
 Religion - Spiritual sphere or the justification.
supernatural, along with associated o Social Philosophy – evaluates
ceremonial or ritualistic practices. institutional power in terms of moral
o Based of 2000 census principles.
(Roman Catholic 82.9%, Islam  Philosophy and Religion
5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia Ni o Philosophy – concerned with question
Cristo 2.3%, Protestant groups o Religion – provide all-encompassing
4.5%, Others 1.8%, Unspecified answers to life’s questions.
0.6%, No religion 0.1%)  Philosophy and Science – would have not
 Exceptionality - Refers to the state of developed if it remained under the wings of
being intellectually gifted and/or having philosophy and theology.
physically or mentally challenged. o Science – seeks to discover the truth
 Nationality - Legal relationship that about specific causes of events and
binds a person and a country. happenings in the natural world based
o Natural – people who are born on empirical data, tested theories, and
Filipino, parents were both carefully contrived observations.
Filipinos. o Philosophy - based on analytic
o Naturalized - is a person who understanding of the nature of truth
was born an alien, but has asserted about specific topics of issues.
lawfully become a citizen of the  The Development of the Social Sciences
Philippines under PH Constitution during the Modern Period
and laws. o Pure Science – the exact science of the
development of scientific theories.
o Applied Science – the exact science of
GROWTH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES  The Unprecedented Growth of Social
 Social Science – last to develop after the
o Nicolaus Copernicus – scientific
natural sciences.
revolution begun on him. Suggests that
o Originated from three Greek
the Sun is the center of the solar
system. Refers to historical changes in
 Socrates – teacher of Plato; he has
thought and belief, to changes in social
no writings on his own, instead his
& institutional organization that unfolded
students would write his words for
in Europe roughly between 1550 and
future generations.
 Plato – teacher of Aristotle; helped to
o Isaac Newton – proposed universal laws
lay the foundations for philosophy,
of motion and a mechanical model of
rhetoric and logic through his
the universe. He has a book entitled
Socratic Dialogues.
“Philosophia Naturalis Principia
 Aristotle – passed on what he Mathematica” – Mathematical Principles
learned from Plato to his own of Natural Philosophy.
students including Alexander the
o Sir Francis Bacon - Established the - Francois Lyotard - Science
supremacy of reason over imagination. triumphed because it provided
o Rene Descartes and Isaac Newton – reliable results.
laid foundations of science and o Advance Human Knowledge – collapse
technology to change the world. of religious authority over social life of
o Dominance of Science – discovery of people.
gravity, mathematization of physics, o The Rise of Universities
medicine - Merchants and capitalists
 Secularization of Learning and supported universities and
Education institutions of secular learning.
o Modern Period – Scientific method over - Hub of training of future scientist,
theological thinking and technological innovators.
- Durkheim, one of the founding
fathers of sociology.
- Durkheim, lectured on the need
to secularize education and base
the curriculum on the need of
- Durkheim, lectured on the need
to secularize education and base
the curriculum on the need of
o Reformation – Reasons & science over
 Dissolution of Feudal Social Relation
religious authority. o Gemeinschaft - Ferdinand Tonnies,
- Martin Luther - German monk who
lamented the passing away of
questioned the leadership and
gemeinschaft or community because of
theology of the Catholic Church in urbanization. Community and society,
1517. The Catholic Church
showed how the modern way of life had
sold indulgences in the late
drastically changed.
medieval period, and their sale o Gesellschaft - people had warm
motivated Martin Luther to present
relationships with the community.
his "95 Theses. He came to reject o Idividualism - cold and calculated social
several teachings & practices of the
Roman Catholic Church. o Capitalism - replaced agricultural
 Indulgence – remission of economy. People began to see others
punishment caused by sin. as economic transaction than personal
 Trade and Commerce
o Enlightenment – courage to know o Livres des merveilles du monde
- Cultural Movement (Discovery of the World) recorded the
 Rationalism  Scientific travel of Marco Polo, an Italian merchant
 Theories  Method from Venice.
- Emmanuel Kant – challenged o Columbus’ five journeys to America
metaphysics (1942-1506)
 Tradition o Polo’s travels (1276-1291) to Magellan
 God’s Existence circumnavigation of the World (1519-
- Advocate the use of the 1522).
reason in order to know o The travels fed the imaginations of the
the nature of the world and Europeans with vivid descriptions of
human being. places whose very existence they had
o Medieval – universities relies on so far been unaware of.
religious tradition and Bible o Anthropologist began to compare the
o Rationalization - Social life is more & differences between rural life and city
more subjected to calculation & life.
prediction due to the regularities done  The Rise of Individualism
by science. o The intensification of commerce and
- Max Weber – figures modern trade gradually replaced barter with the
sociology; described as introduction of money and banking
rationalization system.
- Louis Pasteur – germ theory and o Banking system extend to credit and
vaccination transaction.
o Money Economy - Transformed religious and metaphysical explanation
individuals to autonomous consumers for historical development. From
who were released from attachment to agricultural to modern industrial
local contexts and traditions. capitalist societies. He stands out as the
o From feudal system to capitalism sociologist who combined revolutionary
activity with scholarly passion.
 Sociology - branch of science that deals
with the scientific study of human
interactions, social groups and institutions,
whole societies, and the human world.

o Emile Durkhiem - Pioneer of

functionalism in sociology. Responsible
from defending sociology as an
independent discipline from psychology.
A society possesses a reality sui generis
(unique) independent of individual and
institutions. Society pre-existed the
individual and will continue to exist long
o Auguste Comte – Father of Sociology. after the individual is dead. Contributed
He originally used “Social Physics” as a in field of sociology of religion,
term for sociology. Aim: to discover education, and deviance.
social laws that govern the development o Max Weber - Pioneer of interpretive
of societies. sociology. He stressed the role of
rationalization in the development of
sociology. As science began to replace
religion, people also adopted a scientific
or rational attitude to the world.
People refused to believe in
myths and superstitious beliefs and
began to be dependent to science to
order their lives. Greatest application of
scientific way of life is in bureaucracy.
 Anthropology
- Positivism – science and its o Franz Boas - Father of modern
method is the only valid way of American Anthropology. Rejected the
knowing things. biological basis of racism or racial
o Harriet Martineau – The “founding discrimination. Favor of HISTORICAL
mother” of sociology. With physical PARTICULARISM. Each society is
disabilities (deaf), she travelled a lot, considered as having a unique form of
especially in the United States. How to culture that cannot subsumed under an
Observe Morals and Manners (1838), overall definition of general culture.
deep sociological insights that we now Advocated cultural relativism or the
call as sociological insights. complexity of all culture.
o Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski -
Contributed to the development of
modern anthropology. He developed

- Participant Observation - Method

of Social Science research that
requires the anthropologists to
have the ability to participate and
blend with the way of life of a
given group of people. One of
o Karl Marx - The father of scientific
the most influential
socialism. He introduced the materialist
ethnographers in the 21st
analysis of history which discounts
century. Ethnography is literally
the practice of writing about
o Alfred Reginald-Radcliffe-Brown - He
advocated the study of abstract
principles that govern social change.
Established STRUCTURAL-
- Structural-Functional Paradigm -
The basic unit of analysis for
anthropology and social Sciences
are the social structures and the
functions they perform to
maintain the equilibrium.
 Political Science

 Social Sciences In The Era Of

o Science as universalizing form of
knowing but sensitive to the local
cultures of the people.

o POLITICS refers to the process of

making collective decisions in
community, society or group through the
application of influence and power.
o POLITICAL SCIENCE studies how even
the private and personal decisions of
individuals are influenced by collective
decisions of a community.
o Philosopher’s works, highlighting the
social contract theory, became the
o REFLEXIVITY or the awareness of the
foundation of modern democratic theory.
social scientists of the ideological,
 State-centered to Pluralism
political, and social biases of their
o Pluralism led to the emphasis on
analyzing group interests rather than the
o Political Science will be dominated by
behavioral orientation defined as
 The Colonial Origin Of The Social
o The clamor for decolonization of social
o Indigenization of social scieces in the
- Zeus Salazar, an anthropologist
advocated for the indigenization of
social sciences.