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Acid Base Experiment

Determination of CaCO3 in Toothpaste

Pawee Nontamongkoltorn (Bank) 11-1
Jatupat Chantavilas (Folk) 11-1
Waraphan Sumetawenunt (Eve) 11-1
Wararat Sumetawenunt (Eye) 11-1

DATE: 27th February 2015

Acids and bases are substances that can be found everywhere in a simple everyday life. One
of an example is the utensils which are usually in a form of a liquid substance. Most of them contain
a concentration of acidic and basic however each kind and benefits of them depends on its concen-
tration anyways.
For instance, the toothpaste. It is acting as a basic substance. Mostly produced from calcium
carbonate, dehydrated silica gels, hydrated alluvium oxides, magnesium carbonate, phosphate salts
and silicates. It’s essential to your daily oral health care. We use toothpaste to brush and clean our
teeth. Since, it is considered as the basic substance, so it has an ability to clean things like most of the
other basic substance did. It helps remove plaque and bacteria. The fluoride contained in toothpaste
also has the capability to prevent tooth decay it strengthening the teeth. In this experiment, we used
toothpaste to test for a base in calcium carbonate.
There are many theories that state about the difference of Acid and base. First is called Lewis
Theory. It defines that acidic substances have an ability to accept electrons whose are given by basic
substances. So, the basic substances are the one who gives off an electron to the acid one. Related to
Arrhenius, an acid is any substance that ionised in an aqueous solution that will produce the hydrogen
ion. On the other hands, a base will produce Hydroxide ion. Another famous theory is called
Bronsted-Lowry theory. This would be different from Lewis one because it focusses on the proton
while Lewis focused on the electron of on a substance. The Bronsted theory states that the proton will
be given off by acids to the proton acceptor whose are the bases.
The molarity of acid can be defined by the method called ‘Titration’. This method is the pro-
cess that determines the number of a substance by reacting substance with a known amount of another
substance. For example, the using the phenolphthalein color indicator. It can define the amount of
Acid and Base by a change in colors of phenolphthalein indicator which tested on a substance. This
indicator allows us to see the change in color, but not the number of pH. In this experiment, we use
the procedure of back titration which we added the excess amount of the standard trident to the ana-
lyse. So, it would be a bit different between this two type of titration.

• To demonstrate the titration technique
• To be able to calculate the molarity by using the result from titration
• To understand and be able to read the titration’s graph properly
• To find the amount of CaCO3 containing in the toothpaste

Our Hypothesis are the color of the toothpaste solution will turn pinkish due to the reaction
of the indicator and of HCl in it. We might see the change in color when its pH reach around 7 to 9.
And also, we should have got the Calcium Carbonate in the toothpaste.

• 3 of 125 mL Erlenmeyer Flasks (Conical Flask)
• 1 spatula
• 1 stand with double burnt holder
• 1 buret
• 1 stir bar
• 1 pH meter
• 1 graduated cylinder
• A heater

1. Zero scale.
2. Put 125mL Erlenmeyer (conical flask) on scale.
3. Weigh around 0.50 gram of toothpaste, using spatula, directly into 125mL Erlenmeyer flask.
4. Record the weighed value.
5. Using a 10mL graduated cylinder, add 10 mL of H20 (distilled water to the toothpaste.
6. Utilise a 10.00 mL volumetric pipette, pipette exactly 10.00 mL of 0.10 M HCL (Hydrochloride
acid) into toothpaste/water solution.
7. Add a stir bar, heat and stir for 5 minutes on hotplate.
8. Remove from heat and let it cool down.
9. Add few drops of Phenolphthalein indicator.
10.Staring adding your titrant (0.10M NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide) in buret) slowly.
11.Check the pH after every 1mL of titrant added.
12.Record both the initial volume and initial pH.
13.When solution starts to turn pink but return to transparent, clear after swirling, add slower (drop-
wise perhaps).After end point has been reached, record the final pH and final volume.
14.Continue adding titrant, an additional 4 mL of titrant.
15.Again checking the pH after every 1 mL has been added.
16.Repeat experiment 2 more times. This will give a total of 3 separate titrations.
17.Dispose of your waster in large beaker provided, do not dispose of down the drain.
18.Leave left over NaOH solution in buret after use.


Sample 1 (20mL HCL) Sample 2 (30mL HCL) Sample (30 mL HCL)

Weight toothpaste (g) 0.48 g 0.43 g 0.47 g

Initial Volume (mL) 32.52 mL 39.50 mL 44.81 mL, 40.18 mL

Initial pH 1.98 2.51 2.46

Final Volume (mL) 39.50 mL 44.81 mL 49.73 mL, 41.49 mL

Final pH (mL) 9.97 8.02 7.94

Total Volume (mL) 6.98 mL 5.31 mL 6.21 mL

Volume HCL reacted 3.02 4.69 5.08

with toothpaste

Moles HCL reacted 3.02 x 10-4 4.69 x 10-4 5.08 x 10-4

Moles CaCO3 1.51 x 10-4 2.35 x 10-4 2.54 x 10-4
Amount CaCO3 (mg) 15.1 23.5 25.4
Amount CaCO3 (mg/g) 31.46 54.65 54.04
Average CaCO3 (mg/g) 46.71

Standard Deviation 13.28

%RSD 28.66
pH and the amount of NaOH

This experiment is about using the Titration method to find out for the CaCO3 containing in
the toothpaste. It is some kind of chemical analysis process so the heating method takes a very im-
portant role in this method. The first step that we did in the beginning of the experiment is we weigh
the toothpaste and then pour the distilled water into it. After that we heated the solution. The purpose,
of heating the solution was to evaporate or to remove the Carbon dioxide out from the solution.
Moreover, the heating process also helps in increasing the rate of reaction within the solution. The
increase in temperature would make the CaCO3 and HCl reacted between each other easier and
quicker. It helps evaporation of CO2 happen quickly because CO2 can make change in the result.

The second step was added to the acid and base to the solution in order to go on the process
of titration. We added an acid solution which is HCl to find the amount of Calcium Carbonate con-
tained in the solution. The method was that we mixed the HCl with the toothpaste, the HCl will react
with the toothpaste, some of them did and some of them did not. Then follow by NaOH, we added
NaOH which is a basic solution to titrate with the remaining HCl within the toothpaste solution, while
each of the acid and basic solution we added into the toothpaste contained the same amount. After
they reacted to each other, we will be able to determine an amount of CaCO3 within the toothpaste
by deducted to the amount of NaOH which we added the equal amount as the HCl.
At the time we putted NaOH into the solution. We can see that the color of it will slightly
change of pinkish color. This is called an end point which is very important part of the Titration
method. It is the point when the color of the solution in a flask turned to some kind of pinkish color
that can be noticed. And as the flask was stirred, it would be a little tough to see it immediately
because the color change so quickly. However, another point which also related to the end point of
this process which is as important as the end point is called an equivalence point. This was when both
solutions were added in the same amount that will be shown after the changing in color.
As we can be clear from the experiment that the time when the solution turned pink is called
an end point. For our group, the solution’s color turned to pink at the pH of 7.94. As we added the
indicator to the solution, in this case we use Phenolphthalein. We dropped into the solution that will
determine the solution whether it is an acid or base after the color was changed. And the reason why
it turned pink because of its characteristic that will react with the solution. The Phenolphthalein will
show pinkish color when the solution slightly basic. According to our experiment, the solution’s color
turn pink when the volume of NaOH was 51.24 mL.
Since we did the experiment three times because we tried to be accurate with the result. It will
be more accurate with three samples rather than only one sample was tested. So, that’s why three
replicates performed, in order to obtain the most accurate amount of CaCO3 we need to average three
numbers together. Also, as this was our first time doing this experiment, some of the step could be a
mess up or incorrect. So we will have another chance to do it again for a correct step and the way of
using the equipment. To ensure the amount of CaCO3 by the average of the three times experiment.

After we have done the experiment, we learned about the Titration method which we used to
find the amount of Calcium Carbonate contained in the toothpaste we brought to test. Depending on
our hypothesis that we state at first that there were Calcium Carbonate in the toothpaste and also the
color of the solution will turn to a kind of pink color when the amount of pH reached around 7 to 9.
And we found that the result of our experiment follows the hypothesis. However, this was the first
time of our group to do the experiment, some of the step woman not do it correctly or the equipment
we were not used it correctly leads to some errors to our experiment.
There were some errors during the experiment which made the result slightly change from
what it should be or from wHat we expected. The first error was the fact that we cannot actually stop
or pause the amount of NaOH dropped into the solution immediately at the time that the colour was
changed. And sometimes we also did not really notice the change in colour of it because the colour
changed so quickly and at the same time the colour got too dark so fast too. By observed it with a
naked eyes, it may not be so accurate but we tried our best to make it the most stable value. It is also
the first time that we have tried this kind of experiment, some of the equipment and solutions is quite
mess up at the beginning. Another error that we’ve found was on the pH meter. We thought it’s not
functioning properly because as we added more of NaOH to the toothpaste somehow the pH still
remained the same. We decided to clean it again and again until the pH changed as the only way we
can do to solve this problem.
There was one more problem in the experiment. We didn’t get to the pH of 12 because we
thought that the pH meter wasn’t working very well. It might be the unclean of it that lower its ability
to determine pH. That’s why the graph’s shape is not likely to be “S” but just a curve that if we
continuously on to it, we can see the shape of the graph which is likely to be “S”.
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