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CHEMISTRY DEFINITION

CHAPTER 1: ATOMS, MOLECULES AND STOICHIOMETRY


Relative isotopic mass Relative isotopic mass of an isotope is the ratio of the mass of
1
an atom of the isotope to 12 the mass of an atom of carbon-12
isotope.

Relative atomic mass Relative atomic mass of an element is the ratio of the weighted
1
average mass of an atom of the element to 12 the mass of an
atom of carbon-12 isotope.

Relative molecular mass Relative molecular mass of a molecular substance is the ratio
1
of the weighted average mass of the molecules to 12 the mass
of an atom of carbon-12 isotope.

Relative formula mass Relative formula mass of a chemical formula is the ratio of the
weighted average mass of one formula unit of the compound
1
to 12 the mass of an atom of carbon-12 isotope.

The mole Amount of substance containing as many particles as there are


atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 isotope.

Avogadro’s constant Number of atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12.

Molar mass Mass of one mole of that substance.

Molecular formula Chemical formula that displays the actual number of atoms of
each element present in one molecule of a compound.

Empirical formula Chemical formula that displays the smallest ratio of atoms of
each element in a compound.

CHAPTER 2: ATOMIC STRUCTURE


Isotope Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons
and electrons but different number of neutrons.

Orbital A region in space where electrons are likely to be found.

Aufbau principle Electrons will always fill into the orbital with the lowest
energy available.

Pauli exclusion principle Electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins.
Hund’s rule In the event of filling electrons into degenerate orbitals,
electrons will always fill separately into the vacant orbitals
and have equal spins.

Isoelectronic Atoms or ions that contain the same number of electrons.

First ionization energy Energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one
mole of atoms in its gaseous state to form one mole of gaseous
+1 ion.

CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL BONDING


Electronegativity Measure of attracting power of an atom to attract the bonding
electrons towards the atom itself.

Ionic bonding Electrostatic force of attraction between two oppositely-


charged ions as a result of a complete transfer of one or more
electrons from one atom to another.

Covalent bonding Electrostatic force of attraction that two neighbouring nuclei


have for a localised pair of electrons shared between them.

Bond energy Energy required to break one mole of a covalent bond between
two atoms in the gaseous state.

Bond length Distance between nuclei of the two atoms joined by a covalent
bond.

Bond angle Angle subtended by two bonds on a common atom.

Dative bond A covalent bond formed with the electrons contributed by one
of the two atoms only.

Metallic bond The net attraction that exist between the cation and the
delocalised electrons.

Bond polarity Bonding electrons are unequally shared // the molecule has a
dipole/δ+ and δ- ends to molecule.

Polarizability The measure of how well an atom or molecule respond


towards an external electric field.

Hydrogen bonding Occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a very


electronegative atom (F, O, N) which removes nearly all the
electrons from the hydrogen atom.

CHAPTER 4: STATES OF MATTER


Boyle’s law For a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, the volume
of the gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas

Charles’ law For a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure, the volume of
the gas is directly proportional to the thermodynamic
temperature of the gas.

Avogadro’s law For a gas at constant pressure and temperature, the volume of
a gas is directly proportional to the amount of particles
contained in the gas.

Real gases Real gases are actual, realistic gases in contrast to the
hypothetical ideal gas.

Lattice A periodic arrangement of points in space or an open


framework overlaid in a regular pattern.

Phase A region in space containing matter and has uniform physical


properties.

Vapour pressure Vapour pressure of a substances at a particular temperature is


the pressure exerted by the vapour of that substance when the
substance is allowed to attain an equilibrium with the vapour
phase.

Boiling point The temperature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid is


equal to the atmospheric pressure.

CHAPTER 5: ENTHALPY CHANGES


System Part of the universe that we wish to investigate.

Surrounding The remainder of the universe that is not part of our system.

Exothermic reaction Reactions where heat is released by the system to the


surrounding.

Endothermic reaction Reactions where heat is absorbed by the system from the
surrounding.

Specific heat capacity of a Heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of the
substance substance by 1K / 1°C

Enthalpy Total energy of a system at constant pressure

Standard Conditions at 25°C and 1 atm


Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of water is formed
of neutralisation, ▲Hnθ (product) in the neutralisation of an acid and an alkali under
standard conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of a compound is
of formation, ▲Hfθ formed (product) from its elements in their standard states
under standard conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of free gaseous
of atomisation, ▲Hatθ atom is formed (product) from its element under standard
conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of substance
of solution, ▲Hsolθ (reactant) dissolves in such a large volume of solvent that
addition of more solvent produces no more further heat change
under standard conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of a substance
of combustion, ▲Hcθ of a (reactant) is completely burnt in excess oxygen under standard
substance conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of the gaseous ions
of hydration, ▲Hhydθ of an (reactant) is dissolved in a large amount of water under
ion standard conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change produced when one mole of an anhydrous
of hydration, ▲Hhydθ of an salt (reactant) forms one mole of a hydrated salt (product)
anhydrous salt under standard conditions.

Standard enthalpy change Enthalpy change when the amount of reactants shown in the
of reaction, ▲Hrθ equation reacts to give the products under standard conditions.

Hess’ law Total enthalpy change in a chemical reaction is independent


of the route by which the chemical reaction takes place as long
as the initial and final conditions are the same.

CHAPTER 6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Oxidation A process that losses electron / increase in oxidation number.

Reduction A process that gains electron / decrease in oxidation number.

Oxidising agent Oxidises another substance and itself is reduced.

Reducing agent Reduces another substance and itself is oxidised.

Disproportionation A species that is simultaneously oxidised and reduced.


CHAPTER 7: EQUILIBRIA
Dynamic equilibrium A condition where the rate of the forward reaction equals to
the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentrations of both
reactants and products remain constant.

Le Chatelier’s Principle States that if a change is made to a system in equilibrium, the


system reacts in such a way as tend to oppose the change, and
a new equilibrium is formed.

Acid (Arrhenius’ theory) A substance that ionises in water to form hydrogen ions.

Acid (Bronsted-Lowry’s A acid is a proton donor.


theory)

Strong Acid (Bronsted- Strong acids are fully dissociated in solution


Lowry’s theory)

Weak Acid (Bronsted- Weak acids are partially dissociated in solution


Lowry’s theory)

Alkali (Arrhenius’ theory) A substance that dissociates in water to form hydroxide ions.

Base (Bronsted-Lowry’s A base is a proton acceptor.


theory)

Strong Bases (Bronsted- Strong bases are fully dissociated in solution


Lowry’s theory)

Weak Bases (Bronsted- Weak bases are partially dissociated in solution


Lowry’s theory)

Amphoteric / ampholyte / A substance that behaves as an acid and a base.


amphiprotic

CHAPTER 8: RATES OF REACTION


Rate of reaction Rate of a reaction is the change in concentration of reactants
or products per unit time.

Collision theory States that when reactant particles collide with one another,
the effective collisions are produced if the total energy of the
reactants is equal or greater than the activation energy and the
reactants must collide at the correct orientation.

Activation energy The minimum amount of energy molecules required in order


for a reaction to take place.
Catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a forward and reverse
reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway with
lower activation energy, without itself undergoing any
permanent chemical change.
.
Autocatalytic reaction A reaction in which one of the products catalyses the reaction.

Homogeneous catalysts Catalysts that are in the same physical state as the reactants.

Heterogeneous catalysts Catalysts that are in a different physical state from the
reactants.

Enzymes Biological catalysts and they catalyse reactions in living


organisms.