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Transport within Singapore is mainly land-based.

Many parts of Singapore, including islands


such as Sentosa and Jurong Island are accessible by road. The other major form of
transportation within Singapore is rail: the Mass Rapid Transit which runs the length and width of
Singapore, and the Light Rail Transit which runs within a few neighbourhoods. The main island of
Singapore is connected to the other islands by ferryboat services.

There are two bridges which link Singapore to Malaysia – the Causeway, and the Second Link.
The Singapore Changi Airport is a major aviation hub in Asia, and Singapore is a major
transshipment port.

Mckinsey’s Urban Transportation report rank Singapore's tranport system world's best overall
based on five criteria - availability, affordability, efficiency, convenience, sustainability.[1]

Public transport

The Bus, MRT, LRT and taxi system


make up the public transport system in
Singapore

Singapore has one of the most cost-efficient public transport networks in the world, according to
a study by London consulting firm Credo.[2] Public transport covers a variety of transport modes
such as bus, rail, and taxi.

Regulations

The public transport system is regulated by the Land Transport Authority, which oversees the
three main modes of public transportation. Fare regulation and bus service standards are under
the purview of an independent body, the Public Transport Council, while TransitLink, established
by SBS Transit, SMRT Trains and SMRT Buses, helps to create a system with a common fare-
payment mode, information platform, and a physical network without duplication of services.
The policies of the Land Transport Authority are meant to encourage the use of public transport
in Singapore. The key aims are to provide an incentive to reside away from the Central district, as
well as to reduce air pollution. Singapore has a Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Light Rail Transit
(LRT) rail system consisting of five lines. There is also a system of bus routes throughout the
island, most of which have air conditioning units installed due to Singapore's tropical climate.
Besides cash, a contactless smart card called the EZ-Link card can be used to pay bus and MRT
fares.

Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Singapore, for
example to and from work, on a weekday is 84 min. 25% of public transit riders, ride for more
than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 12 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average
distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7.3 km, while 16% travel for over
12 km in a single direction.[3]

Public transport for tourists

Launched in December 2007 by Land Transport Authority, Singapore Tourism Board and EZ-Link,
the Singapore Tourist Pass[4] offers unlimited travel for tourists to Singapore on Singapore's
public transport system. For S$10 a day (S$20 for 3 days, as of April 2017) and with S$10
deposit, tourists can take any number of rides on buses and trains operated by SBS Transit,
SMRT Buses and SMRT Trains. Certain buses like Night Rider, train service like Sentosa Express
are not applicable. The Singapore Tourist Pass is available at selected MRT stations.

Rail transport

Main article: Rail transport in Singapore

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)


Main articles: Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) and History of the Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)

A C751B train at Eunos MRT Station


Singapore's public transport system had been reliant largely on buses, until the opening of the
first section of the Mass Rapid Transit in 1987. Although buses still enjoy an average daily
ridership exceeding the number carried on both the MRT and LRT systems (3.9 million on buses,
compared to 3.1 million on the MRT and LRT in the year 2016), the Land Transport Authority
plans to expand the rail system such that buses will eventually play only a feeder role to an
extensive rail network.

The MRT network consists of five main lines, for a total network length of 198.6 km (123.40 mi)
and with 119 stations. The North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line are operated by
SMRT Trains (SMRT Corporation), while the North East Line and Downtown Line since 22
December 2013,[5] are run by SBS Transit. The Circle Line Extension from Promenade to Marina
Bay began operation since 14 January 2012.[6]

Light Rail Transit (LRT)


Main article: Light Rail Transit (Singapore)

A Crystal Mover on the Punggol LRT


system at Punggol Station in
Singapore

Light rail transit functioning as feeders to the main MRT network has been under study for some
time, particularly since the existing urban configuration of self-containing new towns spread out
in the suburbs meant it was feasible to consider having light rail systems connecting each town
to the MRT station in the town centre, a role which has traditionally been provided by feeder
buses. Thus, the first SMRT Light Rail (SMRT Corporation) operated LRT was opened in Bukit
Panjang in 1999 to provide a connection to Choa Chu Kang in neighbouring Choa Chu Kang New
Town. Although subsequently hit by over 50 incidents, some of which resulted in several days of
system suspension, similar systems albeit from a different company were introduced in
Sengkang and Punggol in 2003 and 2005 respectively, both operated by SBS Transit.

Other Lines

Singapore has had other forms of light urban rail systems, such as the monorail system on
Sentosa island, which opened in February 1982. This 6.4 km, 6-station system was closed in
March 2005 and a new Sentosa Express system was built by December 2006. The Changi
Skytrain, a people mover system shuttling passengers between the three terminals at the
Singapore Changi Airport, was opened originally in 1990 along with Terminal 2 and upgraded in
2006 with the completion of Terminal 3. The Jurong BirdPark previously featured an air-
conditioned panorail which closed in 2012.

Road transport

Buses
Main article: Bus transport in Singapore

SBS Transit

SMRT Buses

Public Bus transportation:

SBS Transit

Routes: 205 routes (2017) [7]

Fleet: More than 3,100 buses (2017)

SMRT Buses

Routes: 95 routes (2017) [8]

Fleet: More than 1,400 buses (2017)

Tower Transit Singapore

Routes: 26 Routes (2017)

Fleet: 380 Buses (2017)

Go-Ahead Singapore

Routes: 25 routes (2017)


Fleet: 403 buses (2017)

Taxis and transportation network companies


Main article: Taxicabs of Singapore

SMRT-owned Chevrolet Epica sedan taxi

ComfortDelgro LimoCab Mercedes-Benz E-Class taxi

Taxicabs are a popular form of public transport in the compact sovereign city-state of Singapore,
with fares considered low compared to those in most cities in developed countries. As of
December 2014, the total taxi fleet in Singapore was 28,736 taxis, operated by 6 taxi companies
and 178 independent drivers. Taxis may be flagged down at any time of the day along any public
road outside of the Central Business District (CBD). However, increased usage of Uber and Grab
has resulted in a decrease in the usage of taxis.

Private cars

As of 2015, there was a total of 957,246 motor vehicles in Singapore, with 519,645 of them being
private cars.[9]

Trishaws

British nurses taking a trishaw ride during their time off, circa 1946
Tricycle rickshaws (or better known as trishaws in Singapore) are used to ferry tourists around the city area for
sightseeing trips.

Before World War II, rickshaws were an important part of urban public transportation. Rickshaws
were taken over by the trishaw after the world war.

The Trishaw has been discontinued for usage as a means of transportation after 1980. However,
there are some trishaws left which now serve as tourist attractions, taking tourists for a ride
around the downtown district.

Air transport

Singapore Airlines Airbus A380 at


Singapore Changi Airport

There are six local scheduled service airlines, all of them operating from Singapore Changi
Airport, offering scheduled flights to over 70 cities on six continents. The national flag carrier,
Singapore Airlines, operates from Changi Airport Terminal 2 and 3. Its subsidiaries, SilkAir and
Scoot, operate from Changi Airport Terminal 2.

Singapore's budget airlines, Jetstar Asia Airways and Valuair, operate from Changi Airport
Terminal 1 and Tiger Airways operates from Terminal 2.

Jetstar Asia Airways – founded 2004

Scoot – founded 2011

SilkAir – founded 1976

Singapore Airlines – founded 1937 (as Malayan Airways)

Tigerair – founded 2003 (merged with Scoot in 2017)

Valuair – founded 2004 (merged with Jetstar Asia in 2005, brand retained for certain Jetstar
Asia's services)

Aerial lift transport

Cable car
The Singapore Cable Car, plies between Mount Faber on the main island of Singapore and the
resort island of Sentosa. The cable car system underwent a revamp that was completed in
August 2010.

Maritime transport

Bumboat on the Singapore River

Water transport within the main island is limited to the River Taxi along the Singapore River. The
service was introduced in January 2013, with low ridership.[10][11] There are also daily scheduled
ferry services from the Marina South Pier to the Southern Islands such as Kusu Island and Saint
John's Island.[12]

Singapore Cruise Centre (SCC) runs Tanah Merah and HarbourFront Ferry Terminals which are
connected by ferry services to Indonesian Riau Islands of Batam, Bintan and Karimun.
Commercial ferry services are available for booking with SCC's subsidiary SCC Travel Services
which operates wowgetaways.com portal[13]

Infrastructure

Airports
Main article: List of airports in Singapore

Control tower of Singapore Changi


Airport

The aviation industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore, a statutory board
of the Singapore government under the Ministry of Transport.

An open skies agreement was concluded with the United Kingdom in October 2007 permitting
unrestricted services from Singapore by UK carriers. Singapore carriers were allowed to operate
domestic UK services as well as services beyond London Heathrow to a number of destinations,
including the United States along with Canada.[14]

Singapore Changi Airport, with its four terminals, is one of the most important air hubs in the
region. The international airport is situated at the easternmost tip of the main island, and serves
185 cities in 58 countries.[15] With the recent opening of the third terminal, Changi is now capable
of handling 64 million passengers every year.

Seletar Airport is Singapore's first civil aviation airport and is primarily used for private aviation.
The airport also serves limited scheduled commercial flights by Berjaya Air to the Malaysian
islands of Tioman Island and Redang Island.

Airport and airbase technical data


Length Length
Airport ICAO IATA Usage Runway Remarks
(ft) (m)
Paya Lebar Air Base WSAP QPG Military Paved 12400 3800 Former civilian
Mainly non-scheduled
Seletar Airport WSSL XSP Civilian/Military Paved 6023 1836
flights
Sembawang Air Base WSAG Military Paved 3000 914
Singapore Changi
WSSS SIN Civilian Paved 13200 4000
Airport
Tengah Air Base WSAT TGA Military Paved 8900 2713

Heliports
Main article: List of heliports in Singapore

Ports and harbours

Keppel Container Terminal in


Singapore

There are boats and ferry services to nearby islands of Malaysia and Indonesia. These services
can be found at Changi Ferry Terminal, Changi Point Ferry Terminal, Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal,
Singapore Cruise Centre and Marina Bay Cruise Centre Singapore.
The Port of Singapore, run by the port operators PSA International (formerly the Port of
Singapore Authority) and Jurong Port, is the world's busiest in terms of shipping tonnage
handled 1.04 billion gross tons were handled in 2004, crossing the one billion mark for the first
time in Singapore's maritime history. Singapore also emerged as the top port in terms of cargo
tonnage handled with 393 million tonnes of cargo in the same year, beating the Port of
Rotterdam for the first time in the process. In 2006, it handled a total of 448 million tonnes of
cargo.[16]

Singapore is ranked second globally in terms of containerised traffic, with 21.3 million Twenty-
Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs) handled in 2004,[17] and is also the world's busiest hub for
transshipment traffic. Additionally, Singapore is the world's largest bunkering hub, with 23.6
million tonnes sold in 2004.[18]

In 2007, the Port of Singapore was ranked the world's busiest port, surpassing Hong Kong and
Shanghai.[19] The Port of Singapore is also ranked the Best Seaport in Asia.

Ports and Harbours Data


Quay
Quay Area Capacity
Port Operator Type Berths length
cranes (m²) (kTEUs)
(m)
Brani (BT) PSA International Container 9 31 790,000
Cosco/PSA
Cosco-PSA (CPT) Container 2 720 228,000 >1 million
International
Multi-
Jurong JTC 23 4,486 1,200,028
Purpose
Keppel (KT) PSA International Container 14 36 960,000
Pasir Panjang
PSA International Container 12 49 1,770,000
(PPT)
Pasir Panjang
PSA International General
Wharves
Sembawang PSA International General
Tanjong Pagar
PSA International Container 8 27 840,000
(TPT)

Railways

Malaysian Railway

The international railway line to Malaysia is an extension of the Malaysian rail network operated
by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malayan Railways). Since 1 July 2011, Woodlands Train Checkpoint
serves as the southern terminus of the KTM rail network. Previously, KTM trains terminated at
Tanjong Pagar railway station in central Singapore. Two more rail links are being planned: the
Kuala Lumpur-Singapore High Speed Rail terminating in Jurong East, and the Johor Bahru-
Singapore Rapid Transit System between Woodlands North and Bukit Chagar, Johor Bahru.

MRT lines

MRT trains run through tunnels and viaducts along the following lines:

North South MRT Line (SMRT)

East West MRT Line (SMRT)

North East MRT Line (SBS Transit)

Circle MRT Line (SMRT)

Downtown MRT Line (SBS Transit)

LRT lines

LRT trains run on viaducts along the following lines:

Bukit Panjang LRT Line (SMRT)

Sengkang LRT Line (SBS Transit)

Punggol LRT Line (SBS Transit)

Causeway and link bridge

Tuas Second Link

Singapore has two land links to Malaysia. The Johor-Singapore Causeway, built in the 1920s to
connect Johor Bahru in Johor, Malaysia to Woodlands in Singapore, carries a road and a railway
line. The Tuas Second Link, a bridge further west, was completed in 1996 and links Tuas in
Singapore to Tanjung Kupang in Johor.

Roads and expressways


Main article: Driving in Singapore
Singapore pioneered the modern use of toll roads to enter the most congested city centre area
with the Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, which has since been replaced with the Electronic
Road Pricing, a form of electronic toll collection.

Total length of expressways: 161 km

Total length of major arterial roads: 645 km

Total length of collector roads: 557 km

Total length of local access roads: 2048 km (as of 2011)[20]

Traffic drives on the left which is typical in Commonwealth countries.

Main article: Expressways of Singapore

A section of the Ayer Rajah


Expressway

All expressways, plus the semi-


expressways in Singapore

The planning, construction and maintenance of the road network is overseen by the Land
Transport Authority (LTA), and this extends to expressways in Singapore. These form key
transport arteries between the distinct towns and regional centres as laid out in Singapore's
urban planning, with the main purpose of allowing vehicles to travel from satellite towns to the
city centre and vice versa in the shortest possible distance. These expressways include:

Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE)

Bukit Timah Expressway (BKE)

Central Expressway (CTE)

East Coast Parkway (ECP)


Marina Coastal Expressway (MCE)

Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway (KPE)

Kranji Expressway (KJE)

Pan Island Expressway (PIE)

Seletar Expressway (SLE)

Tampines Expressway (TPE)

North-South Expressway (under planning)

The influence of expressways on Singapore's transport policy developed shortly after


independence during the history of Singapore because of frequent traffic congestion in the
Central district. The aim was to encourage residential development in other parts of the island
and give residents in these new "satellite towns" a convenient link between their homes and their
workplaces (which were mostly situated around the city centre.)

References

1. Singapore public transport system tops 7. "Welcome to SBS Transit" .


global list [1] 23 August 2018. Retrieved www.sbstransit.com.sg.
2016-01-31
8. "Information Kit" . www.smrt.com.sg.
2. CNN Go [2] 2 June 2014. Retrieved 2016-
9. "Annual Vehicle Statistics 2015: MOTOR
01-31
VEHICLE POPULATION BY VEHICLE TYPE"
3. "Singapore Public Transportation (PDF). Land Transport Authority. November 12,
Statistics" . Global Public Transit Index by 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
10. "Water taxis to make a splash in
Material was copied from this source, which is
Singapore" . Telegraph. 27 December 2011.
available under a Creative Commons
Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Attribution 4.0 International License.
11. "Few using water taxis as regular mode of
4. "The Singapore Tourist Pass" . Retrieved
commute" . TODAY. 2 August 2013. Retrieved
26 March 2008.
6 April 2014.
5. "Downtown Line" . Land Transport Authority.
12. "Singapore Island Cruise" . islandcruise.
Archived from the original on 3 July 2014.
Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Retrieved 22 December 2013.
13. "wowgetaways.com" . SCC. Retrieved
6. "Marina Bay, Bayfront stations open; more
13 Mar 2018.
relief for commuters soon" . The Straits
Times. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 14. "Singapore, UK conclude landmark Open
Skies Agreement" . Channelnewsasia.com. 3
October 2007. 18. "Total Container Throughput (in '000
TEUs)" (PDF). Maritime and Port Authority of
15. "Air Network" . changiairport.com.
Singapore. Archived from the original (PDF)
Archived from the original on 25 March 2008.
on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
Retrieved 26 March 2008.
19. "Singapore remains world's busiest port" .
16. "Total Cargo (in '000 tons)" (PDF).
Xinhuanet. 12 January 2006.
Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 20. "Facts and Figures" (PDF). Land Transport
2007. Retrieved 26 March 2008. Authority.

17. [3] Archived 3 October 2008 at the


Wayback Machine.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Transport in Singapore.

Ministry of Transport

Public Transport Council

Land Transport Authority

TransitLink

PublicTransport@SG at the Library of Congress Web Archives (archived 2012-04-18)

Taxi Singapore and Transport Guide

Last edited 6 days ago by Tom.Reding