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LOW SAG CONDUCTORS
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS
Introduction - There is a growing need to increase the power handling capacity of existing
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction - There is a growing need to increase the power handling capacity of existing power
- There is a growing need to increase the power handling capacity of existing power
-
There is a growing need to increase the power handling
capacity of existing power transmission assets.
-
At
the
same
time
there
is
fierce
opposition
to
the
construction of new lines and the ability of obtaining right of
ways is became more and more difficult.
As a result of these conflicting pressures, increasing the
thermal rating of existing overhead transmission lines is seen
as a valid alternative to the construction of new lines.
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity - Increment of the line voltage: very expensive solution due to

- Increment of the line voltage: very expensive solution due to necessity of new project, adaptation of installations to new voltage,

- Increment conductor tension: that solution might cause problems in towers – tower reinforce needed,
- Increment conductor tension: that solution might cause problems in
towers – tower reinforce needed, new foundations, aeolian vibration,
- Increment of conductor section: that solution might cause problems
in towers – tower reinforce needed, new foundations. New project and
permissions,
- Installation of bundle conductor - High cost. That solution cause
problems in towers - necessity of reinforce tower, foundations,
permissions, higher right of ways,
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity
Methods of increasing lines capacity

- Real-time monitoring system: it is used to determine the position of a conductor in space thereby determining the rating of the line in real time, to avoid design sags violation.

- Electrical clearances (sags) re-asses with the possibility that the rated temperature of the line can be increased. Such physical modification might be done: moving suspension clamps, re-tensioning, raising conductor attachment heights, adding new structures in long spans.

-Replacement of the existing conductor with a new conductor that has either lower electrical resistance
-Replacement of the existing conductor with a new conductor that
has either lower electrical resistance and/or is capable of operation at
high temperature within the existing line limits on sag and tension -
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS.
Targets of low sag conductor reconductoring • Increment of line capacity (ampacity) - supporting the
Targets of low sag conductor reconductoring
Targets of low sag conductor reconductoring
• Increment of line capacity (ampacity)
• Increment of line capacity (ampacity)
- supporting the seasonal or occasional demand peaks as well as emergency overloads required by
- supporting the seasonal or occasional demand peaks as
well as emergency overloads required by the grid
operation during line life.
- continuous operation at higher temperatures that existing conductor increasing the electrical load.
- continuous operation at higher temperatures that existing
conductor increasing the electrical load.
• Do not modify the structures (towers and foundations)
• Do not modify the structures (towers and foundations)
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS TECHNOLOGY: Increase thecapacity (ampacity) of the line with respect to its equivalent
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS TECHNOLOGY: Increase thecapacity (ampacity) of the line with respect to its equivalent conductor,
LOW SAG CONDUCTORS TECHNOLOGY: Increase thecapacity (ampacity) of the line with respect to its equivalent conductor,

TECHNOLOGY:

Increase thecapacity (ampacity) of the line with respect to its equivalent conductor, based on the increment of the working temperature, maintaining the electrical clearances due to low thermal expansion.

based on the increment of the working temperature, maintaining the electrical clearances due to low thermal
Conventional Aluminium Based Conductors Overheating = Loss of mechanical properties
Conventional Aluminium Based Conductors
Overheating = Loss of mechanical properties
- ACSR c onduc tors: made of steel c ore + Al 1350 wires -
- ACSR c onduc tors: made of steel c ore + Al 1350 wires
- If working temperature > 90ºC will lose
strength (“ anneal” ) over time
signific ant tensile
- Ac c umulative effec t
-
As the c onduc tor temperature inc reases, the rate
annealing inc reases ra pidly
of
- Galvanized steel c ore is affec ted at 170 ºC
- Aluminium Clad steel c ore it is not affec ted below
300ºC
Conventional Conductors Typical annealing curves for aluminium wires
Conventional Conductors
Conventional Conductors
Typical annealing curves for aluminium wires
Typical annealing curves for aluminium wires
Conventional Conductors Typical annealing curves for aluminium wires
Conventional Conductors Typical annealing curves for aluminium wires
Low Sag Conductors Thermal-Resistant Aluminium Alloys   TENSILE STRENGTH Min (Kg/ mm 2 ) CONDUCTIVITY
Low Sag Conductors Thermal-Resistant Aluminium Alloys
Low Sag Conductors
Thermal-Resistant Aluminium Alloys
Low Sag Conductors Thermal-Resistant Aluminium Alloys   TENSILE STRENGTH Min (Kg/ mm 2 ) CONDUCTIVITY (%
 

TENSILE STRENGTH Min (Kg/ mm 2 )

CONDUCTIVITY (% IACS)

Max. Temperature Operation

ALLOY

Continuous

Emergency

HAl

16,2

61,0

90

120

58TAl

16,2

50,0

150

180

60TAl

16,2

60,0

150

180

KTAl

22,9

55,0

150

180

UTAl

16,2

57,0

200

230

ZTAl

16,2

60,0

210

240

XTAl

16,2

58,0

230

310

“Knee Point Temperature” Definition - The conductor temperature above which the aluminium strands of a
“Knee Point Temperature”
“Knee Point Temperature”
“Knee Point Temperature” Definition - The conductor temperature above which the aluminium strands of a composite
Definition - The conductor temperature above which the aluminium strands of a composite conductor have
Definition
- The conductor temperature above which the aluminium strands of a
composite conductor have no tension or go into compression caused by
different material elongation when heated.
- Knee point temperature is not a fixed value and depends of many factors like
span length and mechanical tension.
- Low sag conductors have different physical behaviour when working below or
above the knee point temperature.
- The conductor’s core thermal expansion coefficient is a key factor in the
conductor performance, when it is working above Knee Point temperature.
- There are some technologies that reduces the knee point temperatures
improving conductor performance.
Knee Point Temperature
Knee Point Temperature
Knee Point Temperature
Knee Point Temperature
Conductor Cores performance comparison
Conductor Cores performance comparison
Conductor Cores performance comparison
Low Sag Conductor Types
Low Sag Conductor Types
Low Sag Conductor Types
Low Sag Conductor Types
HiTLS Conductor Types
HiTLS Conductor Types
HiTLS Conductor Types
HiTLS Conductor Types

1.- GAP type Conductor (G(Z)TACSR). Fig 1

Constituted by a high mec hanic al resistanc e steel c ore and several thermal resistant aluminium layers that, bec ause of the gap between the steel c ore and the inner aluminium layer, it’ s free to move.

2.- TACSR Conducto Fig 2. Made of any kind of steel c ore and several thermal resistant aluminium layers . Not a low sag conductor.

3 . -

c lad d ed c ore or galvanized and several thermal resistant aluminium layers

ZTACIR Conductor Fig

2 . Made

of

a

invar aluminium

4.- ACSS Conductor Fig 2. Made of any kind of steel c ore (several types) and several annealed aluminium layers

5.- ACCR (Fig. 2) and ACCC Conductors (Fig. 3). Made of c omposite c ores and thermal resistant aluminium or annealed aluminium layers .

Fig 1
Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 2
Fig 3
Fig 3
Pros & Cons of HTLS conductors
Pros & Cons of HTLS conductors
Pros & Cons of HTLS conductors
Pros & Cons of HTLS conductors
Pros & Cons of HTLS conductors
GAP TYPE CONDUCTORS G(Z)TACSR
GAP TYPE CONDUCTORS G(Z)TACSR
GAP TYPE CONDUCTORS G(Z)TACSR

GAP TYPE CONDUCTORS G(Z)TACSR

GAP TYPE CONDUCTORS G(Z)TACSR
Why Gype Type Conductor? TREFINASA/SAPREM has selected Gap Type Conductor, by different reasons that make
Why Gype Type Conductor?
Why Gype Type Conductor?
Why Gype Type Conductor? TREFINASA/SAPREM has selected Gap Type Conductor, by different reasons that make it
TREFINASA/SAPREM has selected Gap Type Conductor, by different reasons that make it the best choice
TREFINASA/SAPREM has selected Gap Type Conductor, by different reasons that make it
the best choice for the replacement of existing conductors.
Gap Type Conductor is produced with conventional materials (aluminium and steel),
that have been used in the production of conductors for more than a century.
Metallurgy and behaviour it is perfectly known. No material risk.
Due to its unique installation methodology, conductor’s KNEE POINT is located at
installation temperature without pre-tensioning. This is a very important fact because in
other type of conductors knee point is located in the range of 100ºC, then conductor
does not work like low sag conductor below this temperature. In the case of the Gap
type conductors, because knee point is located at installation temperature, it works like
low sag conductor from this temperature, providing a superior performance in the
“intelligent” working temperature range (60ºC to 120ºC) where the losses are not too
significant.
Best ratio price /performance
Why TREFINASA Gap Conductor?
Why TREFINASA Gap Conductor?
Why TREFINASA Gap Conductor?
- The Gap type conductor installation system has been improved by TREFINASA/SAPREM, in such a
- The Gap type conductor installation system has been improved by TREFINASA/SAPREM,
in such a way that no longer installation is a handicap. By means of the use of a system
patented by SAPREM, the installation costs have been reduced and the security of pay-off
and sagging tasks have been enhanced appreciably.
- TREFINASA uses Aluminium Clad Steel Wire for production of gap conductor steel core
because of its demonstrated advantages against zinc and mischmetal coating based steel
cores.
 Superior corrosion resistance
 Lighter weight
 Improves conductivity of steel core
 Long term stability in high temperature operation (ACS wire can withstand 300⁰C
continuous operation without degradation)
 Even it is not recommended usage of zinc coating based steel core for
temperatures higher than 170⁰C (there is literature confirming it), many
manufacturers still supplies this kind of material.
 An internal TREFINASA study demonstrated that both galvanized and mischmetal
steel wires suffered deterioration after heating samples at 300 ⁰C for 5 weeks,
while ACS wire kept all initial characteristics.
Gap Type Conductor Round or trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Special Thermal Resistance Grease Trapezoid
Gap Type Conductor
Gap Type Conductor
Gap Type Conductor Round or trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Special Thermal Resistance Grease Trapezoid Heat
Gap Type Conductor Round or trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Special Thermal Resistance Grease Trapezoid Heat
Gap Type Conductor Round or trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Special Thermal Resistance Grease Trapezoid Heat
Round or trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires
Round or
trapezoid Heat
resistant Al Wires
Type Conductor Round or trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Special Thermal Resistance Grease Trapezoid Heat
Special Thermal Resistance Grease
Special
Thermal
Resistance
Grease
Trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Space (Gap)
Trapezoid Heat
resistant Al Wires
Space (Gap)

High Strength Aluminium Clad Steel Core

Thermal Resistance Grease Trapezoid Heat resistant Al Wires Space (Gap) High Strength Aluminium Clad Steel Core
Gap Type Conductor (Fundamentals)
Gap Type Conductor (Fundamentals)
Gap Type Conductor (Fundamentals)
Gap Type Conductor (Fundamentals)
Gap Type Conductor (Fundamentals) - In it’s initial sagging condition, the mechanical stress is only applied
- In it’s initial sagging condition, the mechanical stress is only applied to the steel
- In
it’s
initial
sagging
condition, the
mechanical stress is only applied to the steel
core. The aluminium layers are inert (no
tension)
-
KNEE
POINT
IS
AT
SAGGING
TEMPERATURE
- The space (gap) between the steel core and
the first aluminium layer contributes to steel
core movement; grease also contributes.
- Therefore,
conductor’s thermal
expansion
coefficient is only aluminium clad steel core ’s
(11,9 x 10 -6 )
- In the case of an ACSR conductor,
coefficient’s value is almost double (20 x 10 -
6 ), because the aluminium wires contribution.
SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION for GTACSR Remember! •In initial sagging condition, mechanical stress is only
SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION for GTACSR
SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION for GTACSR
Remember! •In initial sagging condition, mechanical stress is only applied to the steel core. •The
Remember!
•In initial sagging condition, mechanical stress is only applied to the steel core.
•The aluminium layers are inert (no tension)
•Knee Point Temperature is at sagging temperature
BELOW KNEE-POINT  Conductor Situation: Low Temp. and Overload Conditions - Mechanical Condition:
BELOW KNEE-POINT
Conductor Situation:
Low Temp. and Overload Conditions
-
Mechanical Condition:
Tensile Load > Tensile load at KPT - Aluminium with tensile load (no inert) -
Tensile Load > Tensile load at KPT
- Aluminium with tensile load (no inert)
- Conductor behaves like an ACSR
tensile load (no inert) - Conductor behaves like an ACSR Conductor parameters for calculation  E

Conductor parameters for calculation

E (Modulus of elasticity): composite α (Coef. of thermal expansion): composite S (Conductor area); Aluminium + Steel

 
ABOVE KNEE-POINT Conductor Situation: High Temperatures -Mechanical Condition:
ABOVE KNEE-POINT
Conductor Situation:
High Temperatures
-Mechanical Condition:
Situation: High Temperatures -Mechanical Condition: Tensile Load ≤ Tensile load at KPT - Aluminium without

Tensile Load ≤ Tensile load at KPT -Aluminium without tensile load (inert) -Conductor behaves like an Low Sag Cond

load (inert) - Conductor behaves like an Low Sag Cond Conductor parameters for calculation  E
load (inert) - Conductor behaves like an Low Sag Cond Conductor parameters for calculation  E
load (inert) - Conductor behaves like an Low Sag Cond Conductor parameters for calculation  E
load (inert) - Conductor behaves like an Low Sag Cond Conductor parameters for calculation  E

Conductor parameters for calculation

E (Modulus of elasticity): steel core α (Coef. of thermal expansion): steel core S (Conductor area); only steel core

of elasticity): steel core  α (Coef. of thermal expansion): steel core  S (Conductor area);
of elasticity): steel core  α (Coef. of thermal expansion): steel core  S (Conductor area);
of elasticity): steel core  α (Coef. of thermal expansion): steel core  S (Conductor area);
SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION for GTACSR
SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION for GTACSR
SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION for GTACSR
INSTALLATION ACSR Knee-Point GTACSR GTACSR LOW SAG CONDUCTOR AS CONVENTIONAL CONDUCTOR
INSTALLATION
ACSR
Knee-Point
GTACSR
GTACSR
LOW SAG CONDUCTOR
AS CONVENTIONAL
CONDUCTOR
WHAT COMPETITORS SAID ABOUT GAP?
WHAT COMPETITORS SAID ABOUT GAP?

WHAT COMPETITORS SAID ABOUT GAP?

GAP CONDUCTOR SAGGING To adjust the conductor to the final sag just pull it from
GAP CONDUCTOR SAGGING To adjust the conductor to the final sag just pull it from

GAP CONDUCTOR SAGGING

To adjust the conductor to the final sag just pull it from the steel core

GAP CONDUCTOR SAGGING To adjust the conductor to the final sag just pull it from the
SAPREM®METHOD for GAP TYPE CONDUCTOR SAGGING

SAPREM®METHOD for GAP TYPE CONDUCTOR SAGGING

SAPREM®METHOD for GAP TYPE CONDUCTOR SAGGING
SAPREM®METHOD for GAP TYPE CONDUCTOR SAGGING
G(Z)TACSR FITTINGS
G(Z)TACSR FITTINGS
G(Z)TACSR FITTINGS
G(Z)TACSR FITTINGS
GTACSR FITTINGS
GTACSR FITTINGS
GTACSR FITTINGS
GTACSR FITTINGS
GTACSR FITTINGS COMPRESSION CLAMP SUSPENSION CLAMP
COMPRESSION CLAMP
COMPRESSION CLAMP
GTACSR FITTINGS COMPRESSION CLAMP SUSPENSION CLAMP
SUSPENSION CLAMP
SUSPENSION CLAMP
TESTS
TESTS
TESTS
TESTS
Principal Standards for gap testing •IEC 6240 Ed1.0 - Concentric lay stranded overhead electrical conductors
Principal Standards for gap testing
Principal Standards for gap testing
Principal Standards for gap testing •IEC 6240 Ed1.0 - Concentric lay stranded overhead electrical conductors
Principal Standards for gap testing •IEC 6240 Ed1.0 - Concentric lay stranded overhead electrical conductors
•IEC 6240 Ed1.0 - Concentric lay stranded overhead electrical conductors cointaining one or more gap(s)
•IEC 6240 Ed1.0 - Concentric lay stranded overhead electrical
conductors cointaining one or more gap(s)
•EN 50182 - Conductors for overhead lines - Round wire concentric lay
stranded conductors
•EN 61395 - Creep Test procedures for stranded conductors
•IEC 62004 - Thermal-resistant aluminium alloy wire for overhead line
conductor
•EN 61232-96 - Aluminium clad steel wires for electrical purposes
•EN 61284 - Overhead lines. Requirements and tests for fittings
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
•Surface condition; Diameter; Inertness; Lay ratio •Mass per unit length •Cross sectional area •Gap Measurement
•Surface condition; Diameter; Inertness; Lay ratio
•Mass per unit length
•Cross sectional area
•Gap Measurement
•Resistance
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST Strain-Stress and Creep Test
Strain-Stress and Creep Test
Strain-Stress and Creep Test
CONDUCTOR TEST Strain-Stress and Creep Test
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
SLIP & BREAKING LOAD TEST
SLIP & BREAKING LOAD TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST SLIP & BREAKING LOAD TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST SLIP & BREAKING LOAD TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST SLIP & BREAKING LOAD TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
ACSR
ACSR
CONDUCTOR TEST ACSR GAP Sag/Tension vs. Temperature TEST
GAP
GAP
CONDUCTOR TEST ACSR GAP Sag/Tension vs. Temperature TEST
Sag/Tension vs. Temperature TEST
Sag/Tension
vs. Temperature
TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR TEST
CONDUCTOR SELF-DAMPING AND AEOLIAN VIBRATION TESTS
CONDUCTOR SELF-DAMPING AND AEOLIAN VIBRATION TESTS
CONDUCTOR TEST CONDUCTOR SELF-DAMPING AND AEOLIAN VIBRATION TESTS
CONDUCTOR TEST CONDUCTOR SELF-DAMPING AND AEOLIAN VIBRATION TESTS
CONDUCTOR TEST CONDUCTOR SELF-DAMPING AND AEOLIAN VIBRATION TESTS
THERMAL-RESISTANT ALUMINIUM ALLOY WIRE TEST •Diameter •Electrical Resistivity •Thermal-Resistant Property
THERMAL-RESISTANT ALUMINIUM ALLOY WIRE TEST
THERMAL-RESISTANT ALUMINIUM
ALLOY WIRE TEST
THERMAL-RESISTANT ALUMINIUM ALLOY WIRE TEST •Diameter •Electrical Resistivity •Thermal-Resistant Property
•Diameter •Electrical Resistivity •Thermal-Resistant Property
•Diameter
•Electrical Resistivity
•Thermal-Resistant Property
•Tensile Strenght •Elongation
•Tensile Strenght
•Elongation
ALLOY WIRE TEST •Diameter •Electrical Resistivity •Thermal-Resistant Property •Tensile Strenght •Elongation
ALUMINIUM-CLAD STEEL WIRE TEST • Diameter • Torsional Test • Thickness of Aluminium Test •
ALUMINIUM-CLAD STEEL WIRE TEST
ALUMINIUM-CLAD STEEL WIRE TEST
ALUMINIUM-CLAD STEEL WIRE TEST • Diameter • Torsional Test • Thickness of Aluminium Test • Tensile

Diameter Torsional Test Thickness of Aluminium Test Tensile Stress Test Stress at 1% Elongation Test Elongation Test

Test • Thickness of Aluminium Test • Tensile Stress Test • Stress at 1% Elongation Test
Test • Thickness of Aluminium Test • Tensile Stress Test • Stress at 1% Elongation Test
Stress Test • Stress at 1% Elongation Test • Elongation Test GREASE TEST •Mass per unit
Stress Test • Stress at 1% Elongation Test • Elongation Test GREASE TEST •Mass per unit
Stress Test • Stress at 1% Elongation Test • Elongation Test GREASE TEST •Mass per unit
GREASE TEST
GREASE TEST
•Mass per unit Length •Drop Point
•Mass per unit Length
•Drop Point
FITTINGS TEST Suspension Clamp Slipping and Breaking Test
FITTINGS TEST
Suspension Clamp Slipping and Breaking Test
FITTINGS TEST Suspension Clamp Slipping and Breaking Test Compression Clamp Tensile Stress Test
FITTINGS TEST Suspension Clamp Slipping and Breaking Test Compression Clamp Tensile Stress Test
Compression Clamp Tensile Stress Test
Compression Clamp Tensile Stress Test
FITTINGS TEST Suspension Clamp Slipping and Breaking Test Compression Clamp Tensile Stress Test
FITTINGS TEST THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
FITTINGS TEST
FITTINGS TEST
FITTINGS TEST THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
FITTINGS TEST THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
FITTINGS TEST THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
FITTINGS TEST THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATOR AND FITTINGS
ALL IN ONE SOLUTION TREFINASA/SAPREM offers whole support to finalise the Project, from the design
ALL IN ONE SOLUTION
ALL IN ONE SOLUTION
ALL IN ONE SOLUTION TREFINASA/SAPREM offers whole support to finalise the Project, from the design to
TREFINASA/SAPREM offers whole support to finalise the Project, from the design to the installation stage:
TREFINASA/SAPREM offers whole support to finalise
the Project, from the design to the installation stage:
•Conductor design according to Customer needs
•Technical uprating study
•Special fittings proposal
•Technical support for calculation and installation
•Installation tools can be provided
•Installation training to Contractors
•Supervision on site for installation
ALL IN ONE SOLUTION
ALL IN ONE SOLUTION
ORGANISATIONAL CHART
ORGANISATIONAL CHART

HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW SAG CONDUCTORS

ORGANISATIONAL CHART HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW SAG CONDUCTORS Engineering Technical support Fittings Installation
ORGANISATIONAL CHART HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW SAG CONDUCTORS Engineering Technical support Fittings Installation
ORGANISATIONAL CHART HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW SAG CONDUCTORS Engineering Technical support Fittings Installation
ORGANISATIONAL CHART HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW SAG CONDUCTORS Engineering Technical support Fittings Installation

Engineering

Technical

support

LOW SAG CONDUCTORS Engineering Technical support Fittings Installation method Conductor design Conductor
Fittings
Fittings
Installation method
Installation
method
Conductor design
Conductor
design
Conductor manufacturing
Conductor
manufacturing
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION