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2. The dia of box varies from 2. The dia of box varies from

85 mm to 100mm. 115mm to 200mm.

3. It is graduated in WCB system. 3. It is graduated in Q.B. system.

4. The reading is taken by prism. 4. The reading is taken by prism

5. The tripod may or may not be top of glass.

required 5. The tripod must be required

6. Sighting & reading can be done 6. Sighting & reading cannot be

simultaneously from single position done simultaneously from single

of instrument. position of instrument.

7. It is engrained inverted. 7. It is engrained erect.

prismatic compass, sighting & reading can be done simultaneously from single position

of instrument.

Dip

it is vertical angle made by magnetic line of forces with the horizontal surface of earth.

ϴ➔ Dip

At pales, Dip = 90o

At Equator, Dip = 0o

Local Attraction

➢ It is an attraction on magnetic needle towards a local magnetic field other than

earth’s magnetic field.

➢ Local Attraction accurse due to presence of heavy magnetic object such as

magnet bar, electric wire etc.

➢ Due to local attraction, magnetic bearing of line changes. there will be no local

attraction if a line has difference of 180o in fore bearing & back bearing,

provided that there should be no instrumental error.

(i) Sexagesimal system

1 circumference = 360o degree

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 Seconds

(ii) Centesimal system

1 circumference = 400 grades

1 grade = 100 centigrade

1 centigrade = 100 centi-centigrade

(iii) Hour system

1 circumference = 24 hour

1 hour = 60 minute

1 minute = 60 seconds

IMPORTANT TERMS

(i) Bearing : Direction of a line w.r.t a fixed meridian is called bearing.

(ii) True meridian and true bearing : True meridian is a line joining true north pole, true

south pole and point of reference.

Angle measured for any line w.r.t true meridian is called true bearing.

(iii) Magnetic meridian and magnetic bearing :0 Line joining magnetic north pole,

magnetic south pole and point of reference is called magnetic meridian. Bearing taken

w.r.t magnetic meridian is called magnetic bearing.

(iv) Magnetic declination : At any place horizontal angle between true meridian and

magnetic meridian is called magnetic declination

For Eastern Declination

α = β + ϴE or T.B = M.B + ϴE

Here, α = true bearing or T.B

B = Magnetic bearing or M.B

ϴE = eastern declination

for western declination

α = β - ϴw or T.B = M.B - ϴw

Here, ϴw1 = Western declination.

Designation of bearing

(i). WCB (Whole Circle Bearing System) :

All Bearings Are taken writ north direction, going in clockwise.

Bearing of line OA = ϴA

Bearing of line OB = ϴB

Bearing of line OC = ϴc

Bearing of line OD = ϴD

• These bearing are observed by prismatic compass.

• In this system, the bearing of a line is measured eastward of westward from

north or south pole whichever is nearer.

• these bearings are observed by surveyor compass.

• it is also called reduced bearing system.

Baring of line ‘OA’ is NϴAE

Baring of line ‘OB’ is SϴBE

Baring of line ‘OC’ is SϴcW

Baring of line ‘OD’ is NϴDW

B.B = F.B ±180o

Where,

B.B = Back bearing

FB = Fore bearing

ϴ = F.B. Of line AB

∅ = F.B of line BA or B.B of line AB

+ve sign is used when F.B < 180o

-ve sigh is used when F.B. > 180o

• Local attraction

Direction of magnetic needle can be diverted due to presence of some magnetic

objects near the instrument set of a station, this will cause local attraction due

to which same error will be there in all measurements taken from that station

If the difference between fore bearing and back bearing is 180o1 then the

adjoining stations are free from local attraction.

Direct Measurement:

1). Pacing

Pace is a natural step which is 75 cm to 80cm long.

Total Distance = Total no. of pace

2). By Passometer

It is an instrument shape like a watch which records no of paces.

Total Distance = No of Paces x Average length of 1 pace.

3). By odometer

In this, if a wheel is fitted with gauge meter, rolled along a line.

Distance = No of revolution x circumference of wheel

4). By chaining

➔ it is a process of linear measurement in which distance is to be measured with the

help of chain.

Chaining the total distance.

Chain

Chain is made of galvanized mild steel. It consists of various no of links, each link is

connected with circular ring. the standard length of link is 20cm. the end link includes

the handle.

the distance b/w two consecutive circular ring is called as length of a link

The distance from outer end of one handle to the outer end of another handle

is called length of chain.

Brass Talley is used to read the fractional part of a chain.

In 5m & 10m chain, brass Talley are attached on each meter length.

In 20 & 30m chain, brass Talley are attached at every 5m lengthand a small

brass ring is attached on each meter length of 20m & 30m chain.

Note:-Surveying chain does not gives more accurate results so, a steet Band or Band

having 20m or 30m long is more preferred over it.

Types of chains

It is 33 ft. long & consist of 16 links

1 link = 2 feet.

1

16

Revenue chain is used in cadastral survey

➢ it is 66 feet long & consist of 100 links

1 link = 0.66 feet

➢ This chain is used when distances are measured in miles, furlong and area in

acre.

➢ 1 furlong = 10 Gunter’s Chain

➢ 1 mile = 80 Gunter’s chain

➢ 1 acre = 10x (Gunter’s chain)2

It is too fast

➢ it is 100 feet long & consists of 100 links

➢ 1 link – 1 feet

➢ this chain is used for all chaining work.

Metric chain

1m = 100cm

1 link = 20cm

1m = 5links

5m chain = 25 links

10m chain = 50 links

20m chain = 100 links

30m chain = 150 links

metric chains are used only for rough work.

Note:

1. A/c to Indian standard, every meter length of a chain should be current with

in a limit of +2mm, with a standard pull of 80N.

2. the tolerance limit for 20m chain is ±5mm & for 30m chain is ±8mm.

1). Peg

It is used to locate definite points on the ground. it is fixed into the ground by using

mallet.

2). Arrow

It is used to locate intermediate points along a chain line. it is also known as marking

Pin.

3). Ranging Rod

➢ It is made of galvanized iron pipes having length of 2m or 3m&dia of

25-30mm. it is pointed in alternative color of bands black& white or red

in succession. The length of each band strip is 20 cm.

➢ Ranging Rod is used to reach out some intermediate points along

chain line.

➢ It is suitable for small distances.

It is similar as Ranging Rod but used to locate the points at perpendicular distances

from a chain length. No flag at top

❖ Ranging pole is used to range out the points at greater distances (more than

200m)

Angle Setting devices

1). Cross staff

i). Metal open cross staff BY Nikhil sir 9560969640

It is used to set perpendicular from a chain line. it consists of 4 metallic heads.

It is used to set 45o, 90o& 135o from a chain line. it consistsof 8 metallic meads.

Tellurometer – distance measuring microwave instrument

Ghats traces – Gradient Finding Instrument

2). Clinometer

It measures Ground slope

3). Optical Square

➢ 2 Reflections

➢ Angle = 45O

• It is used to set perpendicularfrom a chain line.

• In this the angel b/w two mirrors is 45o.

• in this, double reflection takes place.

• In this, incident ray is to the reflected way.

• Prism square can set any angle from a chain line.

Methods of Ranging

1). Direct Ranging

When both the end points are clearlyintervisible then direct singing is to be done.

When both the end points are not clearly intervisible then indirect ranging is done.

Note:-

1). In case of dense forest, ranging is done by random line

Method in which pints are located on a random line by taking perpendicular from

tress.

2). A line ranger can also be used to range out some points along a chain line.

3). Stepping methodis used to measure distances along a sloping around. it may be

stepping down or stepping up but stepping down method is to be more preferred.

Ch = L(secϴ-1)

CH-4-Levelling

Levelling is an operation of determining relative position of points w.r.t a Reference

surface. leveling deals in a vertical Plane

Principle of leveling

The Principle of is to make a horizontal line site from which vertical distances of

points above or below of this line can be measured.

Teams in leveling

This is a curve surface which is parallel to the mean spherical surface of earth. the

line which lie on a level surface, known as level lineA line normal to the plumb line

at all points.

Note: The surface of still water is known as level surface

The surface, which is tangential on level surface at a point, known as horizontal

surface and the line which lie on horizontal surface in known as horizontal line.

3). Datum

this is any assume level surface w.r.t which vertical distances of the points above or

below, can be measured.

❖ Mean sea level is taken as standard datum

This is the average height of sea taken for all the stages of tide, for a long period of

time (19 years)

❖ in India, Mumbai sea port is taken as mean sea level

5). Elevation

It is the vertical distance of a point selective to a datum above or below.

❖ Elevation can also be represented as reduced level (R.L)

6). Altitude

It is the vertical distance of a point, measured above mean a level.

Note: -

1. Above mean sea level, elevation & attitude will be same.

2. vertical distances are always measured along the line of gravity.

This is a fixed point of know elevation, leveling work is always started from

Benchmark. It has following type

It is great trigonometrically survey benchmark established of survey of India from

Mumbai sea level, throughout the country.

This is a fixed point b/w 2 GTS Benchmark, established by PWD or Irrigation

Department or SOI (survey of India).

This is a fixed Point at which a day’s work is closed & from which next day’s work is

started.

This is a point of assumed elevation, used for small area.

8). station

This is a point at which staff is placed. this point may be having a known elevation is

to be established.

This is an imaginary line joining optical center of eye- piece to the optical center of

object glass.

This is an imaginary line which is tangential on longitudinal curve of bubble tube at its

mid point

When line of sight becomes horizontal then it is called as line of collimation.

• This is the first Staff reading taken at a point of known elevation as on

Benchmark.

• There will be only 1 back sight in each setup of instrument.

• This is the last staff reading, taken at a point of unknown elevation

• There will be only one foresight in each setup of instrument

• Fore sight indicates shifting of instrument or end of work

• This is any other reading b/w back sight & fore sight, taken at a point of

unknown elevation.

• There will be no no. or any no. of IS.

Methods of Leveling

1). Direct Levelling

In this difference of level b/w 2 Point can be determined directly from the instrument it

is also known as spirit leveling.

i). Trigonometrical leveling

In this, difference of level (h) can be determined indirectly from trigonometrical relation.

In this difference of level can be determined indirectly from difference of atmospheric

pressure. as elevation increase pressure decreases.

Note: - An altimeter is a type of barometer which is used to find out altitude of an

aeroplane.

IN THIS, difference of level can be determined indirectly from doff in temp. As

elevation increases, temp decreases

1). Simple leveling

in this, the instrument has only 1 setting & used where all the point isclearly

intervisible.

in this the instrument has more than 1 setting & used where all the points are not

clearly intervisible.

This is a type of compound leveling (differential leveling)&used to check the accuracy

of survey work.

This leveling gives an approximate elevation & used whererapidity& low accuracy is

required. Fly leveling is used on fully area & for reconnaissance.

This leveling is used where high degree of accuracy is required.

This leveling is done along a fix line of reference. it is also known as longitudinal

leveling

This leveling is done at a perpendicularDistance from a fixed line 7 from center of

road, railway etc.

This leveling is used to determine the correct difference in elevation b/w 2 points

where the instrument cannot be placed in b/w them.

e.g. river, valley

Defects of a lens

1). it occurs due to dispersion of light in which white light may split into its compound

color’s& form a rainbow by which focusing become difficult.

ii). To remove this defect, use combination of lenses as 1 convex lens of crown glass

&1 concave lens of flint these two lenses are combined with a cementing material,

known as Canada balsam. the convex lens should be kept near the objective.

❖ this defect, the combination of lenses is known as achromatic& this process is

known as Achromation.

It occurs due to spherical surface of length in which ray of light incident on edge of

the lens are refracted more than ray incident on center of the lens to remove this

defect, use combination of lenses.

note: -

1. In leveling instrument, spirit or purified synthetic alcohol is used as a liquid in

bubble tube.

2. in leveling instrument, Kepler type of telescope & Ramsden Eyepiece are used

3). the least count of leveling staff is 5mm.

1). height of instrument (H.I) or collimation method

HI = B.S + R.L of BM

BS – FS = (+) rise or (-) Fall

B.S – IS = (+) rise or (-) Fall

IS – FS = (+) rise or (-) Fall

IS1 – FS2 = (+) rise or (-) Fall

check➔ ∑BS - ∑FS = ∑Rise – ∑fall = last R.L – 1st RL.

Note:- When staff reading increases, then-there is a fall & when staff reading

decreases, there is a rise.

It is defined as angle subtended by an arc of bubble tube & its center. If bubble

shows large deviation due to small external force acting on it then it would be said as

very sensitive

𝑑

𝑅

∴ϴ = ( )206265 Seconds

𝑑

𝑅

R = Radius of curvature of bubble tube

ϴ= 2 x 10-3

206265

R

ϴ = 412.53

Second

R

𝑛𝑑𝐿

R = s

𝑆

ϴ = d

206265

N dL

s

S

ϴ = Seconds

𝑆

206265

𝐿𝑛

n = No of Division

Note: - if viscosity of bubble is more then, sensitivity will decreases.

2). If dia of tube is large, then sensitivity will be more

3). Sensitivity of bubble will decrease with rise in temp. because liquid will expand &

bubble sensitivity

1). Effect of curvature

= +ve

Correction due to curvature (Cc) = -Ve

h = d2/2R

CC= (d2/2R)

R = Radius of earth (R≈6367 km)

CC = -(d2/2x6367)

CC = 0.0785d2

Where, CC is in meter

d is in km

Effect of curvature occurs when difference b/w level line horizontal line increases as

the distance of staff station increases from an instrument BY NIKHIL SIR 9560969640

Note:- Due to effect of curvature, staff reading increases & the earth surface appears

to be much lower than they really are.

2). Effect of refraction

= -ve

correction due to Refraction (CR) = +Ve

1 𝑑2

h = CR = +1/7 CC

7 2𝑅

CR = +1 d2

7 2R

d = distance b/w instrument & staff station (in Km)

R = Radices of earth (R = 6367 km)

CR = +1 d2

7 2 x 6367

CR = +0.0112d2

Where, CR is in meter

d is in km

The effect of Refraction occurs due to change in air density in which ray of light travel

from low air density to the high air density & become bend & staff reading increases.

Combined correction

C = C C + CR

C = -0.0758d2 + 0.0112d2

c = -0.0673d2➔ LEARN

C =- 6 d2

7 2R

Distance of visible horizon

∵ c = - 0.0673d2

∴ h = 0.0673d2

d = √ℎ/0.067

d = 3.854 √h

Where, d is in km

& h is in meter

Dumpy level

A dumpy level, telescope& spindle are casted as one piece & leveling screw. There

are following point should be considered for permanent adjustment of a dumpy level.

1). axis of bubble tube should be perpendicularto the vertical axis of instrument.

2). axis of telescope should be parallel to the axis of bubble tube.

3). horizontal cross core should be in a plane which is perpendicular to the

vertical axis of the instrument

4). line of sight should be horizontal.

Note: - if the line of sight is not horizontal, then an error may occurwhich is

known s collimation error. it can be removed by two pegtests.

Reciprocal leveling

When the leveling instrument cannot be placed in b/w the 2 points, the

reciprocal leveling is to be done.

eq River, deep valley.

Note:-Reciprocal leveling can eliminate the effect of curvature, refraction &

collimation error but it can’t remove Parallax error.

2

2

where, d = distance b/w instrument & staff station (in km)

when the point goes elevation is to be find out, much above the line of sight

as in case of Projection of building, beam, balcony, linter, arches etc. Then to

find out elevation of that point, the staff is held inverted with its zero-end

touching that point. such readings are inverted with –ve sign in level field book.

CH-8 Tachometry

Tachometry is defined as an optical distance measurementinterest. it is also

knownas telemetry.

A tachometer is a transittheodolite fitted with stadiadiaphragm which consist of

2 stadia hair, 1 above & other below the horizontal cross hair the vertical

distance b/w 2 stadia hair is known as stadia interval (i)

this lens has 2 constants

i). multiplying constant (k=100)

ii). additive constant (c=0) (very up to 45m)

A stadia rod having 5-15m long can be used with a tachometer. This should

be used for long distances (more than loom)

Note the accuracy of tachometer is more on an irregular surface.

Method of tachometry

Stadia method

in this stadia wire are used for taking staff intercept.

it has 2 types.

i). Fixed hair method

in this the stadiainterval (i) is to be fixed but staff interval it is to be varied(s)

ii). marble hair method

in this, the stadia interest (i) is varied but staff intercept is to be fixed(s)

it is also known as vertical base subtense method or subtensetheodolite

method

In this stadia wire are not used. Only cross wires are used this method is

similar as trigonometricalleveling

1). fixed Hari method

Case 1 ➔when surface is horizontal,

ab ➔ stadia interval

AB ➔ staff intercept

C ➔ optical centre of lens

D = (f/i)2 + (f+d)

D = KS + C

k = f/I C = (f+d)

K is known as multiplying constant or stadia interval factor

C is known as Additive constant

K=100& C = O

Case 1) when staff held vertical on a irregular surface

vertical distance (V) = ½ ks sin2ϴ +csinϴ

for angle of elevation RL of staff station = HI +V-h

for angle of depression, RL of staff station = HI –v-h

horizontal distance (D)Horizontal distance (D)

D = (ks +c) cosϴ + H sinϴ

D = (ks + c) cosϴ - h sinϴ

Vertical distance (V) vertical distance (v)

V = (ks+c) sinϴ V= (ks +c) sinϴ

=HI + v- hcosϴ =HI -v- hcosϴ

in this, stadia wire can be related by micrometer screen

case I – when surface is horizontal,

D = ( )s + c

𝑘

𝑚

where,

k =

𝐹

𝑃

P ➔ pitch

m ➔ sun of micrometer reading

V = ½(k/m) ssin2ϴ + csinϴ

V = ((k/m) s + c) sinϴ

tangential method

in this, two big targets are used & two angles can be measured

D = S/tanϴ, tanϴ

V = dtanϴ2

𝑠

D =

tanQ2−tanQ1

V = Dtanϴ2

𝑠

D =

tanQ1 + tanQ2

V = Dtanϴ2

Ch-6 plane table survey

plane table is an instrument used for graphical methods in which

sighting, reading & plotting can be donesimultaneously

there is no office work.

Plane table survey is suitable for topographical area & the finished maps

which are produced known as topographic maps.

The survey in which topographic map is to be produced, known as

cartographic surveying.

Plane table survey is suitable, for small to medium scale mapping.

1:10000 to 1:2,50,000

Note: - Plane table survey does not give more accurate result so, less

preferred.

1)Plane table board.

It is made with well seasoned wood. The upper surface it kept smooth.

Designation Size (mm x mm)

B0 1500 x 1000

B1 1000 x 700

B2 700 x 500

B3 500 x 350

❖ 650 x 750 (in mm)

❖ 750 x 900 (in mm)

Alidade

It is a straight edge ruler having same sighting device. it is used for sighting

the abject & drawing a line.

it has 2 type:

i). Plane Alidade – For horizontal line of sight

ii). Telescopic Alidade – for inclined line of sight.

It is 15 cm long & used to plot magnetic meridian at a place (north, south)

N S

it is a u-Piece of metal frame which carry a plumb bob, it is used for centering

of the plane table board over the station.

In this, sprit is used as a liquid which is used for leveling.

6). tripod

7). drawing sheet - A2 Size.

1). Fixing up the board.

2). centering

3). Levelling

4). Orientation

Orientation – It is a process to direct an alidade towards a point which are to

be plotted. it can be done by.

i). by trough compass

ii). by back sighting

iii). by resection

1). Radiation

➔ in this, the instrument has only, 1 station, this method is used for small

area.

2). Intersection

➔ In this, the instrument has 2 station&used for irregular area or for large

distances.

It is also known as graphical triangulation.

3). Traversing

In this, the instrument has to be set on each of the station as in

succession.

This method can be used for survey of road, railway etc.

4). Resection

It can be defined as the process of locating the instrument station occupied by

the plane station by drawing rays from the station whose positions are

alreadyplotted on the drawing sheet. it can be done in following way:

2-point problem.

i). Itconsists of locating the position of plane table station on the drawing sheet

be observation of two well defined points, where portions have already been

plotted on the plan.

It consists of locating the position of plane table station on the drawing sheet

by observation of three full defined point, whose portions have already been

plotted on the plan.

It can do in following ways.

a). Bessel’s graphical method.

b). tracing paper method

c). Trial & error method or Lehmann’s rule

Lehman’s Rule

A/c to Lehman’srules:

1). If Δ of error lies inside the great Δ, then the instrument station (p) will also

be inside.

2). If Δ of error lies outside the great Δ, then the instrument station (P) will

also be inside.

Note:- Radiation &intersection methods are used for plotting details whereas

traversing&Resection can be used for locating the instrument station.

CH-10 Earthwork Calculation

the major objective of surveying is to find out the such as area & volume. it

can be some by plan measurement or fill measurement.

NIKHIL SIR 9560969640

If shape of figure is defined, then it can be subdivided into some simple

geometrical shape such as triangle, rectangle, sourceetc. and the exact formula

can be used to find but these Quantities.

if shape of figure is undefined, then an approximate formula can be used.

Note -area of an irregular figure can be find out by planimeter.

Trapezoidal rule

3). Simpson’s 1/3 Rule

𝑑

3

A1 = d1

𝑂1 + 𝑂2

2

A2 = d2

𝑂2 + 𝑂3

2

A = A1 + A2 + ……. + An

Note

1). Simpson’s 1/3 rule is more accurate than trapezoidal rule

2). Simpson’s 1/3 rule assumes that short length of boundaries B/W two

adjacent offset will be a parabolic arc.

3). Simpson’s 1/3 Rule is applicable only for add no. of offset or even no of

section

Measurement of volume

1). End area Method or Trapezoidal Rule.

𝐴1 + 𝐴𝑛

2

Volume (V)= (A1 + An)+4(A2 + A4 + A6+…..)+2(A3+ A5 + A7 + …..)

𝑑

3

SURVEYING

Well-conditionedTriangle

1) A Triangle is said to be well conditioned if all the intersections are here & the

intersecting angle lies b/w 300 to 1200.

2) If intersecting angle is less than 300or more than 1200then it will be known as

ill or bad conditioned triangle.

3) An equilateral triangle is more suitable for a well conditioned triangle.

NOTE:-

An isosceles triangle having two base angles as 56014’ can also be takes as well

conditioned triangle.

➔ The station which joins side of triangle is known as main survey station and line

joining 2 mains stn. Is known as main lines. These lines commands boundaries of

surveying area

➔ The station which connect 2 main station known as Tie station and the line joining

2 tie station is known as Tie line

➔ Tie line or subsidiary line is used to locate interior details if a Surveying area.

➔ The longest survey line which may passes from center of the area, can be taken

as Reference, known as Base line.

➔ The line which is used to check the accuracy of survey work, known as check

lines.

➔ The shortest distance of an object from main survey line is known as offset it has

following type: -

1) Perpendicular offset (900)

2) Oblique offset (other than 900)

3) Short offset (l< 15m)

4) Long offset (l > 15m)

Correction + True value – Measured value

Sources of Error

1) Natural

2) Instrumental

3) Personal

Types of Error

1) Mistake

It occurs due to carelessness, sleeping tendency, miscounting etc.

2) Cumulative error

It occurs with same value, some sign in same direction. since it follows a system, so,

it is also known as systematic error.

𝐸 α𝑙

3) Compensating Error

It occurs with same value, same frequency with opposite sign. It neutralizes the effort

of error during measurement.

* If mistake at cumulative error are removed from the permanent then an error still

may occur which is present as accidental error or Random error.

E x √𝑙 l= length of line

Note: cumulative error causes more serious effect on accuracy of survey work.

1. Incorrect length of chain Cumulative + or -

2. Variation in pull or Tension Compensating + or -

3. Variation in temp Cumulative + or -

4. Sagging Cumulative +

5. Displacement of arrows Compensating + or -

6. Bad Ranging Cumulative +

7. Miscounting Mistake

Errors in Chaining

L’ → Incorrect length of chain

l → True length of line

l’ → Measured length of line

then,

True × True = Wrong × Wrong

l × L = L1 ×l1

𝐿′

So, true length of line → l= ( ) l’

𝐿

𝐿,

True area ➔ A = ( )2 A’ → Measured area

𝐿

𝐿′ 3

V = ( ) V’

→ Measured volume

true volume ➔

𝐿

Tapes

1) Cloth Tape

It is made of closely woven liner. This taps is available in length of 10m & 15m.And

width of 15mm. This tape can be easily affected by the moisture, so used for only

Rough measurement.

2) Metallic Tape

When linen is reinforced with brass or copper wire. Then it become metallic tape. This

tape is available in length of 15cm & 20m & 30m. Metallic tape is used for measuring

offset distances.

3) Steel Tape

It is made with strip of steel. This tape is available length of 1 to 50 m & width of 6

to 16mm. A steel tape should not be used in Verification.

4) Invar Tape

It is made with an alloy of steel (64%) & Nickel (36%). This tape is available in length

of 30m, 50mm & 100m. & a width of 6mm. Since, this tape has low value of

coefficient of thermal expansion (x=0.622x10-6/ 0C). So, it does not affect by the effect

of temp. This tape given the most accurate results.

Tip correction

Cl = L1-L l’

L

2) Correction due to Temperature (CT)

CT = ∝ ( TM-T0) l’

T0 = Standard temp.

∝ = coefficient of thermal expiration

T0 > Tm ➔ CT = -ve

CP = P-P0 l’

AE

Where,

P = Pull applied

P0= Standard Pull

A= Cross sectional area of tape

E= Modules of elasticity

if P > P0➔ CP = +ve

P0 > P ➔ CP = -ve

4) Correction due to slope (C0)

C0 = - l’ (1 – cos ∅)

C0 = -( h2 )

2 l’

Where,

h = difference of level b/w end points

L = LENGTH OF SLOPE

CS = - W2 (l’)3

24P2

P = pull applied

Chapter-5 Contouring

• A contour may be defined as an imaginary line joining points of same elevation

on the ground.

• A contour line shows topography of the ground.

• When contours are drawn on the water, then they are known as submarine

contour or Bathymetric curves.

• The horizontal distance b/w 2 consecutive contour is known as Horizontal

Equivalent.

NOTE: Generally contours are not visible on the ground except near the sea shore.

Contour Interval

• The contour interval may be kept constant but it may also very from 1m to

15m.

• small contour interval should more detail in the ground.

• Available contour interval may represent an irregular surface.

1) Seale of Map

1

CI ∝

𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒

2) Nature of Ground

For broken ground → large CI

3) Purpose of survey

For more details → small C.I

for less details → large C.I.

4) Time & Money

1 1

C.I. ∝ & C.I.∝

𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑀𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑦

2) Contour lines doesn’t intersect each other except in case of an overhanging cliff.

Cliff → It is an exposed portion of rock.

3) Equally spaced contour represent a uniform slope.

4) A Contour may form closed curve. They may close either on the map or outside

the map.

5) A set of closed contour with higher figure inside & lower figure outside may indicate

hill.

5) A set of closed contour with lower figure inside & higher figure inside may

indicate a depression

6) the contour lines are normal in case of watersheds and ridge lines

7) The connecting point of higher elevation to the lower elevation is called as

Ridge Line.

9) 2 contour lines having same elevation may not unite & continue as 1 line having

diff. elevation.

10) A single contour cannot put in 2 lines having different elevation.

Methods of Contouring

1) Direct Method

In this, the points which are to be plotted, measured directly. It consists of 2 steps:

(i) Vertical control- To locate the points.

(ii) Horizontal control – Survey of those points.

2) Indirect Method

In this, some guide points are located b/w the main points & these guide points helps

to measure main points &. And these main points can be plotted on the map but the

guide points don not need to be plotted. It can be done:

i. By Square

ii. By Cross Section

iii. By Tachometer

NOTE:

1) Along a gradient, the line joining points of same elevation is known as contour

gradient or grade contour.

2) The method of provide spacing b/w contour lines is known as interpolation of

contour.

Use of Contour

1) To draw a map.

2) To show intervisibility of point

3) To find out area of the ground

4) To define capacity of reservoirs etc.

5) To locate path of flow

Chapter -9 CURVES

graduate change in the direction.

Types of Curves

1) Horizontal curves

This curve is provided when 2 straight line intersect each in a horizontal plane.

NOTE: Horizontal curves are circular in nature.

2) Vertical Curves

This curve is provided when 2 lines at different gradient intersect each other in a

vertical plane.

Simple circular curve

It consists of an arc of a circle. This curve is tangential on 2 straight line of route.

2) Compound Curve

It consist of 2 circular are having diff. radius with their center of curvature on same

side of common tangent

3) Reverse Curve

➔ It consist of 2 circular are having same or diff. radius with their center of

curvature on the opposite side of common tangent.

➔ Reverse curve is provided when 2 straight lines are parallel or angle b/w them

is very small.

NOTE: Compound curve & Reverse Curve are provided for low speed on Highway &

Railway.

Relation b/w Degree (D) and Radius ® Curve

• For 20m long are or 20m chord length.

1146

D =

𝑅

1719

• For 30m long arc or 30m chord length, D =

𝑅

𝜋𝑅𝛿

➔ Length of Curve (l) ➔ 𝑙 =

180

T= R tan( )

𝛿

➔ Tangent length (T) ➔

2

)

𝛿

➔ Length of long chord (L) ➔ L = 2 R sin(

2

𝛿

➔ Mid Ordinate (M) → M= R (1-cos )

2

𝛿

➔ Apex or External Distance (E) → E= R (sec − 1)

2

Chainage of point of curvature + Tangent length (T)

PT = PC + 𝑙

Chainage of point of tangency = chainage of point of curvature + length of

curve

Setting out of a curve is a process of locating the points on the curve by which the

chords can be made by joining these points as it is difficult to measure along an arc.

So, it is done alone a chord. The first chord will be a sub chord all other chords will

be a full chord except the last chord. The last chord may be a sub chord or Full

chord depending on Length of Curve.

Linear Method

In this, a chain or tape is used for linear measurement & It can be done in following

way.

Ox = Oo – X2 2R

ii) Offset from Tangent

Ox = X2 2R

𝛿

O1=O2=O3=O4 = R (1-cos )

2

2) Angular Method

This method is more accurate than linear method. It has 2 type:

i) Rankine’s Methods

In this, a tape is used for linear measurement and a theodolite is used for Angular

measurement. This method is also known as Tangential Angle Method or One

Theodolite method.

In this, 2 theodolites are used for making an angular measurement & linear

measurement is completely eliminated. This method is based on the principle that

angle b/w tangent & sub chord & 10 side of a curve will be same as angle b/w 2

chords on opposite sides.

Transition Curve

1) This is a curve of varying radius, introduced b/w straight line & circular curve.

2) This curve is tangential on both side where it touches the straight line &

circular curve.

3) Its curvature should be zero (R = ∞) at one end when it touch the straight like

& its curvature should be at other end inhere it touches the circular curve.

1

𝑅

4) The rate of increase of curvature along the transitions curve should be equal to

the rate of increase of super elevation.

5) The vertical distance by which outer surface is raised above the inner surface,

called as super elevation.

𝐺𝑉 2

Super elevation (e) ➔ e =

𝑅𝑔

𝑉3

Length of transition curve (L) ➔ L =

∝𝑅

𝐿2

Shift in Transition curve =

24𝑅

1

* ∝< m/Sec2/Sec

3

Where, ∝ = rate of change of radial acceleration.

1) Cubic Spiral or Clothoid

𝑙∗𝑙∗𝑙

Y= L= length of transition curve

6𝑅𝐿

l = radius of curve

vertical Curve

This curve is used to connect 2 gradients in a vertical plane.

these 2 types:

i) Segment curve

Segment or upgrade is followed by a downgrade, and then this curve is formed.

When a downgrade is followed by an upgrade, then this curve is formed.

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

*Length of vertical curve = 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

L =

𝑔2−𝑔1

𝑟

TRAVERSING

bearing of lines can be determine directly from the instrument.

➔ This method is more suitable for open traverse.

In this, magnetic meridian is established only at starting station & magnetic bearing of

line can be find out by the instrument & magnetic bearing of previous line + included

angle. This method is more accurate & suitable for closed Traverse.

Direct Angel

It is an angle measured in clockwise direction.

Deflection Angle

It is an angle b/w prolongation of a line to the next line.

(E) = K√𝑁

N → No. of angle

K → constant defined on the characteristics of instrument

Omitted Measurement

If some of the measurement which was taken in the field, was not taken due to same

reason, then these measurements are known as Omitted measurements.

Latitude.

reference meridian is called as Departure.

Checks in closed Traverse

1) Loop Traverse

∑latitude = 0 Or ∑L = 0

∑ Departure = 0 ∑D = 0

2) Link Traverse

∑L = Ls – L1

∑ departure = departure of last point – departure of 1st point.

∑D = Ds – D1

2 2

Closing error m (e) = √ex + ey

𝑒

tan𝜃 = 𝑥

𝑒𝑦

𝑒𝑥

𝜃 = tan-1 ( )

𝑒𝑦

∑𝐷

or 𝜃 = tan-1

∑𝐿

𝑙𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

or 𝜃 = tan-1

𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

𝑒

Re =

𝑃

Re = 1

𝑃

( )

𝑒

Adjustment of Traverse

If there is an error of closure than it should be adjusted such chat error of closure

becomes zero, there are following methods for adjusting in traverse. NIKHIL GOEL

9560969640

1) Arbitrary Rule

In this, closing error is to be adjusted according to the surveyor, based on field

condition.

2) Bowditch Rule

• It is also called as compass Rule. This rule is used when length & angle are

measured with same accuracy.

• This rule assumes that closing error occurs due to accidental error.

e1∝ √𝑙 1

1

e2∝

√𝑙2

Total correction in Latitude X

𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒

CL = ± CY ( )

𝑙

𝑃

Correction in Departure of line

Total correction in Departure x

𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒

𝑝)

𝑙

CD = ± 𝐶𝑋 ( When error +ve , correction –ve

when error –ve, correction +ve

3) Transit Rule

This rule is used to balance a traverse in which angular measurement are more

accurate than linear measurement.

= Total correction in Latitude x

Arithmetic sum of all latitude

CL = ± CY 𝐿𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝐿1+𝐿

2+𝐿3+⋯

= Total correction in Departure x

Arithmetic sum of all Departure

CD = ± CX 𝐷𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝐷1+𝐷

2+𝐷3+⋯

Note:

1) A/c to Transit Rule, angles are change less & length are change more as

compared to Bowditch Rule.

2) Traverse calculation are done in a tabular form which is known as Gale’s Traverse

Table.

Ch – 7 Theodolite

Theodolite is an instrument which used for measuring horizontal & vertical angles,

prolonging a line, measuring distance indirectly.

Types of theodolite

1). Vernier theodolite – In this, venires are used taking the readings. its least count

in 20’’

2). optical theodolite – It is based on an optical system in which measurement are

used for taking the readings. its least count is 1’’.

Note: 1) the size of theodolite is to be defined by the size of lower graduated circle

which vary from 8cm to 25cm.

2) The lower circle is also known as main scale plate & the upper circle is also

known as Vernier plate

3). The horizontal axis of a theodolite is also known as trunnion axis or transverse

axis and the vertical axis is also known as azimuth axis.

Terms in theodolite

1). Transit – it is an operation of rotating the telescope through 180o about its

horizontal axis in a vertical plane.

transit is also known as plunging or reversing

2). swinging

it is a process of revolving the telescope about its vertical axis.

in a horizontal plane

Right swing – clockwise rotation

left swing – anticlockwise rotation

3) lining in

It is a process of establishing intermediate points with the help of theodolite on a

given straight line whose ends are clearly intervisible.

4). Balancing in

it is a process of establishing intermediate points with the help of theodolite on a

given straight line whose ends are not clearly indivisible

The telescope is set to be normal or direct when its vertical circle is to the left-hand

side of the observer.

❖ This position is also known as face left

The telescope is set to be inverted when its vertical circle is to the right-hand side of

the observer.

❖ this position is also known as face right

Note :- by taking mean of both the face reading, collimation cruor can be eliminated.

Repetition method

In this method, angle can be measured several times & value is added mechanically.

this method is more accurate for measuring a horizontal angle.

Horizontal angle = Accumulated value

No of repetition

Reiteration method

in this, several angles can be measured at one station. all the angles should be

measured form initial station to last station and the horizon is closed as to provide in

check of 360o of all the angles

Vernier scale

1). in 1631, Pierre Vernier invented a scale which is known as Vernier scale.

2). Vernier scale is used to read the fractional part of main scale.

3). the smallest possible value which can be counted on a scale known as least count

Least count = S/n

Where, S = Main scale reading

n = no of division

S = main scale reading

n = No of division

Types of Vernier

1). single venire

in this graduation increases in one direction only

2). Double Vernier

In this graduation increases in both the direction

3). direct Vernier

i). in this Vernier has smaller division than main scale

ii). in this Vernier moves in same direction as of main scale

nV = (n-1)S

1). in this Vernier has larger division than main scale

2). in this Vernier moves in opposite direction of main scale.

When division of main scale are very close as it’s become difficult to determine the

exact graduation where coincidence occur than

extended Vernier is used

Nv = (2n –1)S