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Mini Project report on


UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DETECTION USING ARDUINO

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Submitted By

V.SRUJANA (16911A04B9)

M.AJAY KUMAR (16911A0491)

M.PHANI SAI (16911A0487)

K.NAVA SURYA (16911A0479)

Under the guidance of

Mrs. Anagha Kulkarni

Assistant Professor

Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering/Technology


VIDYA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(AUTONOMOUS)
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VIDYA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(AUTONOMOUS)
(Affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad)
Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering/Technology

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project work report entitled “UNDERGROUND CABLE
FAULT DETECTION”, being submitted by Ms. V. SRUJANA (16911A04B9),
Mr.M. AJAY KUMAR (16911A0491), Mr.M. PHANI SAI (16911A0487), Mr.
K.NAVA SURYA REDDY (16911A0479) in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for the award of the Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING by the
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, Hyderabad under
our guidance and supervision.
The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other
University or Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

INTERNAL SUPERVISOR HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT


Department of ECE Department of ECE
VJIT, Hyderabad VJIT, Hyderabad
EXTERNAL EXAMINER
DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the project entitled AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING WIPER
SYSTEM USING 555 TIMER submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for
the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS AND
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING(ECE).This dissertation is our original word
and the project has not formed the basis for the award of any award of any degree,
associate ship, fellowship or any other similar titles and no part of it has been
published or sent for the publication at the time of submission.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our deep and sincere thanks to Assistant Professor for
the help he provided in selecting the project and guided throughout the working on
this project.
We are thankful to the Head of the Department, for providing excellent
infrastructure and a nice atmosphere for completing the project successfully.
We convey our heartfelt thanks to the lab staff for allowing us to use the
required equipment whenever needed.
Finally, we would like to take opportunity to thank my family for their support
through the work. We sincerely acknowledge and thank all of those who gave directly
or indirectly their support in completion of this work.
ABSTRACT

The objective of this project is to determine the distance of faulty underground cable
from the base station in kilometres using Arduino microcontroller. Using the concept
of ohms law, controller measures resistance or capacitance of the circuit and finds
distance in kilometres with the proposed system, finding the exact location of the fault
is possible.
In case there is a short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across series resistors
changes accordingly, which is then fed to inbuilt ADC of Arduino board to develop
precise digital data for display in kilometres. The project uses the standard concept of
Ohms law i.e., when a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a Cable
lines, then current would vary depending upon the location of fault in the cable. The
project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KM’s and fault
creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy
of the same. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is
displayed on a LCD interfaced to the Arduino board. This circuit can measure
resistance up 50 Ohm, Maximum cable length it can check up to 25000 metres.

Components used:

• Arduino Uno
• LED (red, green, yellow)
• Resistors-10k,1k
• LCD 16X2
• 5v adapter
• Push buttons
iv

Table of Contents

CHAPTER-1 1
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER-2 2
WORKING OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM 2
CHAPTER-3 3-13
WORKING WITH THE HELP OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 3
AND ARDUINO IDE CODE
CHAPTER-4 14-31
COMPONENTS 14
4.1.1 Arduino UNO 14
4.1.2 Crystal Oscillator 19
4.1.3 Voltage Regulator 19-20
4.1.4 Comparator 20-21
4.1.5 P MOSFET of Arduino 21
4.1.6 Atmega 16 21-22
4.1.7 DC Jack 23
4.1.8 In circuit Programming Header 24
4.1.9 Co-axial Cable 24
4.2.0 LED 25-26
4.2.1 Resistors 26-27
4.2.2 Push Buttons 27-28
4.2.3 LCD 28-29
4.2.4 Arduino IDE 30-31
CHAPTER-5 32
RESULT ANALYSIS 32
CHAPTER-6 33
ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS 33
CHAPTER-7 34
CONCLUSION 34
FUTURE SCOPE 34
REFERENCES 35
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig2.1 Working of block diagram 2


Fig 3.1 circuit diagram 3
Fig 4.1 Arduino Uno 14
Fig4.2 Pin Diagram of Atmega 328P 15
Fig4.3 Architecture of Atmega328P 16
Fig 4.4 Memory Spaces of Atmega328P 18
Fig 4.5 Register Organisation of Atmega328P 18
Fig 4.6 Crystal Oscillator 19
Fig4.7 Internal Structure of Voltage Regulator 20
Fig 4.8 Comparator Symbol 21
Fig 4.9 Port Description of Atmega16P 22
Fig 4.10 DC Jack 23
Fig 4.11 Internal Structure of Co-axial Cable 25
Fig 4.12 Internal Description of LED 25
Fig 4.13 Resistors 27
Fig 4.14 Push Button 28
Fig 4.15 Liquid Crystal Display 28
Fig 5.1 Output 32

LIST OF TABLES

Table4.1 Features of Atmega328P 16


Table4.2 Pins of Atmega328P 17
Table4.3 Pins of LCD 29
CHAPTER-1
Introduction to underground cable fault detection
The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault
from base station in kilometres using an Arduino board. The underground cabling
system is a common practice followed in many urban areas. There are many electrical,
telephone and other signal cables are laid underground. Many time faults occur due to
construction works and other reasons. At that time it is difficult to dig out cable due to
not knowing the exact location of the cable fault. There are main two faults in cable
short circuit and open circuit. The proposed system is to find the exact location of the
fault. The project uses the standard concept of Ohms law i.e., when a low DC voltage
is applied at the feeder end through a Cable lines, then current would vary depending
upon the location of fault in the cable. In case there is a short circuit (Line to Ground),
the voltage across series resistors changes accordingly, which is then fed to inbuilt
ADC of Arduino board to develop precise digital data for display in kilometres. The
project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KM’s and fault
creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy
of the same. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is
displayed on a LCD interfaced to the Arduino board. Further this project enhanced by
measuring capacitance of cable which can even locate the open circuited cable. The
circuit is consists of 4 line display, Arduino and resistance measurement circuit. Main
component of the underground cable fault detection circuit is low value resistance
management. It is constructed using a constant current source of 100mAmps. It can
measure very low value resistance as the cables have around 0.01 Ohm/meter
resistance. For 10meter cable resistance becomes 0.1 Ohm. This circuit can measure
resistance up 50 Ohm, Maximum cable length it can check up to 25000 metres
1

CHAPTER-2

WORKING OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig:2.1 Working Block Diagram

Arduino Uno and PC are connected through USB type B cable, It powers the Arduino

it is indicated using on board led. Through in-built voltage regulator on the Arduino, it

supplies a constant 5V to both resistive network and 16X2 LCD. Resistive network

comprises of three individual resistive networks which replicates the nature of coaxial

cable. Fault can be created in the circuit by pressing the push buttons. Voltage across

the network varies whenever fault is created. These changes in voltage are detected by

Arduino with the help of three analog pins a0, a1, a2. Arduino contains in-built 10 bit

ADC. It converts the analog voltage to the digital voltage using the formulas of
resolution and digital value. Based on these change in voltages by pre-determined code

in IDE fault is detected in Kilometres from the base station and displayed them on the

16X2 LCD and also on the Serial Monitor.

CHAPTER -3

WORKING WITH THE HELP OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND


ARDUINO IDE CODE
A constant 5V from the board is supplied to the resistive network. If there is no fault
created in the circuit same 5V is sent through analog pins of Arduino IDE. Based on
the voltage drop across the resistors distance can be detected.

Resolution of 10-bit ADC is 2^10

Resolution=Vref/2^10

Digital value= Analog value/resolution

Analog value Digital value Distance in KM


2.88V-3.6V 600-750 2
3.6V-4.08V 750-850 4
4.08-4.27V 850-890 6

4.27-4.416V 890-920 8
Table:3.1 Relationship between analog voltage and distance in kilometres
Fig:3.1 Circuit Diagram

CODE:

#include<LiquidCrystal.h>

#define cable1 A0

#define cable2 A1

#define cable3 A2

#define buzzer 11

#define led1 8

#define led2 9

#define led3 10

LiquidCrystal lcd (2,3,4,5,6,7);

int cab1=0;

int cab2=0;

int cab3=0;

void beep();

{
digitalWrite(buzzer, HIGH);

delay(1000);

digitalWrite(buzzer, LOW);

delay(100);

}void setup() {

pinMode(led1,OUTPUT);

pinMode(led2,OUTPUT);

pinMode(led3,OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

pinMode(cable1, INPUT);

pinMode(cable2, INPUT);

pinMode(cable3, INPUT);

lcd.begin (16,2);

lcd.setCursor(4,0);

lcd.print(“WELCOME”);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

pinMode (buzzer,OUTPUT);

Serial.begin(9600);

beep();

lcd.begin (16,2);

Serial.println(“power up”);

lcd.clear();

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“UNDERGROUND CABLE”);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“ FAULT LOCATOR “);

delay(2000);

lcd.clear();

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

void loop() {

cab1 = analogRead(cable1);

cab2 = analogRead(cable2);

cab3 = analogRead(cable3);

delay(1000);

Serial.print(“ADC:”);

Serial.print(“\t”);

Serial.println(“=================================================”);

Serial.println(cab1);

Serial.println(cab2);

Serial.println(cab3);

Serial.println(“==============================================”);

if (cab1>=0 && cab1<99)

digitalWrite(led1,0);
digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

delay(200);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:FD “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF”);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF”);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:2KM”);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF”);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF”);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“2”);

if (cab1>450 && cab1<600)

digitalWrite(led1,0);

digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(“R:FD “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:4KM”);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“4”);

if (cab1>600 && cab1<700)

digitalWrite(led1,0);

digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:FD “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(“B:NF “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:6KM”);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“6”);

if (cab2>=0 && cab2<99)

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,0);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

delay(200);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:FD “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:2KM “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF”);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“2”);

if (cab2>450 && cab2<600)

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,0);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:FD “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:4KM “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(“B:NF”);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“4”);

if (cab2>600 && cab2<700)

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,0);

digitalWrite(led3,1);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:FD “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:6KM “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF”);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “); Serial.println(“6”);

10

}
if (cab3>=0 && cab3<99)

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,0);

delay(200);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:FD “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:2KM “);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“2”);

if (cab3>450 && cab3<600)

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,1);
11

digitalWrite(led3,0);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:FD “);

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:4KM “);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “); Serial.println(“4”);

if (cab3>600 && cab3<700)

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,0);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);
lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:FD “);

12

delay(500);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:6KM “);

beep();

Serial.print(“cable 1 fault at “);

Serial.println(“6”);

else

delay(200);

lcd.clear ();

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(“R:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(8,0);

lcd.print(“Y:NF “);

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(“B:NF “);

digitalWrite(led1,1);

digitalWrite(led2,1);

digitalWrite(led3,1);
delay (200);

Serial.print(“NO FAULT DETECTED.”);

13
CHAPTER-4

COMPONENTS

4.1.1Arduino Uno

Fig.4.1 Arduino UNO

Arduino Uno is a Microcontroller. In Italian Language Uno is number one. It is a best


board to get started with electronics. The Heart of Arduino is its single chip
Microcontroller Atmega 328P. It is created by atmega in the megamvr family. It has a
modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Code) processor
code.
14

Fig.4.2 Pin diagram of ATMEGA328P

It comes in both narrow dual in-line package and thin quad flat pack. It has a
temperature range of -40 C to85 C. It has an operating voltage range of 1.8V to 5.5V.
It has two timers 2X8, 1X16. It supports I2C, UART, 2-SPI communication protocols.
It has 6-pins with Pulse Width Modulation. It has an EEPROM memory of 1KB and
its SRAM memory is of 2KB. Its excellent features include the cost efficiency, low
power dissipation, programming lock for security purposes, real timer counter with
separate oscillator.

ADC module has 6-channels with 10bit resolution. It has 6 power saving modes.
Before using this board boot loader need to be installed into chip.
15

Fig.4.3 Architecture of Atmega 328P

parameter value
CPU type 8-bit AVR
Performance 20 MIPS at 20 MHz
Flash memory 32 KB
SRAM 2 KB
EEPROM 1KB
Pin count 28 or 32
Maximum operating frequency 20MHz
Number of touch channels 16
Hardware QTouch Acquisition No
I/O pins 23
External Interrupts 2
USB Interface No

Table 4.1 Features of Atmega328P

16

pin 1 is active low reset pin. Pin 2 is digital one used as transmitter USART Serial
Communication Interface and pin0 of port D, pin 3 is digital one is used as receiver
source and pin1 of port D. Pin 4 acts as interrupt source zero INT0 and pin 2 of port D.
Pin 5 acts as interrupt source one INT1 and pin 3 of port D. Pin 6 acts as pin 4 of port
D, T0(timer 0 external counter input), XCK(USART external clock I/O). Pin 7 acts as
VCC. Pin 8,22 is Ground. Pin 9,10 is used as pin 6,7 of port C, XTAL1 (Chip Clock
Oscillator pin 1 or External clock input) TOSC1 (Timer Oscillator pin 1) XTAL2
(Chip Clock Oscillator pin 2). Pin 22 is used as Analog reference voltage. Pin 23-28 is
used as p0-p5 of port C and ADC0-ADC5.

Table 4.2 Pins of Atmega 328P


Flash Memory has 32KB capacity. It has an address of 15 bits. It is a Programmable
Read Only Memory (ROM). It is non-volatile memory.

SRAM stands for Static Random access Memory. It is a volatile memory i.e. data will
be removed after removing the power supply. EEPROM stands for Electrically
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. It has a long-term data.

17

Fig.4.4 Memory spaces of Atmega 328P

ATmega-328 has thirty two (32) General Purpose (GP) registers.

These all of the registers are the part of Static Random access Memory (SRAM).
Fig.4.5 Register Organisation of Atmega 328P

18

4.1.2 Crystal Oscillator


Arduino Uno has an inbuilt crystal oscillator which can generate signals with a
maximum frequency of 4Mhz. It is a electronic oscillator circuit that uses mechanical
resonance of a vibrating crystal of a piezo electric material to create an electric signal
with precise frequency. This frequency is often used to keep track of time. Most of the
oscillators use Quartz Crystal, It works by distorting the crystal with an electric field,
when voltage is applied to the electrode of the crystal. This property is known as
inverse piezoelectricity. The term piezo electricity was first discovered by Jacques and
Pierre Curie in 1880. Quartz Crystal oscillators were developed for high-stability
frequency references. Oscillators provide the basic timing and control for
a microcontroller and its peripherals. Commonly used oscillators are of crystal because
of its well-known stability and durability. It produces stable output for prolonged time.
Fig.4.6 Figure of Crystal Oscillator

4.1.3 Voltage Regulator

A voltage regulator is a system designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage


level. A simple voltage/current regulator can be made from a resistor in series with a
diode (or series of diodes). In electromechanical regulators, voltage regulation is easily
accomplished by coiling the sensing wire to make an electromagnet.

19

Fig.4.7 Internal Structure of Voltage Regulator


The 5V supply is produced by a low drop-out (LDO) voltage regulator. Voltage
regulators take in input, step it down and give stable DC output. In the process of
stepping down, the difference between output and input radiates off as heat in normal
voltage regulators. So we have to factor this loss into designing our circuits.
But on the Arduino Uno, we have a low drop-out voltage regulator. It dissipates less
power in the form of heat. Thus allowing us to have an output that is very close to the
input. Basically, you can get a 5V output even if the input is as low as 6V.

The barrel connector is connected to the diode D1. This is a safety mechanism. The
diode ensures that if you use a barrel connector with a different polarity than the one
specified, the reverse polarity supply doesn’t get into the system and you don’t fry up
your board.

We can access the power that we input at X1 at the Vin pin on the power expansion
rail. You can use it to power any other external components in your project. The diode
is connected to the LDO voltage regulator. The voltage regulator converts the input to
5V. Subsequently, this signal powers up the Arduino Uno board. The 5V generated
here can be accessed at the 5V pin on the power expansion rail.

4.1.4 COMPARATOR

Comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital
signal indicating which is larger. It has two analog input terminals and one binary .

It consists of a high Gain Differential Amplifier, It measures and Digitizes the signal

20

Fig.4.8 Comparator Symbol

In the above figure simple op-amp Comparator is shown. A comparator circuit


compares two voltages and outputs either a 1 (the voltage at the plus side; VDD in the
illustration) or a 0 (the voltage at the negative side) to indicate which is larger. We use
a comparator to select the exact power supply for the board. The comparator on the
Arduino Uno is (an IC) a digital device that compares two inputs and then drives the
output to either 5V or ground.

4.1.5 P MOSFET in Arduino


The drain and source are heavily doped P+ region where as substrate is of n type. The
MOSFET works by electronically varying the width of a channel along which charge
carriers flow (electrons or holes). The charge carriers enter the channel at source and
exit via the drain. The width of the channel is controlled by the voltage on an electrode
is called gate which is located between source and drain. It is insulated from the
channel near an extremely thin layer of metal oxide. The MOS capacity present in the
device is the main part. The Arduino MOSFET acts as a switch here and sources the
right power supply. It either supplies power from the USB connection. Or it supplies
power from the barrel connector, keeping the serial communication part of the USB
intact. The output from the MOSFET is fed to the onboard 3.3V regulator. This
regulator then generates the 3.3V that we can use. In this way, the
comparator-MOSFET duo handles multiple power inputs, and we have one less thing
to worry about.

4.1.6 Atmega 16

It is a 40-pin low power Microcontroller which is developed using C-MOS


Technology. C-MOS is an advanced Technology which is used for developing
Integrated circuits with low power consumption and High Noise Immunity. Atmega16
is an 8-bit controller based on AVR advanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Set
Computing) architecture. AVR is family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel in
1996.

21

It is a single chip computer that comes with CPU, ROM, RAM, EEPROM, Timers,
Counters, ADC and four 8-bit ports called PORTA, PORTB, PORTC, PORTD where
each port consists of 8 I/O pins. Atmega16 has built-in registers that are used to make
a connection between CPU and external peripherals devices. CPU has no direct
connection with external devices. It can take input by reading registers and give output
by writing registers. Atmega16 comes with two 8-bit timers and one 16-bit timer. All
these timers can be used as counters when they are optimized to count the external
signal. Atmega16 comes with 1KB of static RAM which is a volatile memory i.e
stores information for short period of time and highly depends on the constant power
supply. Whereas 16KB of flash memory, also known as ROM, is also incorporated in
the device which is non-volatile in nature and can store information for long period of
time and doesn’t lose any information when the power supply is disconnected.
Atmega16 works on a maximum frequency of 16MHz where instructions are executed
in one machine cycle. Digital I/O modules are used to set a digital communication
between the controller and external devices. While analog I/O modules are used for
transferring analog information.

Fig.4.9 Port Description of Atmega 16P

22

Analog comparators and ADC fall under the category of analog I/O module. The
watchdog timer is a remarkable addition in this controller which is used to generate
the interrupt and reset the timer. It comes with 128kHz distinct CLK source.
Atmega16 comes with 40 pins where each pin is used to perform a specific task.
There are total 32 I/O pins and four ports. Each port consists of 8 I/O pins.

● PORTA = 8 Pins (Pin 33 – 40)

● PORTB = 8 Pins (Pin 1 – 8)

● PORTC = 8 Pins (Pin 22 – 29)

● PORTD = 8 Pins (Pin 14 – 21)

4.1.7 DC JACK
There are two ways to power your Arduino: you can use the USB connector to connect
to a computer or portable power pack or you can plug into a wall adapter. USB can be
used to power and program. DC can only be used for power - but it's great for when
you want to connect your Arduino and leave it plugged in for a long term project.
That's just the mechanical size of the plug in case you're looking to match it up. It's an
extremely common power plug size, so it isn't too hard to find a matching power plug.
Sometimes they're just referred to as "2.1mm DC Plug".

Fig.4.10 Diagram of DC Jack

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4.1.8 In Circuit Serial Programming Header


In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) is a form of programming in which a
microcontroller is programmed serially, meaning that binary code (1s and 0s) are sent
one at a time to a microcontroller and then executed by the microcontroller. Serial
programming is programming which bits that the microcontroller interpret are sent one
at a time. This is in contrast to parallel programming, in which a microcontroller
receives several bits at once to process. Among the programmers, the “Arduino as
ISP” is the cheapest and most practical solution to burn a bootloader on another
Arduino board with ATmega, 32U4 or ATtiny.

4.1.9 Co-axial Cable


Coaxial cables are the guided media that carves the signal of higher frequency range
compared to twisted pair cable. Two types of coaxial cables are widely used: 50 ohm
cable and 75 ohm cable. 50 ohm cable is used for digital transmission and 75 ohm
cable is used for analog transmission. Due to the shield provided, this cable has
excellent noise immunity. It has a large bandwidth and low losses. In this project
nature of coaxial cable is replicated using a resistive network. We are using network
which has a resistivity of 1.5 kilo ohm. A baseband coaxial cable transmits a single
signal at a time at very high speed. A broadband coaxial cable can transmit many
simultaneous signals using different frequencies. A baseband cable is mainly used
for LANs. Project has been designed to detect the faults in Power cables, Because of
better shielding in coaxial cable, loss of signal or attenuation is less. Therefore most of
the underground cables like LAN cables, Cable TV use co-axial cable. relatively
inexpensive as compared to optical fibers. It has lower error rates as compared to
twisted pair. Coaxial cable is not so limited as UTP, although amplifiers or other
intermediate devices must be used to extend high frequency transmissions over
distances of any significance.

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Fig.4.11 Internal Structure of Co-axial cable

4.2.0Light Emitting Diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is semiconductor that emits light when current flows
through it. Electrons combine with holes and form electron hole pair releasing energy
in the form of photons. The colour of the light which is emitting depends on the
Energy required by the electrons to cross the band gap. White light is obtained by
using multiple semiconductor.
Fig.4.12 Internal Description of LED

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A light-emitting diode is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction


diode that emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads,
electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy
in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the colour of the
light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band
gap of the semiconductor. Very low voltage and current are enough to drive the LED.
Total power output will be less than 150 milliwatts. The response time is very less –
only about 10 nanoseconds. The response time is very less – only about 10
nanoseconds. Miniature in size and hence lightweight. An LED has a lifespan of more
than 20 years.

4.2.1Resistors
A resistor is a passive two terminal electronic component that implement electrical
resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce
current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements and
terminate transmission lines. It creates an opposition in the flow of current. According
to ohms law resistance is offered is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional
to the current flowing through it. It is a two terminal passive device.

V=IR

Resistance of a wire is directly proportional to the length of the cable and inversely
proportional to the area of cross-section of the cable. Proportionality constant is rho
which gives the resistivity of the network.

In this to a parallel resistive network we supply a constant voltage of 5V across a


10Kohm resistor current flows through it will be around 0.5 milli amps.
26

Fig.4.13 Resistors

Power dissipation through it will be

P=(V*V)/R or

P=I*I*R
Colour coding of resistors

R = (1st Digit x 10 + 2nd Digit) x Multiplier


For the above resistors (1*10+0)*1000=10 kilo ohms

4.2.2 Push buttons


Push button is a simple mechanism for controlling some aspect of machine. It is used
to make or break the circuit. Push buttons helps us to make open circuit or short
circuit in the circuit with an ease. A push button switch is a small, sealed mechanism
that completes an electric circuit when you press on it. When it's on, a small metal
spring inside makes contact with two wires, allowing electricity to flow. When it's off,
the spring retracts, contact is interrupted, and current won't flow.

27

It is a four pin circuit with both same side leads as input and opposite side leads as
output. Until the button is pushed the circuit remains as open circuit as soon as it is
released it comes to its normal state. It plays an effective role in making and breaking
the circuit.

Fig.4.14 Push button

4.2.3 Liquid Crystal Display(16X2)


It is a flat panelled display it uses light modulated properties of liquid crystals. Liquid
crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce
images in colour or monochrome. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as
in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images with low information content,
which can be displayed or hidden, such as present words, digits, and seven segment
displays, as in a digital clock.

when an electrical current is applied to the liquid crystal molecule, the molecule tends
to untwist. This causes the angle of light which is passing through the molecule of the
polarized glass and also cause a change in the angle of the top polarizing filter. As a
result a little light is allowed to pass the polarized glass through a particular area of the
LCD. Thus that particular area will become dark compared to other. The LCD works
on the principle of blocking light.

Fig.4.15 Liquid Crystal Display

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Pin Pin name Pin Type Pin Pin Connection


no Description
Pin Ground Source pin This is a ground Connected to the ground of
1 pin of LCD the MCU/ Power source
pin Vcc Source pin This is the Connected to the supply
2 supply voltage pin of Power source
pin of LCD
pin V0/VEE control pin Adjusts the Connected to a variable
3 contrast of the POT that can source 0-5V
LCD.
control pin Toggles Connected to a MCU pin
pin Register
between and gets either 0 or 1.
4 Select
Command/Data 0 -> Command Mode
Register 1->Data Mode

Connected  to  a  MCU  pin 


pin Read/Write control pin Toggles the
and gets either 0 or 1. 
5 LCD between
Read/Write 0 -> Write Operation 
Operation 1-> Read Operation 

pin Enable control pin Must be held Connected to MCU and


6 high to perform always held high.
Read/Write
Operation
pin Data bits 0-7 Data/command Pins used to In 4-Wire Mode
7-1 pin send Command Only 4 pins (0-3) is
or data to the connected to MCU
4
LCD. In 8-Wire Mode
All 8 pins (0-7) are
connected to MCU

pin positive Led pin Normal LED Connected to +5V


15 like operation
to illuminate
the LCD
pin negative Led pin Normal LED Connected to ground
16 like operation
to illuminate
the LCD
connected with
GND.
Table 4.3 Pins of LCD

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4.2.4 Arduino IDE


The Arduino integrated development environment is a cross-platform application (for
windows, macOS, Linux) that is written in the programming language java. It is used
to write and upload programs to Arduino compatible boards, but also, with the help of
3rd party cores, other vendor development boards. The source code for the IDE is
released under the GNU general public license, version 2. The Arduino IDE supports
the languages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring.

The Arduino IDE supplies a software Library from the wiring project, which provides
many common input and output procedures. User-written code only requires two
basic functions, for starting the sketch and the main program loop, that are compiled
and linked with a program stub main () into an executable cyclic executive program
with the GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution. The Arduino IDE
employs the program to convert the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal
encoding that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board's
firmware.

The Arduino board is connected to a computer via USB, where it connects with
the Arduino development environment (IDE). The user writes the Arduino code in
the IDE, then uploads it to the microcontroller which executes the code, interacting
with inputs and outputs such as sensors, motors, and lights.
Code for this project will be written in C++ except two methods everything remains
same in Arduino. Those two methods are void setup () and void loop ().

void setup () {}
Void setup is technically a function that you create at the top of each program. Inside
the curly brackets is the code that you want to run one time as soon as the program
starts running. It can set things like pinMode in this section.
void loop( ){ }
The loop is another function that Arduino uses as a part of its structure. The code
inside the loop function runs over and over as long as the Maker Board is turned on.
Liquid Crystal()
Creates a variable of type Liquid Crystal. The display can be controlled using 4 or 8
data lines. If the former, omit the pin numbers for d0 to d3 and leave those lines
unconnected.

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The RW pin can be tied to ground instead of connected to a pin on the Arduino. d0, d1,
d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, d7: the numbers of the Arduino pins that are connected to the
corresponding data pins on the LCD. d0, d1, d2, and d3 are optional; if omitted, the
LCD will be controlled using only the four data lines (d4, d5, d6, d7).

Begin()
Initializes the interface to the LCD screen, and specifies the dimensions (width and
height) of the display. begin() needs to be called before any other LCD library
commands.

Syntax:
lcd.begin(cols, rows)

SetCursor()
Position the LCD cursor; that is, set the location at which subsequent text written to
the LCD will be displayed.

Syntax:

lcd.setCursor(col, row)

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CHAPTER-5
RESULT ANALYSIS
Fig5.1 output

Resistive network and LCD gets constant 5V from the Arduino. Whenever fault is
created by pressing the push buttons, voltage across them varies. Analog voltage is
converted to the digital voltage, Based on the digital voltage fault in kilometres can be
found with the help of the code. According to the code, data gets displayed on the
LCD as well as Serial Monitor.

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CHAPTER-6

ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

ADVANTAGES

● Can be used for both high power consumption lines and low power
consumption lines with operating frequency 300Hz to 3kHz.

● It is very cost effective

● Accuracy of detection is very high

● It is more reliable

APPLICATIONS

Its main application is to detect the fault of underground cable which is very hard to
detect as it is not possible to see such faults which are quite possible in the case of
overhead transmission line. So for such cases this project is very helpful as the
distance at which the fault has occurred can be calculated and then further action
regarding the fault can be taken to overcome them
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CHAPTER-7

CONCLUSION

The short circuit fault at a particular distance (1 Km, 2 Km, 3 Km and 4 Km) in the
underground power cable is located to rectify the fault efficiently using (Fault
switch and) simple concepts of Ohm’s law and voltage divider rule. The fault
displays on the LCD screen. The advantages of accurate location of fault are fast
repair to revive back the power system; it improves the system performance and
reduces the operating expense and the time to locate the faults in the field.

FUTURE SCOPE

The following points explain the requirement of additional implementation , these


points will act as future scope
● Addition of a GSM module to each line of resistance will help to send the
message to the respective officer.
● Speed and accuracy of detection can be increased by using optical fibres
34

REFERENCES

[1] Dhekale P.M., Bhise S.S., et al, “Underground Cable Fault Distance Locator”,
IJIERT, ISSN: 2394-3696, Volume 2, Issue 4, 2015

[2] Gaurav Ojha, Abhilash Guha Roy, et al, “Underground Cable Fault Distance
Locator”, International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in
Technology (IJARIIT), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2017

[3] Kunal Yogeshkumar Parikh, et al, “Monitoring AC Drive by using RS485 & GSM
Module”, International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI), Volume
4, Issue 4, March 2017

[4] Kunal Yogeshkumar Parikh, et al, “GSM Based advance security system by using
PIC Microcontroller”, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development
(IJSRD), Volume 5, Issue 1, 2017

[5] Pema Chodon, Devi Maya Adhikari et al, “Analysis of fault detection and its
location using microcontroller for underground cables”, International Research Journal
of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 04 Issue: 06, June -2017

[6] Mr. N. Sampathraja, Dr. L. Ashok Kumar, et al, “IOT based underground cable
fault detector”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology
(IJMET), Volume 8, Issue 8, August 2017, pp. 1299– 1309
35