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4, NOVEMBER 2011

Comprehensive Study of Single-Phase AC-DC

Power Factor Corrected Converters
With High-Frequency Isolation
Bhim Singh, Fellow, IEEE, Sanjeev Singh, Member, IEEE, Ambrish Chandra, Senior Member, IEEE, and
Kamal Al-Haddad, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—Solid-state switch mode AC-DC converters having the problems of power quality in terms of injected harmonic cur-
high-frequency transformer isolation are developed in buck, boost, rents at AC mains, caused voltage distortion, degraded power-
and buck-boost configurations with improved power quality in factor, high crest factor, and large size of DC capacitor filter
terms of reduced total harmonic distortion (THD) of input cur-
rent, power-factor correction (PFC) at AC mains and precisely at first stage. However, in view of their increasing applications,
regulated and isolated DC output voltage feeding to loads from few these AC-DC converters are being developed in single-stage to
Watts to several kW. This paper presents a comprehensive study improve power quality, reduced number of components and high
on state of art of power factor corrected single-phase AC-DC con- efficiency. Moreover, due to strict requirements of improved
verters configurations, control strategies, selection of components power quality at input AC mains several standards [1], [2] have
and design considerations, performance evaluation, power quality
considerations, selection criteria and potential applications, latest
been developed and are enforced on the consumers. However,
trends, and future developments. Simulation results as well as power quality at AC mains can be improved using filters in ex-
comparative performance are presented and discussed for most of isting installations but it increases cost, size, weight, and losses
the proposed topologies. in the system. These problems can be avoided using newly de-
Index Terms—AC-DC converters, harmonic reduction, high-fre- veloped single-stage improved power quality AC-DC converters
quency (HF) transformer isolation, improved power quality con- with HF transformer isolation. They are also known as input cur-
verters, power-factor correction. rent shapers, high power-factor single-stage converters, power-
factor correction (PFC) converters, universal input single-stage
PFC isolated converters, etc. Moreover, this new breed of single-
I. INTRODUCTION stage converters is being reported in new books [3]–[9], semi-
OLID state AC-DC converters with high-frequency (HF) nars, and many recent publications [10]–[19]. Therefore, it is
S transformer isolation is extensively used in switched mode
power supplies (SMPS), uninterruptible power supplies (UPS),
considered relevant to present a comprehensive state of art on
the improved power quality AC-DC converters with HF trans-
welding units, battery charging, induction heaters, electronic former isolation for the benefits of practice, application, and de-
ballasts, power supplies for telecommunication systems, mea- sign engineers using them in wide varying applications ranging
surement and testing equipments, small rating adjustable speed from few Watts to several kWs.
drives (ASDs) in biomedical equipments, small rating refrig- This paper deals with an exhaustive review of IPQCs with
eration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), etc. HF transformer isolation. More than 150 publications are
Conventionally, these AC-DC converters are developed in two classified into nine major categories. The first category [1]–[19]
stages. In the first stage, AC voltage is converted into an uncon- is a general on power quality standards, texts, tutorials and
trolled DC voltage using diode rectifiers, which is cascaded with comparative topology publications. Second to ninth categories
the second stage of isolated DC-DC converters using HF trans- publications include single-phase buck, boost and buck-boost
former for isolation. These two-stage AC-DC converters have AC-DC converters. The buck type converters are further
classified to forward, push-pull, half-bridge and full-bridge
configurations. The boost type converters are also classified
Manuscript received July 20, 2011; accepted August 05, 2011. Date of pub-
lication September 06, 2011; date of current version November 09, 2011. Per- in forward, push-pull, half-bridge, and full-bridge converter
sonal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to use this material topologies. The buck-boost type converters are subclassified
for any other purposes must be obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to into flyback, Cuk, SEPIC, and Zeta converters. Total numbers
pubs-permissions@ieee.org. Paper no. TII-11-327.
B. Singh is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of
of circuit topologies of these converters are divided into 12
Technology Delhi, New Delhi, 110016, India (e-mail: bhimsinghr@gmail.com). categories. The designs of various IPQCs with HF transformer
S. Singh is with the Department of Electrical and Instrumentation Engi- isolation and their validation through simulation are also pre-
neering, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal,
Sangrur, Punjab-148106, India (e-mail: sschauhan.sdl@gmail.com).
sented in the paper to demonstrate the performance of various
A. Chandra and K. Al-Haddad are with the Département de génie électrique, converters and strengthen the review of IPQCs. The paper is
ÉTS, 1100, Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada (e-mail: chandra@ele.etsmtl.ca; presented in ten sections including introduction and conclusion.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
The other sections include a state of art on these converters,
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. their configurations, control strategies, components selection
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TII.2011.2166798 and design, performance evaluation, comparative features,
1551-3203/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE

potential applications, selection considerations for specific

applications, latest trends, and future development.

AC-DC converters employing HF transformer isolation are
developed in wide power ratings from fraction of Watt to sev-
eral kW to feed DC power in computer power supplies, UPS,
battery chargers, induction heating, welding units, electronic
ballasts, medical equipments, small rating ASDs in fans, com-
pressors, and telecommunication applications. This family of
power supplies is developed to improve power quality in terms Fig. 1. Classification of improved power quality single-phase AC-DC con-
of low value of THD and crest factor of input current, high verters with HF transformer isolation.
power-factor, low EMI and RFI at AC mains and regulated,
reduced ripple and stabilized DC output voltage under varying
loads. These converters are explored in last decade in variety gate bipolar transistor) are used with reasonable switching fre-
of control strategies [5], [6], magnetic [3], [4], [7], circuit quency (in the range of tens kHz). Moreover, many manufac-
integration [6], [7], ASIC developments [7], configurations turers are developing dedicated power modules for the use in
[10], [12], [14]–[17], current conduction modes [13], electronic specific converters to reduce their losses, size, weight, and cost.
ballast and DC regulator applications [14], circuit and compo- Another set of important components required in these con-
nents count optimization [18], use of DSP and microcontrollers verters technology is sensing devices used in feedback current
[19], enhanced reliability and high efficiency in buck, boost and voltage loops. Because of heavy cost constraints, a low-cost
and buck-boost topologies with HF transformer isolation for current and voltage sensors are preferred in these converters.
voltage matching, multiple outputs, reduction in size, losses, A major reason for such development of these converters is
weight, etc. A number of circuit configurations have been fast growth in microelectronic devices. Due to high volume re-
developed to meet specific requirements of large number of ap- quirements, many manufacturers such as Unitrode, Analog De-
plications along with a high level of power quality at input AC vices, Siemens, Fairchild, National Semiconductor, etc., have
mains and output DC loads. This section consists of sequence developed many dedicated ICs [6], [7], consequently, cost ef-
of development and status of these types of AC-DC converters fective and compact closed-loop control circuitry of these con-
technology integrating HF isolation. verters with adequate speed and accuracy are obtained. There
Because of excessive use of AC-DC converters in a number are a number of ASICs [7] available for dedicated applications.
of applications, the power quality has become important to Moreover, due to the importance of enhancing the power quality,
maintain clean power supply to the consumers. Depending several standards [1], [2] are imposed on the users and manu-
upon the voltage levels, the AC mains voltage is converted into facturers of these converters. A variety of instruments are avail-
DC power to feed variety of loads through these single-phase able to measure the performance of AC input in terms of power-
isolated AC-DC converters, classified into three major cat- factor (PF), crest factor (CF), total harmonic distortion (THD),
egories, namely, single-phase buck, boost, and buck-boost harmonic spectrum, displacement factor, VA, VAR, W, energy
configurations with improved power quality at input AC mains consumed, at AC mains and voltage ripple, sag, surge, swell,
and output DC load. notch, etc. These measuring instruments are known as power an-
These AC-DC converters are developed using HF transformer alyzers, power scopes, power monitors, spectrum analyzers, etc.
isolation with single or multiple outputs in buck and boost cat-
egories, namely, forward, push-pull, half-bridge and full-bridge
and in buck-boost configurations of flyback, Cuk, SEPIC, and
Zeta types of converters. They are available in varying power HF transformer isolated single-phase IPQCs are classified
from mW to several kW for the use in small instruments to on the basis of voltage levels at the input and output as buck,
telecommunication power supplies. Furthermore, the advance- boost, and buck-boost topologies. Moreover, AC-DC buck and
ment in integrated magnetics technology employing several in- boost converters are categorized into forward, push-pull, half-
ductors and HF transformer into one core provides a compact, bridge, and full-bridge configurations with HF transformer iso-
small size, low-cost and reduced component count, modular and lation. Similarly, buck-boost types of converters are also sub-
efficient AC-DC converters for use in computers and other sim- classified into flyback, Cuk, SEPIC, and Zeta converters mostly
ilar sectors. with single active device (MOSFET) to achieve HF transformer
One of the important reasons for such tremendous develop- isolation. These converters are cascaded with basic diode bridge
ment of these isolated AC-DC converters is the availability of at input side used to convert single-phase AC voltage into DC
HF (in the range of hundreds of kHz) solid-state switching de- feeding various kinds of loads resulting in total 12 basic cir-
vice, namely, MOSETs [5] which have a high level of perfor- cuit topologies. However, there are further several modifications
mance because of their high switching capability with almost in each converter to enhance their performance. Fig. 1 shows
negligible losses. However, in few applications specially de- the classification of these HF transformer isolated single-phase
signed BJT (bipolar junction transistor) and IGBTs (insulated IPQCs.

Fig. 5. Buck full-bridge AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

Fig. 2. Buck forward AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

It employs a diode bridge rectifier to convert AC voltage into

an uncontrolled DC output, which supplies a forward converter.
It converts uncontrolled DC into controlled HF AC voltage to
be fed to HF transformer used to isolate and match the required
output voltage of the converter needed for a specific application.
The HF AC is rectified using half-wave rectifier that provides
better efficiency due to voltage drop of only one diode. During
turnoff time, a third winding is used to return stored energy back
to DC source, resulting in flux resetting in the HF transformer
core. Normally, output DC voltage is controlled using its feed-
Fig. 3. Buck push-pull AC-DC converter with voltage follower control. back into the controller [20], which adjusts the duty cycle of the
device to any change in the system such as sudden change of the
load or input AC voltage amplitude and/or frequency. Moreover,
there are many variations of forward converter operation such as
using two devices [24] or multiple outputs, continuous current
mode (CCM) [27] and discontinuous current mode (DCM) [29]
of operation, etc. The applications of these converters in battery
charger from few watts to kW range [20], [29] have been re-
ported in the literature.
2) Buck Push-Pull AC-DC Converter [36]–[49]: Fig. 3
shows a basic circuit of a buck push-pull AC-DC converter,
which has push-pull configurations of both sides of HF
center-taped transformer. A small value capacitor ( ) is used
at intermediate DC bus to provide a developed voltage source
Fig. 4. Half-bridge buck AC-DC converter with voltage follower control. type to the input of buck push-pull inverter [4], [5]. The turns
ratio in the HF transformer employed for isolation is decided
by the required voltage at DC output and available range of
The improved power quality AC-DC converters fed from input voltage. An input HF - filter is used to eliminate EMI,
single-phase AC mains is classified into three major categories, RFI noise and switching frequency interference. There are also
namely, buck, boost, and buck-boost topologies. All these three several circuit configurations [6], [7] of this type of converter
types of converters are further classified into four types of with variations to further enhancing the power quality at input
configurations. Some of these converters are also known as AC mains and output DC loads [46].
(single-phase, single-stage converter and/or single-stage, 3) Buck Half-Bridge AC-DC Converter [50]–[63]: A
single-switch converter). single-phase buck half-bridge AC-DC converter topology with
the output push-pull rectifier is shown in Fig. 4. The half-bridge
A. Buck AC-DC Converters converts raw DC to HF AC to feed HF transformer used for
The single-phase buck converters are subclassified into four isolation and voltage matching [4], [5] to the requirement of
types, namely, forward, push-pull, half-bridge, and full-bridge the DC load or HF fed AC load such as electronic ballasts
AC-DC converters. Normally, these are used in different power used in lighting sector. A set of two capacitors ( and )
ratings starting from a forward converter in low power to full- provides another AC terminal for this type of HF inverter which
bridge converter in high-power applications. Figs. 2–5 show the restricts its rating for low power applications. A number of
basic circuits of these four types of converters. techniques such as resonant soft switching circuits, ZVS/ZCS,
1) Buck Forward AC-DC Converter [20]–[35]: Fig. 2 shows etc., are used to improve the performance of these converters
the basic circuit configuration of this type of AC-DC converter. [6], [7]. Various combinations of passive filters with CCM and

Fig. 8. Boost half-bridge AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

Fig. 6. Boost forward AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

Fig. 9. Boost full-bridge AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

Fig. 7. Boost push-pull AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

single-stage conversion with input current shaping feature for

DCM operation [58] have also been reported for power factor
high-power quality at AC mains.
1) Boost Forward AC-DC Converter [20]–[35]: Fig. 6 shows
4) Buck Full-Bridge AC-DC Converter [73]–[91]: Fig. 5
a typical circuit of boost forward AC-DC converter, in which a
shows a typical circuit of a buck full-bridge converter. At the
boost cell and conventional forward DC-DC converter is com-
output of the diode rectifier, a small size - filter provides a
bined without much additional components [21]. The boost cell
DC voltage source to feed the HF bridge inverter to operate it
is sharing three components (MOSFET, series diode, and capac-
as a buck converter [4], [5]. This configuration can have output
itor ) with forward converter and the boost cell needs only an
bridge converter in high-power ratings. However, push-pull rec-
inductor ( ) with series diode resulting in reduction in com-
tifier in output stage results in high efficiency due to reduced
ponent count, size, cost, and losses. Moreover, it needs small
losses in only one diode conducting at any time. The bridge
value of inductor ( ) and offers high level of power quality at
inverter can be controlled either unipolar or bipolar mode de-
input AC mains and DC output. Many variations of this con-
pending upon ease in control. However, the size of filter and
verter such as with CCM/DCM [27], [29], [31], zero voltage
transformer is lower for unipolar switching of bridge inverter
switching (ZVS)/ zero current switching (ZCS) [32] and zero
[5]. This topology has been reported for UPS applications with
current transition [33] are available to improve its performance
soft switching [67] and ZVS/ZCS [69], etc.
or to reduce the cost, size, and weight.
2) Boost Push-Pull AC-DC Converter [36]–[49]: Fig. 7
B. Boost AC-DC Converters
shows a basic circuit of boost push-pull AC-DC converter in
These single-phase boost AC-DC converters shown in which only a small value inductor ( ) is added in a conven-
Figs. 6–9 are classified into four basic types of configurations, tional push-pull converter to function it as a boost converter
namely, forward, push-pull, half-bridge, and full-bridge HF [38]. The HF output of the transformer can be rectified to
transformer isolated AC-DC converters. If these topologies are DC either using push-pull or bridge converter or may be used
fed from a DC current source and accordingly controlled in directly in some typical applications [4], [5]. It offers better
required manner then they operate as boost AC-DC converters utilization of HF transformer and thus is used in high-power
[5]. It is a combination of a boost cell at input of these con- ratings. This converter topology is also available with several
verters which may be an inductor of appropriate value to result variations such as flyback current fed [43], with ZVS/ZCS [48],
in their behavior as boost converters, while still maintaining active clamp and voltage doubler [49], etc.

3) Boost Half-Bridge AC-DC Converter [50]–[63]: Fig. 8

shows a basic topology of a single-phase boost half-bridge
AC-DC converter, which has also used only an additional in-
ductor ( ) of low value to provide a current source for boosting
voltage level of conventional half-bridge DC-AC HF converter.
In some applications of very low output DC voltage, it uses
self-driven synchronous rectifier at output stage to enhance the
efficiency of this converter [51]. Normally, this converter is
operated in discontinuous current mode through input inductor
for reducing harmonics of AC mains current and achieving high
power factor. There are several circuit variations such as with
symmetrical [53] and asymmetrical transformer [56], diagonal
switches [59], and voltage doubler with ZVS/ZCS [54], [60]
for PFC. Recently reported applications are in telecom power Fig. 10. Flyback AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.
supplies [53], emergency lights [55], battery chargers [57],
UPS [61], and PMBLDCM drives [62], [63].
4) Boost Full-Bridge AC-DC Converter [64]–[79]: Fig. 9
shows one of circuits of single-phase boost full-bridge AC-DC
converter. It almost does not need any additional component ex-
cept placing an inductor in the input of MOSFET -bridge to
operate it as a boost converter with modified control. For the
boost operation, both devices of a leg (upper and lower switches)
are made simultaneously, which provides a brief short circuit of
input inductor ( ) to store energy and later to provide boosting
feature required for power factor correction for its operation as
a PFC boost converter. Here, both legs of MOSFETs are oper-
ated sequentially in this mode and provides boost PFC converter Fig. 11. Cuk AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.
operation along with HF inversion required by isolating trans-
former. The output stage may use any rectifier configuration
but diode-bridge is preferred for better utilization of HF trans-
former. Several circuit variations have been reported for this
topology such as boost converter fed full-bridge [70], ZVS/ZCS
with series/parallel resonant circuit [71] and with two series
connected transformers [75]. This converter is normally used
in high-power rating such as UPS [67], telecom power supplies
[73], and PMBLDCM drives [76].

C. Buck-Boost AC-DC Converters

These single-phase buck-boost AC-DC converters are further
classified as flyback, Cuk, SEPIC, and Zeta HF transformer iso- Fig. 12. SEPIC AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.
lated AC-DC converters. They have some similarity as all of
them use only single switching device (MOSFET) and offer
buck-boost feature between input and output. They can be oper-
ated in discontinuous and continuous current modes. They also
offer high-level of power quality with reduced number of sen-
sors and can be implemented with integrated magnetics to pro-
vide reduced size, cost, and weight. The concept of input current
shaping in single-stage conversion along with power factor cor-
rection and multiple regulated outputs is extensively employed
in these converters to meet exact requirements of the number of
applications. Figs. 10–13 show the basic circuits of these four
types of single-phase buck-boost AC-DC converters.
1) Buck-Boost Flyback AC-DC Converters [80]–[101]:
Fig. 10 shows a basic circuit of buck-boost flyback AC-DC Fig. 13. Zeta AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.
converter, which employs a simple flyback DC-DC converter
having HF transformer isolation for voltage matching, electrical quality at AC mains. There are several circuit configurations
safety, cost reduction, simple control with reduced sensors, of flyback converter and may have several DC outputs. These
etc. An input filter is quite important to improve the power variations are on the basis of active clamp and charge control

[81], quasi-resonant ZCS, resonant charge pump circuit [84], simplest control scheme is PWM fixed frequency control. The
CCM/DCM operation [90], [101], and synchronous rectifi- closed-loop control of output DC voltage to desired value
cation [95]. Normally, DCM operation is used for improved is achieved using proportional integral (PI) or proportional,
power quality with simple control. This type of converter is integral and derivative (PID) or proportional derivative (PD) or
very popular for low-power applications due to simple control sliding mode controllers. The output of this voltage controller
and less component count. However, application in drives [93] is compared with saw tooth carrier wave to generate PWM
has also been reported in the low-power range. signal for the gating of switching device (usually MOSFET)
2) Buck-Boost Cuk AC-DC Converter [102]–[117]: Fig. 11 with proper isolation and amplification. This scheme can
shows the basic circuit of a single-phase buck-boost Cuk easily be used in the single switching device-based converters
AC-DC converter, which provides high level of power quality (forward, flyback, Cuk, SEPIC, and Zeta) when they are op-
at AC mains and DC output. It has several features such as erated in discontinuous current mode of operation [13], [108],
low-noise level, integrated magnetics having transformer and which inherently provides an input current shaping (ICS) and
both inductors ( and ) on the same core, energy transfer power-factor correction (PFC) in single-stage conversion.
through capacitors, etc. [102], [107]. Input current shaping Usually, low-cost sensors such as opto-couplers operated in
is inherent in this converter in discontinuous current mode linear range, potential dividers, etc., are used for sensing DC
at constant frequency [108] and duty cycle decided by DC voltage and small shunt, or extra small winding on an inductor
output voltage controller, thus, it is known as an ideal current or extra terminal on switching device (MOSFET and IGBT)
shaper. The integrated magnetics in this converter offers very or low-cost CT (current transducers) are used to sense current
low switching current ripple, wide range of input and output (if required). Because of heavy cost constraints, this type of
voltage, small size, natural protection against inrush current, controller is implemented into single integrated circuit (IC) to
and high overall conversion efficiency [113]–[116]. provide compact, reliable, and cost effective control of these
3) Buck-Boost SEPIC AC-DC Converter [118]–[140]: converters.
Fig. 12 shows a circuit configuration of single-phase Single The control of these converters having more than one
Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) for AC-DC con- switching device is implemented using either low cost micro-
version with high level of power quality at input AC mains and controllers or dedicated DSPs or ASICs (specific application
DC outputs. This converter inherently incorporates input PFC integrated circuits) depending upon the power rating, customer
stage with reduced components count and small size, resulting requirements, cost considerations, and the number of converter
in high efficiency, high reliability, and high-power factor. It devices to be controlled. Sometimes inner current loops are
may have multiple outputs required in some applications with also incorporated along with output voltage loop to provide
isolation and proper voltage regulation [118]. Its operation fast dynamic response and inherent protection of the switching
in CCM and DCM with proper design offers fast dynamic devices. In these converters, in addition to classical PI, PD,
response, small size, and improved power quality of low value PID and SMC controllers, some new and advanced closed-loop
of input current CF, THD and high-power factor [128], [138]. controllers such as adaptive fuzzy logic, neural network-based
4) Buck-Boost Zeta AC-DC Converter [141]–[156]: Fig. 13 controllers are also used to provide fast response, while main-
shows a circuit diagram of a Zeta converter for AC-DC conver- taining the stability of the converter system over wide operating
sion with improved power quality. This converter is the latest range.
addition to this family of single-stage input current shapers. It Moreover, because of heavy application potential of these
also uses single switching device and inherently provides an converters, many manufacturers have developed dedicated
inrush current, overload, and short circuit protections [142]. It ICs, namely, Unitrode (UC series of ICs such as UC-3854),
has been reported for high-power applications such as telecom Motorola (MC series such as MC-34261), Analog Devices
power supplies [151] and PMSM drives [152]. It can operate in (ADMC-401), Siemens (TDA-16888), Texas (TMS320F24X),
CCM as well as DCM [153], [154], [156] with improved power Microchip (dsPIC 30F), Fairchild (ML 4425), etc., for the
quality at input AC mains. These converters are also called re- control of these converters.
sistance emulators as they behave as a resistive load to input AC
The selection of components for these isolated AC-DC con-
IV. CONTROL APPROACHES verters is very important to obtain a high-level of power quality
Closed-loop control of output DC voltage of these iso- at input AC mains and DC outputs. These HF isolated AC-DC
lated AC-DC converters is the essential requirement while converters consist of input diode bridge with EMI filter, HF
maintaining high level of power quality at input AC mains is DC-AC converter to feed HF transformer with input cell such as
required in steady state as well as during transient operation. A boost cell, output AC-DC converters with filters, resonating cir-
large number of control schemes are reported of these AC-DC cuits for soft switching, snubbers and other protective devices,
converters to meet these requirements along with fast dynamic sensors used for feedback and closed-loop controllers. The con-
response in different circuit configurations. However, the design verters in different stages normally use diodes and switching de-
of these converters is modified to simplify their control. vice, which is normally MOSFETs. In some cases, a specially
Control schemes consist of two loops an inner fast current designed HF bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and insulated
loop and an outer slow voltage loop. Current mode and voltage gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are used as switching device
mode PWM are used. The latest is one of the modest and in low cost and medium to high-power rating converters. In the

case of low voltage output DC power supplies, low voltage drop TABLE I
synchronous rectifiers are employed at the last stage to reduce DESIGN EQUATIONS OF ISOLATED PFC TOPOLOGIES IN CCM AND DCM
voltage drop across the diodes and therefore to achieve high ef-
ficiency of the system.
Because of heavy volume requirement, many manufacturers
are offering diode-bridge along with switching devices, protec-
tion and sometimes gating circuits in the form of power module
and intelligent power module (IPMs) of complete converters.
These specially designed IPMs provide compactness, cost re-
duction, reduced noise, high efficiency, small size, and light-
weight of these AC-DC converters.
The HF transformer used for isolation and voltage matching
is an essential and main component of these AC-DC converters.
The use of high switching frequency reduces the size, cost,
weight, losses of this transformer, which substantially affects
the performance, and cost of these converters. The evolution
of new and improved magnetic materials for core, better con-
ducting material with special wire configuration such as Litz
wire and high grade insulating materials, has revolutionized
the packaging of such HF types of converters. The concept of
integration of magnetics such as several required inductors in
the same core of the HF transformers has resulted in reduction
in cost, size, and weight.
Some of the important components are the energy storage
elements such as capacitors, inductors and other devices re-
quired in filters, boost cells, resonating circuits, snubbers and
other protective devices. There are requirements of different
types of capacitors such as HF and DC capacitors to be used
in filters resonating circuits snubbers, etc. Similarly, different
types of inductors are required such as HF, power frequency,
and DC excitation even for single converter, which are made
in different forms of cores such as ferrite, amorphous, air core,
etc. Moreover, their values, size, and cost play an important role
in the operation of these converters to offer high level of per-
formance. Another major design consideration is the layout of
these components to reduce noise level, proper operation, and
compact size. Special manufacturing techniques are used to op-
timize packaging and integration of all these components of a
Since these converters are used in a wide variety of applica-
tions, they may be one part of the total system; therefore they
are to be integrated in limited space of the equipment. It may
be a power supply of a computer, which has many DC outputs,
and its control is to be supervised by the computer itself. Simi-
larly, it may be an input AC-DC converter for variable frequency
AC motor drives to be used in small rating fans, pumps, com-
pressors, refrigerators, etc. It may be part of UPS, telecommu-
tation power supplies or battery chargers, to be integrated with
remaining system to offer compact, high-power density, light-
weight, efficient and reduced cost of complete system.


topologies have been carried out in MATLAB-SIMULINK en-
Single-phase improved power quality HF transformer vironment. The design equations and performance parameters
isolated AC–DC converters are designed for operation in of these AC–DC converters in terms of power quality indices
continuous current mode (CCM) and discontinuous current are given in Tables I–III. The minimum value of inductance
mode (DCM) with current multiplier and voltage follower for operating these AC-DC converters in DCM is given by
approaches, respectively. The modeling and simulation of these equations in Table I. The simulations are carried out for a 48 V



DC power supply having 100 W load with single-phase input converters along with their harmonic spectrum, and THD are
supply voltage of 220 V, 50 Hz having 3% source impedance. shown in Figs. 14–19 for comparison. It can be seen that the
The design values of the components obtained from the design input current in these converters meets IEC-61000-3-2 standard
equations given in Table I are optimized iteratively to have requirements. These converter topologies are evaluated for
desired power quality. These component values have been the load perturbation (i.e., load application and load removal)
given in Tables II and III along with other control parameters. from 20% to 100% load and vice versa. The results obtained
The power quality indices such as total harmonic distortion of are summarized in Tables IV and V. Moreover, the transient
AC mains current (THDi), distortion factor (DF), displacement responses of a few topologies are shown in Figs. 20 and 21.
power factor (DPF), power factor (PF), crest factor (CF), and It is observed that most of the topologies show overshoot and
output voltage ripple ( ) are compared at full-load and undershoot of DC link voltage ( ) within the designed value
given in Tables II and III. The input current waveform for these (5% of ) with fast tracking of the reference DC link voltage.

Fig. 14. Current waveforms and its THD for buck AC-DC converter topologies Fig. 16. Current waveforms and its THD for buck-boost AC-DC converter
in CCM. (a) Forward buck topology (Fig. 2).( b) Push-pull buck topology topologies in CCM. (a) Flyback topology (Fig. 10). (b) Cuk topology (Fig. 11).
(Fig. 3). (c) Half-bridge buck topology (Fig. 4). (d) Bridge buck topology (c) SEPIC topology (Fig. 12). (d) Zeta topology (Fig. 13).
(Fig. 5).

Fig. 15. Current waveforms and its THD for boost AC-DC converter topolo- Fig. 17. Current waveforms and its THD for buck AC-DC converter topologies
gies in CCM. (a) Forward boost topology (Fig. 6). (b) Push-pull boost topology in DCM. (a) Forward buck topology (Fig. 2). (b) Push-pull buck topology
(Fig. 7). (c) Half-bridge boost topology (Fig. 8). (d) Bridge boost topology (Fig. 3). (c) Half-bridge buck topology (Fig. 4). (d) Bridge buck topology
(Fig. 9). (Fig. 5).

VII. COMPARISON OF PFC CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES device rating, power density and cost of the circuit, which shall
The performance comparison of the isolated AC/DC PFC be helpful in the selection of an appropriate PFC converter
converters is presented in Tables III–V, on the basis of some topology for a particular application. The voltage and current
additional parameters such as voltage ripple, transient response, ratings are given in per unit (PU) with rated input voltage

The single switch topologies can be preferred in sequence

of flyback, Zeta, Ćuk, and SEPIC converter. Because Zeta
and flyback converter topologies provide additional protection
against over current and inrush current as compared to Ćuk and
SEPIC converter topologies. Moreover, the flyback converter
topology requires only a capacitor as an output filter and the
Ćuk converter topology requires smaller core, and has lower
core and copper losses. The selection criteria for various con-
verter topologies are enumerated in the next section.
In hardware implementation, the power factor of 0.99 is
achievable in many cases [20], [29], [93], [113], [115], [152],
however, the line regulation and load regulation depends on
the turns ratio of HF transformer and gains of PFC controller.
Moreover, the current multiplier control in CCM operation is
more stable during step change in the load as compared to the
voltage follower control in DCM operation. The control and
protection circuit layouts play major role in EMI and noise
suppression, where as processor speed, sampling frequency of
the sensed variables have bearing on the rise time, and response
time of the controller. The turn on time of the PFC switch
depends on the delay in the isolation circuit between the pro-
cessor and power circuit. Inductors for HF circuits usually have
gapped core or multiple toroidal cores connected in parallel to
Fig. 18. Current waveforms and its THD for boost AC-DC converter topolo- avoid the saturation during transient conditions.
gies in DCM. (a) Forward boost topology (Fig. 6). (b) Push-pull boost topology The push-pull and half-bridge (two-switch) converters have
(Fig. 7). (c) Half-bridge boost topology (Fig. 8). (d) Bridge boost topology equal switching losses as compared to single switch converters,
(Fig. 9).
e.g., flyback, Cuk SEPIC, and Zeta converters because only one
switch operates at a time, however, they can be used for high-
power applications with cost of additional switch and associated
Moreover, the switch voltage stress is in half-bridge
converter as compared to in push-pull converter. The
full-bridge converter has same switch voltage stress and the
transformer size as half-bridge converter for double power
processing capability.


Selection of right converter for specific application is an im-
portant task for the users. The following are the few criteria to be
considered in the selection of appropriate topology of the con-
verter for a particular application.
— Rating (W, kW, etc.).
— Level of input power quality (PF, CF, THD, etc.).
— Level of power quality at DC output (voltage ripple, regu-
lation, sag, swell, etc.).
— Type of load (linear, nonlinear, constant, variable).
— Type of output voltage (constant, variable, etc.).
— Number of outputs (single, multiple).
— Cost.
— Size.
Fig. 19. Current waveforms and its THD for buck-boost AC-DC converter
topologies in DCM. (a) Flyback topology (Fig. 10). (b) Cuk topology (Fig. 11). — Weight.
(c) SEPIC topology (Fig. 12). (d) Zeta topology (Fig. 13). — Efficiency.
— Noise level (EMI, RFI, etc.).
— Reliability.
(220 V) and rated load current (2.1 A) as base values. It is — Nature of output (buck, boost, buck-boost).
observed that the cost increases with increase of passive and — Environmental factors (ambient temperature, types of
active components and their power rating. cooling, altitude, pollution level, humidity, etc.).



In addition to these criteria, there are a number of other factors personal computers, laptop computers, work stations, printers,
such as magnetic materials, switching frequency, type of solid- scanners, fax machines, cordless phones, mobile phones,
state device, etc., to be considered in selection of most suitable copiers, power supplies in telecommunication systems, battery
converter for a particular application. chargers, UPS, etc. These converters are also used in measuring
These HF transformer isolated improved quality AC-DC and testing instruments, medical equipments, induction heaters,
converters are finding widespread applications due to their nu- lighting industries with electronic ballasts for various kinds of
merous advantages of high efficiency, small size, low cost, and bulbs, welding units, microwave heating, dielectric heating,
compactness apart from a high level of power quality at input small ovens, small rating adjustable speed drives (ASDs) in
AC mains and DC outputs. Some of major applications are refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC),
power supplies in information technology equipments such as small boiler feed pumps, fans, compressors, domestic appli-


The HF transformer isolated AC-DC converters have been

developed to a reasonably matured level and are extensively
used in fraction of Watt to several kWs rating in power sup-
plies, ASDs, etc. Apart from it, there are newer developments
in these converters for improving their performance in terms of
high level of power quality, high efficiency, and compact size.
One of the new trends is soft switching technology to reduce the
switching losses, which permits these converters to operate at
further high switching frequency to improve dynamic response
and to reduce the size of transformers and filter components
by operating at higher frequency. The magnetic integration is
used to integrate magnetic components in one single core and
therefore to help in using higher flux density material. Another
important trend is the sensor reduction, which has revolution-
ized these converters to reduce cost, component count and en-
hanced reliability. Some of these converters are having simple
control and new control concepts, which further reduce the re-
quirements of sensors and inherently provide power factor cor-
rection without any sensor on AC mains. Development of ded-
icated specific application integrated circuits (ASICs) for the
control of these converters has reduced the size, cost and is in-
Fig. 20. Transient and steady-state response of push-pull boost AC-DC
converter topology. (a) Push-pull boost PFC converter under CCM operation. creasing their applications in the new fields.
(b) Push-pull boost PFC converter under DCM operation. Advancement in solid-state devices towards low conduction
losses and switching losses, improved gating requirements is
providing a real boost to the applications of these AC-DC con-
verters especially in low voltage DC power supplies and HF
equipments. The module development through circuit compo-
nents integration is resulting in cost and size reduction and im-
provement in their efficiency.
Development of improved magnetic materials with reduced
losses is considered a real hope to allow the use of HF resulting
in further reduction in size of transformers required for isola-
tion. Indirect sensing, improved gate drive and protective fea-
tures integration in intelligent power module (IPM) are expected
to have a new direction in the development of these AC-DC con-
verters. Development of dedicated processors and new ASICs
are also a big hope in the near future to reduce the size, cost and
intelligent control, compactness, high reliability, and high effi-
ciency of these AC-DC converters. Soft switching technology
is also expected to improve thermal design; to reduce size and
enhancing the efficiency of the HF isolated AC-DC converters.
The evolution of new circuit configurations in this technology
is considered to further widespread use of them in other addi-
tional future applications. The chip size integration of some of
these converters especially in small power rating is expected to
revolutionize these HF isolated AC-DC converters.
The control schemes for these converters are implemented
Fig. 21. Transient and steady-state response of SEPIC AC-DC converter using digital signal processors (DSPs) or low-cost advanced mi-
topology. (a) Under CCM operation of PFC converter. (b) Under DCM
operation of PFC converter. crocontrollers known as digital signal controllers (DSCs). Typ-
ical examples of such controllers are TI-2812 (Texas Instru-
ments) and dsPIC 30F6010 (Microchip). The dsPIC 30F6010
ances such as washing machines, etc. Moreover, because of is a specifically designed DSC for the power electronics appli-
highly efficient AC-DC conversion with new configurations and cations with a 10 bit analog to digital converter (ADC), Hall-ef-
control approaches, these converters are considered as potential fect sensor/encoder sense terminals, eight channels for PWM
power processors in newer applications that are developed day and high current sink/source, input/output (I/O: 25 mA/25 mA)
by day in the near future. ports. The selection of these digital controllers depend upon the

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technique by using inductor voltage sensing for power factor correction Bhim Singh (SM’99–F’10) was born in Rahamapur,
isolated SEPIC rectifier,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., 2002, India, in 1956. He received the B.E. (electrical)
vol. 4, pp. IV-345–IV-348. degree from the University of Roorkee, Roorkee,
[134] H. Y. Kanaan and K. Al-Haddad, “A comparative analysis of nonlinear India, in 1977, and the M.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees
current control schemes applied to a SEPIC power factor corrector,” in from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi,
Proc. IEEE IECON, 2005, pp. 1104–1109. New Delhi, India, in 1979 and 1983, respectively.
[135] H. Y. Kanaan, A. Hayek, and K. Al-Haddad, “A new single-phase In 1983, he joined the Department of Electrical
power factor corrector based on the SEPIC and Sheppard-Taylor Engineering, University of Roorkee, as a Lecturer,
topologies,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Telecom. Energy Conf., 2007, pp. and in 1988 became a Reader. In December 1990, he
840–847. joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT
[136] L. H. Gonzalez, Z. B. Brito, and D. S. V. Estrada, “Analysis, Delhi, as an Assistant Professor, where he became
simulation and physical implementation: Modified-SEPIC DC/DC an Associate Professor in 1994 and Professor in 1997. Since September 2007,
converter,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Electr. Electron. Eng., 2005, he has been ABB Chair Professor at IIT Delhi. He has guided 35 Ph.D.
pp. 389–392. dissertations, 120 M.E./M.Tech./M.S.(R) theses, and 60 BE/B.Tech. Projects.
[137] J. M. Kwon, W. Y. Choi, J. J. Lee, E. H. Kim, and B. H. Kwon, His fields of interest include power electronics, electrical machines, electric
“Continuous-conduction-mode SEPIC converter with low reverse-re- drives, renewable energy generation, power quality, Flexible AC Transmission
covery loss for power factor correction,” IEE –EPA, vol. 153, no. 5, Systems (FACTS), High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems.
pp. 673–681, Sep. 2006.
Dr. Singh is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering
[138] B. Singh, M. Agrawal, and S. Dwivedi, “Analysis and design of single-
(FNAE), The National Academy of Science, India (FNASc), the Institution
phase power-factor corrected AC-DC SEPIC converter with high fre-
quency isolation,” IE (India) J.-EL, vol. 87, pp. 3–11, Mar. 2007. of Engineers (India) (FIE), and the Institution of Electronics and Telecom-
[139] E. H. Ismail, “Bridgeless SEPIC rectifier with unity power factor and munication Engineers (FIETE), a Life Member of the Indian Society for
reduced conduction losses,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 4, Technical Education (ISTE), System Society of India (SSI), and the National
pp. 1147–1157, Apr. 2009. Institution of Quality and Reliability (NIQR). He has received the Khosla
[140] R. Beiranvand, B. Rashidian, M. R. Zolghadri, and S. M. H. Alavi, Research Prize of the University of Roorkee in 1991. He is a recipient of the
“Using LLC resonant converter for designing wide-range voltage J. C. Bose and Bimal K Bose awards from The Institution of Electronics and
source,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1746–1756, Telecommunication Engineers (IETE) for his contribution in the field of power
May 2011. electronics. He is also a recipient of the Maharashtra State National Award
[141] A. Peres, D. C. Martins, and I. Barbi, “Zeta converter applied in power of the Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE) in recognition of his
factor correction,” in Proc. IEEE- PESC’94, 1994, pp. 1152–1157. outstanding research work in the area of power quality. He has received the
[142] B. R. Lin and T. S. Hwang, “Single-phase rectifier with high power PES Delhi Chapter Outstanding Engineer Award in 2006. He has been the
factor in continuous and discontinuous conduction mode,” in Proc. General Chair of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics,
IEEE ISIE’95, 1995, pp. 421–426. Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES’2006) held in New Delhi.
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proved battery charger/discharger topology with power factor correc-
tion,” in Proc. IEEE CIEP’95, 1995, pp. 2–7.
[144] D. C. Martins, F. C. de-Souza, and I. Barbi, “Zeta converter with high Sanjeev Singh (S’09–M’11) was born in Deoria,
power factor operating in continuous conduction mode,” in Proc. IEEE
India, in 1972. He received the B.E. (electrical)
IECON, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 1802–1807.
degree from Awadhesh Pratap Singh University
[145] J. Uceda, J. Sebastian, and F. S. Dos Reis, “Power factor preregulators
employing the flyback and zeta converters in FM mode,” in Proc. IEEE (APSU), Rewa, India, in 1993, the M.Tech degree
Power Electron. Congr., 1996, pp. 132–137. from Devi Ahilya University (DAVV), Indore, India,
[146] D. C. Martins, “Zeta converter operating in continuous conduction in 1997, and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian
mode using unity power factor technique,” in Proc. IEE- PEVSD’96, Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, in 2011.
1996, pp. 7–11. He joined the North India Technical Consultancy
[147] D. C. Martins, F. de. S. Campos, and I. Barbi, “Zeta converter with Organization, Chandigarh, as a Project Officer, in
high power factor operating in continuous conduction mode,” in Proc. 1997, and in 2000, he joined the Sant Longowal
IEEE- INTELEC’96, 1996, pp. 107–113. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur,
[148] J. Uceda, J. Sebastian, and F. S. D. Reis, “Power factor preregula- Punjab, as Lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Instrumentation En-
tors employing the flyback and Zeta converters in FM mode,” in Proc. gineering. His area of interest includes power electronics, electrical machines
CIEP’96, 1996, pp. 132–137. and drives, energy efficiency and power quality.
[149] T.-F. Wu and Y.-K. Chen, “Analysis and design of an isolated single- Dr. Singh is a Life Member of the Indian Society for Technical Education
stage converter achieving power-factor correction and fast regulation,” (LMISTE), the System Society of India (LMSSI), and the Institution of Engi-
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 759–767, Aug. 1999. neers (India) (LMIE).

Ambrish Chandra (SM’99) received B.E. degree Engineering, École de Technologie Supérieure (ETS), Montreal, QC, where
from the University of Roorkee (presently IIT), he has been the holder of the Canada Research Chair in Electric Energy
Roorkee, India, the M.Tech. degree from the Indian Conversion and Power Electronics since 2002. He has supervised more than
Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi, and 70 Ph.D. and M.Sc.A. students working in the field of power electronics. He
the Ph.D. degree from the University of Calgary, was the Director of graduate study programs at the ETS from 1992 to 2003.
Calgary, AB, Canada, in 1977, 1980, and 1987, He is a Consultant and has established a very solid link with many Canadian
respectively. industries working in the field of power electronics, electric transportation,
He worked as a Lecturer and later as a Reader at aeronautics, and telecommunications. He is the Chief of ETS-Bombardier
the University of Roorkee. Since 1994, he has been Transportation North America division, a joint industrial research laboratory
working as a Professor with the Department of Elec- on electric traction system and power electronics. He is the coauthor of the
trical Engineering, École de Technologie Supérieure, Power System Blockset Software of Matlab. He has coauthored more than 300
Universié du Québec, Montréal, Canada. His main research interests are power transactions and conference papers. His fields of interest are in high efficient
quality, active filters, static reactive power compensation, flexible AC trans- static power converters, harmonics and reactive power control using hybrid
mission systems (FACTS), and control and integration of renewable energy re- filters, switch mode and resonant converters including the modeling, control,
sources. and development of prototypes for various industrial applications in electric
Dr. Chandra is a Professional Engineer in Quebec, Canada. traction, power supply for drives, telecommunication, etc.
Prof. Al-Haddad received the Outstanding Researcher Award from ETS in
2000. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering and a Life
Member of the Circle of Excellence of the University of Quebec. He is active
Kamal Al-Haddad (S’82–M’88–SM’92–F’07) was in the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, where he is Vice President for Tech-
born in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1954. He received the nical Activities, an AdCom Member and serves as an Associate Editor of the
B.Sc.A. and M.Sc.A. degrees from the University IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS.
of Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC,
Canada, in 1982 and 1984, respectively, and the
Ph.D. degree from the Institut National Polythech-
nique, Toulouse, France, in 1988.
From June 1987 to June 1990, he was a Professor
with the Department of Engineering, Université du
Québec à Trois Rivières. Since June 1990, he has
been a Professor with the Department of Electrical