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# Compass survey

## 1. The needle is of broad type 1. The needle is of Edge bar type

2. The dia of box varies from 2. The dia of box varies from
85 mm to 100mm. 115mm to 200mm.
3. It is graduated in WCB system. 3. It is graduated in Q.B. system.
4. The reading is taken by prism. 4. The reading is taken by prism
5. The tripod may or may not be top of glass.
required 5. The tripod must be required
6. Sighting & reading can be done 6. Sighting & reading cannot be
simultaneously from single position done simultaneously from single
of instrument. position of instrument.
7. It is engrained inverted. 7. It is engrained erect.

## Note: - prismatic compass is more preferred over surveyor compass because by

prismatic compass, sighting & reading can be done simultaneously from single position
of instrument.

Dip
it is vertical angle made by magnetic line of forces with the horizontal surface of earth.
ϴ➔ Dip
At pales, Dip = 90o
At Equator, Dip = 0o

Local Attraction
➢ It is an attraction on magnetic needle towards a local magnetic field other than
earth’s magnetic field.
➢ Local Attraction accurse due to presence of heavy magnetic object such as
magnet bar, electric wire etc.
➢ Due to local attraction, magnetic bearing of line changes. there will be no local
attraction if a line has difference of 180o in fore bearing & back bearing,
provided that there should be no instrumental error.

## UNITS OF ANGLE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

(i) Sexagesimal system
1 circumference = 360o degree
1 degree = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 Seconds
(ii) Centesimal system
(iii) Hour system
1 circumference = 24 hour
1 hour = 60 minute
1 minute = 60 seconds
IMPORTANT TERMS
(i) Bearing : Direction of a line w.r.t a fixed meridian is called bearing.

(ii) True meridian and true bearing : True meridian is a line joining true north pole, true
south pole and point of reference.

Angle measured for any line w.r.t true meridian is called true bearing.
(iii) Magnetic meridian and magnetic bearing :0 Line joining magnetic north pole,
magnetic south pole and point of reference is called magnetic meridian. Bearing taken
w.r.t magnetic meridian is called magnetic bearing.
(iv) Magnetic declination : At any place horizontal angle between true meridian and
magnetic meridian is called magnetic declination
For Eastern Declination
α = β + ϴE or T.B = M.B + ϴE
Here, α = true bearing or T.B
B = Magnetic bearing or M.B
ϴE = eastern declination
for western declination
α = β - ϴw or T.B = M.B - ϴw
Here, ϴw1 = Western declination.

Designation of bearing
(i). WCB (Whole Circle Bearing System) :
All Bearings Are taken writ north direction, going in clockwise.
Bearing of line OA = ϴA
Bearing of line OB = ϴB
Bearing of line OC = ϴc
Bearing of line OD = ϴD
• These bearing are observed by prismatic compass.

## (ii). QSB (quadrantal system of bearing )

• In this system, the bearing of a line is measured eastward of westward from
north or south pole whichever is nearer.
• these bearings are observed by surveyor compass.
• it is also called reduced bearing system.
Baring of line ‘OA’ is NϴAE
Baring of line ‘OB’ is SϴBE
Baring of line ‘OC’ is SϴcW
Baring of line ‘OD’ is NϴDW

## • fore bearing and back bearings

B.B = F.B ±180o
Where,
B.B = Back bearing

FB = Fore bearing
ϴ = F.B. Of line AB
∅ = F.B of line BA or B.B of line AB
+ve sign is used when F.B < 180o
-ve sigh is used when F.B. > 180o
• Local attraction
Direction of magnetic needle can be diverted due to presence of some magnetic
objects near the instrument set of a station, this will cause local attraction due
to which same error will be there in all measurements taken from that station

If the difference between fore bearing and back bearing is 180o1 then the
adjoining stations are free from local attraction.

## Ch-3 Linear Measurement –

Direct Measurement:
1). Pacing
Pace is a natural step which is 75 cm to 80cm long.
Total Distance = Total no. of pace

2). By Passometer
It is an instrument shape like a watch which records no of paces.
Total Distance = No of Paces x Average length of 1 pace.

3). By odometer
In this, if a wheel is fitted with gauge meter, rolled along a line.
Distance = No of revolution x circumference of wheel
4). By chaining
➔ it is a process of linear measurement in which distance is to be measured with the
help of chain.
 Chaining the total distance.
Chain
Chain is made of galvanized mild steel. It consists of various no of links, each link is
connected with circular ring. the standard length of link is 20cm. the end link includes
the handle.

 the distance b/w two consecutive circular ring is called as length of a link
 The distance from outer end of one handle to the outer end of another handle
is called length of chain.
 Brass Talley is used to read the fractional part of a chain.
 In 5m & 10m chain, brass Talley are attached on each meter length.
 In 20 & 30m chain, brass Talley are attached at every 5m lengthand a small
brass ring is attached on each meter length of 20m & 30m chain.
Note:-Surveying chain does not gives more accurate results so, a steet Band or Band
having 20m or 30m long is more preferred over it.

Types of chains

## 1). Revenue chain

It is 33 ft. long & consist of 16 links
1
16
Revenue chain is used in cadastral survey

## 2). Gunter’s chain

➢ it is 66 feet long & consist of 100 links
➢ This chain is used when distances are measured in miles, furlong and area in
acre.
➢ 1 furlong = 10 Gunter’s Chain
➢ 1 mile = 80 Gunter’s chain
➢ 1 acre = 10x (Gunter’s chain)2
It is too fast

## 3). Engineer’s Chain

➢ it is 100 feet long & consists of 100 links
➢ 1 link – 1 feet
➢ this chain is used for all chaining work.

Metric chain
1m = 100cm
metric chains are used only for rough work.
Note:
1. A/c to Indian standard, every meter length of a chain should be current with
in a limit of +2mm, with a standard pull of 80N.
2. the tolerance limit for 20m chain is ±5mm & for 30m chain is ±8mm.

## Accessories Used in Chaining

1). Peg
It is used to locate definite points on the ground. it is fixed into the ground by using
mallet.

2). Arrow
It is used to locate intermediate points along a chain line. it is also known as marking
Pin.
3). Ranging Rod
➢ It is made of galvanized iron pipes having length of 2m or 3m&dia of
25-30mm. it is pointed in alternative color of bands black& white or red
in succession. The length of each band strip is 20 cm.
➢ Ranging Rod is used to reach out some intermediate points along
chain line.
➢ It is suitable for small distances.

## 4). Offset Rot

It is similar as Ranging Rod but used to locate the points at perpendicular distances
from a chain length. No flag at top

❖ Ranging pole is used to range out the points at greater distances (more than
200m)
Angle Setting devices
1). Cross staff
i). Metal open cross staff BY Nikhil sir 9560969640
It is used to set perpendicular from a chain line. it consists of 4 metallic heads.

## ii). French cross staff

It is used to set 45o, 90o& 135o from a chain line. it consistsof 8 metallic meads.

## Pantagraph - plan enlarging instrument

Tellurometer – distance measuring microwave instrument
Ghats traces – Gradient Finding Instrument

2). Clinometer
It measures Ground slope
3). Optical Square
➢ 2 Reflections
➢ Angle = 45O
• It is used to set perpendicularfrom a chain line.
• In this the angel b/w two mirrors is 45o.
• in this, double reflection takes place.
• In this, incident ray is to the reflected way.
• Prism square can set any angle from a chain line.

Methods of Ranging
1). Direct Ranging
When both the end points are clearlyintervisible then direct singing is to be done.

## 2). Indirect Ranging or Reciprocal Ranging

When both the end points are not clearly intervisible then indirect ranging is done.

Note:-
1). In case of dense forest, ranging is done by random line
Method in which pints are located on a random line by taking perpendicular from
tress.
2). A line ranger can also be used to range out some points along a chain line.
3). Stepping methodis used to measure distances along a sloping around. it may be
stepping down or stepping up but stepping down method is to be more preferred.

## Correction due to hypotenuse allowance.

Ch = L(secϴ-1)
CH-4-Levelling
Levelling is an operation of determining relative position of points w.r.t a Reference
surface. leveling deals in a vertical Plane

Principle of leveling
The Principle of is to make a horizontal line site from which vertical distances of
points above or below of this line can be measured.

Teams in leveling

## 1). Level surface

This is a curve surface which is parallel to the mean spherical surface of earth. the
line which lie on a level surface, known as level lineA line normal to the plumb line
at all points.
Note: The surface of still water is known as level surface

## 2). Horizontal surface

The surface, which is tangential on level surface at a point, known as horizontal
surface and the line which lie on horizontal surface in known as horizontal line.

3). Datum
this is any assume level surface w.r.t which vertical distances of the points above or
below, can be measured.
❖ Mean sea level is taken as standard datum

## 4). Mean sea level (M.S.I)

This is the average height of sea taken for all the stages of tide, for a long period of
time (19 years)
❖ in India, Mumbai sea port is taken as mean sea level
5). Elevation
It is the vertical distance of a point selective to a datum above or below.
❖ Elevation can also be represented as reduced level (R.L)

6). Altitude
It is the vertical distance of a point, measured above mean a level.

Note: -
1. Above mean sea level, elevation & attitude will be same.
2. vertical distances are always measured along the line of gravity.

## 7). Benchmark (BM)

This is a fixed point of know elevation, leveling work is always started from
Benchmark. It has following type

## i). GST Benchmark

It is great trigonometrically survey benchmark established of survey of India from
Mumbai sea level, throughout the country.

## ii). Permanents Benchmark

This is a fixed point b/w 2 GTS Benchmark, established by PWD or Irrigation
Department or SOI (survey of India).

## iii). Temporary Benchmark

This is a fixed Point at which a day’s work is closed & from which next day’s work is
started.

## iv) Arbitrary Benchmark

This is a point of assumed elevation, used for small area.

8). station
This is a point at which staff is placed. this point may be having a known elevation is
to be established.

## 9). Axis of Telescope

This is an imaginary line joining optical center of eye- piece to the optical center of
object glass.

## 10. Axis of Bubble tube

This is an imaginary line which is tangential on longitudinal curve of bubble tube at its
mid point

## 11). Line of Collimation(LoC)

When line of sight becomes horizontal then it is called as line of collimation.

## 12). Back sight (BS)

• This is the first Staff reading taken at a point of known elevation as on
Benchmark.
• There will be only 1 back sight in each setup of instrument.

## 13). Fore sight (FS)

• This is the last staff reading, taken at a point of unknown elevation
• There will be only one foresight in each setup of instrument
• Fore sight indicates shifting of instrument or end of work

## 14). Intermediate Sight (IS)

• This is any other reading b/w back sight & fore sight, taken at a point of
unknown elevation.
• There will be no no. or any no. of IS.

Methods of Leveling
1). Direct Levelling
In this difference of level b/w 2 Point can be determined directly from the instrument it
is also known as spirit leveling.

## 2). Indirect leveling

i). Trigonometrical leveling
In this, difference of level (h) can be determined indirectly from trigonometrical relation.

## ii). Barometric leveling

In this difference of level can be determined indirectly from difference of atmospheric
pressure. as elevation increase pressure decreases.
Note: - An altimeter is a type of barometer which is used to find out altitude of an
aeroplane.

## iii) HYPSOMETRIC LEVELLING

IN THIS, difference of level can be determined indirectly from doff in temp. As
elevation increases, temp decreases

## Types of Direct Levelling

1). Simple leveling
in this, the instrument has only 1 setting & used where all the point isclearly
intervisible.

## 2). Compound leveling

in this the instrument has more than 1 setting & used where all the points are not
clearly intervisible.

## 3). Check Levelling

This is a type of compound leveling (differential leveling)&used to check the accuracy
of survey work.

## 4). Fly Levelling

This leveling gives an approximate elevation & used whererapidity& low accuracy is
required. Fly leveling is used on fully area & for reconnaissance.

## 5). Precise Leveling

This leveling is used where high degree of accuracy is required.

## 6). Profile Levelling

This leveling is done along a fix line of reference. it is also known as longitudinal
leveling

## 7). Cross section Leveling

This leveling is done at a perpendicularDistance from a fixed line 7 from center of

## 8). reciprocal leveling

This leveling is used to determine the correct difference in elevation b/w 2 points
where the instrument cannot be placed in b/w them.
e.g. river, valley

Defects of a lens

## 1). chromatic aberration

1). it occurs due to dispersion of light in which white light may split into its compound
color’s& form a rainbow by which focusing become difficult.
ii). To remove this defect, use combination of lenses as 1 convex lens of crown glass
&1 concave lens of flint these two lenses are combined with a cementing material,
known as Canada balsam. the convex lens should be kept near the objective.
❖ this defect, the combination of lenses is known as achromatic& this process is
known as Achromation.

## 2). Spherical Aberration

It occurs due to spherical surface of length in which ray of light incident on edge of
the lens are refracted more than ray incident on center of the lens to remove this
defect, use combination of lenses.

note: -
1. In leveling instrument, spirit or purified synthetic alcohol is used as a liquid in
bubble tube.
2. in leveling instrument, Kepler type of telescope & Ramsden Eyepiece are used
3). the least count of leveling staff is 5mm.

## Methods of reducing Level (R.L)

1). height of instrument (H.I) or collimation method

HI = B.S + R.L of BM

## 2. Rise & Fall method

BS – FS = (+) rise or (-) Fall
B.S – IS = (+) rise or (-) Fall
IS – FS = (+) rise or (-) Fall
IS1 – FS2 = (+) rise or (-) Fall

## R.L of a point = Previous R.L + Rise or fall

check➔ ∑BS - ∑FS = ∑Rise – ∑fall = last R.L – 1st RL.

Note:- When staff reading increases, then-there is a fall & when staff reading
decreases, there is a rise.

## Sensitivity of Bubble tube

It is defined as angle subtended by an arc of bubble tube & its center. If bubble
shows large deviation due to small external force acting on it then it would be said as
very sensitive

𝑑
𝑅

## ∵ 1 radian = 206265 seconds

∴ϴ = ( )206265 Seconds
𝑑
𝑅

## Where, d = distance b/w consecutive graduation of tube (d≈2mm)

R = Radius of curvature of bubble tube
 ϴ= 2 x 10-3
206265
R
ϴ = 412.53
Second
R

𝑛𝑑𝐿
R = s
𝑆

 ϴ = d
206265
N dL
s
S

ϴ = Seconds
𝑆
206265
𝐿𝑛

## Where, S = Staff Intercept

n = No of Division
Note: - if viscosity of bubble is more then, sensitivity will decreases.
2). If dia of tube is large, then sensitivity will be more
3). Sensitivity of bubble will decrease with rise in temp. because liquid will expand &
bubble sensitivity

## Curvature & Refraction

1). Effect of curvature

## Error due to curvature (Ec) = M.V – T.V

= +ve
Correction due to curvature (Cc) = -Ve

h = d2/2R

CC= (d2/2R)

## d = distance b/w instrument & staff station (in km)

R = Radius of earth (R≈6367 km)
CC = -(d2/2x6367)
CC = 0.0785d2
Where, CC is in meter
d is in km

Effect of curvature occurs when difference b/w level line horizontal line increases as
the distance of staff station increases from an instrument BY NIKHIL SIR 9560969640
Note:- Due to effect of curvature, staff reading increases & the earth surface appears
to be much lower than they really are.
2). Effect of refraction

## Error due to refraction (ER) = M.V – T.V

= -ve
correction due to Refraction (CR) = +Ve

1 𝑑2
h = CR = +1/7 CC
7 2𝑅

CR = +1 d2
7 2R
d = distance b/w instrument & staff station (in Km)
R = Radices of earth (R = 6367 km)

CR = +1 d2
7 2 x 6367

CR = +0.0112d2

Where, CR is in meter
d is in km
The effect of Refraction occurs due to change in air density in which ray of light travel
from low air density to the high air density & become bend & staff reading increases.

Combined correction
C = C C + CR
C = -0.0758d2 + 0.0112d2
c = -0.0673d2➔ LEARN
C =- 6 d2
7 2R

## Where, c is meter & d is in km

Distance of visible horizon

∵ c = - 0.0673d2
∴ h = 0.0673d2
d = √ℎ/0.067
d = 3.854 √h

Where, d is in km
& h is in meter

Dumpy level
A dumpy level, telescope& spindle are casted as one piece & leveling screw. There
are following point should be considered for permanent adjustment of a dumpy level.
1). axis of bubble tube should be perpendicularto the vertical axis of instrument.
2). axis of telescope should be parallel to the axis of bubble tube.
3). horizontal cross core should be in a plane which is perpendicular to the
vertical axis of the instrument
4). line of sight should be horizontal.

Note: - if the line of sight is not horizontal, then an error may occurwhich is
known s collimation error. it can be removed by two pegtests.

Reciprocal leveling
When the leveling instrument cannot be placed in b/w the 2 points, the
reciprocal leveling is to be done.
eq River, deep valley.
Note:-Reciprocal leveling can eliminate the effect of curvature, refraction &
collimation error but it can’t remove Parallax error.

2

2

## Collimation error➔ec = E -0.0673 d2

where, d = distance b/w instrument & staff station (in km)

## Use of inverted staff

when the point goes elevation is to be find out, much above the line of sight
as in case of Projection of building, beam, balcony, linter, arches etc. Then to
find out elevation of that point, the staff is held inverted with its zero-end
CH-8 Tachometry
Tachometry is defined as an optical distance measurementinterest. it is also
knownas telemetry.
2 stadia hair, 1 above & other below the horizontal cross hair the vertical

## A tachometry has an analectic lens which is of external focusing type

this lens has 2 constants
i). multiplying constant (k=100)
ii). additive constant (c=0) (very up to 45m)
A stadia rod having 5-15m long can be used with a tachometer. This should
be used for long distances (more than loom)
Note the accuracy of tachometer is more on an irregular surface.

Method of tachometry
in this stadia wire are used for taking staff intercept.
it has 2 types.
i). Fixed hair method
in this the stadiainterval (i) is to be fixed but staff interval it is to be varied(s)
ii). marble hair method
in this, the stadia interest (i) is varied but staff intercept is to be fixed(s)
it is also known as vertical base subtense method or subtensetheodolite
method

## 2). Tangential method

In this stadia wire are not used. Only cross wires are used this method is
similar as trigonometricalleveling

## Distance formula in static method

1). fixed Hari method
Case 1 ➔when surface is horizontal,

## b,a ==. top Arial& bottom hairs

AB ➔ staff intercept
C ➔ optical centre of lens
D = (f/i)2 + (f+d)
D = KS + C
k = f/I C = (f+d)
K is known as multiplying constant or stadia interval factor
C is known as Additive constant

## for perfectly analytic lens,

K=100& C = O
Case 1) when staff held vertical on a irregular surface

## Horizontal distance (D) = Ks Cos2ϴ + C cosϴ

vertical distance (V) = ½ ks sin2ϴ +csinϴ
for angle of elevation RL of staff station = HI +V-h
for angle of depression, RL of staff station = HI –v-h

## Angle of elevation Angle of depression

horizontal distance (D)Horizontal distance (D)
D = (ks +c) cosϴ + H sinϴ
D = (ks + c) cosϴ - h sinϴ
Vertical distance (V) vertical distance (v)
V = (ks+c) sinϴ V= (ks +c) sinϴ

## R.L. of staff station R.L of staff station

=HI + v- hcosϴ =HI -v- hcosϴ

## Movable hair method

in this, stadia wire can be related by micrometer screen
case I – when surface is horizontal,

D = ( )s + c
𝑘
𝑚
where,
k =
𝐹
𝑃

P ➔ pitch
m ➔ sun of micrometer reading

## D = (k/m) s cos2ϴ +c cosϴ

V = ½(k/m) ssin2ϴ + csinϴ

## d = ((k/m) s + c) cosϴ +hsinϴ

V = ((k/m) s + c) sinϴ

tangential method
in this, two big targets are used & two angles can be measured

D = S/tanϴ, tanϴ
V = dtanϴ2

𝑠
D =
tanQ2−tanQ1

V = Dtanϴ2

## Case 3Where angle of election& one of depression

𝑠
D =
tanQ1 + tanQ2
V = Dtanϴ2
Ch-6 plane table survey
 plane table is an instrument used for graphical methods in which
sighting, reading & plotting can be donesimultaneously
 there is no office work.
 Plane table survey is suitable for topographical area & the finished maps
which are produced known as topographic maps.
 The survey in which topographic map is to be produced, known as
cartographic surveying.
 Plane table survey is suitable, for small to medium scale mapping.
1:10000 to 1:2,50,000
 Note: - Plane table survey does not give more accurate result so, less
preferred.

## Accessories used in plane table survey

1)Plane table board.
It is made with well seasoned wood. The upper surface it kept smooth.
Designation Size (mm x mm)
B0 1500 x 1000
B1 1000 x 700
B2 700 x 500
B3 500 x 350
❖ 650 x 750 (in mm)
❖ 750 x 900 (in mm)
It is a straight edge ruler having same sighting device. it is used for sighting
the abject & drawing a line.
it has 2 type:
i). Plane Alidade – For horizontal line of sight
ii). Telescopic Alidade – for inclined line of sight.

## 3). Trough Compass

It is 15 cm long & used to plot magnetic meridian at a place (north, south)

N S

## 4). Plumbing Fork

it is a u-Piece of metal frame which carry a plumb bob, it is used for centering
of the plane table board over the station.

## 5). Level tube

In this, sprit is used as a liquid which is used for leveling.

6). tripod
7). drawing sheet - A2 Size.

## Setting up the plane table board

1). Fixing up the board.
2). centering
3). Levelling
4). Orientation
Orientation – It is a process to direct an alidade towards a point which are to
be plotted. it can be done by.
i). by trough compass
ii). by back sighting
iii). by resection

## Methods of plane table survey

➔ in this, the instrument has only, 1 station, this method is used for small
area.

2). Intersection
➔ In this, the instrument has 2 station&used for irregular area or for large
distances.
 It is also known as graphical triangulation.

3). Traversing
 In this, the instrument has to be set on each of the station as in
succession.
 This method can be used for survey of road, railway etc.

4). Resection
It can be defined as the process of locating the instrument station occupied by
the plane station by drawing rays from the station whose positions are
alreadyplotted on the drawing sheet. it can be done in following way:

2-point problem.
i). Itconsists of locating the position of plane table station on the drawing sheet
be observation of two well defined points, where portions have already been
plotted on the plan.

## ii). 3 point problem

It consists of locating the position of plane table station on the drawing sheet
by observation of three full defined point, whose portions have already been
plotted on the plan.
It can do in following ways.
a). Bessel’s graphical method.
b). tracing paper method
c). Trial & error method or Lehmann’s rule

Lehman’s Rule
A/c to Lehman’srules:
1). If Δ of error lies inside the great Δ, then the instrument station (p) will also
be inside.
2). If Δ of error lies outside the great Δ, then the instrument station (P) will
also be inside.

Note:- Radiation &intersection methods are used for plotting details whereas
traversing&Resection can be used for locating the instrument station.
CH-10 Earthwork Calculation
the major objective of surveying is to find out the such as area & volume. it
can be some by plan measurement or fill measurement.
NIKHIL SIR 9560969640
If shape of figure is defined, then it can be subdivided into some simple
geometrical shape such as triangle, rectangle, sourceetc. and the exact formula
can be used to find but these Quantities.
if shape of figure is undefined, then an approximate formula can be used.
Note -area of an irregular figure can be find out by planimeter.

## Average ordinate rule

Trapezoidal rule
3). Simpson’s 1/3 Rule

𝑑
3

## Offset at Irregular Interval

A1 = d1
𝑂1 + 𝑂2
2

A2 = d2
𝑂2 + 𝑂3
2

 A = A1 + A2 + ……. + An

Note
1). Simpson’s 1/3 rule is more accurate than trapezoidal rule
2). Simpson’s 1/3 rule assumes that short length of boundaries B/W two
adjacent offset will be a parabolic arc.
3). Simpson’s 1/3 Rule is applicable only for add no. of offset or even no of
section

Measurement of volume
1). End area Method or Trapezoidal Rule.

𝐴1 + 𝐴𝑛
2

## 2). Prismoidal Rule

Volume (V)= (A1 + An)+4(A2 + A4 + A6+…..)+2(A3+ A5 + A7 + …..)
𝑑
3
SURVEYING
Well-conditionedTriangle
1) A Triangle is said to be well conditioned if all the intersections are here & the
intersecting angle lies b/w 300 to 1200.
2) If intersecting angle is less than 300or more than 1200then it will be known as
3) An equilateral triangle is more suitable for a well conditioned triangle.

NOTE:-
An isosceles triangle having two base angles as 56014’ can also be takes as well
conditioned triangle.

## Types of chain Lines

➔ The station which joins side of triangle is known as main survey station and line
joining 2 mains stn. Is known as main lines. These lines commands boundaries of
surveying area
➔ The station which connect 2 main station known as Tie station and the line joining
2 tie station is known as Tie line
➔ Tie line or subsidiary line is used to locate interior details if a Surveying area.
➔ The longest survey line which may passes from center of the area, can be taken
as Reference, known as Base line.
➔ The line which is used to check the accuracy of survey work, known as check
lines.
➔ The shortest distance of an object from main survey line is known as offset it has
following type: -
1) Perpendicular offset (900)
2) Oblique offset (other than 900)
3) Short offset (l< 15m)
4) Long offset (l > 15m)

## Error = Measured value - True value

Correction + True value – Measured value

## Accidental Probable error ➔Em = ES / √𝑛

Sources of Error

1) Natural
2) Instrumental
3) Personal

Types of Error
1) Mistake
It occurs due to carelessness, sleeping tendency, miscounting etc.
2) Cumulative error
It occurs with same value, some sign in same direction. since it follows a system, so,
it is also known as systematic error.

𝐸 α𝑙

## Where, 𝑙= length of line

3) Compensating Error
It occurs with same value, same frequency with opposite sign. It neutralizes the effort
of error during measurement.

* If mistake at cumulative error are removed from the permanent then an error still
may occur which is present as accidental error or Random error.

E x √𝑙 l= length of line

Note: cumulative error causes more serious effect on accuracy of survey work.

## S.No. Cause of Error Type of Error Sign of Error

1. Incorrect length of chain Cumulative + or -
2. Variation in pull or Tension Compensating + or -
3. Variation in temp Cumulative + or -
4. Sagging Cumulative +
5. Displacement of arrows Compensating + or -
7. Miscounting Mistake

Errors in Chaining

## If L → correct length of chain

L’ → Incorrect length of chain
l → True length of line
l’ → Measured length of line
then,
True × True = Wrong × Wrong

l × L = L1 ×l1

𝐿′
So, true length of line → l= ( ) l’
𝐿

𝐿,
True area ➔ A = ( )2 A’ → Measured area
𝐿

𝐿′ 3
V = ( ) V’
→ Measured volume
true volume ➔
𝐿

Tapes

1) Cloth Tape
It is made of closely woven liner. This taps is available in length of 10m & 15m.And
width of 15mm. This tape can be easily affected by the moisture, so used for only
Rough measurement.

2) Metallic Tape
When linen is reinforced with brass or copper wire. Then it become metallic tape. This
tape is available in length of 15cm & 20m & 30m. Metallic tape is used for measuring
offset distances.

3) Steel Tape
It is made with strip of steel. This tape is available length of 1 to 50 m & width of 6
to 16mm. A steel tape should not be used in Verification.

4) Invar Tape
It is made with an alloy of steel (64%) & Nickel (36%). This tape is available in length
of 30m, 50mm & 100m. & a width of 6mm. Since, this tape has low value of
coefficient of thermal expansion (x=0.622x10-6/ 0C). So, it does not affect by the effect
of temp. This tape given the most accurate results.
Tip correction

## 1)Correction due to Length ( Cl)

Cl = L1-L l’
L
2) Correction due to Temperature (CT)

CT = ∝ ( TM-T0) l’

## Where, Tm = mean temperature (CT)

T0 = Standard temp.
∝ = coefficient of thermal expiration

## Tm > T0➔ CT = +ve

T0 > Tm ➔ CT = -ve

## 3) Correction due to Tension Or Pull (CP)

CP = P-P0 l’
AE
Where,
P = Pull applied
P0= Standard Pull
A= Cross sectional area of tape
E= Modules of elasticity
if P > P0➔ CP = +ve
P0 > P ➔ CP = -ve
4) Correction due to slope (C0)

C0 = - l’ (1 – cos ∅)

C0 = -( h2 )
2 l’

Where,
h = difference of level b/w end points
L = LENGTH OF SLOPE

CS = - W2 (l’)3

24P2

P = pull applied

## Sag correction is always +ve

Chapter-5 Contouring
• A contour may be defined as an imaginary line joining points of same elevation
on the ground.
• A contour line shows topography of the ground.
• When contours are drawn on the water, then they are known as submarine
contour or Bathymetric curves.
• The horizontal distance b/w 2 consecutive contour is known as Horizontal
Equivalent.

NOTE: Generally contours are not visible on the ground except near the sea shore.

Contour Interval

## • The vertical distance b/w 2 consecutive contour is known as contour Interval.

• The contour interval may be kept constant but it may also very from 1m to
15m.
• small contour interval should more detail in the ground.
• Available contour interval may represent an irregular surface.

## Factors Affecting contour Interval

1) Seale of Map
1
CI ∝
𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒

2) Nature of Ground

## For plane ground → Small CI

For broken ground → large CI

3) Purpose of survey
For more details → small C.I
for less details → large C.I.
4) Time & Money

1 1
C.I. ∝ & C.I.∝
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑀𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑦

## 1) All the points of a contour lines should have same elevation.

2) Contour lines doesn’t intersect each other except in case of an overhanging cliff.
Cliff → It is an exposed portion of rock.
3) Equally spaced contour represent a uniform slope.

4) A Contour may form closed curve. They may close either on the map or outside
the map.

5) A set of closed contour with higher figure inside & lower figure outside may indicate
hill.
5) A set of closed contour with lower figure inside & higher figure inside may
indicate a depression

6) the contour lines are normal in case of watersheds and ridge lines
7) The connecting point of higher elevation to the lower elevation is called as
Ridge Line.

## 8) An irregular contour may present uneven ground surface.

9) 2 contour lines having same elevation may not unite & continue as 1 line having
diff. elevation.
10) A single contour cannot put in 2 lines having different elevation.

Methods of Contouring
1) Direct Method
In this, the points which are to be plotted, measured directly. It consists of 2 steps:
(i) Vertical control- To locate the points.
(ii) Horizontal control – Survey of those points.
2) Indirect Method
In this, some guide points are located b/w the main points & these guide points helps
to measure main points &. And these main points can be plotted on the map but the
guide points don not need to be plotted. It can be done:
i. By Square
ii. By Cross Section
iii. By Tachometer

NOTE:
1) Along a gradient, the line joining points of same elevation is known as contour
2) The method of provide spacing b/w contour lines is known as interpolation of
contour.

Use of Contour
1) To draw a map.
2) To show intervisibility of point
3) To find out area of the ground
4) To define capacity of reservoirs etc.
5) To locate path of flow
Chapter -9 CURVES

## A curve may be provided at the intersection of a straight line of route. It provides a

Types of Curves

1) Horizontal curves
This curve is provided when 2 straight line intersect each in a horizontal plane.
NOTE: Horizontal curves are circular in nature.

2) Vertical Curves
This curve is provided when 2 lines at different gradient intersect each other in a
vertical plane.

## Types of Horizontal Curve

Simple circular curve
It consists of an arc of a circle. This curve is tangential on 2 straight line of route.

2) Compound Curve
It consist of 2 circular are having diff. radius with their center of curvature on same
side of common tangent
3) Reverse Curve
➔ It consist of 2 circular are having same or diff. radius with their center of
curvature on the opposite side of common tangent.
➔ Reverse curve is provided when 2 straight lines are parallel or angle b/w them
is very small.

NOTE: Compound curve & Reverse Curve are provided for low speed on Highway &
Railway.

## Element of a simple circular Curve

Relation b/w Degree (D) and Radius ® Curve
• For 20m long are or 20m chord length.

1146
D =
𝑅

1719
• For 30m long arc or 30m chord length, D =
𝑅

𝜋𝑅𝛿
➔ Length of Curve (l) ➔ 𝑙 =
180

T= R tan( )
𝛿
➔ Tangent length (T) ➔
2
)
𝛿
➔ Length of long chord (L) ➔ L = 2 R sin(
2

𝛿
➔ Mid Ordinate (M) → M= R (1-cos )
2

𝛿
➔ Apex or External Distance (E) → E= R (sec − 1)
2

## ➔ Change of Apex or Vertex(V) →

Chainage of point of curvature + Tangent length (T)
PT = PC + 𝑙
Chainage of point of tangency = chainage of point of curvature + length of
curve

## Setting Out of a simple Curve

Setting out of a curve is a process of locating the points on the curve by which the
chords can be made by joining these points as it is difficult to measure along an arc.
So, it is done alone a chord. The first chord will be a sub chord all other chords will
be a full chord except the last chord. The last chord may be a sub chord or Full
chord depending on Length of Curve.

## Methods of Setting Out

Linear Method
In this, a chain or tape is used for linear measurement & It can be done in following
way.

## i) Offset from long chord

Ox = Oo – X2 2R
ii) Offset from Tangent

Ox = X2 2R

## iii) Successive Bisection of Arc

𝛿
O1=O2=O3=O4 = R (1-cos )
2

2) Angular Method
This method is more accurate than linear method. It has 2 type:

i) Rankine’s Methods
In this, a tape is used for linear measurement and a theodolite is used for Angular
measurement. This method is also known as Tangential Angle Method or One
Theodolite method.

## (ii) Two Theodolite Method

In this, 2 theodolites are used for making an angular measurement & linear
measurement is completely eliminated. This method is based on the principle that
angle b/w tangent & sub chord & 10 side of a curve will be same as angle b/w 2
chords on opposite sides.
Transition Curve

1) This is a curve of varying radius, introduced b/w straight line & circular curve.
2) This curve is tangential on both side where it touches the straight line &
circular curve.
3) Its curvature should be zero (R = ∞) at one end when it touch the straight like
& its curvature should be at other end inhere it touches the circular curve.
1
𝑅
4) The rate of increase of curvature along the transitions curve should be equal to
the rate of increase of super elevation.
5) The vertical distance by which outer surface is raised above the inner surface,
called as super elevation.

𝐺𝑉 2
Super elevation (e) ➔ e =
𝑅𝑔

## Where G width of road or gauge of railway track

𝑉3
Length of transition curve (L) ➔ L =
∝𝑅

𝐿2
Shift in Transition curve =
24𝑅

1
* ∝< m/Sec2/Sec
3
Where, ∝ = rate of change of radial acceleration.
1) Cubic Spiral or Clothoid
𝑙∗𝑙∗𝑙
Y= L= length of transition curve
6𝑅𝐿

## Cubic spiral is more closely represent an ideal transition curve.

vertical Curve
This curve is used to connect 2 gradients in a vertical plane.
these 2 types:
i) Segment curve
Segment or upgrade is followed by a downgrade, and then this curve is formed.

## ii) Sag curve

When a downgrade is followed by an upgrade, then this curve is formed.
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
*Length of vertical curve = 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

L =
𝑔2−𝑔1
𝑟
TRAVERSING

## ➔ In this, magnetic meridian is established on each of the station & magnetic

bearing of lines can be determine directly from the instrument.
➔ This method is more suitable for open traverse.

## 2) Fast Needle Method

In this, magnetic meridian is established only at starting station & magnetic bearing of
line can be find out by the instrument & magnetic bearing of previous line + included
angle. This method is more accurate & suitable for closed Traverse.

Direct Angel
It is an angle measured in clockwise direction.
Deflection Angle
It is an angle b/w prolongation of a line to the next line.

## ➔ Permissible error in an angular measurement.

(E) = K√𝑁

N → No. of angle
K → constant defined on the characteristics of instrument

Omitted Measurement

If some of the measurement which was taken in the field, was not taken due to same
reason, then these measurements are known as Omitted measurements.

Latitude.

## The orthographic projection of a line a meridian (E-W) which to perpendicular the

reference meridian is called as Departure.
Checks in closed Traverse

1) Loop Traverse

∑latitude = 0 Or ∑L = 0
∑ Departure = 0 ∑D = 0

## ∑ Latitude = Latilude of last point – Latitude of 1st point.

∑L = Ls – L1
∑ departure = departure of last point – departure of 1st point.
∑D = Ds – D1

## `Closing Error or Error of Closure

2 2
Closing error m (e) = √ex + ey

𝑒
tan𝜃 = 𝑥
𝑒𝑦

𝑒𝑥
𝜃 = tan-1 ( )
𝑒𝑦

∑𝐷
or 𝜃 = tan-1
∑𝐿

𝑙𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
or 𝜃 = tan-1
𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

𝑒
Re =
𝑃
Re = 1
𝑃
( )
𝑒

## Re is also known as Relative accuracy or Degree of accuracy.

If there is an error of closure than it should be adjusted such chat error of closure
becomes zero, there are following methods for adjusting in traverse. NIKHIL GOEL
9560969640

1) Arbitrary Rule
In this, closing error is to be adjusted according to the surveyor, based on field
condition.

2) Bowditch Rule
• It is also called as compass Rule. This rule is used when length & angle are
measured with same accuracy.
• This rule assumes that closing error occurs due to accidental error.

e1∝ √𝑙 1

1
e2∝
√𝑙2

## 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

Total correction in Latitude X
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒

CL = ± CY ( )
𝑙
𝑃
Correction in Departure of line

## 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

Total correction in Departure x
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒

𝑝)
𝑙
CD = ± 𝐶𝑋 ( When error +ve , correction –ve
when error –ve, correction +ve

3) Transit Rule
This rule is used to balance a traverse in which angular measurement are more
accurate than linear measurement.

## Numerical value of Latitude of that line

= Total correction in Latitude x
Arithmetic sum of all latitude

CL = ± CY 𝐿𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒
𝐿1+𝐿
2+𝐿3+⋯

## Numerical value of Departure of that line

= Total correction in Departure x
Arithmetic sum of all Departure

CD = ± CX 𝐷𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒
𝐷1+𝐷
2+𝐷3+⋯
Note:
1) A/c to Transit Rule, angles are change less & length are change more as
compared to Bowditch Rule.
2) Traverse calculation are done in a tabular form which is known as Gale’s Traverse
Table.
Ch – 7 Theodolite
Theodolite is an instrument which used for measuring horizontal & vertical angles,
prolonging a line, measuring distance indirectly.

Types of theodolite
1). Vernier theodolite – In this, venires are used taking the readings. its least count
in 20’’
2). optical theodolite – It is based on an optical system in which measurement are
used for taking the readings. its least count is 1’’.

Note: 1) the size of theodolite is to be defined by the size of lower graduated circle
which vary from 8cm to 25cm.
2) The lower circle is also known as main scale plate & the upper circle is also
known as Vernier plate
3). The horizontal axis of a theodolite is also known as trunnion axis or transverse
axis and the vertical axis is also known as azimuth axis.

Terms in theodolite
1). Transit – it is an operation of rotating the telescope through 180o about its
horizontal axis in a vertical plane.
transit is also known as plunging or reversing

2). swinging
it is a process of revolving the telescope about its vertical axis.
in a horizontal plane
Right swing – clockwise rotation
left swing – anticlockwise rotation

3) lining in
It is a process of establishing intermediate points with the help of theodolite on a
given straight line whose ends are clearly intervisible.
4). Balancing in
it is a process of establishing intermediate points with the help of theodolite on a
given straight line whose ends are not clearly indivisible

## 5). telescope normal.

The telescope is set to be normal or direct when its vertical circle is to the left-hand
side of the observer.
❖ This position is also known as face left

## 6). telescope Inverted

The telescope is set to be inverted when its vertical circle is to the right-hand side of
the observer.
❖ this position is also known as face right
Note :- by taking mean of both the face reading, collimation cruor can be eliminated.

## Measurement of horizontal angles

Repetition method
In this method, angle can be measured several times & value is added mechanically.
this method is more accurate for measuring a horizontal angle.
Horizontal angle = Accumulated value
No of repetition

Reiteration method
in this, several angles can be measured at one station. all the angles should be
measured form initial station to last station and the horizon is closed as to provide in
check of 360o of all the angles

Vernier scale
1). in 1631, Pierre Vernier invented a scale which is known as Vernier scale.
2). Vernier scale is used to read the fractional part of main scale.
3). the smallest possible value which can be counted on a scale known as least count
Least count = S/n
Where, S = Main scale reading
n = no of division
n = No of division

Types of Vernier
1). single venire
in this graduation increases in one direction only
2). Double Vernier
In this graduation increases in both the direction
3). direct Vernier
i). in this Vernier has smaller division than main scale
ii). in this Vernier moves in same direction as of main scale

nV = (n-1)S

1). in this Vernier has larger division than main scale
2). in this Vernier moves in opposite direction of main scale.

## 5). Extended Vernier

When division of main scale are very close as it’s become difficult to determine the
exact graduation where coincidence occur than
extended Vernier is used
Nv = (2n –1)S