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Thomas page 6 – commercials

catchy jingles in the advertisement increase demand

packet of washing powder stimulate the industry

watchdog - one who serves as a guardian or protector against waste, loss, or illegal practices.
blatant - unpleasantly loud and noisy
ubiquitous – omnipresent

Rudzka – varied issues

permissive age/society
formative period of childhood
possessive parents

to urge to rig a plea

to gag a drama to halt
to reshuffle to woo to back

be foiled - to prevent from being successful; thwart (e.g. the scam was foiled)
to bid - to issue a command to; direct.
to oust - to eject from a position or place; force out (e.g. the old civil servants were ousted by
president Kaczyński)
a haul - everything collected or acquired by a single effort (used in illegal context e.g. a gem haul)
to swoop a haul - to seize or snatch it (e.g. the police swooped the gem haul)

as easy as falling off a log in one’s mind’s eye

to give vent to to hang on sb. every word
a hearty laugh of disbelief to laugh uproariously
an emphatic refusal to give a standing ovation
to browse to rehearse laboriously
glassy-eyed to look pointedly at
meat cube a sea of hostile faces
to be dry mouthed to sue for slander
to ramble on

to bowl over - To make a powerful impression on; overwhelm/ to take by surprise

labels and descriptions committed to sth

to imply unequal status to take steps
to have a position entailing sth. a model to be aimed at
the value put on sth. a symbol of identity and group membership
a cutie to imply alienation
to blush communication advantages
double standards peer group solidarity
wrinkles – crevices distinct entities
insistent – pushy
valid to foster [emotion]

to entail – to have, impose, or require as a necessary accompaniment or consequence

to dichotomize - to separate into two parts or classifications.(e.g. dichotomizing language)

to line sth. up to stake out territory

tableware a breach of taste
threaten zones of territory
challenge tangible meaning
assert oneself a cluster/ to cluster
to put sb. in a position to cling

partitions between rooms rigid boundaries
to huddle together

aloofness - distant physically or emotionally; reserved and remote

appalling twitch
misjudgment sly
posture conceited
expression call sign

luscious - having strong sensual or sexual appeal; seductive.

to trade on - to put to calculated and often unscrupulous advantage; exploit
to flaunt - to exhibit ostentatiously or shamelessly

contrasted vocabulary [sounds&speech]

shriek wail moan sigh

whine groan sob gasp

chatter babble gossip

prattle blab

contrasted vocabulary [underlying meaning]

imply hint intimate insinuate

contrasted vocabulary [physical proximity]

huddle nestle snuggle cuddle

contrasted vocabulary [invasion]

encroach trespass invade intrude

contrasted vocabulary [movement]

stagger reel tatter stumble

slide glide slip

push shove thrust heave

mix merge amalgamate

blend mingle

Rudzka – Unit 6


shapeliness let alone sth.

agonizing decent food
psychologically destructive depressive, lethargic
slim flabby, clumsy
a brisk walk firm & graceful
to exert oneself antidote to stress

sedentary life - characterized by or requiring much sitting

morbid society

hospital ward to intervene with antibiotics

prenatal probes counterproductive expansion
postmortem examination multi-dollar industry
malpractice drug dependence
environment factors unnecessary surgery
institutionalized medicine

presumed sick until proven healthy

pervasive medicalistion of life
dubious and expensive system of medical care
generating painful new needs
pain and discomfort tolerance levels
abolish the right to self-care
to retain fruitful methods of sth.
limited reliance on experts

pervasive - spreading throughout

tuberculosis - gruźlica
inoculation - act or an instance of vaccinating

Art Yarrington

dashing young fighter pilot to call on sb.

a raggedy handshake to cock one’s head
a cap worn at a roughish angle flying status
perpetual half-smile permanent grounding
as fate had it to be put out on the sidewalk
to be due for sth. a firm handshake
cardiogram to climb into a cockpit
coronary insufficiency hands clasped
all chest and elbows eyes staring
newspaper coverage to run tests on sth.
be back in shape a treadmill

raggedy - tattered or worn-out

cardiac - relating to the heart
waiver - intentional relinquishment of a right, claim, or privilege (e.g. flying wavier)
perfunctory - done routinely and with little interest or care
adamant - impervious to pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding
climax - The point of greatest intensity, a culmination


sedatives a panel of experts

tension relievers ingredients of patent medicines

stress provides the survival mechanism


hair twiddling wriggle

finger cracking scratch
foot tapping twist

doodle squirm
twiddle jerk
teeth grinder to ward off
clench fists to discharge energy
pencil sucker

chorea - any of various disorders of the nervous system marked by involuntary, jerky movements

delivering a baby

harsh experience psychomotor functions

to yank sth out toiled training
slap at the rear end ambidextrous
umbilical cord psychosomatic symptoms
a big-bang approach colic
delivery room paroxysmal crying
motor skills

to throb (e.g. the umbilical cord is cut when no longer throbbing)

to take violence out of childbirth

drug hoarding

spring-cleaning of medicine cabinets

a clean-out of family cupboards

flush down the lavatory acids

thalidomide tablets strychnine

a skinfull of mud

mud bath sht. roots down to…

health spa down the plug hole
to open pores

peaty mud – torf

contrasted vocabulary [healing]

to cure to remedy to heal

a cure a remedy a medicine

contrasted vocabulary [endurance]

bear tolerate stand sth.

endure put up with suffer

contrasted vocabulary [agility]

brisk spry sprightly

agile nimble

contrasted vocabulary [sickness]

ill diseased morbid

sick sickly unwholesome

contrasted vocabulary [madness]

insane deranged mad crazy

nuts potty draft bonkers
nutty touched crackers

Rudzka Unit 4


a rising tide a needless oddly enough corrupt

to crub interference to display deprave
irreparable damage frustration of talent the market is bear-baiting
dirty word to put it bluntly awash with… cock fighting
persuasive to flood the market printed filth criminal offense
argument literary market public flocks to buy to trace
well meaning suppressed it to prohibit
a campaigner masterpieces disquiet to regulate
to prevail to ease hangover to repress

articulate [campaigner] - expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language

media violence

witnessed violence disrespect for tormentor inclination

to heighten parental authority to subside to inflict injury
chances urban vernacular persistent
to act aggressively preliminary attack aggression
to lower restraints heightened to reinforce
an enhancing effect tendency pained reaction
subversive books prize fight gratifying chance

subversive - in opposition to a civil authority or government

to assail - to attack with violent blows; assault/ or verbally, as with ridicule or censure
to instigate - to urge on; goad/to stir up; foment

criminal acts & social indecency

to wreck to derail trains crude explicitness materially

to hack a metal bar the outcome cushioned
a hooligan a petrol bomb foul-mouthed spiritually deprived
a bomb hoax the reticent age perverted ideas to make plain
to be obsessed whisper about sth. indictable before a to draw the line
to demand with hypocritical judge an eminent judge
menace unmentionable effective censor
to extort a century hence

reticent – restrained or reserved in style.

Contrasted vocabulary [banning]

forbid ban crub inhibit

prohibit restrain check

contrasted vocabulary [propaganda]

incite arouse spread disseminate

rouse ferment diffuse propagate

contrasted vocabulary [perversion]

debase corrupt pervert

deprave debauch

contrasted vocabulary [crowd-v]

crowd flog throng

contrasted vocabulary [fame]

famous celebrated eminent

renowned distinguished

OTTO – health issues


symptoms manifest maintenance staff

to succumb to… put at risk
to contract a disease rod-shaped
a stray puppy to be struck down
a killer disease bathroom fittings
to develop symptoms a bug
to be admitted to hospital stagnant water
a serum a virulent string
to claim a victim to eradicate
cases are investigated a lethal illness
an outbreak of disease a droplet of water
exposure to be on the loose
rapid progress drug resistance
respond well to antibiotics to declare responsible for
be impervious to antibiotics to produce symptoms
favorable outlook for recovery chills and aches
make a correct diagnosis noxious bacilli

merciful release after several days of painful agony

optimal breeding temperature
to flare into a full blown epidemic

pneumonia - zapalenie płuc

bacilli - Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus


mild symptoms order hastily

mutations of a virus undergo minor variations
to cause fatalities according to findings
to be susceptible to weaken resistance
close medical supervision

food poisoning

a takeaway bar the provisions of a document

pre packed salads at intervals
unsuitable for consumption storage and display
to make sth. an offence to take precautions
to render… to withdraw
to be injurious to… poultry

food stuffs [fodder] carry out medical checks
issue a warning undergo medical treatment
put life at risk to cause miscarriages

a deli – delicatessen
pate - a small pastry filled with meat or fish.


suspicion of malignancy follow-up treatment

mammography importance of early detection
biopsy chances of survival
mastectomy a relation between…
incidence of to follow recommendations
convert to stress the role
inhibit to single out
proliferate particularly valuable
the intake of consume in excess
cured foods run a greater risk of
to undergo surgery

benign - of no danger to health; not recurrent or progressive; not malignant

comestibles - fit to be eaten; edible


allegedly to account for..

silicone implants far from conclusive
augmentation to cause a stir
coated with undergo an ordeal
invariably come into widespread use
breakthrough enjoy enormous popularity
cosmetic breast surgery to set fears at rest
to pose a health hazard

pliable - easily bent or shaped


lotion immunity to infectious diseases

moisture to cause cancer
contributing to… regard as a component
skimpy consider attractive
pigmentation element of common sense
sunburn avoid deliberate tanning
be aware of danger eliminate entirely
excessive exposure to sun’s rays

fast food

widely known to be… public awareness

nutritious be increasingly concerned
convenience foods grab a quick snack
an outlet spell the end of sth
preservation of a product meet demand
keeping it stable boost sales
artificial additives gain more followers
to be hooked on…

alongside of engage in…
binge and purge destructive effect
laxatives recognize symptoms
excessive consumption cautiously guarded secret
cardiac arrest primary sign of…
appalling damage set up a special diet

binge - a period of unrestrained, immoderate self-indulgence.

to disgorge – vomit

a fine to claim lives
to outlaw to kick a habit
to discard to abstain form
to patch a chain smoker
to replace withdrawnment symptoms
to crave for stomach discomfort
to pres for legislation to overcome dependence
to argue one’s right a preventable effect
alleviate pain to step up a campaign
excruciating pain loose a leg to cancer
a tumor fail to deal with adequately
gnawing pain reluctance to prescribe
provide relief a fundamental argument
to be oblivious pose a threat
to apprehend endure in a humane way
a pang

analgesic effect - a medication that reduces or eliminates pain

alternative medicine

to inhale forms of treatment

an insomnia healing properties of nature
to revive spirits fight a disease
holistic medicine sound scientific principles
to suppress come in for strong criticism
panacea disbelief of modern medicine
seek alternatives

osteopathy – a theory that disturbances in the musculoskeletal system affect other bodily parts

OTTO – Crime


unauthorized possession a shootout

an undercover operation impunity
to be sparked off by… to thrive
payroll to be plagued by
a spate of violence a racket
a mobster racketeering
law enforcement intimidation
to testify extortion
gambling to expose
crack down on… run an underworld syndicate
organized crime carry out a killing

refuse to give evidence make a fortune overnight
to bring huge profits

drug traffic

to eradicate attribute death to

a drug trafficker to overdose
to eradicate launch an operation
a cartel detention without charge
an assassin satisfy oneself with…
a small fry promise an easy profit
to lure focus the campaign on
legitimate spell out the danger
a burst to step up efforts
amphetamines take up a habit
cannabis to become mortality statistics
a shipment to slip the net
hashish joint to reach the market
to be under surveillance mind-bending drugs
to seize/ a seizure buy in bundles
a street-corner pusher to rank second
an acid party to feed the habit
a chunk compulsive use
aphrodisiac properties to cause concern
paranoid delusions to hit the streets
arrest on charge of

a dragnet - A system of coordinated procedures for apprehending criminal suspects or other wanted
drug–peddling - unlicensed dealing in illegal drugs
an upsurge - a rapid or abrupt rise
a ring - an exclusive group of people acting privately or illegally to advance their own interests (e.g. a
drug ring)

drunk driving

reckless driving a hit and run motorist

to knock down remand in custody
to chase to be over the line
an inquest set up a zone
a penalty put down a pint
to devoice a license disqualify for life
habitual drinking keep off the road
to pled guilty mend one’s ways


a pedestrian to walk a dog

to pursue to escape injury
to skid to appear in court
to “hot-wire” to be charged with
manslaughter to take steps
menace to give a chase
to vow
to stop for a road check speed through a red light
jump traffic lights sue for damage


to infiltrate classified information

to tamper vulnerable

to snoop block unauthorized access
perpetrators wreak havoc
malicious have a field day
sensitive material demand money for revealing
foreign intelligence to crack a system
to take effect be concerned with security

impregnable - impossible to capture or enter by force

consumer terrorism

blackmail restore consumer confidence

deception speed up payment
sales slump carry out a threat
intricate to go public
to recall products from stores to give publicity
copycat hoax prevent interference
tamper-proof issue a statement
loss in profits without parallel

to countermine - to frustrate or defeat by secret and opposite measures


incendiary forensic specialist

asphyxiate warrant
noxious according to witnesses
to discard release from a mental hospital
to engulf in a matter of seconds
ferocity of a fire burned beyond recognition
to gut a building to breach safety regulations
to deteriorate cause extensive damage
unruly with intent to endanger life
cause grievous bodily harm

Burglaries & Robberies

a history of convictions a teller

make off with sth. a vault
a rucksack offer a reward
to outpace a series of break-ins
a siege to blow a safe open
smash & grab to renew coverage
a parole to disable an alarm system
to hold up to hold hostage
at point-blank range be caught in a crossfire

to tip off - supply with secret or private information; also, warn or alert


vicious defend oneself against

a mock execution put up a fight
to snatch to take a stroll
a thug to keep to busy streets
to leap out to issue a leaflet
to stab to be on hand
to screech for fear of…
carry out an execution consider uninhabitable
hit on the head


to hunt go cold
to trail rule out a possibility
to question reach one’s doorstep
to vanish unaccountable for…
credentials take a keen interest in
anxious examine in connection with
bogus confirm fears
to gag small denomination notes
without a trace speed up payment


unanimous verdict ghastly

trademark mentally scarred
flogging take a short cut
breath a sigh of relief to run late
read out the verdict end up as a victim
service x years for rape commit rape
subject to good behaviour at all costs
secluded place loose a case
rip off clothes beat sb. senseless
be subject to be extra cautious
involuntary sex to go through an experience
degradation dock
wicked to discharge
after-effect mandatory
detention renew demands
eligible for release threat of long term imprisonment
law loophole to prevent identification
plea bargaining accept an invitation
a bedsit pass the sentence
defendant in a provocative manner
assume consent play “hard to get”
resistance fight one’s case
an uproar be on trial
to expose present evidence
be sentenced to probation get away with
be entitled to encourage violence
complain loudly

corroborative - To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain

searching for criminals

confirm photo fit picture

decomposed body to go missing
strangle use dental records
blunt object batter to death
toupee search inch by inch
to dye hair question in connection with
to retrace lead the hunt
to jog sb. memory launch a hunt
a prowler come forward
thinning hair


to seal off an area to saw through bars

psychopath to scale a wall

knotted sheets notice disappearance
negligence trigger a row over…
circulate photographs order an investigation
harelip live off the land
to evade set up road blocks
to comb abduct at knife point
tracker-dogs request police protection
fugitive give up without a fight
a criminal on the run take extra precautions


settlement of paternity corpse

settlement of inheritance establishing sb. identity
strand of hair recognized by a court
smear of blood evidence of guilt
semen preserve samples
saliva lead to conviction
distinctive pattern eliminate from investigation
crowning evidence clear one’s name
trials & verdicts

barrister cross-examine
to re-offend apply for bail
to acquit diminished responsibility
complicity in crime interfere with witnesses
circumstantial evidence recant sworn statements
orchestrated evidence maintain innocence

capital punishment

appeal for clemency sentence on the testimony of…

to reinstate death penalty gallows
self confessed crime death row
to ditch sth. posthumously
juvenile crime to steadfastly maintain
to shout obscenities case pending
to stay an execution miscarriage of justice
to put to death

to reprieve a punishment - to postpone or cancel the punishment

to commute a sentence - to substitute; exchange.

clemency appeal

to plant exercise a prerogative

prerogative of mercy call on the authorities to
treason reveal military secrets
to defer overrun a verdict
heinous break into cheers
sentence to death grant a reprieve
reject an appeal an application for retrial

civil lawsuit

the court ruled… tarnish sb. reputation

admit liability to counsel
a medical blunder to award damages
unfair dismissal to file a lawsuit
defamatory remark contest civl court action

reach a settlement

litigation [resort to] – to contest in legal proceedings

financial crimes

a lavish payoff embezzlement

in the wake of… catch red-handed
to kick back accept a bribe
to cover up trigger a wave of…
a swindle use as a front
unsubstantiated allegations convert into other currencies
tax evasion set up a fund
to siphon money arouse outrage
to divert money

a tender - an offer of money or service in payment of an obligation

proceeds - the amount of money derived from a commercial or fundraising venture; the yield
to indict - to accuse of wrongdoing; charge:

OTTO – Violence

Terrorist attacks

to wound put on alert

to blame for an explosion hunt down
to cause maximum casualties call for…
a roar push for…
debris issue an appeal
a fuse a finger-tip examination
to speak roundly claim responsibility
vigilance set on fire
to notify inflict damage
a booby trap to down a plane
forensic experts pass security check
premises launch a suicide attack
go off escape unhurt
suffer injury


to confine to be deprived of washing facilities

an abductee in broad daylight
to engineer a release send a ransom demand
to urge undergo medical checks
a blindfold insurance cover
to mutilate be under a death sentence
to alter comply with demands
to be held captive express gratitude


to subdue face-to-face negotiations

to make concessions in somebody’s full view
bloodshed suffer losses
to divert be in need of medical attention
immunity meet with a refusal
seize control of signs of progress
in return for satisfy oneself with promise of..
launch a raid escape detection
to bustle in combative

phony to escape scrutiny
circulate sth. set on fire
handle a matter to develop sophisticated methods


to stamp out in response to

to preset a bomb to within a second use of violence for political ends
to plant a bomb to share knowledge
to mould timing devices
to be pliable well in advance
an altimeter reach an altitude
vapor sniffing sacrifice one’s life for a cause

coup d’etat

to topple strip of power

a junta to stage a rebellion
to disband a party outburst of gunfire
a decree for the time being
exile achieve progress
dissolution of parliament debt-ridden economy
a pledge strategic points
thwart break put of the capital
paratroop restore to power
overturn a government foil a coup

to depose - to remove from office or power


a rally according to witnesses

to stumble draw a gun
to drag away restore order
havoc pronounce someone dead
berserk confess to a conspiracy to kill
slay unrestricted access
coincide put onto an emergency footing
successor impose a curfew
to target declare a day of mourning
a tribute be in attendance

ethnic unrest

nationwide curfew curfew violator

enrage intimidate
to disrupt a country a purge
hostile spiritual leader
atrocity ethnic minority
to prowl the streets beat severely
douse with petrol blood-thirsty mob
in reprisal for stone to death
crackdown appeal for calm
defy a ban make claims for autonomy

a bout – a period of time spent in a particular way; a spell


astute measures Molotov cocktail

to ransack Truncheon

Retaliate tear-gas grenades
According to unofficial reports water cannons
crub inflation issue an order
take to the streets act accordingly
set offices ablaze appeals went unheeded
mayhem dusk-to-dawn curfew
allegations carry out searches
pillage to put on alert
war zone get out of stagnation
to forestall trouble

prison riots

fury of destruction non-custodial sentences

to batter down parole system
inmate probation
warden confine
upheaval convict
standards of decency petty thief
carry out acts of violence put forward a list of demands
take to the roofs cut opportunities for work
hurl masonry keep under strict supervision
keep at bay electric tagging
hold at knifepoint behind bars
gain access

random violence
lay siege to go berserk
a stag night extensive damage
publican disrupt train services
to induce public order
notorious guarantee safety of
thug prevent looting
taunt take possession of

affray - a noisy quarrel or brawl

pelt - the skin of an animal with the fur or hair still on it
jeer - to speak or shout derisively; mock.
the common – błonia

shooting rampages

slump to the ground attribute to

indiscriminately at point-blank range
slaughter pool of blood
marksman be enraged by a refusal
acute depression charge with murder
killing spree have a criminal record
distraught a gun barrel
enormity of the carnage pile into
counsel intoxicated
run for cover

domestic violence

punch detain
pinch grievous
jury stepson
bruise remorse
persecution to vent sth.

hit with a broom history of alcohol abuse
marks of violence cause bodily harm
cause suffering regret bitterly
loose one’s temper visible injuries
diminished responsibility drop charges
at long last to hush up
treat in an appalling way behind locked doors
humiliation disclose helplessness
to stand in for press charges
abuse for fear of
make aware require hospitalization
batter dispel a myth
awkward questions exercise a position of authority
plight turn to an institution
molestation walkout on a partner
to testify break the vicious circle
to spare life of fear and shame
attract due attention

hemorrhage - excessive discharge of blood from the blood vessels; profuse bleeding

Heineman – Health

in prefect health to be taken ill

as fit as a fiddle in a coma
nothing wrong with sb. fighting for one’s life
a bit off color critically ill
under the weather be in a critical position
to feel funny no change
to sicken seriously ill
to feel feverish to respond to treatment
lie death warmed up be off the danger list
signs of coming round a speedy recovery
making progress get over sth.
satisfactory condition the worst is over
come out of a coma almost completely recovered
comfortable to convalescent
to turn the corner be on ones feet
to be on the mend be out and about
to have a relapse to slip away
be no better to fade fast
deteriorating condition life hanging by a thread
just a matter of time a bout of…
could go any second a chronic case
make a miraculous recovery be down with a disease
be as good as new epidemic proportions
as right as rain scare
highly contagious a touch of
suffer from a mild attack of isolated cases
to give a disease a sudden fit of
serious outbreak a complaint of
infectious terminal disease
recuperation respiratory system


epilepsy a heart attack

poor circulation cardiac arrest
high pressure heart failure
a stroke jaundice – żółtaczka

appendicitis – zapalenie wyrostka asthma
robaczkowego angina
polio tonsillitis – zapalenie migdałków
hernia – przepuklina laryngitis – zapalenie gardła/krtani
constipation – zaparcie cholera
measles – odra bronchitis
chickenpox – ospa wietrzna cirrhosis – marskość wątroby
German measles – różyczka hepatitis – zapalenie wątroby/zółtaczka
smallpox – odra anaemia
pleurisy – zapalenie opłucnej leukemia - białaczka
glandular fever – mononukleoza blood clot – zakrzep
scarlet fever – szkarlatyna typhoid – tyfus/dur brzuszny
whooping cough dysentery - czerwonka
influenza diarrhea
leprosy salmonella
malaria mumps - świnka
diphtheria – dyfteryt rheumatism
catarrh arthritis – artretyzm
sinusitis – zapalenie zatok migraine
sclerosis athlete’s foot
dull ache shooting pain
muscular dystrophy to sprain sth.
schizophrenia lotion
maniac depression to itch
neurosis powder
a stye – jęczmień cough mixture
conjunctivitis – zapalenie spojówek reduce the swelling
blood transfusion a sling
spasm a course of tablets
fracture a course of antibiotics
chipped bone stretchers
a gland – gruczoł anesthetic
impetigo – liszajec amputation
to set bones a frostbite - odmrożenie
a skin graft – przeszczep skóry hiccups
a burn hangover
a nosebleed to faint

Heineman – crime

mercy killing
to trespass
to forge
solitary confinement
community service
impose a fine
corporal punishment
suspended sentence
to endorse a license
to dismiss a case
to acquit
case not proven
a summons

Thomas – Censorship

a corrupting influence to infringe on freedom

to masquerade as

Newspaper columns

obituary gardening tips parliamentary report

gossip column captions a headline
football report television preview an editorial
auction report travel & holidays


strings a rostrum progressive

percussion classical tap
a baton folk ballroom


oil an abstract palette

canvas collage hue
still-life brush strokes


characterization vivid description

dialogue setting

ballet & theatre

a line
a cue
the prompter
the director high leap
box-office success to be loose limbed
a stunning set prolonged pirouette

to be supple –


a wide lapel an up-turn a lining

a trolley shelf-fillers change in the till

baskets carrier bags

to discharge admissions to do rounds

to pick up a fare to stand in rank

to board cockpit check to taxi

cabin crew headphones a runway

Misztal – crime
criminal law to be caught in possession of
civil law to come into force
felony to place restraints on
misdemeanor penal servitude
forced entry eviction
to scatter sth. legislature
to enquire a juror
to take into custody a ward of court