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[63] BIAGTAN v INSULAR LIFE robbers was intended to inflict injuries upon the person of the insured or any

s was intended to inflict injuries upon the person of the insured or any other
EMILIA T. BIAGTAN, JUAN T. BIAGTAN, JR., MIGUEL T. BIAGTAN, GIL T. BIAGTAN person or merely to scare away any person so as to ward off any resistance or
and GRACIA T. BIAGTAN obstacle that might be offered in the pursuit of their main objective which was
vs. robbery.”
THE INSULAR LIFE ASSURANCE
G.R. No. L-25579 | March 29, 1972 | Grp. 5 ISSUE:
MAKALINTAL, J. WON the wounds were inflicted intentionally?

SUMMARY
Insured was held knife-point by a band of robbers who ransacked his house. During the RATIO:
robbery, the robbers stabbed the insured to death. Beneficiaries are now claiming the ● Whether the robbers had the intent to kill or merely to scare the victim or to
insurance benefits but the insurance company only gave them the basic P5,000 pay. ward off any defense he might offer, it cannot be denied that the act itself of
The company refused to furnish the additional P5,000 under the accidental death inflicting the injuries was intentional. The exception in the accidental benefit
benefit clause bc the injuries he died of were intentionally inflicted by third parties— clause invoked by the appellant does not speak of the purpose of a third party
hence, no accident. SC decided in favor of the companies, stating that the wounds were in causing the injuries, but only of the fact that such injuries have been
intentionally inflicted. "intentionally" inflicted. The intent was obviously to distinguish them from
injuries which, although received at the hands of a third party, are purely
DOCTRINE accidental.
"Intentional" as used in an accident policy excepting intentional injuries inflicted by the ● The Calanoc vs. CA case which the trial court based its decioson, is different.
insured or any other person, etc., implies the exercise of the reasoning faculties, There, the firing of the gun could which caused the killing could not be said
consciousness and volition. Where a provision of the policy excludes intentional injury, as intentional for there was the possibility that the malefactor had fired the
it is the intention of the person inflicting the injury that is controlling. If the injuries shot to scare people around for his own protection and not necessarily to kill
suffered by the insured clearly resulted from the intentional act of a third person the or hit the victim. While a single shot fired from a distance, and by a person
insurer is relieved from liability as stipulated. who was not even seen aiming at the victim, could indeed have been fired
without intent to kill or injure, nine wounds inflicted with bladed weapons at
close range cannot conceivably be considered as innocent insofar as such
FACTS intent is concerned
1. Juan S. Biagtan was insured with defendant Insular Life Assurance Company o "Intentional" as used in an accident policy excepting intentional
under Policy No. 398075 for the sum of P5,000.0. There was also a supplementary injuries inflicted by the insured or any other person, etc., implies the
contract denominated "Accidental Death Benefit Clause, for an additional sum of exercise of the reasoning faculties, consciousness and volition.
P5, 000.00 if "the death of the Insured resulted directly from bodily injury effected Where a provision of the policy excludes intentional injury, it is the
solely through external and violent means sustained in an accident ... and intention of the person inflicting the injury that is controlling. If the
independently of all other causes." The clause, however, expressly provided that injuries suffered by the insured clearly resulted from the intentional
it would not apply where death resulted from an injury" intentionally inflicted by act of a third person the insurer is relieved from liability as stipulated.
another party."
2. On May 21, 1964, while the said life policy and supplementary contract were in RULING: Yes. Reversed
full force and effect, a band of robbers entered the house of the insured Juan S.
Biagtan where he received thrusts from their sharp-pointed instruments resulting TEEHANKEE, J., dissenting:
in his death. (Upon reaching 2nd floor, the robbers had "rushed towards the doors ● The case of Calanoc cited by the lower court is indeed controlling here. This
of the second floor room, where they suddenly met a person ... who turned out to Court, there construing a similar clause, squarely ruled that fatal injuries
be the insured Juan S. Biagtan who received thrusts from their pointed inflicted upon an insured by a malefactor(s) during the latter's commission of
instruments.") – this fact is relevant in the dissent. a crime are deemed accidental and within the coverage of such accidental
3. Plaintiffs, as beneficiaries of the insured, filed a claim under the policy. IL paid the death benefit clauses and the burden of proving that the killing was intentional
basic amount of P5,000.00 but refused to pay the additional sum of P5,000.00 so as to have it fall within the stipulated exception of having resulted from
under the accidental death benefit clause on the ground that the insured's death injuries "intentionally inflicted by a third party" must be discharged by the
resulted from injuries intentionally inflicted by third parties and therefore was not insurance company. This Court there clearly held that in such cases where the
covered. killing does not amount to murder, it must be held to be a "pure accident" on
4. Lower court decided in favor of beneficiaries. Hence appeal. Lower court:: no the part of the victim, compensable with double-indemnity, even though the
"proof that the act of receiving thrusts from the sharp-pointed instrument of the malefactor is criminally liable for his act.
● Defendant company patently failed to discharge its burden of proving that the
fatal injuries were inflicted upon the deceased intentionally, i.e. deliberately.
From the undisputed facts, supra, 8 the robbers had "rushed towards the
doors of the second floor room, where they suddenly met a person ... who
turned out to be the insured Juan S. Biagtan who received thrusts from their
pointed instruments." The thrusts were indeed properly termed "purely
accidental" since they seemed to be a reflex action on the robbers' part upon
their being surprised by the deceased.
● Because Insurance policies are contacts of adhesions, any "ambiguous,
equivocal or uncertain terms" are to be "construed strictly and most strongly
against the insurer and liberally in favor of the insured so as to effect the
dominant purpose of indemnity or payment to the insured, especially where a
forfeiture is involved.
● This ambiguous clause conflicts with all the other four exceptions in the same
paragraph 51 particularly that immediately preceding it in item (d) which
excepts injuries received where the insured has violated the law or provoked
the injury, while this clause, construed as the insurance company now claims,
would seemingly except also all other injuries, intentionally inflicted by a third
party, regardless of any violation of law or provocation by the insured, and
defeat the very purpose of the policy of giving the insured double indemnity in
case of accidental death by "external and violent means" — in the very
language of the policy."
o It is obvious from the very classification of the exceptions and
applying the rule of noscitus a sociis that the double-indemnity policy
covers the insured against accidental death, whether caused by fault,
negligence or intent of a third party which is unforeseen and
unexpected by the insured. All the associated words and concepts in
the policy plainly exclude the accidental death.
● Two other insurance companies which likewise covered the insured for which
larger sums under similar accidental death benefit clauses promptly paid the
benefits thereof to plaintiffs-beneficiaries

1 of submarine transportation, or in any violation of law by the insured or assault provoked by


— Injuries effected through non-external means which are excepted: self-destruction,
bodily or mental infirmity or disease, poisoning or infection, injuries with no visible contusions the insured, or in any aircraft if the insured is a pilot or crew member; [exceptions 5 (a), (c)
or exterior wounds (exceptions 1 to 4 of policy clause); and (d), and 6 of the policy clause]; and

— Injuries caused by some act of the insured which is proscribed by the policy, and are — Accidents expressly excluded: where death resulted in any riot, civil commotion,
therefore similarly exepted: injuries received while on police duty, while travelling in any form insurrection or war or atomic energy explosion.