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PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

1. Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is


activated by the learner.
Reflection: The learner must be the one who must undergo processing in learning .
He must be the one to strive hard to learn and develop his inner experiences .Learning
occurs if the learner allows himself to experience learning. Teaching will only serves as
facilitating process that asserts every learner to discover and explore the real meaning
of every situations he encounter.

2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of


ideas.
Reflection: It means that what is relevant and meaningful to the learner comes from
the learner himself and must be discovered by himself. The learner easily conceived and
internalized concepts if it is relevant to their needs and problems in everyday life.
Students can easily get interested to learn if the particular ideas presents is within his
interests to solve his everyday needs. Teachers must give lessons that are relevant to
the needs of his pupils.
3. Learning is a concequence of experience.
Reflection: Experience has a great contribution in acquiring facilitating learning.
Learning acquired if teachers allowed the students to experience in doing things by
himself or manipulate things by himself especially in accomplishing his task in class,
Students can integrate his experience to the new task given by his teacher. He can
relate his experience in accomplishing his task. To be an effective teacher, he must use
experiential learning to facilitate effective learning among his pupils. Learning is not only
by listening to what others say, it is also a process of experiences wherein a learner
discovered his learning through other people.

4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process. Cooperation


fosters learning.
Reflection: Learning takes place easily when learners interact, plan and solve
problems in a group assignments,especially in solving problems. Learners enable to
share ideas in a group and learn independently . learners can share their own ideas by
identifying their strength and weaknesses and gain interpersonal skills. In this way,
learners can broaden their minds and ideas as a team and work on different strategies to
achieve the goal effeciently. In this case, teachers should provide activities for learners
to solve and work as a team.

5. Learning is an evolutionary process.


Reflection: Learning is acquired in a step by step process. It is a process of change,
an evolution that happens through time. Learning is not a direct process that learner
acquired the learning automatically, it is a process of learning wherein the learner must
undergo different situations or experiences and discovered the meaning of change.
Changes is important to the learner, in order to experience change, learner must be
patient throughout the learning process. Patience is the key to an effective learning and
experiencing it in a slow process helps the learner identify his skills and accepting it
wholeheartedly.
6. Learning is sometime a painful process.
Reflection: Learning is not an easy process, it is sometime a painful process. The
learner must experience pain in order to gain as part of the learning process It is a
process wherein the learner should allow himself to learn from painful experiences and
use it as motivation to overcome difficult situations by dealing it with sacrifices and
determination to achieve a certain purpose or goal. From the word itself “Painful
process”, the learner must never give up in every challenges that he may encounter
instead he will strive hard to gain success and realize after that pain is just a temporary
part of learning process

7. One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself.


Reflection: Learning starts from the learner himself. He is the main resources of
learning. He must willing to learn base on his capabilities and interest. The learner must
be the center of learning process. It is a process base on experiences, ideas, feelings
and attitudes of the learner which he already gained. These things were already in the
learners and must be tapped by the teachers in order to facilitate effective learning.
Moreover, learners can easily recall their previous experiences, ideas and feelings and
relate it to the new task or problem given by the teachers. In this manner, teachers will
just draw upon learners stock knowledge and experiences through cooperative
interaction with other learners.

8. The processs of learning is emotional as well as intellectual.


Reflection: Learning takes place only if the learners are emotionally and intellectually
stable and prepared. Teachers should see to it that his learners are free from
destructions especially in their emotions or feelings so that learning is effective. The
learners should focus on carrying out their task without barrier in any aspects of life in
order to maximize the acquisition and internalization of ideas. The teacher must first
dealt the problems arise in each learners to facilitate effective learning. Intellectual
aspect of each learners should be given enough attention and consideration.

9. The process of problem solving and learning is highly unique


and individual.
Reflection: Every individual is unique therefore learners has its own capabilities to
learn and experience. Teachers should give varied activities that suit to their needs.
Instruction should be differentiated to cater the needs of very learners. Every learner has
its own pace of learning. Some learners are slow learner and others are fast learner. In
giving instruction, the teacher should be knowledgeable enough to find effective strategy.
BEHAVIORAL TERMS USED IN THE
FORMULATION OF SMART
LESSON OBJECTIVES

Learning objectives is very important aspect in teaching because every lesson


should start with learning objectives. It is a way of movitation and gives direction to the
learner. It is called the Behavioral Learning Objectives. To be effective in teaching,
the learning objectives must be SMART ( Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic
and Timebound) in all aspects to cover the essential part of the lesson needed by the
students. It is an easiest way of finding out if the learners acquired the learning
objectives or not. The learners will get the possible lesson objectives as a tool to
achieve the desired learning objectives. Behavioral learning objectives is acquiring
knowledge or skills the learners want to achieve and hope for.

There are three important domains for learning objectives discovered by


Benjamin S. Bloom (1956) and these are the cognitive (thinking),
psychomotor(physical/kinesthetic), and affective(emotions/feeling). These
domains are very important to ensure that students achieve the desirable target of
learning. Effectivity of teaching requires the teacher to adapt teaching strategy that
combines various domains of learning.

In the behavioral learning objectives, there are verbs use to construct lesson
objectives. Here are the verbs acceptable for learning objectives.

Classify Compare Compute

Discuss Define Decide

Execute Emphasize Explain

Collect Consider Conclude

Differentiate Describe Distinguish

Combine Construct Cite

Identify Illustrate Interpret

Plan Arrange Organize

Simplify Select Separate

Generate Group Build

Criticize Disciminate Design


SMART LEARNERS
OBJECTIVES IN THREE
DOMAINS

PANGANGAILANGAN AT KAGUSTUHAN MULA KAY ABRAHAM


MASLOW
Sa katapusan ng aralin, ang mga mag-aaral ay inaasahang:

A. Mga layuning pangkabatiran (Cognitive/Knowledge Objectives)


 Maipapaliwanag ang pagkakaiba tungkol sa pangangailangan at
kagustuhan ng tao.
 Makakabuo ng konsepto tungkol sa pangangailangan at kagustuhan ng
tao.
 Mailalahad ng maayus ang mga bagay na nauugnay sa pangangailangan
at kagustuhan ng tao.

B. Mga layunin ukol sa pagsisiyasat at kasanayan (Affective/ Skills Objective)


 Nakapaglalarawan at nakapaghahambing sa pangangailangan at
kagustuhan ng tao.
 Nakapagbibigay ng mga katibayan o mga patunay sa kaibahan ng
pangangailangan at kagustuhan ng tao.
 Nakapagpapahayag ng mga kaisipan ng mabisa sa pagtukoy sa iba’t
ibang klase ng pangangailangan at kagustuhan ng tao.

C. Pag-uugnay ng kaisipan at kilos (Psychomotor)


 Nakagagawa ng iba’t-ibang halimbawa gamit ang papel at iguhit ang
pangangailangan at kagustuhan ng tao sa isang larawan.
 Nakakagamit ng iba’t-ibang pananaw tungkol sa pangangailangan at
kagustuhan.
 Magbibigay ng scenario gamit ang kaibahan ng pangangailangan at
kagustuhan.
HARVEY F. SILVER MULTIPLE
INTELLIGENCES-LEARNING
STYLES INTEGRATED

MASTERY ACTIVITIES INTERPERSONAL


ACTIVITIES

Ask students to:


Ask students to:
 Identify the difference of wants and
 Describe the importance of having
needs by Abraham Maslow.
wants and needs of a person.
 Formulate ideas about the concepts
 Cite an examples using your own
related to wants and needs.
ideas and experiences about the
 Construct your own understanding
topic.
about the importance of wants and
 Used different learning strategies to
needs.
formulate effective understanding.

UNDERSTANDING SELF-EXPRESSIVE
ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES

Ask students to:


Ask students to:
 Imagine and make an interpretation
 Analyze the differences of wants and
through images.
needs.  What if a person wants to buy
expensive things rather than his/her
 Explain the relevance of having
needs?
wants and needs.  Create or draw an image that talks
about wants and needs.
 Give concrete examples of having
wants and needs in life.
BANGHAY ARALIN SA ARALING PANLIPUNAN
Pangangailangan at Kagustuhan
I. LAYUNIN
Pagkatapos ng talakayan, ang mag-aaral ay inaasahang:
a. Naipapaliwanag ang teorya ng pangangailangan at kagustuhan.
b. Naipapaliwanag ang pagkakaiba ng pangangailangan at kagustuhan.
c. Nakasulat ng sanaysay ukol sa matalinong pagpapasya kaugnay sa
pangangailangan at kagustuhan.

II. NILALAMAN
a. Paksa: Pangangailangan at Kagustuhan
(Pangunahing Konsepto ng Ekonomiks)
b. Balangkas ng Aralin:
 Teorya ng pangangailan
 Mga salik na nakakaimpluwensya sa pangangailangan at
kagustuhan.
c. Kagamitan: Laptop, projector, cartolina,pentel pen
d. Sanggunian: Ekonomiks, Modyul para sa mag-aaral

III. PAMAMARAAN
1. Panimulang Gawain
Gawaing Guro Gawaing Mag-aaral
a. Panalangin ang mag-aaral ay nanalangin,
b. Pagbigay bati sa guro nagbigay bati sa guro,
c. Pagtsitsek ng atendans nagbabalik tanaw tungkol sa
d. Pagbabalik tanaw diskusyon kahapun.
e. Pagbabalik aral

2. Pagganyak
a. Magpakita ng mga larawan tungkol
Sa pangangailangan at kagustuhan.
b. Magtanong sa mag-aaral tungkol sa
CLASSROOM OBSERVATION

My classroom observation is conducted in a public school named Regional


Science High School. I observe a class under teacher Rochelle Besin, an Araling
Panlipunan Instructor. When I enter the classroom, the first thing that came in my mind
is the different behaviors of the students. Some of them are noisy and others are quiet
but majority of them are always talking and listening into each other.

I observed teacher Besin when she discussed her lessons in front of the class
about the “Sinaunang Kabihasnan sa Asya”. The flow of her topic is connected on the
principles of teaching method because she began her lesson with full of knowledge
about the topic and state clearly the objectives through begin with the end in mind. The
objective is set clearly since her students understand it. Teacher uses PowerPoint,
visual aids and other educational materials to provide students the fastest and effective
way of learning. Her objectives are connected to the three types of domain wherein the
most important part of teaching. While she discussing a topic, I noticed that she used
the student centered type of approach, it means that she ask her students to make an
analysis and give examples about the topic. This approach is the most effective
because both the teacher and students are learning from each other. It is easy for them
to construct and generalized effectively. After the teacher discuss the lesson, the
teacher gives the students an individual and group exercises to assess them if they are
learning. During the assessment time, students are doing a lot of learning strategies by
answering each question with certainty. In order to achieve the learning process,
students should be motivated so teacher is giving her students a reward individually or
based on group performance to target the very best possible output of her students. The
teacher came up with this idea because reward is one of the most effective strategies to
motivate students whatever tasks or activities in the classroom.

To rate my overall classroom observation, I could rate it 8 out of 10 because some


of the principles are not yet used so therefore the topic is given in a way better but a
little bit of something lacking like the teacher is not using more on examples about the
topic.

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