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This is to certify that this project has been compiled by Vaibhavi Meshram, Roll
number- _________ of 12th ‘B’ under the able guidance of Mrs. Shilpa Agrawal
Vishnoi and Mrs. Kavita Khilrani.
She has performed this experiment by her own. This project has been compiled
as per the Central Board of Secondary Education syllabus and can be considered
as the fulfilment of AISSCE.
This work is up to the mark of satisfaction. We wish her success in every aspect
of life.

Date Examiner’s signature


I feel immense pleasure and deep feeling of gratitude towards my teachers of

Carmel Convent Senior Secondary School BHEL Bhopal for their skilful guidance,
constructive valuable suggestions and encouraging cooperation for my project.
My sincere thanks to Principal Sr. Pavitra who has encouraged me throughout
this project.
My heartiest thanks to Mrs. Monica (lab assistant) without whose cooperation
and guidance, this project would have been difficult to complete. I also thank
my team members for this wonderful cooperation and valuable guidance to
complete this project with full fervour.

In 1820, Oersted had shown that an electric current generates a magnetic field.
But can a magnetic field generate an electric current? This was answered almost
simultaneously and independently in 1831 by Joseph Henry in the United States
and Michael Faraday in Great Britain.
Electromagnetic induction is the process by which a current can be induced to
flow due to a changing magnetic field.
Faraday took a magnet and a coil and connected a galvanometer across the coil.
At starting, the magnet is at rest, so there is no deflection in the galvanometer.
When the magnet is moved towards the coil, the needle of the galvanometer
deflects in one direction. When the magnet is held stationary at that position,
the needle of galvanometer returns to zero position. Now when the magnet
moves away from the coil, there is some deflection in the needle but opposite
direction, and again when the magnet becomes stationary, at that point respect
to the coil, the needle of the galvanometer returns to the zero position.
Similarly, if the magnet is held stationary and the coil moves away, and towards
the magnet, the galvanometer similarly shows deflection. It is also seen that the
faster the change in the magnetic field, the greater will be the induced EMF or
voltage in the coil.
Conclusion: From this experiment, Faraday concluded that whenever there is
relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field, the flux linkage with
a coil changes and this change in flux induces a voltage across a coil.


1. Faraday's First Law:

Whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field an EMF gets
induced across the conductor (called as induced emf), and if the
conductor is a closed circuit then induced current flows through it.
Magnetic field can be varied by various methods such as:
 By moving magnet
 By moving the coil
 By rotating the coil relative to magnetic field
2. Faraday's Second Law:
Faraday's second law of electromagnetic induction states that, the
magnitude of induced emf is equal to the rate of change of flux linkages
with the coil. The flux linkages is the product of number of turns and flux
associated with the coil.

Formula of Faraday's Law:

Consider the conductor is moving in magnetic field, then flux linkage with
the coil at initial position of the conductor = NΦ1 (Wb) (N is speed of the
motor and Φ is flux) flux linkage with the coil at final position of the
conductor = NΦ2 (Wb) change in the flux linkage from initial to final =
N(Φ1 - Φ2)
let Φ1 - Φ2 = Φ
therefore, change in the flux linkage = NΦ
and, rate of change in the flux linkage = NΦ/t
taking the derivative of RHS
rate of change of flux linkages = N (dΦ/dt)
According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, rate of change
of flux linkages is equal to the induced emf
So, E = N (dΦ/dt) (volts)

3. Lenz's Law
Lenz's law of electromagnetic induction states that, when an emf is
induced according to Faraday's law, the polarity (direction) of that
induced emf is such that it opposes the cause of its production.
Thus, considering Lenz's law
E = -N (dΦ/dt) (volts)
The negative sign shows that, the direction of the induced emf and the
direction of change in magnetic fields have opposite signs.

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction has been technologically

exploited in many ways. An exceptionally important application is the AC
Generator. Yugoslavian inventor Nicola Tesla is credited with the development
of this machine.
An AC generator is an electric generator that converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy in form of alternative emf or alternating current.

AC generator works based on principle of faraday law of electromagnetic
induction. The faradays law states that whenever a conductor is placed in a
varying magnetic field, EMF is induced, and this induced EMF is equal to the rate
of change of flux linkages. This EMF can be generated when there is either
relative space or relative time variation between the conductor and magnetic

Insulated Copper wire:
A rectangular rotating coil of wire ABCD.
Magnet Poles:
A magnet as placed above i.e. North Pole and South Pole. This creates a
magnetic field as shown above. The rectangular coil is placed between these
Split Rings:
Two disjoint C-shaped rings R1 and R2 are internally attached to the Axle.. Ends
of the coil are connected to R1 and R2. The inner portion of these rins are made
of non-conducting material.
The split rings are placed on the axle which is made to rotate freely from an
external source.
The outside of the split rings are connected to conducting brushes B1 and B2.
B1 and B2 is kept pressed on R1 and R2 respectively.
To measure current. The outer ends of the brushes are connected to the
galvanometer to measure the current.

An Ac generator consists of two poles i.e. is the north pole and south pole of a
magnet so that we can have a uniform magnetic field. There is also a coil which
is rectangular in shape that is the armature. These coils are connected to the slip
rings and attached to them are carbon brushes.
The slip rings are made of metal and are insulated from each other. The brushes
are carbon brushes and one end of each brush connects to the ring and other
connects to the circuit. The rectangular coils rotate about an axis which is
perpendicular to the magnetic field. There is also a shaft which rotates rapidly.

The axle is rotated such that it moves in the clockwise directions that is AB
moves up and CD moves down. According to Fleming's Right-Hand rule, the
induced current is setup in the coil along B1-> AB -> BC -> CD -> B2. This means
that the external current flows from B2 to B1. After half a rotation, arm CD starts
moves up and AB moves down. According to Fleming's Right-Hand rule, the
induced current is setup in the coil along B2-> AB -> BC -> CD -> B1. This means
that the external current flows from B1 to B2. Thus, after every half rotation of
the coil, the current changes direction. This is called an AC current. Changes
its direction after equal intervals of time. It is easier to transmit this current over
long distances due to lesser loses and hence this is the current that is supplied
to our houses from the electricity department.
Theory of Working of AC Generator:

The plane of the coil is such that its axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field.
As the coil is rotated clockwise, the side AB of the coil moves upward, and the
other side CD moves downwards. The flux in the coil changes, the current is
induced, the direction of the current in the side AB will be outward according to
Fleming’s left-hand rule. In the next half cycle, AB moves downward, and CD
moves upward. Now, the direction of current induced in AB is inward according
to Fleming’s left-hand rule. Thus, alternating current is induced in the coil in one
complete cycle which flows from the brushes B1 and B2 to the external load
resistance such that an alternating voltage is developed across RL.

 Maximum induced emf,

 When a load of resistance R is connected across the terminals, current I
flows in the external circuit.

 where I0 = e0/R, both current and voltage vary sinusoidally with time.
 Maximum current,

 Stationary field rotating armature
 Rotating field stationary armature
Stationary field rotating armature:
Usually, small AC Generators have stationary field rotating armature and it has
one major disadvantage that is the slip rings and the brush assembly is in series
with the load circuits.
Rotating field stationary armature:
Alternating current will be induced into a stationary coil if a DC field excitation
is connected to the rotor and this arrangement is called the rotating field
stationary armature. It is mostly used when high power generation is involved.

In commercial generators, the mechanical energy required for rotation of the

armature is provided by either hydro-electric generator (water falling from
height) or by thermal or nuclear power generators.

1. Introduction
2. Electromagnetic Induction
3. Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
4. AC Generator
 Principle
 Components
 Construction
 Working
 Theory
5. Types of AC Generators
6. Bibliography

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_induction
 https://www.electricaleasy.com/2014/02/faradays-law-and-lenzs-law-of.html
 https://instrumentationtools.com/types-of-ac-generators/
 https://brainly.in/question/1080601
 NCERT Text Book- Physics Part I