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FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Terengganu


Kampus Bukit Besi,
23200 Bukit Besi Dungun, Terengganu.
Tel : +609 833 5002

TECHNICAL/EXECUTIVE REPORT : ORGANIC & ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY


Lab No. : 02
Marks:
Topic : ORGANIC SYNTHESIS:FORMATION OF AN
ESTER 100
Date :
Participant Course : EH110 Semester : 2 Group: C
*Please cancel which is not No. Name Matrix No. Signature
necessary.
1
2
3
Instructor 1.

Objective :
1. To perform organic synthesis in term of formation of an ester.
2. To understand the process of esterification.
3. To demonstrate effective team role and responsibility in the task execution

Abstract :

Material and Material : Acetic acid,ethanol,concentrated sulphuric acid


apparatus

Apparatus : Round bottomed flask, condenser,3-way


connector,thermometer.thermometer adapter,vacuum adapter,measuring
cylinder,connectors,magnetic flea,heating mantle,tube,cork.

Procedure 1. Ensure that all glassware is clean and dry.


2. Add 50 ml of ethanol and 50 ml of acetic acid to a round bottomed flask.
3. Slowly add a few drop of concentrated sulphuric acid and a magnetic flea to
prevent bumping.
4. Assemble the apparatus for reflux using a water-cooled condenser.
5. Attach the tube from the tap to the lower inlet of the condenser and the end
of the it is put in the sink.
6. A drying tube also is used to prevent any additional water from entering the
reaction.
7. The tap water is open.
8. The heating mantle is turned on and the heat adjusted until the reaction
boils gently.
9. After that, reflux the mixture for 30 minutes.
10. Turn off the heating mantle.
11. Dissemble the apparatus and cooled the mixture to room temperature.
12. Assamble the apparatus for distillation process.
13. Make sure the reservoir (bulb) of the thermometer needs to be level with
the intake to the condenser to ensure that the temperature being recorded
is that of the vapour that is being condensed in the condenser.
14. Turn on the heating mantle and gently heat the mixture between 700C to
800C.
15. Record the temperature of the first drop.
16. Discard any distillate collected before the temperature of the vapour
reaches a constant.
17. Collect the distillate in a clean, dry flask.
18. Discard any distillate collected before the temperature of the vapour
reaches a constant.Do not discard the distillate that collects at a constant
temperature that is approximately the same as that expected for your
ester.
Replace the collection flask with another flask as soon as you think the
temperature of the vapour is increasing, and stop heating the mixture.
19. Do not continue heating the mixture to dryness.
There should always be some mixture left in the flask when you turn off the
heat.
Set up of reflux using a water-cooled condenser.

Data/Results Ester Temperature at Colour Odour


/Calculation: first drop (0C)

Ethyl acetate 77 Colourless Fruity odour

Reaction of acectic acid and ethanol :

H2SO4

CH3COOH + C2H5OH C4H8O2 + H2O


Acetic acid Ethanol Ethyl acetate Water
Discussion
1. Explain why the glassware must be dry this experiment ?

This is because the presence of water in the reaction mixture will drive the
equilibrium to the left, favouring the formation of reactants rather than ester.

2. Ethyl acetate has a fruity smell.Explain why?

The fruity smell is because of the weak intermolecular forces in the ester. They
also do not hydrogen bond that well, but when they do, it will give off a particular
smell. One of the solutions produced an acetate, and ended up being acetic acid.

3. How to test the presence of Ethyl acetate?

To test the presence of ethyl ecetate is by smelling it. Ethyl acetate have a fruity
smell (more likely like pear smell).Other than that is by mixing ethyl actate with
water.It will not dissolve in water.This is because ester is less dense than
water.So,it will float on top of the aqueous layer.

4.What are the purpose of using concentrated sulphuric acid in this experiment?

Concentrated sulfuric acid can be used in this experiment because it reacts rapidly
with water to form a hydrated form of sulfuric acid, effectively removing the water
from the reaction mixture.It helps to improve yield ,to remove the water as it
forms.So,the amount of ester produce increase.
Conclusion:

1. Synthesis
References:
https://www.academia.edu/38147298/Synthesis

2. For the acetate test a fruity smell will be produced


https://www.coursehero.com/file/p2dnee3/For-the-acetate-test-a-fruity-
smell-will-be-produced-from-the-ethyl-acetate/

3. A Simple Distillation Explained


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mrA1OawpeNk&feature=youtu.be

4. Chemistry Review: Setting up a reflux experiment


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FyDiT44zzvc&feature=youtu.be
Authorize Person Initial Date Stamp
Approval Technician

Instructor

Allocated Marks for Technical/Executive report

Criteria Total Marks Marks


Abstract 15
Objective 5
Material and apparatus 5
Procedure 5
Data/result 15
Calculation 15
Discussion 20
Conclusion 10
Reference 10
TOTAL 100

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