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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

Chapter 6 Vectors
1 Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic you will be able to:

o Define vectors definition and represent them different representations of vectors.


o Perform standard operations on vectors in two-dimensional space and three-dimensional
space.
o Compute the dot product of vectors, lengths of vectors, and angles between vectors.
o Compute the cross product of vectors and interpret it geometrically.
o Determine the equations of lines and planes using vectors

2 Introduction
Some quantities in mathematics and the sciences, such as area, volume and time, can only be
expressed by numbers and appropriate units. The quantities of this type is a scalar quantity and the
corresponding real number is a scalar. On the other hand, there are some quantities need more
information to describe such as a force, displacement and velocity. These concepts hold both
magnitude and direction and is often represented by a directed line segment. Another name for
directed line segment is a vector. Vector can be represented geometrically as directed line segment
or arrows in 2-space or 3-space. The direction of the arrow specifies the direction of the vector and
the length of the arrow describe its magnitude. The tail of the arrow call the initial point of the vector,
and the tip of the arrow call the terminal point. For example, if vector extends from a point 𝑃(the
initial point) to the point 𝑄 (the terminal point), we indicate the direction by placing the arrowhead at
𝑄 on the line segment 𝑃𝑄 and denote the vector by ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑃𝑄 (see figure). We use boldface letter to denoted
vector such as 𝒖 or 𝒗 (see figure)

𝒖
P 𝒗

3 Equal Vectors
Vectors with the same length and same direction are called equivalent. Since we want a vector to be
determined solely by its length and direction, equivalent vectors are regard as equal even though
they may located different positions(see figure 2). If 𝒗 and 𝒖 are equivalent, we write

𝒗=𝒖

Figure-2

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

4 Vector addition:
It is useful to add two or more together and the addition of the vector is defined by triangle law.

Definition:

If 𝒗 and 𝒖 are any two vectors, then the sum 𝒗 + 𝒖 is vector is determined as follows: Position the
vector 𝒖 so that its initial point coincides with terminal point of 𝒗. The vector 𝒗 + 𝒖 is represented
by the arrow from the initial point of 𝒗 to terminal point of 𝒖 (figure3).

Properties of vector addition:

If 𝒗, 𝒖 and 𝒘 are vectors in space then the following properties is hold

i. 𝒗 + 𝒖 = 𝒖 + 𝒗.
ii. (𝒖 + 𝒗) + 𝒘 = 𝒖 + (𝒗 + 𝒘)

5 Vector subtraction
To obtain the difference between two vectors 𝒗 − 𝒘 without constructing – 𝒘, position 𝒗 and 𝒘 so
their initial points coincide; the vector from the terminal point of 𝒘 to terminal point of 𝒗 then the
vector 𝒗 − 𝒘.

6 Multiplication of a vector by a scalar:


If 𝑎 is any positive constant (𝑎 > 0) and 𝒗 is a vector then 𝑎𝒗 is a vector in the same direction as 𝒗
but 𝑎 times as long. If 𝑎 is negative constant then then 𝑎𝒗 is a vector in the opposite direction as 𝒗
but 𝑎 times as long. It is possible to show the following rule:

For any scalar 𝑎 and 𝑘, and any 𝒗 and 𝒖:

i. (𝑎 + 𝑘)𝒗 = 𝑎𝒗 + 𝑘𝒗
ii. 𝑎(𝒗 + 𝒖) = 𝑎𝒗 + 𝑎𝒖
iii. 𝑎(𝑘𝒗) = (𝑎𝑘)𝒗

7 Component of a vector:
A vector 𝑣 with its initial point at the origin of a cardinate system is said to be in stander position. In
2-space the coordinates (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 ) of its terminal point uniquely determine its component, written as

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

𝒗 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 ) where 𝑣1 and 𝑣2 are called component. In 3-space we write the vector as 𝒗 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ),
where 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 and 𝑣3 are called component.

Theorem: if 𝑝1 (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 ) and 𝑝2 (𝑥2 , 𝑦2 ) are point, then the vector 𝑣 in 𝑅 2 that corresponds to ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑝1 𝑝2 is
𝒗 = (𝑥2 − 𝑥2 , 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 ).

Example 3.1:

Given the point 𝑝1 (3, −2)and 𝑝2 (4, −2), fine vector 𝑣 in 𝑅 2 that correspond to ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑝1 𝑝2

Solution:

𝒗 = (4 − 3, −2 − (−2)) = (1,0)

Activity

Given the point 𝑝1 (5, −6, −1)and 𝑝2 (−3,2,7), fine vector 𝑣 in 𝑅 3 that correspond to ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑝1 𝑝2

7.1 Cartesian Component


We use the Cartesian coordinate to describe the position of any point. In two space we have x-axis,
y-axis and the origin O (figure4)

To show vectors in this diagram, we have a vector 𝒊 associated with the x-axis and a vector 𝒋
associate with the y-axis.

If we select any point, for example the point P with coordinate (𝑥, 𝑦), then the position vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝑃
may be written as combination of these unit vector

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝑃 = 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋

It is important to see the difference between these two expressions. The (𝑥, 𝑦) represent a set of
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ .
coordinate, referring to the point 𝑃. But the expression 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋 is a vector the position vector 𝑂𝑃

We can generalize the previous development to the three dimension case. Taking Cartesian axes 𝑥, 𝑦
and 𝑧, any point in three dimensional space con be written by giving 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 coordinate (figure 5).
Denoted unit vectors along these axes by 𝒊, 𝒋 and 𝒌, respectively, we can write the vector from 𝑂 to
𝑝(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) as

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝑃 = 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋 + 𝒛𝒌 = (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧)

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

8 Norm of a vector
The length of a vector 𝒖 is call the norm of 𝒖 and denoted by ‖𝒖‖. We can find the norm of a vector
𝒖 = (𝑥, 𝑦) in two space by

‖𝒖‖ = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2

For a vector 𝒖 = (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) in three space we can obtain the norm of it by

‖𝒖‖ = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2

A vector with norm 1 is called a unit vector

Example 3.2:

Find the norm of 𝒖 = −3𝒊 + 2𝒋 + 𝒌

Solution

‖𝒖‖ = √(−3)2 + 22 + 12 = √14

From the definition of the product 𝑘𝒖, the length of the vector 𝑘𝒖 is |𝑘|time the length of 𝒖. This
statement says that

‖𝑘𝒖‖ = |𝑘|‖𝒖‖

A unit vector in space is a vector for length 1. The basic vectors are unit vectors because

‖𝒊‖ = 1𝒊 + 0𝒋 + 𝟎𝒌 = √12 + 02 + 02 = 1

‖𝒋‖ = 0𝒊 + 1𝒋 + 𝟎𝒌 = √02 + 12 + 02 = 1

‖𝒌‖ = 0𝒊 + 0𝒋 + 𝟏𝒌 = √02 + 02 + 12 = 1
𝒖
If 𝒖 ≠ 0, then ‖𝒖‖ is a unit vector of direction of 𝒖 and we can use the equation

𝒖
𝒖 = ‖𝒖‖
‖𝒖‖

To express 𝒖 as product of its magnitude and direction.

Example 3.3:

Express 𝒖 = 𝒊 − 2𝒋 + 3𝒌 as product of its magnitude and direction

Solution:
𝒖
𝒖 = ‖𝒖‖
‖𝒖‖

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

𝒊 − 2𝒋 + 3𝒌
= √14 ∙
√14
1 2 3
= √14 ∙ ( 𝒊− 𝒋+ 𝒌) = (𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝒖)(𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝒖)
√14 √14 √14

Example 3.4:

Find unit vector 𝒖 in the same direction of vector from 𝑃(1,0,1) to 𝐴(3,2,0)

Solution:

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = (3 − 1)𝒊 + (2 − 0)𝒋 + (0 − 1)𝒌 = 2𝒊 + 2𝒋 − 𝒌


First we find the vector 𝑃𝐴

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ‖ = √22 + 22 + (−1)2 = √4 + 4 + 1 = 3


‖ 𝑃𝐴

The unit vector u is

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝐴 2𝒊 + 2𝒋 − 𝒌 2 2 1
𝒖= = = 𝒊+ 𝒋− 𝒌
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ‖
‖ 𝑃𝐴 3 3 3 3

MATLAB
A vector is inserted as array within square bracket so for example, vector 𝑎 = (3,4,2)
is inserted as 𝑎 = [3 4 2].
Vector operation in MATLAB
We can show that through the following
example:
a=[1 2 3] % row vector
b=[1;2;3] % column vector

% constant number
k=2;

% Multiplication with a constant number


scalarMultiply_a=k*a

% MATLAB output is
a =
1 2 3

b =

1
2
3

scalarMultiply_a =

2 4 6

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

Exercise 1.1: Change the value of k and multiply with vector b.

Given 𝑎 = (2,2, −1), 𝑏 = (2,5,1) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐 = (1,1,0) find the following


1- 𝑎 − 2𝑏
2- 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐
3- ‖ 𝑎‖
The MATLAB commands are
a=[2 2 -1];
b=[2 5 1];
c=[1 1 0];

%1 Subtraction after multiplying with a constant number e.g (a-2b)


subTwoVectors=a-2*b

% 2- Summation of three vectors (a+b+c)


sum=a+b+c

% 3- Finding norm of a vector


normVectorA=norm(a)

The MATLAB output is here


subTwoVectors =
-2 -8 -3
Sum =
5 8 0
normVectorA =
3

9 Dot product of vectors:

Let 𝒖 and 𝒗 be two nonzero vector and assume these vectors have been positioned so their initial
points coincide. By the angle between 𝒖 and 𝒗, we shell mean angle 𝜃 determined by 𝒖 and 𝒗 that
satisfies 0 ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 𝜋 (figure-6)

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

figure-6 𝒗

Definition:

If 𝑢 and 𝑣 are vectors and 𝜃 is the angle between 𝒖 and 𝒗, then the dot product 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 is defined by

‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜃 , 𝒊𝒇 𝒖 ≠ 𝟎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝒗 ≠ 𝟎
𝒖∙𝒗 ={
𝟎, 𝒊𝒇 𝒖 = 𝟎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝒗 = 𝟎

Example 3.5:

If the angle between the vectors 𝒖 = (0,0,1) and 𝒗 = (0,2,2) is 45° . Determine 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗

Solution:

𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = ‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜃 = √02 + 02 + 12 √02 + 22 + 22 cos 45 = 2

Example 3.6:

If 𝒖 and 𝒗 are parallel vector, show that 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = ‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖ . If 𝒖 and 𝒗 are orthogonal show that 𝒖 ∙
𝒗=0

Solution:

If 𝒖 and 𝒗 are parallel then the angle between them is zero. Therefore, 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = ‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖𝒄𝒐𝒔 0 =
‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖ . If 𝒖 and 𝒗 orthogonal then the angle between them is 90. Therefore, 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 =
‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖𝒄𝒐𝒔 90 = 0

Remark:

iii. If 𝒖 and 𝒗 are parallel vectors then 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = ‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖ .


iv. If 𝒖 and 𝒗 are parallel vectors then 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = 0.

An immediate consequence of the previous remark is the following useful set of formulae:

𝒊∙𝒊 =𝒋∙𝒋=𝒌∙𝒌=𝟏

𝒊∙𝒋 =𝒋∙𝒌=𝒌∙𝒊=𝟎

Example 3.7:

If 𝒗 = 𝑣1 𝒊 + 𝑣𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌 and = 𝑢1 𝒊 + 𝑢𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑢3 𝒌 . show that then 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = 𝑣1 𝑢1 + 𝑣2 𝑢2 + 𝑣3 𝑢3.

Solution:

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = (𝑣1 𝒊 + 𝑣𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌) ∙ (𝑢1 𝒊 + 𝑢𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑢3 𝒌)

= 𝑣1 𝒊 ∙ (𝑢1 𝒊 + 𝑢𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑢3 𝒌) + 𝑣𝟐 𝒋 ∙ (𝑢1 𝒊 + 𝑢𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑢3 𝒌)
+𝑣3 𝒌 ∙ (𝑢1 𝒊 + 𝑢𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑢3 𝒌)

= 𝑣1 𝑢1 𝒊 ∙ 𝒊 + 𝑣1 𝑢2 𝒊 ∙ 𝒋 + 𝑣1 𝑢3 𝒊 ∙ 𝒌 + 𝑣2 𝑢1 𝒋 ∙ 𝒊 + 𝑣2 𝑢2 𝒋 ∙ 𝒋 + 𝑣2 𝑢3 𝒋 ∙ 𝒌 + 𝑣3 𝑢1 𝒌
∙ 𝒊 + 𝑣3 𝑢2 𝒌 ∙ 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝑢3 𝒌 ∙ 𝒌

= 𝑣1 𝑢1 + 𝑣2 𝑢2 + 𝑣3 𝑢3

The result developed in the previous example is important and should be memorized:

𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = (𝑣1 𝒊 + 𝑣𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌) ∙ (𝑢1 𝒊 + 𝑢𝟐 𝒋 + 𝑢3 𝒌) = 𝑣1 𝑢1 + 𝑣2 𝑢2 + 𝑣3 𝑢3

Example 3.8:

Given the vectors 𝒂 = (−2,3,1)and 𝒃 = (1, −5,2) find 𝒂 ∙ 𝒃

Solution:

𝒂 ∙ 𝒃 = (−2 × 1) + (3 × −5) + (1 × 2) = −2 + (−15) + 2 = −15

9.1 The angle between two vectors:

Definition: If 𝜃 is the angle between nonzero vectors 𝐯 and 𝒖, then


𝒖∙𝒗
cos 𝜃 =
‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖

Example 3.9:

Find the angle between 𝒗 = (4, −3,1) and 𝒖 = (−1, −2,2).

Solution:

𝒖∙𝒗 4(−1) + (−3)(−2) + 1(2)


cos 𝜃 = =
‖𝒖‖‖𝒗‖ √16 + 9 + 1√1 + 4 + 4

4 2√26
= =
3√26 39

2√26
𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 = 74.84°
39

9.2 Properties of dot product


Theorem: Let 𝑢, 𝒗 and 𝒘 vectors in space and 𝑘 is a scalar, then:

i. 𝒖∙𝒗 =𝒗∙𝒖
ii. 𝒖 ∙ (𝒗 + 𝒘) = 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 + 𝒖 ∙ 𝒘
iii. 𝑘(𝒖 ∙ 𝒗) = (𝑘𝒖) ∙ 𝒗 = 𝒖 ∙ (k𝒗)
iv. 𝒖 ∙ 𝒖 = ‖𝒗‖ 𝟐

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

Proof: we shell prove (iii) for vector in 3-space and leave the remaining proof of the properties as
exercises. Let 𝒖 = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) and 𝒗 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ), then

𝑘(𝒖 ∙ 𝒗) = 𝑘(𝑢1 𝑣1 + 𝑢2 𝑣2 + 𝑢3 𝑣3 )

= (𝑘𝑢1 )𝑣1 + (𝑘𝑢2 )𝑣2 + (𝑘𝑢3 )𝑣3

= (𝑘𝒖) ∙ 𝒗

Similarly,

𝑘(𝒖 ∙ 𝒗) = 𝒖 ∙ (k𝒗)

9.3 Application of dot product:


In this section we will consider an important physical interpretation for the dot product. The work
done if a constant force is exerted through a distance 𝑑 is given by 𝑊 = 𝐹𝑑. This formula is very
restrictive, since it can only be used if the force is applied along the line of motion. More generally,
suppose a vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ .
𝑃𝑄 represent the force and that its point of application moves along a vector 𝑃𝑅
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is used to pull an object along the level of the path from
This is shown in figure-7, where a force 𝑃𝑄
𝑃 and 𝑅. The vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝑄 is the sum of the vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑃𝑆 and ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑆𝑄. Since ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑆𝑄 does not contribute to the
horizontal movement, we may assume the motion from P to R is cause by ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑃𝑆 alone. Now, the work
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ in the direction of 𝑃𝑅
W is found by multiplying the component of 𝑃𝑄 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ by the distance ‖𝑃𝑅
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ‖, that is

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ‖ cos 𝜃 ‖𝑃𝑅


𝑊 = ‖𝑃𝑄 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ∙ 𝑃𝑅
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ‖ = 𝑃𝑄 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

Example 3.10: the magnitude and the direction of a constant force are given by 𝒂 = 5𝒊 + 2𝒋 + 6𝒌.
Find the work done if the point of application of the force moves from 𝑃(1, −1,2) to 𝑅(4,3, −1).

Solution:

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is 𝒃 = (3,4, −3). Then the work done is


The vector in 𝑅 3 that corresponds to 𝑃𝑅

𝑊 = 𝒂 ∙ 𝒃 = 15 + 8 − 18 = 5

MATLAB
The dot product of two vector a and bis given by the command dot(a,b).
For Example 3.9 the commands
u=[-1 -2 2];
v=[4 -3 1];

dotProduct=dot(u,v);
or
dotProduct=u*v';

disp('Dot Product:');
disp(dotProduct);

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

i. Example: To prove dot product property ii. 𝒖 ∙ (𝒗 + 𝒘) = 𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 + 𝒖 ∙ 𝒘

u=[-1 -2 2];
v=[4 -3 1];
w=[1 2 0];

sumVandW=v+w;
dotProductUsumVW=dot(u,sumVandW);
disp('Left Hand side:');
disp(dotProductUsumVW);

dotProductUandV=dot(u,v);
dotProductUandW=dot(u,w);
sumUVandUW=dotProductUandV+dotProductUandW;
disp('Right Hand side:');
disp(sumUVandUW);

MATLAB output is

Left Hand side:

-1

Right Hand side:

-1

10 Cross product of vectors:


Recall section 10 that the dot product of two vectors produce scalar. We will now define a type of
vector multiplication that produces vector as product, but which applicable only in 3-space.

Definition:

If 𝒖 = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) and 𝒗 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ) are vectors in 3- spaces, then the cross product 𝒖 × 𝒗 is the
vector define by

𝒖 × 𝒗 = (𝑢2 𝑣3 − 𝑢3 𝑣2 , 𝑢3 𝑣1 − 𝑢1 𝑣3 , 𝑢1 𝑣2 − 𝑢2 𝑣1 )

or in determinant notation
𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢1 𝑢3 𝑢1 𝑢2
𝒖 × 𝒗 = |𝑣 𝑣3 | 𝒊 − |𝑣1 𝑣3 | 𝒋 + |𝑣1 𝑣2 | 𝒌
2

The symbol 𝑢 × 𝑣is read ‘𝑢 cross 𝑣’. Note that the formula for 𝑢 × 𝑣 can be obtain by replacing the
first row in our definition of determinant of size 3 by unit vector 𝒊, 𝒋, 𝒌. This suggests the following
notation for the formula of cross product:

𝒊 𝒋 𝒌
𝒖 × 𝒗 = |𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 |
𝑣1 𝑣2 𝑣3

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Example 3.11:

find 𝒖 × 𝒗 if 𝒖 = (1,2, −2)and 𝒗 = (3,0,1).

Solution: Writing

𝒊 𝒋 𝒌
2 −2 1 −2 1 2
𝒖 × 𝒗 = |1 2 −2| = | |𝒊 − | |𝒋 + | |𝒌
0 1 3 1 3 0
3 0 1

= (2 + 0)𝒊 − (1 + 6)𝒋 + (0 − 6)𝒌 = 2𝒊 − 7𝒋 − 6𝒌

Theorem: The vector 𝒖 × 𝒗 is orthogonal to both 𝒖 and 𝒗

The proof of the theorem left as exercise.

In geometric term, the previous theorem implies that if nonzero vectors 𝒖 and 𝒗 correspond to
vectors ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ with the same initial point 𝑃, then 𝒖 × 𝒗 corresponds to a vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝑄 and 𝑃𝑅 𝑃𝑆 that is
perpendicular to the plane determined by 𝑃, 𝑄 and 𝑅 as illustrated in the figure-7. We shell write

⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑃𝑄
𝑃𝑆 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝑃𝑅
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

10.1 Properties of cross product

Theorem: Let 𝑢, 𝒗 and 𝒘 vectors in 3-space and 𝑘 is a scalar, then:

i. 𝒖 × 𝒗 = −(𝒗 × 𝒖)
ii. 𝒖 × (𝒗 + 𝒘) = (𝒖 × 𝒗) + (𝒖 × 𝒘)
iii. (𝒖 + 𝒗) × 𝐰 = (𝒖 × 𝒘) + (𝒗 × 𝒘)
iv. 𝑘(𝒖 × 𝒗) = (𝑘𝒖) × 𝒗 = 𝒖 × (k𝒗)
v. (𝒖 × 𝒗) ∙ 𝐰 = 𝐮 ∙ (𝒗 × 𝒘)
vi. 𝒖×𝒖 =0
vii. 𝒖 ∙ (𝒖 × 𝒗) = 0 (𝒖 × 𝒗 is orthogonal to 𝒖)
viii. (𝒖 × 𝒗) × 𝐰 = (𝐮 ∙ 𝒘)𝒗 − (𝒗 ∙ 𝒘)𝐮

Proof All the properties may established by straightforward application of the definition of cross
product. Shell we prove (i)

If 𝒖 = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) and 𝒗 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ), then


𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢1 𝑢3 𝑢1 𝑢2
𝒖 × 𝒗 = |𝑣 𝑣3 | 𝒊 − |𝑣1 𝑣3 | 𝒋 + |𝑣1 𝑣2 | 𝒌
2

since interchanging two row of a determinant change its sign, we have


𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢1 𝑢3 𝑢1 𝑢2
𝒗 × 𝒖 = − |𝑣 𝑣3 | 𝒊 + |𝑣1 𝑣3 | 𝒋 − |𝑣1 𝑣2 | 𝒌 = −𝒖 × 𝒗
2

Proof (vii): Let 𝒖 = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) and 𝒗 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ), then

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𝒖 ∙ (𝒖 × 𝒗) = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) ∙ (𝑢2 𝑣3 − 𝑢3 𝑣2 , 𝑢3 𝑣1 − 𝑢1 𝑣3 , 𝑢1 𝑣2 − 𝑢2 𝑣1 )

= 𝑢1 (𝑢2 𝑣3 − 𝑢3 𝑣2 ) + 𝑢2 (𝑢3 𝑣1 − 𝑢1 𝑣3 ) + 𝑢3 (𝑢1 𝑣2 − 𝑢2 𝑣1 ) = 0

The proof of the remaining properties left as exercise.

Theorem: If 𝑢, 𝒗 are vectors in 3-space, then ‖𝒗 × 𝒖‖ is equal to the area of the parallelogram
determined by 𝒖 and 𝒗

Example 3.12:

Find the area of the triangle determined by the points 𝑃1 (2,2,0), 𝑃2 (−1,0,2) and 𝑃3 (0,4,3)

Solution:
1
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
The area of triangle is the area of the parallelogram determined by the vectors 𝑃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
1 𝑃2 and 𝑃1 𝑃3
2
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
figure-8. Using the method discussed in Example 3.1, 𝑃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
1 𝑃2 = (−3, −2,2) and 𝑃1 𝑃3 = (−2,2,3). It
follows that

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
1 𝑃2 × 𝑃1 𝑃3 = (−10,5, −10) 𝑧
𝑃2 (−1,0,2) 𝑃3 (0,4,3)
And consequently
1 1 15 𝑦
The area of triangle = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
‖𝑃 1 𝑃2
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
× 𝑃 1 𝑃3 ‖ = 2 (15) = 2
𝑂
2 𝑃1 (2,2,0)

𝑥 Fugire-8
MATLAB
The cross product of two vector a and b is given by the command cross(a,b).
For Example 3.11 the commands
u=[1 2 -2];
v=[3 0 1 ];

% cross product
crossProduct=cross(u,v)

MATLAB output is
crossProduct =
2 -7 -6

11 Line and Plane in 3-Space:


In this section we will use vector to drive equation of line and planes in 3-space.

11.1 Line in 3-Space:


We shell now show how we can obtain the equation for line in 3-space. Suppose that 𝑙 is a line in 3-
space through the point 𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 ) and parallel to nonzero vector 𝒖 = (𝑢1, 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) it is clear from

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the figure-9 that 𝑙 consist precisely of those point 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) for which the vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃0 𝑃 is parallel to 𝒖,
that is, for
𝑧
𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧)

𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 )
(𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 )
𝑙 𝒖

𝑂 𝑦

𝑥
which there is a scalar 𝑡 such that
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃0 𝑃 = 𝑡𝒖

In term of vector in 𝑅 3 s

(𝑥 − 𝑥0 , 𝑦 − 𝑦0 , 𝑧 − 𝑧0 ) = 𝑡(𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 )

From which it follows that 𝑥 − 𝑥0 = 𝑡𝑢1 , 𝑦 − 𝑦0 = 𝑡𝑢2 and 𝑧 − 𝑧0 = 𝑡𝑢3 , so that

𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑡𝑢1 , 𝑦 = 𝑦0 + 𝑡𝑢2 , 𝑧 = 𝑧0 + 𝑡𝑢3

AS the parameter 𝑡 varies from −∞ to +∞, the point 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧)trace out the line 𝑙. The equation

𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑡𝑢1 , 𝑦 = 𝑦0 + 𝑡𝑢2 , 𝑧 = 𝑧0 + 𝑡𝑢3 , (−∞ < 𝑡 < +∞)

Are call the parametric equation for 𝑙.

Example 3.12:

a) Find the parametric equation for the line 𝑙 through the point 𝑃(5, −2,4) and parallel to 𝒖 =
1 2
(2 , 2, − 3)
b) Where does the line 𝑙 intersect the 𝑥𝑦-plane?

Solution:

a) The parametric equations for 𝑙 are

1 2
𝑥 = 5 + 𝑡, 𝑦 = −2 + 2𝑡, 𝑧 =4− 𝑡
2 3
2
b) The line intersect the 𝑥𝑦-plane at the point 𝑅(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧), where 𝑧 = 4 − 3 𝑡 = 0 that is, if 𝑡 =
6. Using the parametric equation for part (a) the x- and y- coordinate of 𝑅 are
1
𝑥 = 5 + (6) = 8, 𝑦 = −2 + 2(6) = 10,
2
Hence 𝑅 is the point with coordinate (8,10,0).

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Example 3.13:

Find the parametric equation for the line 𝑙 through 𝑃1 (3,1, −2) and 𝑃2 (−2,7, −4).

Solution:

To obtain parametric equation for line 𝑙 through two arbitrary points 𝑃1 (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 , 𝑧1 ) and 𝑃2 (𝑥2 , 𝑦2 , 𝑧2 )
we use the vector 𝒖 that corresponds to ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃1 𝑃2 that is

𝒗 = (𝑥2− 𝑥1 , 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 , 𝑧2− 𝑧1 )

Since the vector 𝒗 is parallel to 𝑙 and the point 𝑃1 (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 , 𝑧1 ) lies on 𝑙 parametric equation for line 𝑙
given by
𝑥 = 𝑥1 + 𝑡(𝑥2− 𝑥1 ), 𝑦 = 𝑦1 + 𝑡(𝑦2 − 𝑦1 ), 𝑧 = 𝑧1 + 𝑡(𝑧2− 𝑧1 )

Hence, the vector𝒖 corresponding ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑃1 𝑃2 is

𝒗 = (−5,6, −2)

Therefore the parametric equation for 𝑙 with 𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 ) = (3,1, −2) are

𝑥 = 3 − 5𝑡, 𝑦 = 1 + 6𝑡, 𝑧 = −2 − 2𝑡; 𝑡 ∊ ℝ

We could have chosen 𝑃2 (−2,7, −4) as the base point and written

𝑥 = −2 − 5𝑡, 𝑦 = 7 + 6𝑡, 𝑧 = −4 − 2𝑡; 𝑡 ∊ ℝ

These equations serve as the first; they simply place you at different point.

MATLAB
The MATLAB commands to solve example 3.12 are
P4 = [3 1 -2];
P5 = [-2 7 -4];

% create symbolic variable


syms t
% Parametrise the line
line = P4 + t*(P5-P4)

The MATLAB output is


line =

[ 3 - 5*t, 6*t + 1, - 2*t - 2]

Given two lines 𝑙1 and 𝑙2 with vectors 𝒖 and 𝒗 respectively in three-space, there are four possibilities
for the intersection of the lines.

 The lines are distinct and intersect at a point, so there is exactly one solution.

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MTCA4001 | Engineering Mathematics 2

 The lines are coincident, so there are an infinite number of solutions.


 The lines are parallel and distinct, so there is no solution and 𝒖 = 𝑐𝒗 for some scalar 𝑐 .
 The lines are distinct but not parallel, and they do not intersect. These are skew lines .There
is no solution.

Example 3.14:

Determine whether the lines 𝑙1 : 𝑥 = 7 + 2𝑠, 𝑦 = 2 + s, 𝑧 = −6 − 3𝑠 and 𝑙2 : 𝑥 = 3 + 𝑡, 𝑦 =


9 + 5𝑡, 𝑧 = 13 + 5t are parallel, skew, or intersecting. If they intersect, find the point of
intersection.

Solution:

The direction vectors for 𝒍𝟏 and 𝒍𝟐 are ( 2, 4, 3 ) and ( 1, 3, 0 ). The lines are not parallel because
their vectors are not proportional 𝒖 ≠ 𝑐𝒗.

Equal the expression for like coordinate

7 + 2𝑠 = 3 + 𝑡, 2 + 𝑠 = 9 + 5𝑡, −6 − 3𝑠 = 13 + 5𝑡

2𝑠 − 𝑡 = −4 1

𝑠 − 5𝑡 = 7 2

3𝑠 + 5𝑡 = −19 3

Solve equations 2 and 3 for s and t. 2

𝑠 − 5𝑡 = 7 2

2
3𝑠 + 5𝑡 = −19
2
4𝑠 = −12

𝑠 = −3

Substituting in 2 ,

(−3) − 5𝑡 = 7

𝑡 = −2

Check that 𝑠 = −3 and 𝑡 = −2 satisfy 1.

LS = 2(−3) − (−2) RS = −4

= −6 + 2

= −4

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= RS

Substitute 𝑠 = −3 into 𝑙1 (or 𝑡 = −2 into 𝑙2 ).

[𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧] = [7, 2, −6] + (−3)[2, 1, −3] = (1, −1,3)

This system has a unique solution at (1, −1,3).

Example 3.15:

Find parametric equation for the line of intersection of the planes

3𝑥 + 2𝑦 − 4𝑧 − 6 = 0 and 𝑥 − 3𝑦 − 2𝑧 − 4 = 0

Solution:

The line of intersection consists of all the points (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) that satisfy the two equation in the system

3𝑥 + 2𝑦 − 4𝑧 = −6

𝑥 − 3𝑦 − 2𝑧 = −4
26 16 6 2
Solving this system gives 𝑥 = 11 + 11 𝑡, 𝑦 = − 11 − 11 𝑡, 𝑧 = 𝑡. Therefore, the line of intersection
can be presented by parametric equation

26 16 6 2
𝑥= + 𝑡, 𝑦=− − 𝑡, 𝑧 = 𝑡 ( −∞ < 𝑡 < +∞)
11 11 11 11

11.2 Distance between a point and a line in the space:


Theorem: Distance from a point 𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 ) to a line through a point 𝑃parallel to a vector 𝒗 is

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
‖𝑃 0𝑃 × 𝒗 ‖
𝐷=
‖𝒗 ‖

Example 3.16:

Find the distant from the point 𝑆(1,1,5) to the line

𝑥 = 1 + 𝑡, 𝑦 = 3 − 𝑡, 𝑧 = 2𝑡

Solution:

We see from the equation for line that the line pass through the point 𝑃(1,3,0) parallel to 𝒗 =
(1, −1,2) with

⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝑆 = (1 − 1,1 − 3,5 − 0) = (0, −2,5)

And

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𝒊 𝒋 𝒌
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝑆 × 𝒗 = |2 0 −1| = 3𝒊 + 5𝒋 + 2𝒌
0 3 −1

Give

⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝒗 ‖ √1 + 25 + 4 √30
‖𝑃𝑆
𝐷= = = = √6
‖𝒗 ‖ √1 + 1 + 4 √6

11.3 Planes in 3-Space:


In analytic geometry a line in 2-space can be specified by given its slop and one of its point. Similarly,
one can specify a plane in 3-space by giving its inclination and specifying one of its points. A
convenient method for describing the inclination of a plane is to specify a non-zero vector, called a
normal, which is perpendicular to the plane.

Suppose that we want to find the equation of the plane passing through the point 𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 ) and
having the nonzeronon-zero vector 𝒏 = (𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐) as normal. It is evident from figure-10 that the
plane consists precisely 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) for which the vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃0 𝑃 is orthogonal to 𝒏, that is,

Figure-10

𝒏 ∙ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃0 𝑃 = 0

Since ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃0 𝑃 = (𝑥 − 𝑥0 , 𝑦 − 𝑦0 , 𝑧 − 𝑧0 ), we can rewrite the previous equation as following:

𝑎(𝑥 − 𝑥0 ) + 𝑏(𝑦 − 𝑦0 ) + 𝑐(𝑧 − 𝑧0 ) = 0

Theorem: an equation of the plane through 𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 ) with normal vector 𝒏 = (𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐) is

𝑎(𝑥 − 𝑥0 ) + 𝑏(𝑦 − 𝑦0 ) + 𝑐(𝑧 − 𝑧0 ) = 0

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Example 3.17:

Find an equation of a plane through the point (5, −2,4) with normal vector 𝒏 = (1,2,3)

Solution:

Applying the previous theorem, we obtain

(𝑥 − 5) + 2(𝑦 + 2) + 3(𝑧 − 4) = 0

We simplifies to

𝑥 + 2𝑦 + 3𝑧 − 13 = 0

From previous example, we can see that the equation of plane may be written in the form of

𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑 = 0

Where a, b, c and d are constants and a, b and c are all not zero.

Example 3.18:

Find the equation of a plane passing through the points 𝑃1 (1,2, −1), 𝑃2 (2,3,1) and 𝑃3 (3, −3,2)

Solution:

Since the three points lie in the plane, their coordinate must satisfy the general equation
𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑 = 0 of the plane. Thus

𝑎 + 2𝑏 − 𝑐 + 𝑑 = 0

2𝑎 + 3𝑏 + 𝑐 + 𝑑 = 0

3𝑎 − 𝑏 + 2𝑐 + 𝑑 = 0
9 1 5
Solving this system gives 𝑎 = − 𝑡, 𝑏=− 𝑡, 𝑐= 𝑡 and 𝑑 = 𝑡. Letting 𝑡 = 16, for example,
16 16 16
yield the desired equation

9𝑥 + 𝑦 + 5𝑧 + 16 = 0

We note that any other choice of 𝑡 gives a multiple of this equation, so that value of 𝑡 ≠ 0 would
also give a valid equation for the plane.

Definition:

Two planes with normal vectors 𝒖 and 𝒗 are

i) Parallel if 𝒖 and 𝒗 are parallel 𝒖 = 𝑐𝒗 for some scalar 𝑐.


ii) Orthogonal if 𝒖 and 𝒗 are orthogonal (𝒖 ∙ 𝒗 = 0).

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Example 3.19:

Prove the graph of the equation 2𝑥 − 3𝑦 − 𝑧 − 5 = 0 and −6𝑥 + 9𝑦 + 3𝑧 + 2 = 0 are parallel


planes.

Solution:

The graph are planes with normal vectors 𝒖 = (2, −3, −5) and 𝒗 = (−6,9,3) respectively.
Since 𝒖 = −3𝒗, the vectors 𝒖 and 𝒗 are parallel and hence, by the definition, so are the planes.

Example 3.20:

Find an equation of the plane through 𝑃(5, −2,4) that is parallel to the plane 3𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑧 + 8 = 0

Solution:

The plane 3𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑧 + 8 = 0 has normal vector 𝒖 = (3,1, −6). Hence the equation for parallel
plane has the form

3𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑧 + 𝑑 = 0

For some real number d. If 𝑃(5, −2,4) is on this plane, then its coordinates must satisfy the
equation, that is, 3(5) − 2 − 6(4) + 𝑑 = 0 or 𝑑 = 11. This gives us 3𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑧 + 11 = 0

Example 3.21:

Find the point where the line

8
𝑥= + 2𝑡, 𝑦 = −2𝑡, 𝑧 =1+𝑡
3

Intersects the plane


3𝑥 + 2𝑦 + 6𝑧 − 6 = 0

Solution:
8
The point (3 + 2𝑡, −2𝑡, 1 + 𝑡) line in the plane if its coordinate satisfy the equation of the plane;
that is, if
8
3( + 2𝑡) + 2(−2𝑡) + 6(1 + 𝑡) − 6 = 0
3

8 + 6𝑡 − 4𝑡 + 6 + 6𝑡 − 6 = 0

8𝑡 = −8

𝑡 = −1

Hence the point of intersection is

8 2
(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧)𝑡=−1 = ( − 2,2,1 − 1) = ( , 2,0)
3 3

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11.4 Distance between a point and a plane:


Theorem: The distance between a point 𝑃0 (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 , 𝑧0 ) and a plane 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑 = 0 is

|𝑎𝑥0 + 𝑏𝑦0 + 𝑐𝑧0 + 𝑑|


𝐷=
√𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 + 𝑐 2

Example 3.22:

Find the distance between the a point (1, −4, −3)and the plane 2𝑥 − 3𝑦 + 6𝑧 = −1

Solution:

By applying theorem, we first rewrite the equation of the plane in form

2𝑥 − 3𝑦 + 6𝑧 + 1 = 0

Then

|2(1) − 3(−4) + 6(−3) + 1| |−3| 3


𝐷= = =
√22 + (−3)2 + 62 √49 7

20