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Lecture 8.

Thévenin's & Norton’s Theorems

• Thevenin’s Theorem

• Norton’s Theorems

• Thevenin
Thevenin’s
s & Norton
Norton’s
s Analysis

• Examples

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Thevenin’s Theorem

• Any circuit with sources (dependent and/or independent) and


resistors can be replaced by an equivalent circuit containing a single
voltage source and a single resistor.

• Thevenin’s theorem implies that we can replace arbitrarily


complicated networks with simple networks for purposes of analysis.

2
I d
Independent
d t Sources
S (Thevenin)
(Th i )

RTh

Voc +

Circuit with independent


p Thevenin equivalent
q
sources circuit

3
Thevenin ↔ Norton

• Any Thevenin equivalent circuit is in turn equivalent to a current


source in parallel with a resistor [source transformation].
Rs

+ Is
Vs Rs
-

• A current source in parallel with a resistor is called a Norton


equivalent
i l t circuit.
i it

• Finding a Norton equivalent circuit requires essentially the same


process as finding a Thevenin equivalent circuit.
4
Independent Sources
(Norton)

Isc RTh

Circuit with one or more Norton equivalent


q circuit
independent sources

5
No Independent Sources
(Thevenin and Norton)

RTh

Circuit without Thevenin equivalent


q
independent sources circuit

6
Example
p Thevenin Equivalent
q

Ib
+
1kΩ 50Ω 2kΩ
+
100Ib Vo

RTh

+
Voc +
Vo


7
Basic Approach to Finding the
Th
Thevenin/Norton
i /N t Equivalent
E i l t
• Circuits with independent sources:
– Find Voc and/or Isc
– Compute RTh (= Voc / Isc)

• Circuits without independent sources:


– Apply a test voltage (current) source
– Find resulting current (voltage)
– Compute RTh (= Vtest / Itest)

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Thevenin/Norton Analysis
y
1. Pick a good breaking point in the circuit (cannot split a dependent
source and its control variable). )
2. Thevenin: Compute open circuit voltage, VOC.
Norton: Compute the short circuit current, ISC.
(For case 3(b): both VOC=0 and ISC=0, =0 so skip step 2 above)
3. Compute the Thevenin equivalent resistance, RTh (or impedance,
ZTh). Three possibilities:
(a) If there are only independent sources,
sources then short circuit all the
voltage sources and open circuit the current sources (just like
superposition).
((b)) If there are only
y dependent
p sources,, then must use a test
voltage or current source in order to calculate
RTh (or ZTh) = Vtest/Itest
(c) If there are both independent and dependent sources, then
compute RTh (or ZTh) from VOC/ISC.
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Thevenin/Norton Analysis
y

4. Thevenin: Replace circuit with VOC in series with RTh (or ZTh).)
Norton: Replace circuit with ISC in parallel with RTh (or ZTh).
Note: for 3(b) the equivalent network is merely RTh (or ZTh), that is,
no voltage (or current) source
source.

Only steps 2 & 4 differ from Thevenin & Norton!

10
Class Examples
p

• Drill Problems P3-6, P3-7 and P3-8

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