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CORE II: SET-UP COMPUTER NETWORKS

This unit covers the outcomes required in setting-up computers networks for LANs and small-office
home-office (SOHO) systems. It consists of competencies to install network cables, set network
configuration, set router/Wi-Fi/ wireless access point/repeater configuration as well as to inspect and
test the configured computer networks.

1. Install Network Cables


1.1 Network design
Network design is a category of systems design that deals with data transport mechanisms.
As with other systems' design disciplines, network design follows an analysis stage, where
requirements are generated, and precedes implementation, where the system (or relevant system
component) is constructed. The objective of network design is to satisfy data communication
requirements while minimizing expense. Requirement scope can vary widely from one network design
project to another based on geographic particularities and the nature of the data requiring transport.
Network design involves evaluating, understanding and scoping the network to be
implemented. The whole network design is usually represented as a network diagram that serves as
the blueprint for implementing the network physically. Typically, network design includes the following:

 Logical map of the network to be designed


 Cabling structure
 Quantity, type and location of network devices (router, switches, servers)
 IP addressing structure
 Network security architecture and overall network security processes

Network topology
Network Topology is the schematic description of a network arrangement, connecting various
nodes (sender and receiver) through lines of connection.

Below are the types of Network Topology

1. BUS Topology
Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected to single
cable. When it has exactly two endpoints, then it is called Linear .
Features of Bus Topology

 It transmits data only in one direction.


 Every device is connected to a single cable

Advantages of Bus Topology

 It is cost effective.
 Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
 Used in small networks.
 It is easy to understand.
 Easy to expand joining two cables together.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology

 Cables fails then whole network fails.

 If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network decreases.
 Cable has a limited length.
 It is slower than the ring topology.

2. RING Topology
It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another
computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two neighbours for each device.
Features of Ring Topology

 A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology with large number of nodes, because if
someone wants to send some data to the last node in the ring topology with 100 nodes, then
the data will have to pass through 99 nodes to reach the 100th node. Hence to prevent data
loss repeaters are used in the network.
 The transmission is unidirectional, but it can be made bidirectional by having 2 connections
between each Network Node, it is called Dual Ring Topology.
 In Dual Ring Topology, two ring networks are formed, and data flow is in opposite direction in
them. Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup, to keep the network up.
 Data is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit. Data transmitted, has to pass
through each node of the network, till the destination node.

Advantages of Ring Topology

 Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes
having tokens can transmit data.
 Cheap to install and expand

Disadvantages of Ring Topology

 Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.


 Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity.
 Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.

3. STAR Topology
In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable. This hub
is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node.
Features of Star Topology

 Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.


 Hub acts as a repeater for data flow.
 Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable.

Advantages of Star Topology

 Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.


 Hub can be upgraded easily.
 Easy to troubleshoot.
 Easy to setup and modify.
 Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work smoothly.

Disadvantages of Star Topology

 Cost of installation is high.


 Expensive to use.
 If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub.
 Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

 MESH Topology
It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All the network nodes are connected to
each other. Mesh has n(n-1)/2 physical channels to link n devices.
There are two techniques to transmit data over the Mesh topology, they are :

 Routing
 Flooding

MESH Topology: Routing


In routing, the nodes have a routing logic, as per the network requirements. Like routing logic
to direct the data to reach the destination using the shortest distance. Or, routing logic which has
information about the broken links, and it avoids those node etc. We can even have routing logic, to
re-configure the failed nodes.
MESH Topology: Flooding
In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all the network nodes, hence no routing logic is
required. The network is robust, and the its very unlikely to lose the data. But it leads to unwanted load
over the network.
Types of Mesh Topology

 Partial Mesh Topology : In this topology some of the systems are connected in the same
fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices.
 Full Mesh Topology : Each and every nodes or devices are connected to each other.

Features of Mesh Topology

 Fully connected.
 Robust.
 Not flexible.

Advantages of Mesh Topology

 Each connection can carry its own data load.


 It is robust.
 Fault is diagnosed easily.
 Provides security and privacy.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

 Installation and configuration is difficult.


 Cabling cost is more.
 Bulk wiring is required.

4. TREE Topology
It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called
hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.
Features of Tree Topology

 Ideal if workstations are located in groups.


 Used in Wide Area Network.

Advantages of Tree Topology

 Extension of bus and star topologies.


 Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
 Easily managed and maintained.
 Error detection is easily done.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology

 Heavily cabled.
 Costly.
 If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.
 Central hub fails, network fails.

5. HYBRID Topology

It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies. For example,
if in an office in one department ring topology is used and in another star topology is used, connecting
these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).
Features of Hybrid Topology

 It is a combination of two or topologies


 Inherits the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies included

Advantages of Hybrid Topology

 Reliable as Error detecting and troubleshooting is easy.


 Effective.
 Scalable as size can be increased easily.
 Flexible.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology


 Complex in design.
 Costly.

Distribution terminals
A distribution terminal is provided for interconnecting one or more fiber optic drop cables with at least
one fiber optic distribution cable at a convenient access point in a telecommunications network. The
terminal comprises a base and a cover adapted to be opened and closed on the base. The base
defines an interior cavity having a lower fiber management area for accessing the distribution cable
and an upper fiber management area for accessing the drop cables. The upper fiber management
area includes a transition panel that is movable relative to the base to provide access to the lower fiber
management area. Thus, both the lower fiber management area and the upper fiber management
area are easily and readily accessible to a field technician initially installing the terminal and
subsequently reconfiguring the optical fiber connections within the terminal at the access point.

1.2 Network Materials

Cables

 Coaxial Cables

Invented in the 1880s, coaxial cable (also called coax) was


best known as the kind of cable that connected television sets
to home antennas. Coaxial cable is also a standard for 10
Mbps Ethernet cables.
When 10 Mbps Ethernet was most popular, during the 1980s
and early 1990s, networks typically used one of two kinds of
coax cable — thinnet (10BASE2 standard) or thicknet
(10BASE5). These cables consist of an inner copper wire of
varying thickness surrounded by insulation and another
shielding. Their stiffness caused network administrators
difficulty when installing and maintaining thinnet and thicknet.

 Twisted Pair Cables


Twisted pair emerged during the 1990s as the
leading cabling standard for Ethernet, starting with 10
Mbps (10BASE-T, also known as Category 3 or
Cat3), later followed by improved versions for 100
Mbps (100BASE-TX, Cat5, and Cat5e) and
successively higher speeds up to 10 Gbps
(10GBASE-T). Ethernet twisted pair cables contain
up to eight wires wound together in pairs to minimize
electromagnetic interference.
Two primary types of twisted pair cable industry
standards have been defined: unshielded twisted pair
(UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP). Modern Ethernet cables use UTP wiring due to its lower cost,
while STP cabling can be found in other types of networks such as Fiber Distributed Data Interface
(FDDI).
 Fiber Optics
Instead of insulated metal wires transmitting electrical signals, fiber optic network cables use strands
of glass and pulses of light. These network cables are bendable despite being made of glass. They
have proven especially useful in wide area network (WAN) installations where long-distance
underground or outdoor cable runs are required and also in office buildings where a high volume of
communication traffic is common.
Two primary types of fiber optic cable industry
standards are defined — single-mode
(100BaseBX standard) and multimode
(100BaseSX standard). Long-distance
telecommunications networks commonly use
single-mode for its relatively higher bandwidth
capacity, while local networks typically use
multimode due to its lower cost.

 USB Cables
Most Universal Serial Bus (USB) cables connect a computer with a
peripheral device (such as a keyboard or mouse) rather than to
another computer. However, special network adapters (sometimes
called dongles) connect an Ethernet cable to a USB port indirectly.
USB cables feature twisted-pair wiring.

 Serial and Parallel Cables


Because many PCs in the 1980s and early 1990s lacked Ethernet
capability, and USB had not been developed yet, serial and parallel
interfaces (now obsolete on modern computers) were sometimes
used for PC-to-PC networking. So-called null model cables, for
example, connected the serial ports of two PCs and enabled data
transfers at speeds between 0.115 and 0.45 Mbps.

 Crossover Cables
Null modem cables are one example of the category of crossover cables. A crossover cable joins two
network devices of the same type, such as two PCs or two network switches. The use of Ethernet
crossover cables was common on older home networks years ago when connecting two PCs directly
together.
Externally, Ethernet crossover cables appear identical to ordinary cables (sometimes called straight-
through), the only visible difference being the order of the color-coded wires appearing on the cable's
end connector. Manufacturers typically applied special distinguishing marks to their crossover cables
for this reason. Nowadays, though, most home networks utilize routers that have built-in crossover
capability, eliminating the need for these special cables.

Terminals

Terminal is an electronic communication hardware device that handle s input and display of
data. Terminal maybe a PC or workstation connected to a network, Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP)
network endpoint, mobile data terminal such as a telematics device, or a text terminal, or textual
language interface.
Cable Raceway/Duct

 Latching Raceway

Latching raceway is identifiable by its hinged or sliding cover that fully


encloses the cables within the channel. To add or remove wires, you simply
open the hatch or slide the cover off. It's available in many different sizes,
and is great for cables around the house like speaker wires or TV cords.
Adhesive allows it to stick to flat surfaces like walls or desks. Latching
raceway is a discreet way to conceal and fully enclose household wires.

 J Channel

J Channel or J Hook raceways are so-named because a cross section


is shaped roughly like the letter “J”. The cables are inserted by dropping
them through the top, where the curve of the “J” hooks around to keep them
in place. This allows for easy access to cables when needed, but also
means the cables are not fully enclosed. Due to the open nature, they
cannot be used in a vertical manner like latching raceway, and are usually
found in use on desks to route computer cables and other related wires
neatly and well off the ground. Like latching raceway, they often feature an
adhesive backing for easy install.
 Corner Duct

Corner duct is similar to latching raceway, but features a unique quarter


round shape that allows it to blend in to wall and/or ceiling junctions for a
complete and finished look. It utilizes a sliding cover to completely conceal
cables, and can be utilized horizontally or vertically on pretty much any
corner, even mimicking the look of crown molding to further disguise its
purpose. These are good for media, speaker and home theater cables
located near the corner of a room, or for cables that hang from the ceiling.

 Power Raceway

Power raceway incorporates a power source directly into the raceway.


While the previous raceways discussed are usually made of PVC, power
raceway can be composed of plastic or metal. Unlike the other types of
raceway that typically house common power cables or speaker wire, power
raceway usually holds communication cabling including voice/data wiring,
fiber optics, or other low voltage cables. This makes it great for labs, offices,
schools and other commercial applications, though it often requires a more
experienced installer, unlike most other raceway that can be easily installed
by any do-it-yourselfer.

Cable Clamps

There are many different types of clamps, with each type serving a specific purpose. Cable clamps
hold cables or cords together and secure them. Hose clamps hold hoses on the ends of pipe spuds.
Hand clamps hold workpieces secure for various work operations. Material handling clamps are used
for heavy load lifting or moving and are usually found in use on heavy equipment, but there are
versions for lighter loads as well. Pipe clamps are for hanging pipes and conduits.
 Hand (Tool)

Hand (Tool) Clamps are hand operated tools used to


position and hold workpieces during assembly or while
undergoing manufacturing. Key specifications include
intended application, clamp type, and grip range, along with
the clamp features. Hand (tool) clamps are available in a
variety of styles including bar, draw, parallel, and toggle, and
are used for various applications such as bookbinding, picture
framing, or door making, and as jigs for a number of
manufacturing operations. Clamps used with laboratory
glassware are included here as well.

 Material Handling

Material handling clamps are clamping mechanisms used to


hold heavy material as it is being lifted or manipulated. Key
specifications include the intended application, load capacity, and
the orientation of the clamping action. Material handling clamps
are used primarily in construction applications for lifting or
manipulating large loads. They are commonly found in use on
cranes for lifting loads such as rails, girders, pipes, etc. They are
used in factories and foundries as well.

 Hose (Mechanical Clamp)

Hose Clamps are mechanical devices used to hold hoses or


tubes in place on the ends of pipe spuds. Key specifications include
the clamp type, diameter, and material. Hose clamps are used
wherever a flexible fluid connection must be made, for example,
between the water pump of an auto engine and the inlet spud of
the radiator. They are made in many sizes and materials, including
metal or plastic, depending on the application, and can be
designed as single-use or as reusable devices.
 Pipe Clamp Types

Pipe Clamps are devices used for hanging or securing pipes.


Key specifications include the intended application, clamp type,
and pipe diameter. Pipe Clamps are used primarily in piping and
plumbing applications for the hanging of various types of pipes.
Applications include exhaust pipes, guard rails and conduits,
among others. There are many styles and sizes available as well
as a variety of materials depending on the type of pipe being hung
and the environment.

 Cable Clamp

Cable Clamps are mechanical devices used to tie down and hold
bundles of cables or cords together. Key specifications include the
cable diameter, mounting hole diameter, and the material. Cable
clamps are used primarily in manufacturing to assist with routing
cables or cords and securing them. They help to relieve stresses in
the cables and give them a clean routing. Many materials and sizes
are available with various mountings for ensuring a proper and
secure fit of cable bundles.

 Ground Clamp

Ground Clamps are devices used for securing grounding wires


to grounding rods and pipes. They are used for general grounding
of antennas, etc. and for specific tasks such as welding and aircraft
refueling. Key specifications include the intended application and
material. Several types are available depending on the construction
of the ground wire, i.e., bare conductor or shielded.

 Fastener Network

The Fastener Network is a leading supplier of high quality specialised and standard fasteners in many
different materials, suitable for a diverse range of applications. The company prides itself on its ability
to meet an extensive array of fastener requirements promptly and efficiently. Consequently, its long
list of satisfied customers includes a number of industry leaders in the fields of product research,
development, manufacturing and engineering.
The Fastener Network was established in June 2000 with the express mission to provide
products of the finest quality at the most competitive price. With the goal of ensuring service excellence
and a high degree of customer satisfaction, a wide range of items are held in stock for instant
accessibility. Products may also be sourced locally within hours or from overseas within days. In
addition, the company can arrange to have items designed and manufactured in accordance with the
customer’s unique and exact specifications.

The Fastener Network is managed by a dedicated team who collectively has more than 46
years’ experience in the fastener industry. The company is also a Level Two BEE contributor. Founder,
Mark Struwig, has been involved in the field for longer than 33 years and is thoroughly versed in all
aspects of the trade. David Miya, joined the company in 2003 and his rapid growth has seen him
promoted to the position of sales manager and major shareholder.

Insulator
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little
electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other
materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current more easily. The property
that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors
or conductors.
Below are types of Insulators:

 Pin insulators

Pin insulators are the earliest developed overhead insulator, but are still commonly used in power
networks up to 33 kV system. Pin type insulator can be one part,
two parts or three parts type, depending upon application
voltage.
In a 11 kV system we generally use one part type insulator
where whole pin insulator is one piece of properly shaped
porcelain or glass.
As the leakage path of insulator is through its surface, it is
desirable to increase the vertical length of the insulator surface
area for lengthening leakage path. We provide one, two or more
rain sheds or petticoats on the insulator body to obtain long
leakage path.
In addition to that rain shed or petticoats on an insulator serve
another purpose. We design these rain sheds or petticoats in
such a way that while raining the outer surface of the rain shed becomes wet but the inner surface
remains dry and non-conductive. So there will be
discontinuations of conducting path through the damp pin
insulator surface.

 Post Insulator
Post insulators are similar to Pin insulators, but post
insulators are more suitable for higher voltage applications.
Post insulators have a higher number of petticoats and a
greated height compared to pin insulators. We can mount this
type of insulator on supporting structure horizontally as well as
vertically. The insulator is made of one piece of porcelain and it
has clamp arrangement are in both top and bottom end for
fixing.

 Suspension Insulator
In higher voltage, beyond 33KV, it becomes uneconomical to
use pin insulator because size, weight of the insulator become more.
Handling and replacing bigger size single unit insulator are quite
difficult task. For overcoming these difficulties, suspension
insulator was developed. In suspension insulator numbers of
insulators are connected in series to form a string and the line
conductor is carried by the bottom most insulator. Each insulator of
a suspension string is called disc insulator because of their disc like
shape.

 Strain Insulator
When suspension string is used to sustain
extraordinary tensile load of conductor it is
referred as string insulator. When there is a
dead end or there is a sharp corner in
transmission line, the line has to sustain a great
tensile load of conductor or strain. A strain
insulator must have considerable mechanical
strength as well as the necessary electrical
insulating properties.

 Stay Insulator

For low voltage lines, the stays are to be insulated from ground at a height. The insulator used in
the stay wire is called as the stay insulator and is usually of porcelain and is so designed that in case
of breakage of the insulator the guy-wire will not fall to the ground.
 Shackle Insulator
The shackle insulator (also known as a spool insulator) is usually used
in low voltage distribution network. It can be used in both the horizontal
or vertical positions. The use of such insulator has decreased recently
after increasing the using of underground cable for distribution
purpose.

The tapered hole of the spool insulator distributes the load


more evenly and minimizes the possibility of breakage when heavily
loaded. The conductor in the groove of shackle insulator is fixed with
the help of soft binding wire.

1.3 Tools, equipment and testing devices


Protective eyewear -the eye protection needed to do your job
safely.
You should use eye protection if the activity involves:

 Hazardous chemicals or other substances that could


damage your eyes upon contact
 Flying debris or other small particles that could hit
participants or bystanders
 Projectiles or objects that could become projectiles and fly
into the eyes unexpectedly

Digital multi-meter - A multimeter is an electronic tool used to measure


voltage, amps and resistance across circuits. By attaching two leads to
different parts of an electrical system, professionals can use multimeters to
detect levels of voltage and resistance, or changes in electrical currents.

Wire stripper with bolt cutter - A heavy-duty cable stripper/cutter


combination gives you multiple cutting blades in one tool when
you’re working with coax, round network cables and flat cables.
Pliers (assorted) - Pliers are a multi-purpose hand tool with opposing
jaws for gripping, bending and cutting. The two cross metal limbs
provide tough leverage for multiplying the strength of the user's hand.
Pliers are an essential part of every toolbox, as they have multiple
uses about the home. While you can usually get by with an all-
purpose pliers, there are other varieties of the tool that cater to a
specific task. Choosing the right pliers for the right job will improve
efficiency and safety.

Screw drivers (assorted) – a tool, usually hand-operated, for turning


screws with slotted heads. For screws with one straight diametral slot cut
across the head, standard screwdrivers with flat blade tips and in a variety
of sizes are used. Special screws with cross-shaped slots in their heads
require a special screwdriver with a blade tip that fits the slots.

LAN Tester – A tester cover the fields of installation and network control.
These LAN testers can be used in the workplace and are ideal for
technical service professionals and network administrators. These LAN
testers can determine IP addresses, identify polarity, connected port and
link connectivity. Furthermore, they can test fibre optic cables. It can also
show cable break points, incorrect connections in fibre optic lines. All this
in a large pen design. With these LAN testers you can test the state of
LAN network connections to Hubs and Switches and can analyze the
traffic of a network and which IP it generates.

Crimping tools - A crimping tool is a device used to conjoin two pieces


of metal by deforming one or both of them in a way that causes them to
hold each other. The result of the tool's work is called a crimp. A good
example of crimping is the process of affixing a connector to the end of
a cable. For instance, network cables and phone cables are created
using a crimping tool to join the RJ-45 and RJ-11 connectors to both
ends of either phone or Cat 5 cable.

1.4 Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment


Gloves - Safety gloves are hand garments meant for the protection of
the wrist, hand, fingers, and thumbs from adverse processes or
conditions. These items are virtually limitless in application and
find employment in both industrial and commercial marketplaces. Their
functionality is determined by the material and design of the glove.
Goggles - or safety glasses, are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the area
surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes.

1.5 OH&S Policies and Procedures 5S Principles are Followed


According to Enterprise Requirements
One of your most important responsibilities is to protect your Health and Safety as well as that of
your co-workers. This booklet will discuss some of your duties under the occupational Health and
Safety legislation and help you to make your workplace safer and healthier.
Occupational Health and Safety Laws
The Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) was a web-based surveillance tool designed
for healthcare facilities to monitor work-related injuries and exposures to prevent future injuries. OHSN
was established in 2012 and retired on September 30, 2019.

Occupational health and safety are the field of public health that studies trends in illnesses and
injuries in the worker population and proposes and implements strategies and regulations to prevent
them. Its scope is broad, encompassing a wide variety of disciplines—from toxicology and
epidemiology to ergonomics and violence prevention.
Historically, the focus of occupational health and safety efforts have been on manual labor
occupations, such as factory workers. But the field now encompasses all occupations in the United
States. In addition to ensuring our work environments (from construction sites to office buildings) have
safety precautions in place to prevent injuries, experts in occupational health also work to limit both
short- and long-term hazards that could lead to physical or mental illness now or in the future.
More than three million people suffer some kind of serious work-related injury or illness every
year in the United States. Millions more are exposed to environmental health hazards that could cause
issues years from now. Workers' compensation claims total more than a billion dollars a week. That
doesn’t even account for the loss of wages and other indirect expenses, such as decreased
productivity and the psychological toll of experiencing or caring for someone with an injury.
With the exception of self-employed individuals and relatives of farm workers, nearly all
employers both private and public have a social and legal responsibility to establish and maintain a
safe and healthy environment. Some are happy to comply for ethical reasons or because injuries and
illnesses can lead to lost productivity, turnover, and higher employer-subsidized health insurance
premiums. It is common for larger employers to establish their own workplace health and
safety initiatives that exceed regulatory requirements.
What is 5S?
5S is a system for organizing spaces so work can be performed efficiently, effectively, and safely. This
system focuses on putting everything where it belongs and keeping the workplace clean, which makes
it easier for people to do their jobs without wasting time or risking injury.
 Sort
 Set in Order
 Shine
 Standardize
 Sustain
Personal Safety
To help keep your back free of strain:

 Stand up and walk around every hour or so, so that you’re not sat in the same position all day.
 Slowly lean your torso over to one side of the chair and then the other to stretch your sides
and spine.
 Stand up and put your hands together, elbows out, then slowly twist to the left and then to the
right.

Reduce tension by regularly moving your neck and shoulders:

 Sit up straight and slowly tilt your head down to one shoulder and then to the other to stretch
your neck.
 Move your shoulders around in small circles, first in one direction and then the other.
 Slowly bring your chin down to your chest, hold for 3 seconds, and then release.

To keep your arms and wrists ache-free:

 Reach your arms out in front of you and draw big circles with your wrists, first in one direction
and then the other.
 Stretch your arms out to the side as far as you can and then above your head as high as you
can to stretch your arms, wrists and back.
 Interlock your fingers and then push them out in front of you, with palms facing out.

To prevent stiff legs, ankles and feet:

 Rotate your ankles round in circles under the desk, first one way and then the other.
 Stand up and march on the spot for 30 seconds to improve the blood flow in your legs.
 Stand on your tiptoes and stretch upwards, as tall as you can, to release some of the tension
in your ankles, legs, back, arms and neck.

To reduce the risks of visual problems:

 Reposition the screen to avoid glare from lights or windows.


 Keep the screen clean and use a desk lamp to make it easier to see.
 Ensure the screen colours are easy to look at, and that the characters are sharp and legible.
 Look away from the screen into the distance for a few moments to relax your eyes; focus on
something 30 metres away for 30 seconds every 30 minutes.

Workplace Hazards
1.Slips, trips, and falls

Falls from tripping over who-knows-what (uneven floor surfaces, wet floors, loose cables, etc.) are
easily the most common cause of injuries at work. Employers have to fork over big bucks to cover the
cost of all of these mishaps, and sadly, most of them could be prevented if safety regulations were
followed properly. It’s the responsibility of employers and workplaces to make sure employees are
working in a safe environment.
2. Electrical

Any “live” wires can harm people, whether they touch it directly, or indirectly through some sort of
conducting object or material. Voltages over 50 volts AC (120 volts DC) are considered hazardous
and should be taken seriously. Unfortunately, some electrical accidents that happen at work each year
are fatal. Shocks can cause severe, permanent injuries. These are caused by faulty equipment that
can be checked as a preventative measure.

3. Fire

Businesses that have poor housekeeping standards, public access (for possible arson), and poorly
maintained equipment can be harmed more by fires. Along with buildings, people and stock can be
affected, and once again, safety precautions can be taken as an attempt to avoid such a dangerous
thing from happening. We all probably learned about fire safety in elementary school, so having fire
alarms and detectors throughout the building should be no-brainers. Testing these frequently is a way
to keep a building safe, as well as making sure they’ll still function on a different back-up power supply,
even if the power is out. Employees need to be aware of how the alarm system works, and a proper
escape plans need to be established and made known to all workers.

4. Working in confined spaces

Places that are mostly enclosed can become dangerous locations to work. Chambers, tanks, silos,
vats, pits, trenches, sewers, drains, ductwork, and unventilated or poorly ventilated rooms can
increase the risk of death or serious injury. Welding, painting, flame-cutting, and the use of chemicals
in small areas can create dangerous work conditions. Poor training can injure not only workers
confined in these spaces, but also those attempting to rescue them.

5. Physical hazards

This is somewhat of a generic work hazard to mention, but it’s an important one. Physical hazards are
some of the most common hazards, and they show up in the workplace too often. Frayed electrical
cords, unguarded machinery, exposed moving parts, vibrations, and working from ladders, scaffolding,
or heights.

6. Ergonomical hazards

When the type of work you do plus your body position and/or working conditions all put a strain on
your body, that can become an ergonomical hazard. Since they don’t always immediately affect you,
this can be tricky to identify. Repetitive, awkward movements could be affecting your back, posture,
and more. Ergonomics is used to reduce the wear and tear on your body that can eventually make a
task difficult – or even painful. To improve efficiency, increase job satisfaction, and reduce the risk of
fatigue, short-term pain, or illnesses, it’s important to incorporate ergonomic principles within the
workplace. Instead of doing the same thing over and over, task variety will minimize repetitive
movements. Having an appropriate work pace gives the body time to recover after certain movements,
like lifting. Work breaks also give the body time to recover, and they provide workers with a mental
break, too.
7. Chemical hazards

These are what can make confined spaces so hazardous. When you’re exposed to any chemical
preparation (whether it’s a solid, liquid, or gas), these can be potential chemical hazards. Cleaning
products and solvents, vapors and fumes, carbon monoxide, gasoline, and flammable materials are
all things that can damage your health. Skin irritations, burns, eye injuries, and blindness can occur if
you’re not careful. Solvents can easily catch on fire, and spray paint cans are capable of exploding.
Hazardous substances will be labeled and include symbols with different class levels, so you’ll know
when to be cautious. Always read these labels and follow the directions and precautions precisely. If
you don’t know how to correctly use a product, don’t use it.

8. Biological hazards

Blood or other bodily fluids, bacteria and viruses, insect bites, and animal and bird droppings are all
considered biological hazards. These are also called biological agents, and they can cause illnesses
and diseases in humans. Parasitic worms and some plants are biological agents. Through physical
contact, you can contract these illnesses, so it’s important to practice good personal hygiene. Some
infectious agents are transmitted directly (through physical contact, droplets from a sneeze or cough,
or by an injection or puncture), while others are passed indirectly (by attaching themselves to food,
water, or eating utensils, when an insect carries them from an infected person to a non-infected
person, or when inhaled through the air).

9. Asbestos

Asbestos deserves its own ranking – it can lead to the development of breathing difficulties and
mesothelioma (a type of cancer) after exposure, so we thought it was important to mention. Asbestos
fibers can pass through your lungs and stay there for many years. There’s no way to remove the fibers
once they’ve reached your lungs, and so far, there’s no cure for the diseases they cause. There are
three types of asbestos: brown (amosite), blue (crocidolite), and white (chrysotile).

10. Noise

Say what? So maybe your parents were right when they told you to “Turn down your music – it’ll
damage your eardrums!” Loud noises in the workplace can cause permanent damage to your hearing,
whether you want to believe it or not. Hearing loss can happen progressively, or it can be caused
immediately by exposure to peak sound waves produced by explosive sounds, such as gunfire,
explosions, or cartridge operated tools. If you work in a noisy place, like a factory or construction site,
or even at an airport, you are among those most at risk. Just because you’re used to it doesn’t mean
it’s not affecting your hearing.

Environment Laws

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

Under HIPAA’s Privacy Rule, an entity may not use or disclose protected health information unless as
permitted or required by the Rule, or as authorized in writing by the individual affected. HIPAA’s
Security Rule complements the Privacy Rule and deals specifically with Electronic Protected Health
Information (EPHI). It lays out three types of security safeguards required for compliance:
administrative, physical, and technical. The Rule identifies various security standards for each of these
types. Required specifications must be adopted and administered as dictated by the Rule.

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)


It has 2 key rules for “financial institutions” storing data in the cloud: the Financial Privacy Rule and
the Safeguards Rule. The Financial Privacy Rule requires institutions to notify each customer at the
time the relationship is established and annually thereafter about the personal information about them
collected, where that information is kept, with whom is shared, how is used, and how it is protected.
The Safeguards Rule requires financial institutions to develop a written information security plan that
describes how the company plans to protect clients’ nonpublic personal information.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard


The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) was jointly developed by Visa and
MasterCard to simplify compliance for merchants and payment processors. It has 6 core areas and
12 requirements that cover best practices for perimeter security, data privacy, and layered security.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)


FERPA is a federal law that protects student information collected by educational institutions and
associated vendors. These institutions must have the student’s consent prior to disclosure of personal
data including grades, enrollment status, or billing information. Protection of student information
according to FERPA regulations is a key consideration in using cloud-based applications that handle
student records. IT administrators must be aware of the information that is passed to a cloud network
or application.
US-based cloud tenants and providers must consult a plethora of industry-specific laws to determine
their legal risks and obligations. But if you don’t adequately protect the information you store, there
are some important consequences you should assume, like fines or lawsuits. Remember that fines
and lawsuits can have devastating consequences for small or midsize businesses.

1.6 Splicing
Straight-through
Straight-Through refers to cables that have the pin assignments on
each end of the cable. In other words Pin 1 connector A goes to Pin
1 on connector B, Pin 2 to Pin 2 ect. Straight-Through wired cables
are most commonly used to connect a host to client. When we talk
about cat5e patch cables, the Straight-Through wired cat5e patch
cable is used to connect computers, printers and other network client
devices to the router switch or hub (the host device in this instance).

Connector A Connector B
 Pin 1  Pin 1
 Pin 2  Pin 2
 Pin 3  Pin 3
 Pin 4  Pin 4
 Pin 5  Pin 5
 Pin 6  Pin 6
 Pin 7  Pin 7
 Pin 8  Pin 8
Cross-talk
Crossover wired cables (commonly called crossover cables) are
very much like Straight-Through cables with the exception that
TX and RX lines are crossed (they are at oposite positions on
either end of the cable. Using the 568-B standard as an example
below you will see that Pin 1 on connector A goes to Pin 3 on
connector B. Pin 2 on connector A goes to Pin 6 on connector B
ect. Crossover cables are most commonly used to connect two
hosts directly. Examples would be connecting a computer
directly to another computer, connecting a switch directly to
another switch, or connecting a router to a router.Note: While in
the past when connecting two host devices directly a crossover
cable was required. Now days most devices have auto sensing
technology that detects the cable and device and crosses pairs when needed.

Connector A Connector B
 Pin 1  Pin 1
 Pin 2  Pin 2
 Pin 3  Pin 3
 Pin 4  Pin 4
 Pin 5  Pin 5
 Pin 6  Pin 6
 Pin 7  Pin 7
 Pin 8  Pin 8

Roll-over
A network cable with wires that are rolled over and
reversed in sequence on each end is called a rollover
cable. The first wire connected to the first pin on one end
is the same color as the wire attached to the last pin on
the opposite end. Also called a Cisco console cable, it is
flat and light blue, and has wires colored white-orange,
orange, white-green, and blue. The other four wires
continue in a sequence and are colored white-blue, green,
white-brown, and brown. A rollover cable is often used by
programmers to connect devices to network routers and
switches, and by technicians to upgrade network systems
and conduct troubleshooting and maintenance tasks.
Cable raceway
A raceway, in cable management parlance, is essentially any rigid enclosed
or semi-enclosed channel that protects, routes and hides cables and wires.
A raceway (sometimes referred to as a raceway system) is an enclosed
conduit that forms a physical pathway for electrical wiring. Raceways
protect wires and cables from heat, humidity, corrosion, water intrusion and
general physical threats. A well-grounded metallic conduit provides RF
(radio frequency) shielding that minimizes the risk.
Slotted PVC
Slotted screens can be fabricated from the lightest class PVC to the
heaviest. We can slot pipe from ½” diameter through 18″ diameter and up to 20′ lengths. Slot sizes
.008 and wider are available with a variety of configurations possible depending on slot size, spacing
and number of rows of slots. A row consists of slots, normally spaced at 1/8″ intervals, cut
perpendicular to the axis of the pipe and running from one end of the pipe to the other. Most pipe can
take up to two rows more than the stated diameter of the pipe without significant structural weakening.
Screens and pipe can be furnished with flush threaded or slip joints as well as conventional fittings.
Metallic raceway

Flexible conduit

An electrical conduit is a tube used to protect and route electrical


wiring in a building or structure. Electrical conduit may be made of
metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. Most conduit is rigid, but flexible
conduit is used for some purposes.
Conduit is generally installed by electricians at the site of installation
of electrical equipment. Its use, form, and installation details are often
specified by wiring regulations, such as the US National Electrical
Code (NEC) and other building codes.
1.2 Set Network Configuration

Network Card
Network card is a necessary component of a computer without which a computer cannot be connected
over a network. It is also known as the network adapter or Network Interface Card (NIC). Most branded
computers have network card pre-installed. Network cards are of two types: Internal and External
Network Cards.

Internal Network Cards

Motherboard has a slot for internal network card where it is


to be inserted. Internal network cards are of two types in
which the first type uses Peripheral Component
Interconnect (PCI) connection, while the second type uses
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA). Network cables are
required to provide network access.

External Network Cards


External network cards are of two types: Wireless and USB
based. Wireless network card needs to be inserted into the
motherboard, however no network cable is required to
connect to the network.

What is Network Configuration?


A network configuration is the overall design of some type of communications network. As part of this
configuration, both software and hardware are arranged in a manner that allows for optimum efficiency
with the process of transmitting voice, audio, and data between two or more points. A network
configuration may be local and somewhat contained, or involve a collection of locations or nodes that
are found across the country, or even across the world.

All network configuration approaches require the presence of various forms of hardware and software.
The hardware serves as the frame for the network, effectively creating the basis for the overall
structure. Software applications that are compatible with one another and with the hardware are
uploaded and installed, an action that initiates activity on the network, allowing for the efficient storage
and retrieval of all types of data.
1.3 Set Router/Wi-Fi/ Wireless Access Point/Repeater Configuration
What is router?

A router is a type of device which acts as the central point


among computers and other devices that are a part of the
network. It is equipped with holes called ports. Computers
and other devices are connected to a router using network
cables. Now-a-days router comes in wireless modes using
which computers can be connected without any physical
cable.

What is Wi-Fi?
Wi-Fi is a technology that uses radio waves to provide network connectivity. A connection is
established using a wireless adapter to create hotspots — areas in the vicinity of a wireless router that
are connected to the network and allow users to access internet services. This article will introduce
you to the basics of Wi-Fi so that you may have a better understanding of your Internet access.
Wireless Access Point
A wireless access point (WAP) is a hardware device or configured node on local area network (LAN)
that allows wireless capable devices and wired networks to connect through a wireless standard,
including Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. WAPs feature radio transmitters and antennae, which facilitate
connectivity between devices and the Internet or a network.
A WAP is also known as a hotspot.
Client Device
Client device is a device, server or workstation that has Network Agent and a Kaspersky Lab
application installed. Client devices with common features (such as the same antivirus application
installed, geographical location, or security level) are placed into administration groups so that they
can be managed simultaneously.

Laptop
A laptop is a portable computer that is more efficient, and nearly as
powerful, as a desktop computer. Portable computers run off AC power
or batteries, such as NiMH, NiCad, or Li-ion packs, for several hours.
Desktop
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use
at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power
requirements. The most common configuration has a case that
houses the power supply, motherboard (a printed circuit board with a
microprocessor as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, bus,
and other electronic components), disk storage (usually one or more
hard disk drives, solid state drives, optical disc drives, and in early
models a floppy disk drive); a keyboard and mouse for input; and a
computer monitor, speakers, and, often, a printer for output. The case may be oriented horizontally or
vertically and placed either underneath, beside, or on top of a desk.
Network storage
A storage area network (SAN) or storage network is a computer network which provides access to
consolidated, block-level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance accessibility of storage
devices, such as disk arrays and tape libraries, to servers so that the devices appear to the operating
system as locally-attached devices. A SAN typically is a dedicated network of storage devices not
accessible through the local area network (LAN) by other devices, thereby preventing interference of
LAN traffic in data transfer. The cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels
allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium-sized business environments.
A SAN does not provide file abstraction, only block-level operations. However, file systems built on
top of SANs do provide file-level access, and are known as shared-disk file systems.
Network printer

A network printer is a printer that is accessible by network connection, making it usable by other
computers connected to the network. The printer may have its own network connection, or use the
network connection of a single dedicated computer to which it has a local connection.
Types of Networks
1. Personal Area Network (PAN)

The smallest and most basic type of network, a PAN is made up of a wireless modem, a computer or
two, phones, printers, tablets, etc., and revolves around one person in one building. These types of
networks are typically found in small offices or residences, and are managed by one person or
organization from a single device.

2. Local Area Network (LAN)

We’re confident that you’ve heard of these types of networks before – LANs are the most frequently
discussed networks, one of the most common, one of the most original and one of the simplest types
of networks. LANs connect groups of computers and low-voltage devices together across short
distances (within a building or between a group of two or three buildings in close proximity to each
other) to share information and resources. Enterprises typically manage and maintain LANs.

Using routers, LANs can connect to wide area networks (WANs, explained below) to rapidly and safely
transfer data.

3. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

Functioning like a LAN, WLANs make use of wireless network technology, such as WiFi. Typically
seen in the same types of applications as LANs, these types of networks don’t require that devices
rely on physical cables to connect to the network.

4. Campus Area Network (CAN)

Larger than LANs, but smaller than metropolitan area networks (MANs, explained below), these types
of networks are typically seen in universities, large K-12 school districts or small businesses. They can
be spread across several buildings that are fairly close to each other so users can share resources.
5. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

These types of networks are larger than LANs but smaller than WANs – and incorporate elements
from both types of networks. MANs span an entire geographic area (typically a town or city, but
sometimes a campus). Ownership and maintenance are handled by either a single person or company
(a local council, a large company, etc.).

6. Wide Area Network (WAN)

Slightly more complex than a LAN, a WAN connects computers together across longer physical
distances. This allows computers and low-voltage devices to be remotely connected to each other
over one large network to communicate even when they’re miles apart.

The Internet is the most basic example of a WAN, connecting all computers together around the world.
Because of a WAN’s vast reach, it is typically owned and maintained by multiple administrators or the
public.

7. Storage-Area Network (SAN)

As a dedicated high-speed network that connects shared pools of storage devices to several servers,
these types of networks don’t rely on a LAN or WAN. Instead, they move storage resources away from
the network and place them into their own high-performance network. SANs can be accessed in the
same fashion as a drive attached to a server. Types of storage-area networks include converged,
virtual and unified SANs.

8. System-Area Network (also known as SAN)

This term is fairly new within the past two decades. It is used to explain a relatively local network that
is designed to provide high-speed connection in server-to-server applications (cluster environments),
storage area networks (called “SANs” as well) and processor-to-processor applications. The
computers connected on a SAN operate as a single system at very high speeds.

9. Passive Optical Local Area Network (POLAN)

As an alternative to traditional switch-based Ethernet LANs, POLAN technology can be integrated into
structured cabling to overcome concerns about supporting traditional Ethernet protocols and network
applications such as PoE (Power over Ethernet). A point-to-multipoint LAN architecture, POLAN uses
optical splitters to split an optical signal from one strand of single mode optical fiber into multiple signals
to serve users and devices.

10. Enterprise Private Network (EPN)

These types of networks are built and owned by businesses that want to securely connect its various
locations to share computer resources.

11. Virtual Private Network (VPN)

By extending a private network across the Internet, a VPN lets its users send and receive data as if
their devices were connected to the private network – even if they’re not. Through a virtual point-to-
point connection, users can access a private network remotely.
1.4 Inspect and Test the Configured Computer Networks
 Follow OHS procedures in testing systems and networks;
 Test computer systems and networks in accordance with the job requirements; and
 Accomplish technical reports on the tests conducted.

What is computer network?


A computer network is a system in which multiple computers are connected to each other
to share information and resources.

Characteristics of a Computer Network


 Share resources from one computer to another.
 Create files and store them in one computer, access those files from the other computer(s)
connected over the network.
 Connect a printer, scanner, or a fax machine to one computer within the network and let other
computers of the network use the machines available over the network.
Following is the list of hardware's required to set up a computer network.

 Network Cables
 Distributors
 Routers
 Internal Network Cards
 External Network Cards