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AUDIO & HI-FI Contents

Titan 2000
High-power hi-fi and
public-address amplifier

It could be argued
that most of the out-
put amplifiers pub-
lished in this maga-
zine lack power.
Although this is a
debatable point, it
was felt that a true
heavyweight output
amplifier would make
a welcome change for
many constructors.
The Titan 2000 can
produce 300 watts
into 8 Ω, 500 watts
into 4 Ω, and
800 watts into 2 Ω.
For those who believe
that music power is a
reputable quantity, the
amplifier can deliver
2000 watts of this
magical power into
Brief parameters
4 Ω. Sine-wave power output 300 W into 8 Ω; 500 W into 4 Ω; 800 W into 2 Ω
Music power* 2000 W into 4 Ω
Harmonic distortion <0.005%
Slew limiting 85 V µs–1
Open-loop bandwidth 55 kHz
Power bandwidth 1.5 Hz – 220 kHz

*See text about the validity of this meaningless quantity.

Design by T. Giesberts

Elektor Electronics 2/99


58
Contents
INTRODUCTION ‘PROGRAMMABLE’ age across the loudspeaker and the r.m.s.
Amplifier output has been a cause of POWER OUTPUT current flowing into the speaker. The term
argument for as long as there have The amplifier has been designed in music power is generally meaningless,
been audio power amplifiers. For such a manner that its output is ‘pro- because to some manufacturers it means the
domestic use, a power rating of grammable’ as it were. With a sine product of the peak voltage and peak cur-
2×50 W is more than sufficient. With wave input, it delivers an average rent; to others it means merely double the
the volume control at maximum and power of 300 W into an 8 Ω load, true power; and to yet others, even more
the use of correctly matched good- which should meet the requirements disreputable, it means quadrupling the true
quality loudspeakers, this will provide of all but the power drunk. Compared power).

± 85V
1
regulator auxiliary main power
supply
± 78V power supply
2x 15V
± 70V
T43...T52

voltage amplifier current amplifier

T1...T10 T27...T34
T15...T26 T35...T42

input stages & drivers & output stages


cascode amplifiers
offset control

protection 0
circuits

heat sink U in U out


sensor

thermal
control
fan

Figure 1. Simplified block dia- 990001 - 12


gram of the Titan 2000. The aux-
iliary power supply, protection
networks and thermal control
are discrete circuits built on dis-
crete PCBs. with the output of 50 W from a However, power is not the only cri-
domestic audio amplifier, this terion of an amplifier. Low distortion,
gives an increase in SPL of good slew limiting, and an extended
a sound pressure level (SPL) equiva- 7.5 dB. If even higher outputs are power bandwidth, as possessed by the
lent to that of a grand piano being needed, the load impedance may be Titan 2000, are also hallmarks of a good
played forte in the same room. lowered to 4 Ω, which will give an amplifier.
However, not all amplifiers are increase in SPL of 10 dB compared Power bandwidth denotes the fre-
intended for domestic use: many are with a 50 W output. quency range over which the power
destined for discos, small music halls Although music power is a depre- falls to not less than half its maximum
and other large rooms. But even here, catory term, since it does not really value. This is much more telling than
what power is really required? Since give the true power rating of an ampli- the frequency response, which is usu-
doubling the amplifier output increases fier, readers may note that the Titan ally measured at a much lower output
the SPL by a barely audible 3 dB, it was 2000 can deliver 2 kW of this magical level.
felt that 300 watts sine wave power into power into 4 Ω. (True power is average Slew limiting is the maximum input
8 Ω would appeal to many. power, that is, the product of the r.m.s. volt- voltage change that can occur in one

Elektor Electronics 2/99 59


85V R56
2
15Ω
R57 R62 BF245A BC639 BC550 BD711 BF871
BF256C BC640 BC560 BD712 BF872

15k
1V

330Ω
T47 R13 R18 D4 R24 R25 R26
D10 C16 C4 C8 C20 C21 C17

68Ω
68Ω
68Ω

1k00
270Ω

1V45
0V83
D8 100p 2n2
1N4004 100n 100p 100p 100p
BD712 5V6
30V T43
R16 T15 T16 T17
R63 0W5
1W3 C32 G D E B C E
+78V

150Ω
BF S C B

15k
245A 2µ2
2x T11 B E
R58 63V
C
BC T21...T23=MJE340 E B

270Ω

0V36
T45 639 T46 70V
R22 T29...T31=2SC5171 C

3k3
2mA1 C43 C44 C45

35V
C31 1W T29 T30 T31

39V
C28 C29

53V
R60 R61 R64 T13 100n 100n 100n
15n
T21 T22 T23 5V
470µ 100V 220n 15V

12k

22Ω
22Ω

60
BF256C +5V
R59 P2 R36 R39 R40 R41 R78
T9

39V
5k6
2k2

8V4
10Ω
10Ω
10Ω

560Ω
38mV
250Ω
R19 D5 R76
D1 IC2 I
BF256A P4 C6 C10 C9
D9 T44 R5 100Ω
BF871 2 8 6

10k
C30 C33 C34

1V7
330Ω
T35...T38=2SC5359
39V 220µ R74
25V 100µ 1W 100n 15V
47µ 220n 470µ T5 1W3 T35 T36 T37 T38 C42
63V 1W3 100V 25V
100Ω

5k T3 1n
BF R31 R33
R75 R77
245A BD 3 7 5
33Ω 100Ω

22k
R4 T27

220Ω
D3 139 6N136
1N4148 T7 R12
C3 R45 R46 R47 R48 R79

22Ω
MUTE JP2

53mV
2Ω2

22Ω
0Ω22
0Ω22
0Ω22
0Ω22

1n

45mV
20mV

T1
R10 R11 LS+ LS+ L1
Re1
470Ω 470Ω
R38 R49 R50 R51 R52
JP1 C15
C1 R2
K1

150Ω

2V24
0Ω22
0Ω22
0Ω22
0Ω22

20mV

562Ω R9 100n

470Ω
R34 Re4 Re3 Re2

essence, fairly straightforward.


2µ2 D19 D18
T2

390Ω
P3
V23042-A2003-B101 R14
R8 R30 2R
500Ω
P1 R
R6

22Ω
5k

22Ω1
1R

45mV
R1 R3

22Ω
C2 T8 T39 T40 T41 T42

53mV
P-IN BF T4 C14

1M
47k
245A LS1
1n T39...T42=2SA1987
T6 T28 C
BD R37 R42 R43 R44

22k
R21 D7 140

220Ω
C13 C12 LS- LS-
10Ω
10Ω
10Ω

560Ω

P5

10k
32mV

R32 R35
R7 T10
D12 R68 C7
C37 C41 100µ 1W 100n 15V
C40
1W3

1V7
39V

470Ω
25V T27...T42 on common heatsink

5k6
220µ
47µ 220n 470µ D2
25V
63V 1W3 BF256A 5k 100V BF872

sion of a highly complex design, the amplifier is, in


C46 C47 C48
T14

-30V
T32 T33 T34
100n 100n 100n

-39V
T49 15V

Figure 2. Although the circuit diagram gives the impres-


BF256C T24 T25 T26
R69 R70 R73 T32...T34=2SA1930

-53V
70V
R23 P-LS
D16

12k
C35

22Ω
22Ω
C36
3k3

C38 T12 15V


35V

1W C26 R53
470µ 100V 220n 1N4004
T50 T51
1M

-39V
15n
T24...T26=MJE340 2µ2 63V
D11
2x R17 C24

Elektor Electronics
T48 BC
640 BD139 MJE340 2SC5171 2SA1987

150Ω

30V R72 BD140 MJE350 2SC5359


BF C39 5 2SA1930
1W3 T18 T19 T20
7

15k
245A R15 R20 D6 2 D14
-78V C18 C5 C11 C22 1
2µ2 C23 C19
R67 6 12V
63V
68Ω
68Ω
68Ω

IC1 0W5
1k00
270Ω

1V45
0V83

100p 3

270Ω

0V36
BD711 2n2 100n 100p 100p 100p D15
D13 5V6 R27 R28 R29 4
0W5 OP90G
R66 R71 R55 R54
1N4004
T52 4M7 4M7 C27
1V

15k
330Ω
C25 E B E B B E
D17 B E
T1, T4, T5, T15...T17 = BC560C 2µ2 63V C C C
15Ω 15V C
T2, T3, T6, T18...T20 = BC550C 68n
Contents

85V R65 1N4004 990001 - 11

2/99
Contents

microsecond, and to which the ampli- works next to impossible. To obtain the transistors T35–T42.
fier can respond. requisite output power, the use of par- The offset control stage prevents
allel networks of symmetrical pairs of any direct voltage appearing at the
DESIGN transistors is inevitable. output of the amplifier.
CONSIDERATIONS In view of the foregoing, bipolar The loudspeaker is linked to the
The Titan 2000 is based on the ‘com- transistors are used in the current amplifier by three heavy-duty relays.
pact power amplifier’ published in the amplifier of the Titan 2000. However, The current amplifier operates from
May 1997 issue of this magazine. That these cannot be driven as readily as a ±70 V supply, which is provided by
was a typical domestic amplifier with a IGBTs, which means that current drive two 50 V mains transformers. To enable
power output of 50 W into 8 Ω or 85 W instead of voltage drive is used. This the voltage amplifier to drive the cur-
into 4 Ω. The special property of this entails a substantial upgrading of the rent amplifier to its full extent, it needs
fully balanced design was the use of driver stages and the preceding cas- a slightly higher supply voltage to
current feedback instead of voltage code amplifiers (which also consist of a compensate for the inevitable losses
feedback, which resulted in a fast- couple of parallel-connected transis- caused by inevitable voltage drops.
responding amplifier with a large tors). The good news is that the power This is accomplished by superimposing
open-loop bandwidth. The amplifier transistors in the Titan 2000 are consid- a ±15 V potential from an external
performed well both as regards instru- erably less expensive than IGBTs: an auxiliary supply on to the main ±70 V
ment test and measurements and lis- important factor when eight of these supply and dropping the resulting
tening tests. However, to serve as a devices are used. voltage to ±78 V with the aid of regu-
basis for the Titan 2000, its output cur- Finally, the protection circuits have lator T43–T52.
rent and drive voltage range had to be been enhanced in view of the higher The combined protection circuits
increased substantially. voltages and currents. The circuits pro- constantly compare the input and out-
For a start, the supply voltage has to tecting against direct voltages and put voltage of the amplifier: any devi-
be more than doubled, which means short-circuits are supplemented by ation from the nominal values leads to
that transistors with a higher power networks protecting against overload the output relays disconnecting the
rating have to be used in the power and (too) high temperatures. The latter loudspeaker and the input relay
supply. The higher supply voltage also is coupled to a proportional fan con- decoupling the input signal.
results in larger potential drops across a trol. The thermal protection circuit mon-
number of components, and this In short, a large part of the Titan itors the temperature of the heat sink
means that dissipation problems may 2000 is a virtually new design rather and, if necessary, switches on a fan. If,
arise. than a modified one. with the fan operating, the tempera-
The large output current required ture approaches the maximum per-
for the Titan 2000 makes a complete BRIEF DESCRIPTION missible limit, the output relays are
redesign of the current amplifier used The block diagram of the Titan 2000 is deenergized and disconnect the loud-
in the ‘compact power amplifier ’ shown in Figure 1. The voltage ampli- speaker.
unavoidable, since that uses insulated- fier consists of input stages T1–T10, and
gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). cascode amplifiers/pre-drivers T15–T26. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
Although these are excellent devices, The current amplifier is formed by dri- The circuit diagram of the Titan 2000 is
the large spread of their gate-emitter ver transistors T27–T34, and output shown in Figure 2. In spite of the large
voltage makes their use in parallel net- number of components, the basic cir-

Elektor Electronics 2/99 61


Contents
Tr1 gain of 20 dB).
The amplification of the cascode
3 D3 D1
K3 amplifiers is determined largely by the
F1
ratio of parallel-connected resistors R31
160mA T 85V and R32 and the parallel network of
D4 D2 R24–R26. With values as specified, the
C1 C3
R1
amplification is about ×850 (remem-

1M
12V / 1VA5 4x 1N4007 ber, this is a push-pull design), so that
K2 470µ
K1 70V 100V 100n the overall amplification of input sec-
tion plus cascode amplifiers is ×8500 (a
gain of close to 80 dB).

Current amplifier
70V R2
C2 C4 Since one of the design requirements is

1M
Tr2 4x 1N4007 that the amplifier is to work with loads
down to 1.5 Ω, the output stages con-
470µ
100V 100n K4
D5 D7 sist of four parallel-connected pairs of
F2 85V transistors, T35–T38 and T39–T42. These
160mA T
transistors have a highly linear transfer
D6 D8
characteristic and provide a direct-cur-
rent amplification that remains virtu-
12V / 1VA5 990001 - 13 ally constant for currents up to 7 A.
Like the output transistors, the dri-
ver stages need to remain within their
Figure 3. Circuit dia- safe operating area (SOA), which
cuit is straightforward. gram of the requisite and T8. In view of the necessitates a threefold parallel net-
As already noted in auxiliary power supply. requisite stability, work. The transistors used in the dri-
the previous para- diode D1 is thermally ver stages are fast types
graph, transistors coupled to T5 and D2 (f T =200 MHz).
T1–T10 form the input to T6. Setting the bias voltage for the req-
amplifier, T11 and T12 are buffers, T13 Any imbalance of the input stages is uisite quiescent current is accom-
and T14 are current sources, T15–T26 compensated by making the current plished by balanced transistors T27 and
form the cascode amplifier/pre-driver through T5 equal to that through T6 T28. These transistors are mounted on
stage, T27–T34 are the driver transistors with potentiometer P2. the same heat sink as the output tran-
in the current amplifier, T35–T42 are the sistors and driver transistors to ensure
output transistors, and T43–T52 form a Cascode amplifiers/pre-drivers good thermal coupling and current
sophisticated supply voltage regulator. The large output current of the Titan control. Of course, the current rises
2000 necessitates a proportionally during full drive conditions, but drops
Input amplifier large pre-drive voltage, which is pro- again to its nominal level when the
Strictly speaking, the input amplifier is vided by three parallel-connected cas- amplifier cools off. The quiescent cur-
formed by transistors T3–T4. Cascode code amplifiers, T15–T26. The current rent is set to 200 mA with potentiome-
stages T9–T10 serve merely to enable through these amplifiers is arranged at ter P3.
the input section handling the high 10–15 mA, but the current feedback Owing to the large output current,
voltages. These voltages are limited by used may cause this level to be appre- the connection between amplifier out-
zener diodes D5 and D7, which are part ciably higher. This is the reason that the put and loudspeaker is not arranged
of the potential divider that also sets transistors used in the T21–T26 posi- via a single relay, but via three. Two of
the operating points of T21–T26. In tions are types that can handle cur- these, Re3–Re4, are controlled in syn-
view of the requisite stability, the cur- rents of up to 50 mA when their collec- chrony by the protection circuits.
rent through the zener diodes is held tor-emitter voltage is 150 V. When they are deenergized, their dis-
constant by current sources T13 and The input section is linked to the abling action is delayed slightly to give
T14. Resistors R22 and R23 limit the cascode amplifiers by buffers T11 and the contacts of the third relay, Re2, time
potential across, and thus the dissipa- T12, which results in a lowering of the to open, which is of importance in a
tion in, these field-effect transistors. input impedance. The arrangement fault situation.
Otherwise, the input section is vir- also enables an increase in the values Input relay Re1 is switched off in
tually identical to that of the ‘compact of R13 and R15, which results in a 3 dB synchrony with Re2 to ensure that
power amplifier’. The drop across the increase in amplification of the input there is no input signal by the time Re3
emitter resistors of buffers T1 and T2 section. and Re4 are deenergized.
determines the drop across the emitter The function of resistors R19 and Optoisolator IC2 serves as sensor for
resistors of T3 and T4, and conse- R21 is threefold: they limit the dissipa- the current protection circuits. The
quently the setting of the operating tion of the buffers; they obviate the light-emitting diode in it monitors the
point of the overall input section. To need of an additional voltage to set the voltage across R48–R52 via potential
eliminate the influence of temperature operating point of the buffers; they divider R74–R75, so that the positive as
variations, T1 is thermally coupled to limit the maximum current through well as the negative output currents
T3 and T2 to T4. the buffers, and thus the cascode are guarded. The use of an optoisola-
Since the operating point of buffers amplifiers, to a safe value. tor prevents earth loops and obviates
T1 and T2 is critical, current sources T5 The open-loop amplification of the compensation of the ±70 V common-
and T6 have been added. The reference Titan 2000 is determined solely by mode voltage. The +5 V supply for the
for these current sources is provided those of the input section and cascode optoisolator is derived from the pro-
by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) D1 and amplifiers. The amplification of the tection circuits.
D2. The current through these diodes input section depends on the ratios
is determined by current sources T7 R 13 :(R 12 +R 8 ) and R 15 :(R 14 +R 8 ) and, Feedback
with values as specified is ×10 (i.e., a The feedback loop runs from the out-

62 Elektor Electronics 2/99


Contents
put of the power stages to the junction Offset compensation is provided by inevitable losses through potential
of T3 and T4 via resistors R10 and R11. integrator IC1, which ensures that if drops, the supply voltage for the input
This is current feedback because the there is any direct voltage at the output section and cascode amplifiers needs to
current through T3 and T4 depends on of the amplifier, the operating point of be higher than the main ±70 V line.
the potential across R8, which is deter- T1-T2 is is shifted as needed to keep the Furthermore, the input voltage to the
mined largely by the current through output at earth potential. The opera- regulators must be higher than the
R10 and R11. The overall voltage ampli- tional amplifier (op amp) used draws wanted output voltage to ensure effec-
fication of the output amplifier is deter- only a tiny current (20 µA) and has a tive regulation.
mined by the ratio R8:(R10+R11). very small input offset (450 µV). Fortunately, the current drawn by
Supply voltage for IC1 is taken from the voltage amplifier is fairly low
Compensation the ±15 V line for the input section via (about 70 mA) so that the input voltage
Capacitors C3–C5 and resistors R16, R17 diodes D16 and D17. This arrangement to the regulators can be increased with
form part of the compensation net- ensures that the supply to the IC is a simple auxiliary supply as shown in
work required for stable operation. retained for a short while after the Figure 3. This consists of two small
Low-pass filter R2–C2 at the input is main supply is switched off so that any mains transformers,two bridge recti-
essential to prevent fast, that is, high- interference is smoothed out. fiers, D1–D4 and D5–D8, and the neces-
frequency, signals causing distortion. Diodes D14 and D15 safeguard the sary reservoir and buffer capacitors.
This filter is also indispensable for sta- input of IC1 against (too) high input The ±15 V output is linked in series
bility’s sake. voltages in fault conditions. with the ±70 V line to give an unregu-
Coupling capacitor C1 is needed The values of resistors R54 and R55 lated voltage of ±85 V.
because the available offset compensa- arrange the level of the compensating The 39 V reference is provided by
tion network merely redresses the bias current at not more than 1 µA, which is zener diode D9. This means that the
current of the input buffers and is not sufficient to nullify the difference regulator needs to amplify the refer-
intended to block any direct voltages at between the base currents of T1 and T2. ence voltage ×2 to obtain the requisite
the input. output voltage.
Relay Re1 at the input enables the Regulation The zener diode is powered by cur-
input signal to be ‘switched off ’. It Although current feedback has many rent source T43, to ensure a stable ref-
forms part of the overall protection advantages, it also has a serious draw- erence, which is additionally buffered
and in particular safeguards the input back: poor supply voltage suppression. by C30.
section against overdrive. The overall This makes it essential for the supply Differential amplifier T45-T46, whose
protection circuit will be discussed in voltage for the voltage amplifier to be operating point is set by current source
detail next month. regulated. In view of the requisite high T44, compares the output voltage with
Network R9-P1 is intended specifi- symmetrical potential and the fact that the reference via potential divider
cally for adjusting the common-mode the unregulated voltage that serves as R63-R64-P4. This shows that the output
suppression when two amplifiers are input voltage can vary substantially voltage level can be set with P4.
used in a bridge arrangement. It is under the influence of the amplifier Transistor T47 is the output stage of
needed for only one of these ampli- load, two discrete low-drop regulators, the regulator. The output voltage
fiers, and may be interconnected or T43–T47 and T48–T52 are used. remains stable down to 0.2 V below the
disabled by jumper JP1 as needed. As mentioned before, owing to input voltage.

Current-feedback
In an amplifier using voltage feedback (Figure a), the differential voltage at its inputs is multiplied by the open-loop
amplification. The feedback loop forces the output voltage to a level that, divided by network R1-R2, is equal to the
input voltage.
Whereas an amplifier with voltage feedback has high-impedance inputs, an amplifier with current feedback (Figure
b) has an high-impedance and a low-impedance input. Its input stage consists of a buffer with unitary gain between
the inverting and non-inverting inputs. Essentially, the inverting input is the low-impedance input. The buffer is fol-
lowed by an impedance matching stage that converts the output current of the buffer into a directly proportional out-
put voltage.
The current feedback loop operates as follows. When the potential at the non-inverting input rises, the inverting input
will also rise, resulting in the buffer current flowing through resistor R1. This current, magnified by the impedance
matching stage, will cause the output
voltage of the amplifier to rise until the
output current flowing through resistor R2 a b
U in U in
is equal to the buffer current through R1.
The correct quiescent output voltage can
U out U out
be sustained by a very small buffer cur- A(s) Av=1 R(s)
rent. The closed-loop amplification of the
circuit is determined by the ratio I
(1+R2):R1.
A interesting property of an amplifier
R2 R2
with current feedback is that the closed-
loop bandwidth is all but independent of
the closed-loop amplification, whereas R1 R1
that of an amplifier with voltage feedback R2
becomes smaller in inverse proportion to Av = 1 + Av = 1 + R2
R1 R1
the closed-loop amplification – a relation 990001 - 14
known as the gain-bandwidth product.

Elektor Electronics 2/99 63


Contents
Resistor R57 and diode D8 protect T43
against high voltage during switch-on,
while D10 prevents current flowing
through the regulator in the wrong
direction.
Capacitors C31 and C32 enhance the
rate of operation of the regulator.
Network R56-C28-C29 provides
additional smoothing and r.f. decou-
pling of the ±85 V lines.

NEXT MONTH
Next month’s second and concluding
instalment of this article will describe
details of the protection circuits, the fan
control, and the construction of the
amplifier. The instalment will also
include detailed specifications and per-
formance characteristics.
[990001-1]

Elektor Electronics 2/99 65


AUDIO & HI-FI Contents

Titan 2000
Part 2: protection network
This second of four
parts deals primarily
with the protection
network incorporated
in the amplifier. This
indispensable net-
work safeguards the
amplifier and the
loudspeakers con-
nected to it against all
kinds of error that
may arise. The net-
work is an indepen-
dent entity with its
own power supply.

INTRODUCTION SIX FUNCTIONS


As mentioned briefly in Part 1, exten- The integrated protection network con-
sive and thorough protection is a must sists of six sub-circuits:
in an amplifier of this nature. It may
well be asked why this is so: is there • power-on delay
such a likelihood of mishaps arising? • transformer voltage sensor
Or is the amplifier so vulnerable? On • temperature sensor
the contrary: extended tests on the • current sensor
prototype have shown that the Titan • direct-current sensor
2000 is a very stable and reliable piece • overdrive sensor
of equipment. In fact, unusual means
had to be used to actuate the protec- The power-on delay ensures that the
tion circuits during these tests, since relays in the amplifier are energized
not any standard test prompted the 50–100 milliseconds after the supply
Correction. In last month’s first part amplifier into an error situation. has been switched on to prevent
of this article, it was stated erro- The extensive protection is neces- switch-on clicks.
neously that the article consists of sary because by far the largest number The transformer voltage sensor
two parts, whereas in fact it will be of mishaps occur owing to actions by reacts to the cessation of the secondary
described in four parts. the user, not because of any shortcom- voltage of the mains transformers to
ings in the amplifier. For example, the prevent switch-off clicks and crackles.
most robust and reliable amplifier can The temperature sensor responds to
not always cope with extremely high excessive heat sink temperatures, but it
Design by T. Giesberts overdrive or overload conditions. should be noted that this works only in

Elektor Electronics 3/99


32
Contents
12V temp

4 C12

100n
C14

100n
I

8 11
5V
12V K1
IC1 IC2 IC1 = OP249GP

4k7
R16
4 6 IC2 = LM319 R8
C13 C15 R12 12V

47k
C6

2k2
100n 100n IC5
100n 5 6 1 JP1
4
12V 12V R9 12 D7
Vre int
C4 IC2a

470Ω
5
3 R23 ext
D1 1N

4k7
2x 100n 4 2 4148
BAT82 4N35 T2
LSP R1 C9
5 5V
100k
R2 7
D2 IC1b 4µ7
63V BD Vre Ext.
1k05

2k2
6
D8
140
R4 R22
P1 R10 ERROR
10k0 C5 R21

470Ω
250Ω 12V 9

2k2
R17

1k
7 IC4
12V 100n IC2b 74HC175
10 R18 R20
R3 8 2
R11 4 47k 2M7
1D
10k0

D3 3
2x T1 K2
47k
7
BAS45A 5 2R
input C1 R5 P2 6
R19
3
680Ω 10
BC

47k
1 12
100n 500Ω D4 IC1a 11 547B
1R
2 12V
D5 15
R6 13
14
820k

R7 1N4148
IC3 5V
1M
12V
C2 C3 CTR14 7 9
P3 3 C1 R27
500k 5 1
4 R

4k7
R14
1n 100n 4
2M2 5 T4
11 !G 6
R13 RCX 6
10 14
470k RX + 7 R24
C7 9 CT 13 mute
5V CX 8 BD K3

47k

4k7
15 140
9 R26
470n 12 1
11 C8
CT=0 T3
R15 2
C16 16 C17 16 12
100n
1k

3
IC3 IC4 13 R28
BC

47k

3k9
8 8
100n 100n D6 74HC4060 547B
R25 D9
EARLY

ON

IC9
7805 +5V
+5V 5V +5V
+5V

R36 50V D10


C23 C22
22Ω

F1 B80C1500 5V
47µ 25V 4µ7 63V 2x
D11
30µH
1N4007
50mA T C24
R32
K4 IC7 50V C11
15k

Tr1 47n
7812 +12V
+12V R29 12V +12V
+12V
47µ 25V
B1
47k

2x 100n
250V R31
100k

C26 C25 R34


15k

C20 C18 T5 T6
47n 47n
C10
1000µ 4µ7 IC6
2x 15V 25V 63V 1 6 5
8VA R30 R33
10µ D12
D13 63V
3k3

100k

2x BC
POWER
547B 1N4001
C21 C19
R35 2 4
4N35
3k3

470µ IC8 4µ7


25V 63V

7912 –12V –12V 12V –12V –12V


990001 - 2 - 11

Figure 4. The protection network con-


conjunction with the fan drive, which input signal and the sists of six sensor circuits each of which
is reverted to later in this article. output load to be dis- causes the input and output relays of
The current sensor monitors the connected from the the amplifier to be deenergized when a
output current, while the direct-cur- amplifier. After the fault fault occurs.
rent and overdrive sensors form a causing the sensor
combined circuit that monitors differ- action has been
ences between the input and output removed or remedied, the relevant reenabled shortly. The red LED then
signals, and reacts to excessive direct- protection circuit is disabled, where- goes out, shortly followed by the yel-
current levels or distortion. This circuit upon the amplifier relays are reener- low, whereupon a green LED lights to
is the most important and ‘intelligent’, gized after a short delay. indicate that all is well.
but also the most complex of the six. When the protection network is
All sensors, when actuated, react in actuated, a red LED lights to indicate COMMON SECTION
the same way: they cause the output an error. When the fault has been AND POWER-ON DELAY
relays and the mute relay at the input removed or remedied, the red LED The circuit of the integrated protection
of the amplifier to be deenergized remains on, but a yellow LED flashes network, including the +5 V and ±12 V
immediately. This action causes the to indicate that the amplifier will be power supplies, is shown in Figure 4.

Elektor Electronics 3/99 33


Contents
C19
IC8
R35 D13
H8

H5

K4
~
-12V +12V

C21

C25
~
B1
C26

TR1
C18

C20

C24

50mAT
0

IC7
+5V

C22
R36

F1
C23

H6
H7
IC9

~
~
0
C10
IC6

P1
H4

H2

D10
R31
R32

R1
T5

R2

R30
C11

LSP
D12

D11 D2
C17

P3
R29 R6
C13
C16

T
R34
R33

D1

D4

R7
IC1

input
D8

R4
T6
C8

IC4

IC3

R17
R13
R14
+5V

C12

C3

C1

D3
R18

R3
C7

R5
0 Vre ext int +12V

C5

C2
R25
R24

R10
R9

R19
P2
T1

IC2
D5
R15

R11
JP1

C9

R21
T3

C4

990001-2

R8
C15
R26
R27

R20
R22

R23

R12

2-100099
-12V

990001-2
R28

ROTKELE )C(

IC5
(C) ELEKTOR
C14

T I +
K3

T4 T2
D9

D7
K2

D6
R16
K1
mute

H1

H3
C6

T
2R

temp

Figure 5. The printed-circuit


Parts lists C24–C26 = 0.047 µF, ceramic board of the overall protec-
Protection network tion network.
Semiconductors:
Resistors: D1, D2 = BAT82
R1, R33, R34 = 100 kΩ D3, D4 = BAS45A The network is linked to the input
R2 = 1.05 kΩ D5, D7 = 1N4148
R3, R4 = 10.0 kΩ D6, D8, D9, D13 = 3 mm high-efficiency
and output of the amplifier via termi-
R5 = 680 Ω LED (yellow, red, green, green respectively) nals ‘input’ and ‘LSP’ respectively (to
R6 = 820 kΩ D10, D11 = 1N4007 terminals ‘P-IN’ and ‘P-LS’ on the
R7 = 1 MΩ D12 = 1N4001 amplifier board).
R8, R11, R18, R19, R24, R25, R29 = 47 kΩ T1, T3, T5, T6 = BC547B Terminals ‘50 V≈’ are connected to
R9, R10 = 470 Ω T2, T4 = BD140 the secondary windings of the mains
R12, R21, R22 = 2.2 kΩ transformers.
R13 = 470 kΩ Integrated circuits:
The three output relays and the
R14 = 2.2 MΩ IC1 = OP249GP (Analog Devices)
R15, R17 = 1 kΩ IC2 = LM319N mute relay in the amplifier are linked
R16, R23, R26, R27 = 4.7 kΩ IC3 = 74HC4060 to the protection network via K2, and
R20 = 2.7 MΩ IC4 = 74HC175 K3 respectively.
R28 = 3.9 kΩ IC5, IC6 = 4N35 The current sensor is connected to
R30, R35 = 3.3 kΩ IC7 = 7812 the output of optoisolator IC2 in the
R31, R32 = 15 kΩ IC8 = 7912 amplifier (‘I->’ on the amplifier board)
R36 = 22 Ω IC9 = 7805
via K1.
P1 = 250 Ω, multiturn preset (upright)
P2 = 500 Ω, multitun preset (upright) Miscellaneous: The terminals marked ‘temp’ are
P3 = 500 kΩ, multiturn preset (upright) JP1 = 2.54 mm pin strip and pin jumper intended to be linked to the output of
K1, K2 = 3-way terminal block, pitch the fan control circuit.
Capacitors: 5 mm As mentioned earlier, the action of
C1, C3 = 0.1 µF K3 = 2-way terminal block, pitch 5 mm each sensor results in the deenergizing
C2 = 0.001 µF K4 = 2-way terminal block, pitch 7.5 mm of the output and mute relays in the
C4, C5, C6, C8, C12–C17 =0.1 µF, B1 = bridge rectifier, rectangular, Type amplifiers. This implies that the out-
ceramic B80C1500
F1 = fuse, 50 mAT and fuse holder
puts of the the various sensor circuits
C7 = 0.47 µF
C9, C18, C19, C22 = 4.7 µF, 63 V, radial Tr1 = mains transformer, 15 VA, with are interlinked. This is effected by com-
C10 = 10 µF, 63 V, radial 2×15 V secondary bining the open-collector outputs of
C11, C23 = 47 µF, 25 V, radial Heat sink (for IC7) = e.g. Fischer these circuits into a wired OR gate with
C20 = 1000 µF, 25 V, radial SK104, 50 mm R12 functioning as the common pull-
C21 = 470 µF, 25 V, radial Mains interference filter up resistance. The combined output
signal serves to reset a number of

34 Elektor Electronics 3/99


Contents
smoothed by R30-R31-R32-C10. The val-
ues of these components ensure that
the LED in optoisolator IC6 lights suf-
ficiently to hold the associated photo
transistor on. This transistor pulls the
base of T5 to ground, causing T5 to cut
off. When the secondary voltages fail,
T5 is switched on immediately via R29,
whereupon the D-type bistables in IC4
are reset.
Use is made of an optoisolator pur-
posely to avoid any risk of earth loops
between the supply return and the
ground of the protection network,
which is linked to the input ground of
the amplifier.

TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The temperature sensor works in a
manner similar to that of the trans-
former voltage sensor. The optoisolator
in this circuit is IC5, which, in contrast to
IC6, is normally cut off and comes on
only when the heat sink becomes
Figure 6. Completed pro- excessively hot.
D-type bistables (flip- totype of the protection and the appearance of The sensor reacts to the fan control
flops), contained in network. the first clock pulse is circuit switching the fan speed to max-
IC4, which are inter- not defined since, imum (because the heat sink is getting
connected to form a owing to the presence too hot). A comparator in the fan con-
shift register. Note that D-type bistables of T6, a power-on reset is purposely not trol circuit then toggles, whereupon
are essential since these can be set and provided. To ensure a minimum delay IC5 is actuated via the ‘temp’ input and
reset in a defined manner. in the energizing of Re1 and Re2 in resets the D-type bistables in IC4. This
The outputs of IC4 are used to drive spite of this, a high level is clocked into situation changes only after the heat
two level converters, T1-T2 and T3-T4 Q4 after IC3 has been enabled. The pre- sink has cooled down to an acceptable
respectively, which bridge the differ- cise moment at which this happens temperature (although the fans may
ence between the 5 V level of the logic varies, therefore, only when the supply still be rotating).
ICs and the 12 V supply for the relays. voltage is switched on for the first time.
Jumper JP1 enables a different, external A period of IC3/Q3 later, Q1 of IC4 CURRENT SENSOR
supply voltage (VRE) to be used if 12 V goes high, whereupon Re1 and Re2 are To nullify high common-mode voltages
relays are not employed. energized. After another period, Q2 of and to prevent any risk of earth loops,
Transistors T1 and T2 drive Re1 and IC4 becomes high, whereupon Re3 and the current sensor also uses an optoiso-
Re2, which are the first to be energized Re4 are energized. At the same time, lator, IC2 (Figure 5). However, this is
(synchronously). On switch-off, capac- IC3 is disabled since its reset is inter- not located on the protection board,
itor C9 ensures that T2 remains on for linked with Q2 of IC4. but directly at the output of the ampli-
some milliseconds longer during The red LED, D8, in parallel with Q1 fier.
which period Re3 and Re4 are deener- of IC4 lights when the relays in the The values of the relevant compo-
gized (see Part 1). amplifier are not energized, either nents cause the sensor to be actuated
The power-on delay, which also because the amplifier is (not yet) when the output current is about 40 A.
operates after a fault situation, is more switched on, or owing to an error. This may appear a very large current,
complex than usual. To start with, after The yellow LED, D6, is linked to the but this is due entirely to the specified
the supply voltage us switched on, output of the oscillator in IC3, causing requirement that the amplifier must be
input CLR of IC4 is held low (active) it to flash until IC4 is clocked. capable of delivering 60 V into a load
for a few seconds by the circuit around The green LED, D9, is connected in of 1.5 Ω without the protection circuit
T6. When, after this period, CLR is parallel with Re3 and Re4, so that it being actuated. The current level may
made high by R12 –which happens lights only when the amplifier is fully be lowered to some extent by increas-
only when there is no error situation switched on. ing the value of R74 in the amplifier.
(any longer)–the internal oscillator of Output resistor R78 is in parallel
IC3 is enabled via D5. This results after TRANSFORMER with R12 by linking terminals ‘I’, ‘+5 V’
a few seconds in a clock pulse appear- V O LTA G E S E N S O R and ground on the amplifier board to
ing at the CLK input of IC4 , where- The 50 V≈ secondary voltages of the K1 on the protection board via three
upon Q4 goes high. The period mains transformers in the amplifier are lengths of insulated, stranded circuit
between the oscillator being enabled rectified by diodes D10 and D11, and wire twisted together. This arrange-

Elektor Electronics 3/99 35


Contents
Parts lists
7

H1
H4

Auxiliary power supply

D1
D2
990001-3 F1 0.16AT

K3

+ +
3-100099 TR1 Resistors:
ROTKELE )C( C1
C3
R1, R2 = 1 MΩ

R1
K1

D3
D4
Capacitors:

+
C1, C2 = 470 µF, 100 V, radial
C3, C4 = 0.1 µF, 100 V, pitch 7.5 mm

K2

0
Semiconductors:

-
D1–D8 = 1N4007

D5
D6
~

R2
TR2 Miscelleneous:

- -
C4
C2 K1 = 2-way terminal block, pitch 7.5

K4
F2 0.16AT mm
K2 = 3-way terminal block, pitch

D7
D8
7.5 mm

H3
H2

K3, K4 = 2-way terminal block, pitch


5 mm
Tr1, Tr2 = mains transformer, 1.5 VA,
with 12 V secondart
F1, F2 = fuse, 160 mAT, and fuse
holder

difficulties, but it should be noted that


diodes D6, D8, D9 and D13, are not
located on the board, but are linked to
it via flexible, stranded circuit wire.
They are fitted to the front of the enclo-
sure.
Jumper JP1 will normally be in posi-
tion ‘intern’ unless relays with a coil
(C) ELEKTOR
990001-3
voltage other than 12 V are used.
A prototype of the completed pro-
tection board is shown in Figure 6.
All input and output terminals of
the board are clearly marked with the
Figure 7. Printed-circuit board same symbols as shown in Figure 4.
for the auxiliary power supply Most interconnections can be made in
described in Part 1. rately with multiturn poten- thin, stranded hook-up wire to
tiometers P2 and P3. DEF61-12, but the input and output
The inputs of IC1a and IC1b links (‘input’ and ‘LSP’) must be
ment ensures a low impedance to any are protected by diodes. Since any screened audio cable.
interference and a high reaction speed. leakage current of these diodes, com- Although the power supply for the
bined with the high input impedance protection network can be fitted on the
D I R E C T- C U R R E N T A N D (≈ 1 MΩ) of IC1a, might lead to an same board, the relevant section may
OVERDRIVE SENSOR appreciable offset, and therefore to an be cut off and fitted elsewhere. Of
The d.c. and overdrive sensor con- unwanted error detection, the diodes, course, the supply lines must then be
stantly compares the input and output D3 and D4, are special types with a linked to the relevant terminals on the
signals of the amplifier and reacts leakage current of only 1 nA. protection board via insulated,
when the difference between the two The output of differential amplifier stranded hook-up wire.
is too great. The comparison is effected IC1b is monitored by a window com- The power supply is straightfor-
with the aid of operational amplifier parator formed by IC2a and IC2b. The ward. From the secondary output of
IC1 which has a very low bias current value of the components used in the specified mains transformer, Tr1, a
and a very low offset. It is, of course, potential dividers R8-R9 and R10-R11 symmetrical ±12 V supply is obtained
essential that during the comparison of ensures that the protection circuit is with the aid of regulators IC7 and IC8.
the two signals by differential amplifier actuated when the direct voltage From the same secondary, a +5 V sup-
IC1b the differences in phase and tran- reaches a level of ±5 V or the distortion ply for the digital circuits is obtained
sit times do not lead to error detection. becomes 2.5 per cent. Such distortion with the aid of regulator IC9. Since the
At the same time, the voltage amplifi- will normally be the result of over- relays are fed by the +12 V line, regu-
cation (×43) of the amplifier must be drive, but the circuit reacts equally well lator IC7 must be fitted on a heat sink.
taken into account. to oscillations or other spurious signals To ensure that the protection net-
The amplification is compensated that cause too large a difference to be work is not actuated by interference on
by potential divider R1-R2-P1 at input detected. the mains supply, it is advisable to pre-
LSP. The potentiometer is a multiturn cede the power supply by a suitable
type to ensure accurate adjustment. CONSTRUCTION AND noise filter. This may be made from a
The phase difference is compen- SETTING UP 30 µH choke and two 0.1 µF, 300 V≈
sated by the circuit based on IC1a. The The integrated protection network is capacitors as shown in dashed lines in
transit at high and low cut-off points best built on the printed-circuit board Figure 4.
is simulated by first-order networks shown in Figure 5. Populating this The network is set up by maximiz-
that can also be adjusted very accu- board should not present any undue ing the common-mode suppression

Elektor Electronics 3/99 37


Contents
with the aid of an oscilloscope or a
multimeter with sufficient bandwidth.
Measurements need to be made at
8
1 kHz, 20 kHz, and 20 Hz. The open-
circuit amplifier is driven as far as pos-
sible by a suitable sine-wave generator
or CD player with a test CD.
With a signal of 1 kHz, set P1 for
minimum sign al at the output of IC1b,
follow this with a signal of 20 kHz and
adjusting P2, and finally, with a signal
of 20 Hz, by adjusting P3. Since the set-
tings influence one another to some
extent, the potentiometers should be
set a couple of times, perhaps also at
some different audio frequencies.

P O W E R S U P P LY
The auxiliary power supply described
in Part 1 is best constructed on the
printed-circuit board shown in Fig-
ure 7. The mains voltage is linked to
K1, the ±70 V to K2 and the +85 V and
–85 V lines to K3 and K4 respectively.
Since all currents are low level, the
wiring may be made in thin, insulated,
stranded hook-up wire. A completed
prototype board is shown in Figure 8.
The main supply for the amplifier is
a straightforward, unregulated type,
providing an output of ±70 V. Its cir- Figure 8. The auxiliary
cuit diagram is shown in Figure 9. the power supply must power supply is small mono(phonic) ampli-
Since the specified requirements allow for the large out- enough to fit in most fier that can deliver
call for a 2 Ω load, the supply must be put currents of the enclosures. 800 W into 2 Ω and
rated at 1000 VA, which necessitates amplifier. In the proto- should remain stable
two toroidal transformers. To prevent type, the electrolytic with loads of 1.5 Ω. If
unforeseen equalizing currents, the capacitors are linked by 3 mm thick you are certain that you will always
dual secondaries are not linked in par- strips of aluminium. The remainder of use 4 Ω or 8 Ω loads, the power supply
allel, but are individually connected to the wiring should be in insulated, requirements may be relaxed to some
a bridge rectifier. The outputs of the high-current wire to BS6231 with a extent. A reasonable relaxation is the
rectifiers can be connected in parallel conductor size of 50/0.25 mm (2.5 mm2) use of 2×50 V/300 VA transformers and
without any problem. The rectifiers or better. The use of car-type connec- 10,000 µF/100 V smoothing capacitors.
need to be mounted on a suitable heat tors is recommended. The rating of the primary fuses may
sink such as a Type SK01. Note that the power supply as then be reduced to 1.5 AT.
It should be clear that the wiring of described is intended for use with a
MAINS-ON DELAY
The use of a mains-on delay is recom-
mended when heavy loads are to be
switched on, as in the case of the pre-
9 mains
sent amplifier. Such a delay circuit
power-on switches on the mains to the load grad-
delay ually to ensure that the switch-on cur-
6x 22000µ / 100V 70V
rent remains within certain limits and to
2A5 T prevent the mains fuses from blowing.
e.g. 974078 - 1
The most recently published (in this
magazine) mains-on delay is found in
2x 50V
500VA
200V / 35A the July/August 1997 issue (p. 74),
whose circuit diagram is reproduced in
Figure 10. Its printed-circuit board is
readily connected with the primary
windings of the two mains transform-
2x 50V
1000VA ers. The board is not available ready-
500VA 200V / 35A
made, however, and its diagram is,
mains therefore, reproduced in Figure 11.
power-on
delay

2A5 T
Figure 9. The main power supply for
e.g. 974078 - 1 the amplifier is a heavy-duty entity
in which the six capacitors are par-
ticularly impressive.
990001 - 2 - 12 70V

38 Elektor Electronics 3/99


Contents
The delay arranges for the load,
10 R4
that is, the Titan 2000, to be switched

10Ω
R1 R2 5W on in two stages. In the first of these,
470k 470k R3
the switch-on current is limited by
C1 220Ω R5
series network R4–R7. After the delay

10Ω
5W determined by capacitors C2 and C3,
330n *
F1 250V ~ the series network is shorted by a relay
* R6
contact, whereupon the full current

10Ω
B1 5W
K1 * see text
zie tekst flows between K1 and K2.
* voir texte R7 Relay Re1 can switch up to 2000 VA.
* siehe Text

10Ω
C2 C3 Re1 Its supply voltage is obtained from the
5W
* mains with the aid of rectifier B1,
470µ 470µ K2 capacitor C1 and resistor R3.
B250C1500 40V 40V
Since the amplifier power supply
uses two mains transformers, two
mains-on delay circuits are needed.
Fuse F1 functions as a primary
Re1 = V23057-B0006-A201
(250V / 8A)
mains fuse for the amplifier.
974078 - 11
Capacitor C1 is a metallized paper
type intended especially for use with
Figure 10. The mains-on delay ensures that the mains voltage applications.
switch-on current remains within certain limit. Two of Bear in mind that the circuit is
these delays are required for each Titan 2000. linked directly to the mains supply and
thus carries lethal voltages.
Next month’s third instalment of
this article deals with the construction
of the amplifier, a few other practical
matters, and some measurements.
[990001-2]

Parts lists
Mains-on delay circuit
Resistors:
R1, R2 = 470 kΩ
R3 = 220 Ω
R4–R7 = 10 Ω, 5 W

Capacitors:
C1 = 0.33 µF, 300 V a.c.
C2, C3 = 470 µF, 40 V

Miscellaneous:
K1, K2 = 2-way terminal block, pitch
7.5 mm
B1 = bridge rectifier, round, Type
B250C1500
Re1 = relay, coil 12 V, 1200Ω; contact
rating 250 V, 8 A
Figure 11. Printed-circuit board for the mains-on delay F1 = see text
circuit, which is not available ready made.

974078-1
~ ~ ~ ~
F1
11
H3

H2

OUT

K2
R5
K1

R7

R4 R6
C1

B1 RE1
R2

R1

C2

R3
H1

H4

974078-1 C3
1-870479

Elektor Electronics 3/99 39


AUDIO & HI-FI Contents

Titan 2000
Part 3:
construction and setting up

This third of four parts


deals primarily with
the construction of the
amplifier and ends
with a brief resume of
its performance and
specifications. Let the
constructor beware,
however: the Titan
2000 is not an easy
project and certainly
not recommended for
beginners in elec-
tronic construction.

INTRODUCTION must be an integral part of the circuit.


It is clear from the first two parts of this The mother board is therefore
article that the Titan 2000 is a complex designed together with the remainder
unit that needs to be constructed and of the circuit. The length of the tracks,
wired up with with great care to the area of the copper pads, the posi-
ensure the specified performance. For tions of the decoupling capacitors, and
that reason, the construction notes will other factors, are vital for the proper
be more detailed than is usual with and stable operation of the unit. Con-
projects in this magazine. It is assumed structors who make their own boards
that the protection network and auxil- are therefore advised to adhere strictly
iary power supply have already been to the published layout.
built and tested. Owing to the power requirements,
the various stages are parallel configu-
MOTHER BOARD rations. When these are mounted on
It must be borne in mind that in the the heat sinks, a fairly large parasitic
case of a fast power amplifier like the capacitances to earth ensue. This is
Titan 2000, with a gain/bandwidth because for reasons of stability all seven
Design by T. Giesberts product of about 0.5 GHz, the board heat sinks must be strapped to earth. It

Elektor Electronics 4/99


40
Contents
T
1R
Parts lists
H16
K1
H14

L1
D19 D18

It is regretted that, owing to circum-


stances beyond our control, compo-
nent codings in the various sections

RE4

RE3

RE2
have been duplicated. Consequently,
R79

the mother board, protection network


board, and auxiliary power supply
board contain many components
with the same identification (R1-R36,
LS+ LS- LS+
C1-C26, D1-D12, T1-T6, IC1-IC2, JP1,

H13
H15

K1).
OUT2

C30 R56 ++
Amplifier
T43

R57
H4

H1

D8 C43
T44

R58 C28 Resistors:


R59

R61
D9 R1, R53 = 1 MΩ
C29
C31

T46

R60
R45 T35 R2 = 562 Ω
T45

R62 T29
P4

R3 = 47 kΩ
C34
C32

T47

D10

R64 R63
R4, R6, R12, R14, R60, R61, R69, R70 =
C4 R39 22 Ω
C33

R5, R62, R71 = 330 Ω


C17 T15
C8

R13

R18
R26

R25

R24

1-100099
ROTKELE )C(
990001-1
D4

C46
R16
C16

R7, R34 = 470 Ω


R19

T17

T16
T11

R8 = 22.1 Ω
R22

R49 T39 R9 = 390 Ω


T32 R10, R11 = 470 Ω, 5 W
T13

R13, R15 = 1.00 kΩ


T23 T22 T21
R42 R16, R17, R38 = 150 Ω
R18, R20, R58, R67 = 270 Ω
C20

C21
T9

C44
D5

R19, R21 = 10 kΩ, 1 W


C9

R22, R23 = 3.3 kΩ, 1 W


H11

R24–R29 = 68 Ω
C10

R46
T36
T

mute D16
R36
R30 = see text
D17
C25

P2
D3 R31, R32 = 22 kΩ
C27

T30
R54

T7

C26

D15 R40
R33, R35 = 220 Ω
R5
RE1

D14
R36, R37 = 560 Ω
IC1
D1

R53
R39–R44 = 10 Ω
R4

C24
R55

R45–R52 = 0.22 Ω, inductance-free


-
0
C6
T5

R31

R34

R33

R54, R55 = 4.7 MΩ


R12

T27

R50
R56, R65 = 15 Ω
T40
C15
R1
R3

P3

R38
T

T1

T3

T28
C2

P1

R57, R63, R66, R72 = 15 kΩ


R32

P-IN
T37
R35
JP1

+
0
R2

R59, R68 = 5.6 kΩ


R14

R9
T2
T4

R8

P-LS
LS-
LS+

R64, R73 = 12 kΩ
C14
T6

JP2
R74, R76, R77 = 100 Ω
R6

R47
D2

R30
R37
R75 = 33 Ω
R11
R78 = 2.2 kΩ
R7

C7

T33
C3

R79 = 2.2 Ω, 5 W
C1

T8

R10
R43
C47
P1, P4, P5 = 4.7 kΩ (5 kΩ) preset
P2 = 250 Ω, preset
C1

P3 = 500 Ω, preset
3
H12

T26 T25 T24


D7

R51
T10

C12

C22

C23

T41 Capacitors:
T31
C1 = 2.2 µF, metallized polyester
T14

(MKP)
H18 H17

R41 C2, C3, C42 = 0.001 µF


C45
C4, C5 = 0.0022 µF
R23

T12

IC2 C6, C7 = 220 µF, 25 V, radial


T20

T19

T18 C19
R21

C5
C18

C8, C9, C11, C12, C15 = 0.1 µF


R17

R77

+5V
R15

R20
R29

R28

R27

R48
C11

D6

C42 T38 C10, C13 = 100 µF, 25 V, radial


C40

R76 R78
R74
T34 C14 = see text
I

R73 R72
C39

R75 C16–C23 = 100 pF, 100 V


T52

OUT1
D13

T
P5

T51

R71 R44 C24 = 1 µF, metallized polypropylene


C41

R69 T42
T50 C48 (MKT)
C38

C36
C25 = 0.68 µF
R68

R70
D12
D11
C26, C27, C32, C39 = 2.2 µF, 63 V,
C35
T49

R67
R52 radial
T48

R66
H2

H3

--
C37 R65

Figure 12. The double-sided printed-circuit board is intended to be combined with the
heat sink into a single entity. Before that can be done, however, the section for the output
relay and the inductor must be cut off the main section.

Elektor Electronics 4/99 41


Contents

990001-1
(C) ELEKTOR

42 Elektor Electronics 4/99


Contents
is, of course, of paramount importance a 150 mm high Type SK157 from Fis-
C28, C34, C35, C41 = 470 µF, 100 V, that these capacitances are as small as cher with a thermal resistance of
radial feasible. For this reason, it is vital that 0.25 K W–1. This is admittedly a very
C29, C33, C36, C40 = 0.22 µF, 100 V in the thermal coupling of T21–T34 tedious job. It is vital that all requisite
C30, C37 = 47 µF, 63 V, radial 1.5 mm thick ceramic—not mica—iso- fixing holes are drilled accurately in the
C31, C38 = 0.015 µF lating washers are used. Mica washers heat sink and preferably tapped with
C43–C48 = 0.1 µF, 630 V may, however, be used with the output 3 mm thread. The template delivered
transistors since parasitic capacitances with the ready-made board is almost
Inductors: there are of no significance. indispensable for this work.
L1 = see text The component and track layouts When the holes have been drilled
of the mother board are shown in Fig- (and, possibly, tapped) transistors T27
Semiconductors: ure 12. It will be seen that the board and T28 should be fitted first (this is
D1, D2 = LED, red, flat consists of two sections: the mother important because they become inac-
D3, D18, D19 = 1N4148 board proper and the output-relay cessible after the board has been fitted).
D4, D6 = zener, 5.6 V, 500 mW board. The latter must be cut off before They must be located as close as possi-
D5, D7 = zener, 15 V, 1.3 W any other work is done. Later, when it ble to the output transistors and not in
D8, D11 = zener, 30 V, 1.3 W is built up, it is mounted on the mother the position indicated on the board.
D9, D12 = zener, 39 V, 1.3 W board with the aid of four 50 mm long Again, the template makes all this clear.
D10, D13, D16, D17 = 1N4004 metal spacers in such a way that the Their terminals must then be extended
D14, D15 = zener, 12 V, 500 mW LS– and LS+ terminals on the two with the aid of short lengths of equip-
T1, T4, T5, T15–T17 = BC560C boards are above each other. The spac- ment wire, which are later fed through
T2, T3, T6, T18–T20 = BC550C ers also provide the electrical link the relevant holes on the board and
T7, T8, T43, T48 = BF245A between the boards. soldered to the board via, for instance,
T9 = BF871 The completed relay board is a three-way pin header.
T10 = BF872 shown in Figure 13. Inductor L1 is The terminals of the drivers and
T11, T50, T51 = BC640 made from a doubled-up length of output transistors must be bent at right
T12, T45, T46 = BC639 1.5 mm enamelled copper wire wound angles: those of the former at the point
T13, T14 = BF256C in two layers of eight turns each where they become thinner and those
T21–T23 = MJE350 around a 16 mm former (such as a of the latter about 5 mm from the body
T24–T26 = MJE340 piece of PVC pipe). After the coil has of the device. When this is done, screw
T27 = BD139 been wound, the PVC pipe is removed all transistors loosely to the heat sink,
T28 = BD140 and the four windings connected in not forgetting the isolating washers. If it
T29–T31 = 2SC5171 (Toshiba) parallel. See Figure 14. is intended to use fan cooling, the req-
T32–T34 = 2SA1930 (Toshiba) Ignoring the drivers and output uisite temperature sensor—that is, a
T35–T38 = 2SC5359 (Toshiba) transistors for the moment, the con- Type BD140 transistor— should also be
T39–T42 = 2SA1987 (Toshiba) struction of the mother board is tradi- attached to the heat sink at this stage.
T44, T49 = BF256A tional. As always, great care must be The template does not show a location
T47 = BD712 taken during the soldering and placing for the sensor, but it seems sensible to
T52 = BD711 of components. Do not forget the ther- fit it at the centre close to T37 or T40.
mal coupling of T1-T3, T2-T4, D1-T5, The next step is to fit all ten spacers
Integrated circuits: D2-T6, T45-T46, and T50-T51, as already to the heat sink: these should all be
IC1 = OP90G pointed out in Part 1. Also, T21–T23 and 10 mm long. In the prototype, spacers
IC2 = 6N136 T24–T26 must be mounted on a heat with a 3 mm screwthread at one end
sink, and isolated from it by means of were used. Two of the spacers merely
Miscellaneous: a ceramic washer. When this is done, fit provide additional support for the
JP1, JP2 = 2.54 mm, 2-way pinstrip the composite heat sinks on the board, relay board and another two form the
and pin jumper and link them to earth. electrical link between the negative
K1 = 3-way terminal block, pitch 5 mm The input signal and the ±85 V supply line and the heat sink.
Re1 = relay, 12 V, 600 Ω supply lines are linked to the board via When all this work is done, the
Re2–Re4 = relay, 12 V, 16 A, 270 Ω standard solder pins. board should look more or less like that
Heat sink for T21–T26 = 38.1 mm, For connecting the ±70 V supply in Figure 15. Note that because of tests
11 K W–1 (Fischer Type SK104-STC; lines and the relay board, 3 mm screw later on, there are, as yet, no ceramic
TO220) holes are provided. Metal spacers are isolating washers fitted on the proto-
Heat sink for drivers/output transistors, to be fixed to these and cable connec- type.
150 mm, 0.25 K W–1, Fischer Type tors to the top of the spacers. The next, and most tedious, step is
SK157 to combine the board and heat sink. It
Ceramic isolation washers for T21–T34: MAIN HEAT SINK is, of course, vital that all spacers are
Fischer Type AOS220 When the mother board has been com- exactly opposite the relevant fixing
Mica isolating washers for T35–T42 pleted, and carefully checked, as far as holes and—even more tedious—that
PCB Order no 990001-1 (see Readers described, it and the drivers and out- the terminals of all transistors are
Services towards end of this magazine) put transistors, T27–T42, must be inserted into the correct mounting
mounted on the main heat sink. This is holes. Bear in mind that the metal

Elektor Electronics 4/99 43


Contents
more of the transistors slightly, which
is the reason that the fixing screws
have not yet been tightened. When all
terminals are correctly inserted, these
screws must, of course, be tightened
firmly.
The final step is to fix the relay
board on the spacers that form the link
for the LS– and LS+ terminals.

SETTING UP
Before the amplifier module can be
taken into use, presets P2–P5 must be
set as required. Preset P1 is intended
only for possibly adjusting the balance
in case of a bridge configuration.
Start by turning P3 (the quiescent-
current control) fully anticlockwise and
P2, P4, and P5, to their centre position.
Check the outputs of the power supply
and auxiliary power supply and, if
these are correct, link the +70 V line to
pins ‘+’ and ‘0’, the –70 V line to ‘–’
and ‘0’, the +85 V line to ‘++’ and the
-85 V line to ‘--’. For absolute safety, link
the ±70 V lines temporarily via a 10 Ω,
5 W resistor.
Figure 13. Illustrating Next, set P4 and P5 for voltages of
spacers for linking –, +, how the relay board is +78 V and –78 V respectively at the
LS+, and LS–, are mounted on the cases of transistors T47 and T52 respec-
already on the board. mother board with the
As the terminals of the aid of spacers.
output transistors are Figure 14. Air-cored inductor L1 is formed by lay-
slightly longer than ing two windings each of eight turns of doubled-
those of the drivers, it may be possible up each on top of one another. The former is a
to do this work in two stages: output length of 16 mm diameter PVC pipe as used by
transistors first and drivers second. It plumbers. The resulting four windings are sim-
may prove necessary to turn one or ply connected in parallel.

44 Elektor Electronics 4/99


Contents
tively (the cases of these transistors are ing on the setting of current sources ing the value of R62 or R71, as the case
linked to the output of the relevant habitually show a substantial spread: may be. If this is unsuccessful, the rel-
regulator). It is important that the neg- 30 per cent is quite common. All mea- evant transistor pair will have to be
ative and positive voltages are numer- surements should be carried out with replaced.
ically identical. a good digital voltmeter or multimeter When all is well, the resistors in
Since the parameters of the n-p-n with a high-impedance input. series with the ±70 V lines should be
and p-n-p transistors in the input stage Other than the test voltages in the removed. Note that a rectified voltage
are never exactly identical, there may circuit diagram, there are some others of 70 V, let alone one of 140 V, is lethal. It
be a slight imbalance. This may be cor- that may be checked. For instance, the is therefore absolutely essential to
rected by adjusting the output of cur- proper functioning of the output tran- switch off the power supply and verify
rent source T5 with the aid of preset P2 sistors may be ascertained by measur- that the residual voltages have
to give a potential of exactly 0 V at the ing the voltage across R45–R52. Hold dropped to a safe value before doing
output (pin 6) of IC1 (when ‘cold’). one test probe against the loudspeaker any work on the amplifier.
Finally, insert an ammeter (set to terminal and with the other measure
500 mA or 1 A range) in the +70 V or the potential at the emitters of all out- Next month’s instalment will deal
–70 V line, and adjust P3 carefully for a put transistors. The average value with the wiring up of the amplifier
quiescent current of 200 mA (cold con- should be about 20 mV, but deviations and its performance, including speci-
dition—that is, immediately after of up to 50 per cent occur. fications.
switch-on). With a large drive signal, The voltage amplifier operation
the quiescent current may increase to may be checked by measuring its cur- [990001-3]
some 600 mA, but at nominal temper- rent drain: if this is within specification,
atures, its level will stabilize at the voltage across R56 and R65 must be
200–400 mA. Note that these fluctua- within 0.8–1.1 V (after the amplifier has
tions have no noticeable effect on the been on for at least half an hour).
performance of the amplifier. Finally, the potential drops across
the emitter resistors of differential
CHECK AND TEST amplifiers T45-T46 and T50-T51 must not Figure 15. The PCB is
When the amplifier has been switched differ by more than a factor 2. Too large delivered with a tem-
on for about half an hour, the voltages a factor is detrimental to the stable plate to ensure that
shown in Figure 2 (Part 1) may be ver- operation of the amplifiers. A too large the transistors are fit-
ified. Note that voltage levels depend- difference may be corrected by chang- ted at the correct loca-
tion on the heat sink.

300
48,5

T35 T29 T39 T32 T36 T30 T40 T37 T33 T41 T31 T38 T34 T42

T27 T28

150
101

22,7 254,5 22,7


0,5

990001 - 3 - 13

Elektor Electronics 4/99 45


GENERAL INTEREST Contents

Titan 2000
Part 5: half-bridging
two single amplifiers

In the introduction to
Part 1 it was stated
that the Titan 2000
could deliver up to
2000 watts of ‘music
power’, a term for
which there is no stan-
dard definition but
which is still used in
emerging markets.
Moreover, without
elaboration, this state-
ment is rather misleading, since the reader will BRIDGING:
PROS AND CONS
by now have realized that the single amplifier Bridging, a technique that became fash-
cannot possibly provide this power. That can ionable in the 1950s, is a way of con-
necting two single output amplifiers
be attained only when two single Titan ampli- (valve, transistor, BJT, MOSFET, push-pull,
complementary) so that they together
fiers are linked in a half-bridge circuit. The true control the passage of an alternating
power, that is, the product of the r.m.s. voltage current through the loudspeaker. This
article describes what is strictly a half-
across the loudspeaker and the r.m.s current bridge configuration, a term not often
flowing into the loudspeaker, is then 1.6 kilo- used in audio electronics. When audio
engineers speak of bridge mode, they
watts into a 4-ohm loudspeaker. mean the full-bridge mode in which
four amplifiers are used.
In early transistor audio power
amplifiers, bridging was a means of
achieving what in the 1960s were called
Design by T. Giesberts public-address power levels as high as,

Elektor Electronics 6/99


46
Contents

T35

T39

T36

T40

T37

T41

T38

T42
T29

T32

T31

T34
T30 T33

R39

R42

R36

R40

R37

R43

R41

R44
R38
R45

R49

R46

R50

R47

R51

R48

R52
- +
C43

C46

C44

C47

C45

C48
R79

R74
R75
0 0

LS+
++

--
R78
P-LS

C42
T27 T28
T
+5V I

D15
D14
R53
C28 C34 LS+ C41 C35

C15

T24

IC2
*
R56

R65
R76
C27 LS-

L1
R33 R35

R11
990001-1
R77
T21

LS-
IC1

D17
C17 T15 R34 T18 C19
C23

JP2
C21

D19
R24 P3
RE4 R27

R30

R10

T25
C24

C36
T16 C26 T19

1R
K1
C29 D10 D13

T50
C14
T46 R25 R31 R32 R28
R57

R66
C37
C30

T22

C33 T17 C6 R8 T20 C40


R62

R71
C3
D9

R9

D12
R26 C22 R29

P2
RE3
C20

D16
R18 JP1 C7 R20

LS+

T26
T43 T47 T52 T48

C5
T11 D1 R14 T8
T45 R12 P1 T51
C4
R63

R72
R16 T7 T5 T6 R17

T
T3 T4
R60

R13 T12 R15


R58

R61

T23

R69

R70

R67
R5 R7
D8

D11
D18
T2 D2 RE2
C32 R19 R54 R4 T1 C12 R21 C39

C1
R6 C1
C38

3
C31 D4 D5 C25 R55 C2 D7 D6
R59 R2
R64

R73
C16 C9 C18 R68
mute

T44 C10 R3
D3

T RE1 T49
C8 R22 R1 R23 C11
P4 T10 P5

P-IN
T9
T13
T
T14

* JP2 niet plaatsen


1
* do not use JP2
3 * ne pas implanter JP2
2
* JP2 nicht stecken
P-IN

T14
T
T13
P5 T10 T9 P4
C11 R23 R1 R22 C8
mute

RE1
T
D3

T49 T44
R3 C10
R73

R64
R68 C18 C9 C16 R59
R2
D6 D7 C2 R55 C25 D5 D4 C31
C38
3

C1 R6
C1

C39 R21 R54


D18

C12 T1 R4 R19 C32


D11

RE2 D2 T2
R67

R70

R69

T23

R61

R58

D8
R7 R5

R60
R15 T12 T4 T3 R13
R72

R63
T

R17 T6 T5 T7 R16

C4
T51 T8 P1 R12 D1 T45
R14 T11
C5

T26

T48 T52 T47 T43


D16

C7
LS+

R20 JP1 C20 R18


D12

P2

R29 C22 RE3 R26


R71

R62
R9

D9
C3
T22

C30
T20 T17
C37
R66

R57
C40 R8 C6 C33
R28 R32 R31 R25 T46
T50

C14
C36

K1

D13
1R

T19 C26 T16 D10 C29


T25

C24
R10

R30
D19

P3
JP2

R27 RE4 C21 R24


D17

C23
T18 C19 C17 T15
LS-

R34 IC1
T21

R77
R11

990001-1
R35 R33
R76
R65

R56
L1

LS- C27

*
IC2

T24

C15

R53

LS+
D14
D15

C35 C41 C34 C28


C42

I +5V
R78

T P-LS T28 T27


--

++
LS+

0 0
R75
R74
C48

C45

C47

C44

C46

C43

R79
+ -
R52

R48

R51

R47

R50

R46

R49

R45
R38
R44

R41

R43

R37

R40

R36

R42

R39

T33 T30
T34

T31

T32

T29
T42

T38

T41

T37

T40

T36

T39

T35

990001 - 4 - 11

Figure 17. The interlinking required to form a half-bridge


amplifier from two single Titan 2000 units. Note that the
resulting balanced input may be reconverted to an unbal-
say 50–80 W into 8 Ω. anced one with the Brangé design (Balanced/unbalanced 260 V. The power supply
Such power levels were converters for audio signals) published in the March for this would be quite a
then way beyond of 1998 issue of this magazine. The PCB for that design design. And where
what the voltage rat- (Order no. 980026) is still stocked. would a designer find
ings of output transis- the drivers and output
tors would permit. transistors for this? Advo-
Bridging is considered by many to Opponents also claim that bridging cates point out that bridging amplifiers
be a good thing, since it automatically amplifiers is tedious and requires too have the advantage of requiring a rel-
provides a balanced input (drive). much space. It is, however, not simple atively low supply voltage for fairly
However, opponents will quickly point either to design a single amplifier with high output powers.
out that it halves output damping, the same power output and the requi- Bridging just about doubles the
doubles the circuitry and virtually can- site power supply. A single 2 kW rated output power of the single
cels even-order harmonics created in amplifier requires a symmetrical sup- amplifier. Again, opponents point out
the amplifier. ply voltage of ±130 V, that is, a total of that loudness does not only depend on

Elektor Electronics 6/99 47


Contents

Figure 18. Test setup for the


prototype half-bridge amplifier
(centre). Note the large power
supplies at the left and right of
the amplifier, but the amplifier. mon enclosure. F I N A L LY
also on the loud- The inter- When all interconnections between the
speaker. Bear in wiring is shown boards as outlined have been made,
mind, they say, that just changing a in Fig-ure 17. Make sure that the the single amplifiers form a half-bridge
loudspeaker with a sensitivity of, say, power supplies are switched off and amplifier. If all work has been carried
90 dBSPL per watt per metre to one with that the smoothing capacitors have out as described, there should be no
a sensitivity of 93 dBSPL per watt per been discharged before any work is problems.
metre is equal to doubling the ampli- carried out. In the design stages, network R9-P1,
fier power rating. Start by interlinking the negative inserted into the circuit with pin
Clearly, bridging two amplifiers is a supply lines (terminals 0) with insu- jumper JP1 (see Part 1), was considered
mixture of good and bad audio engi- lated 40/02 mm wire. Remove the necessary for common-mode suppres-
neering and sonics. insulation at the centre of the length sion. However, during the testing of
of wire since this will become the cen- the prototype, the network was found
INTERCONNECTING tral earthing point for the new (bal- to be superfluous. It may be retained if
It is, of course, necessary that two com- anced) input. Link the ⊥ terminals on the half-bridge amplifier is to be used
pleted single Titan 2000 amplifiers are both boards to the new central earth with a second half-bridge amplifier for
available, each with its own power with 24/02 mm insulated wire. stereo purposes, when it may be used
supply. It should then be possible to Connect the loudspeaker terminals to equalize the amplifications of the
simply interlink the earths of the two to the LS+ terminals on the two boards two half-bridge amplifiers.
units, use the inputs as a common bal- with 40/02 mm insulated wire. [990001]
anced input, and connect the loud- Link pins 2 and 3 of the XLR connec-
speaker between terminals LS+ on the tor to the input terminals on the boards
two amplifier. However, a few matters with two-core screened cable. Solder
must be seen to first. the screening braid to pin 1 of the XLR
Owing to the requisite stability, it is connector and to the new central
imperative that the two amplifiers are earthing point.
juxtaposed with the space between Finally, on both boards remove
them not exceeding 5 cm (2 in). They jumper JP2 from the relevant pin strip.
should, of course, be housed in a com-

48 Elektor Electronics 6/99


Contents

Parameters
With a supply voltage of ±70 V (quiescent ±72 V) and a quiescent current of 200–400 mA

Input sensitivity 2.1 V r.m.s.


Input impedance 87 kΩ
True power output for 0.1% THD 950 W into 8 Ω; 1.5 kW into 4 Ω
True power output for 1% THD 1 kW into 8 Ω; 1.6 kW into 4Ω
Power bandwidth 1.5 Hz – 220 kHz
Slew limiting 170 V µs–1
Signal+noise-to-noise ratio (at 1 W into 8 Ω) 97 dB (A-weighted
93 dB (B=22 kHz)
Total harmonic distortion (B=80 kHz)
at 1 kHz 0.0033% (1 W into 8 Ω)
0.002% (700 W into 8 Ω)
0.0047% (1 W into 4 Ω)
0.006% (700 W into 4 Ω)
at 20 kHz 0.015% (700 W into 8 Ω)
0.038% (1200 W into 4 Ω)
Intermodulation distortion
(50 Hz:7 kHz = 4:1) 0.0025% (1 W into 8 Ω)
0.0095% (500 W into 8 Ω)
0.004% (1 W into 4 Ω)
0.017% (500 W into 4 Ω)
Dynamic intermodulation distortion
(square wave of 3.15 kHz and 0.0038% (1 W into 8 Ω)
sine wave of 15 kHz) 0.0043% (700 W into 8 Ω)
0.005% (1 W into 4 Ω)
0.0076% (1200 W into 4 Ω)
Damping (with 8 Ω load) ≥ 350 (at 1 kHz)
≥ 150 (at 20 kHz)
Open-loop amplification ×8600
Open-loop bandwidth 53 kHz
Open-loop output impedance 3.2 Ω

4k

2k

1k

500

200

100
W
50

20

10

20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10k 20k


Hz 990001 - 4 - 12

A comparison of these parameters with the specifications given in Part 4 ((May 1999 issue) show that they are gener-
ally in line. In fact, the intermodulation distortion figures are slightly better. Because of this, no new curves are given
here other than power output (1 kW into 8 Ω and 1.6 kW into 4 Ω) vs frequency characteristics for 1 per cent total har-
monic distortion.
During listening tests, it was not possible to judge the half-bridge amplifier at full volume, simply because there were
no loudspeakers available that can handle this power output. However, up to 200 W true power output, the half-bridge
amplifier sounds exactly the same as the single amplifier. Instrument test figures show no reason to think that the per-
formance at higher output powers will be degraded.

Elektor Electronics 6/99 49


AUDIO & HI-FI Contents

Titan 2000
Part 4: wiring and performance

This fourth of five parts deals primarily with the terminals of the power transistors and
the loudspeaker terminals. Any wiring
wiring up of the amplifier and ends with a brief between smoothing capacitors and
resume of its performance and specifications. the board should not exceed 15 cm
and be preferably much shorter. This
The fifth and final part of the article in a forth- kind of wire is best terminated into
car-type connectors.
coming issue will deal with the temperature Other wiring may be made in
control, bridge configuration and some other light-duty, stranded, insulated hook-
up wire. It is advisable (and may
practical hints. prove to be very helpful in case of
problems) to use wire with different
colour insulation for dissimilar func-
tions.
WIRING UP The connections between the input
How the various board, power sup- socket and board must, of course, be
plies, controls and terminals are com- in screened audio cable. To avoid
bined into an effective and interfer- earth loops, the socket should be iso-
ence-free unit is shown in Figure 16. lated from a metal enclosure. Bear in
As already mentioned in Part 2, all mind that the supply earth and the
wiring carrying the main supply volt- enclosure are linked by metal spacers
age (±70 V) must be insulated, high- between the two ‘0’ terminals and the
current wire to BS6321 with a conduc- heat sink. It is, therefore, essential that
tor size of 50/0.25 (2.5 mm2). This wire the heat sink is firmly strapped to the
Design by T. Giesberts should also be used to link the output metal enclosure.

Elektor Electronics 5/99 33


Contents

D8
D7
C30 R56 ++

T43
R57 0.16AT F2

K4
- -
D8 C43 C4
C2

T44

C28
TR2
R58

R59

R2

~
D9

D6
D5
R61

C29

-
C31

T46
R45 T35
R60

T45

K2
R62

0
T29
P4

C34
C32

T47

D10
R64 R63

D4
D3
K1
R39

R1

~
C4

C33

C17 T15
C8

R13

R18
R26

R25

R24

+ +
C3

990001-1
D4

C46
R16

C1
C16

TR1

K3
R19

T17

T16
F1 0.16AT
T11

990001-3

D2
D1
R22

R49 T39
T32
T13

T23 T22 T21


R42
C20

C21
T9

C44
D5

100V
C9
C10

R46
T36
T

mute D16
D17 R36
C25

P2
D3
C27

T30
R54

T7

C26

D15 R40
R5
RE1

D14
IC1
D1

R53
R4

C24
R55

-
0
C6
T5

R31

R34

R33
R12

T27

R50
T40
C15
R1
R3

P3

R38
T

T1

T3

T28
C2

P1

R32

P-IN
T37
R35
JP1

+
0
R2

R14

R9
T2
T4

R8

P-LS
LS-
LS+
C14
T6

JP2
R6

R47
D2

LS+ R30 LS- LS+


R37
R11
R7

C7

T33
C3
C1

T8

R10
R43
C47
R79
C1
RE2

RE3

RE4
3

BD140
T26 T25 T24
D7

R51
T10

C12

C22

C23

T41
D18 D19 L1 T31
K1
TEMP.
T14

1R
T
SENSOR 12V 12V
R41
C45
R23

T12

IC2
T20

T19

T18 C19
R21

C5
C18

R17

R77

+5V
R15

R20
R29

R28

R27

R48
C11

D6

C42 T38
C40

R76 R78
T34
R74
I

R73 R72
C39

R75
T52

D13

T
P5

T51

R71 R44
C41

R69 T42
T50 C48
C38

C36
R68

R70
D12
D11
C35
T49

R67
R52
D2
+ - T
T48

R13 D1
R66 --

temp.
C37 R65
max.
T1

D3
K2
T2

T
R11 R18
R17
R23

R12
C5

MAX.
D6

R6 R10
R5 R9 R22
P1

R21
C6
P2

R20
R19
D5
IC1

R14
R8

R7

R15
ON
C4

R2 R16
D4
E

R4
input C1 C2 990001-2 C1
C9 C3
LSP

R25

P2
CB

R3
R1

P3 C2
C7

12V
D7 K1

C4
C8
temp

POWER
IC5
R1

R6

D7
R16

R7 R5
C3
T

R9
IC2

P1 D4 R10 -12V
R11 C6
D2

K3
~

IC1 R12
D3

K1
R3

B1

R24
+

R2 D1 FAN
IC2

C5
~ C13
R8

C12
C7 C14 CONTROL
C15

R4
~
C19
IC8
T
D10
D11

R14 R35 D13


C16 R13 R15 K4
0
D6

D5 0
R32 K2 2R
~
IC3
-12V +12V

C21

TR1

C9
R31 R23
R19

C25

~
T2

C10 C17
R30

R22
B1

IC4 T1
C26

R20
R29

R21

T4

TR1

990041-1

R18
IC6 C8 R27
C18

D12
C20

T6 R26
C24

50mAT
0

R33 T3 K3 IC7
R17

R24
mute
K4

JP1 R28
F1
63mAT

R34 R25
T5
+5V

C11 +5V
D8 0 Vre ext int +12V D9 C22
~ ~
R36

F1
C23
IC9

ERROR ON EARLY POWER

2x 100n
250V
X2

34 Elektor Electronics 5/99


Contents
The on/off indicator, the functional
indicators, and the mains on/off
MAINS
switch should, of course, be fitted on
the front panel of the enclosure. The
mains on/off switch must be a 10 A or
15 A type.
250V
10A If the output power of the ampli-
fier is limited to no more than 500 W,
in which case the enclosure does not
need fan cooling, the heat sink may
be mounted at the outside of the
enclosure or even form the sidewall
or back of a home-made enclosure.
For greater output powers, cooling
fans with relevant apertures at the
front and back of the enclosure are a
must. The heat sink must then be
located in the enclosure in such a
position that it is directly between the
two fans, ensuring a continuous sup-
ply of cooling air.

PERFORMANCE
The specification and associated com-
ments in the box cannot, of course,
give a full impression of the perfor-
mance of the amplifier. It is a well-
known fact that amplifiers with an
almost identical specification, and
using identical loudspeakers, can
sound quite different.
Particularly at low frequencies, the
35A 35A amplifier maintains good control over
200V 200V
the loudspeaker, which results in a
clean fast (i.e., taut over the whole
audio range) sound, totally lacking in
reverberation. High and medium fre-
quencies were also reproduced with
excellent definition and without any
trace of tizziness.
The overall impression is that the
amplifier has plenty of reserve and is
not strained in any circumstances.
In next month’s final instalment,
the temperature control and possible
bridge configuration will be dis-
cussed.
[990001-3]

2x 50V 2x 50V ELEKTOR


500VA 500VA
240V ~ 50Hz

No. 990001

F = 2 x 2,5 A T
1000 VA F = 63 mA T
F = 50 mA T

F1 = 2A5 T F1 = 2A5 T
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
F1 F1

K2 K2
R5 R5
K1

K1

R7 R7

R4 R6 R4 R6
Figure 16. The wiring
C1

C1

B1 RE1 B1 RE1 diagram clearly illus-


R2

R2
R1

R1

C2 C2
trates how the various
R3 R3 parts of the amplifier
974078-1 C3 974078-1 C3
are combined into a
single unit.

Elektor Electronics 5/99 35


Contents
Technical specifications
(Supply voltage = ±70 V; quiescent current = 200–400 mA)

Input sensitivity 1.1 V r.m.s.


Input impedance 47.5 kΩ
Sine-wave power output (0.1% THD) 280 W into 8 Ω; 500 W into 4 Ω; 800 W into 2 Ω
Music power* (1% THD) 300 W into 8 Ω; 550 W into 4 Ω; 1000 W into 2 Ω
Slew limiting 85 V µs–1
Open-loop bandwidth 53 kHz
Open-loop amplification ×8600
Power bandwidth 1.5 Hz – 220 kHz
Signal-to-noise ratio (1 W into 8 Ω) 101 dB (A-weighted); 97 dB (B = 22 kHz)
Damping factor (at 8 Ω) >700 (1 kHz); >300 (20 kHz)
Output impedance 1.6 Ω
Harmonic distortion (THD) (B = 80 kHz) 8Ω 4Ω 2Ω
at 1 kHz 0.003% (1 W) 0.0046% (1 W) 0.01% (1 W)
0.005% (200 W) 0.0084% (400 W) 0.02% (700 W)
at 20 kHz 0.009% (200 W) 0.018% (400 W) 0.07% (700 W)
Intermodulation distortion (IM)
(50 Hz:7 kHz = 4:1) 0.004% (1 W) 0.01% (1 W) 0.034% (1 W
0.016% (150 W) 0.025% (300W) 0.07% (500 W)
Dynamic IM
(square wave 3.15 kHz with sine wave 15 kHz) 0.003% (1 W) 0.0036% (1W) 0.0055% (1 W)
0.003% (200 W) 0.005% (400 W) 0.0085% (700 W)

*See Part 1 about the validity of this meaningless quantity.

The specified figures were measured after the amplifier posely drawn for a bandwidth of 22 kHz so that the noise
had been switched on for two hours. The figure show that above 20 kHz does not degrade the performance of the
the Titan 2000 compares favourably with most amplifiers. amplifier. From about 2 W, the distortion increases slightly
The slew limiting is a measure of the speed of the ampli- with increasing drive, which is normal in most amplifiers.
fier, which is exceptionally good in the Titan 2000. Figure C shows the peak output of the amplifier at a con-
Figure A shows the total harmonic distortion plus noise stant distortion of 0.1% and a load of 4 Ω (upper curve) and
(THD+N) for an output of 1 W into 8 Ω (lower curve) and 8 Ω. The bandwidth was 80 kHz.
for 200 W into 8 Ω. The latter figure corresponds with 70% Figure D shows a Fourier analysis of a reproduced 1 kHz
of the peak sine wave power and the curve shows that the signal at a level of 1 W into 8 Ω. It will be seen that the 2nd
distortion increases clearly only above 10 kHz. harmonics are down just about 100 dB, while the 3rd har-
Figure B shows the THD+N at 1 kHz as a function of the monics are down to –114 dB. Higher harmonics lie below
drive with an output impedance of 8 Ω. The curve is pur- the noise floor of –130 dB.

1 1
A 0.5
B 0.5

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0.05 0.05
% %
0.02 0.02

0.01 0.01
200W
0.005 0.005
1W
0.002 0.002

0.001 0.001
20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10k 20k 1m 2m 5m 10m 20m 50m 100m 500m 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k
Hz 990001 - 3 - 14a W 990001 - 3 - 14b

2k +0

C 1k D -10
-20

500 -30
-40
200 -50
-60
100
-70
d
50 B -80
W r
-90
20 -100
-110
10
-120
5 -130
-140
2
-150

1 -160
20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10k 20k 2k 4k 6k 8k 10k 12k 14k 16k 18k 20k
Hz 990001 - 3 - 14c Hz 990001 - 3 - 14d

36 Elektor Electronics 5/99