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In the accomplishment of this projeot successfiully,
many people have best owned upon me their blessings
and the heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to
thank all the people who have been concerned with
project. Primarily I would thank god for being able to
complete this project with success.
Then I would like to thank my principal
Mr.S.D.LOKHANDE and physics teacher Mr. RAJESH
THAKKAR, whose valuable guidance has been the ones
that helped me patch this project and make it full proof
success her suggestions and her instructions has served
as the major contributor towards the completion of the
projeot Then I would like to thank my parents and
friends who have helped me with their valuable
suggestions and guidance has been helpful in various
phases of the completion of the projeot. Last but not
the least I would tike to thank my classmates who have
helped me a lot.

Definition of electromagnetic wave

one of the waves that are propagated by
simultaneous periodic variations of electric and
magnetic field intensity and that include radio waves,
infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays

Gamma rays are produced in the disintegration of radioactive atomic

nuclei and in the decay of certain subatomic particles.
Like in the process of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.


X-rays can be generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a

high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a
high velocity. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the
anode, creating the X-rays.


This is the radiation produced by the motion of atoms and molecules in

an object. When an object is not quite hot enough to radiate visible
light, it will emit most of its energy in the infrared. For example, hot
charcoal may not give off light but it does emit infrared radiation which
we feel as heat.


An atom's electron absorbs energy and becomes energized, or excited.

When this happens, the excited electron moves from its ground state
(normal position around the nucleus) to an excited state (position
farther from the nucleus. 2. The excited electron emits the energizing
energy as photons of visible light.

UV rays

It is produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-

vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights.


Microwaves are basically extremely high frequency radio waves, and are
made by various types of transmitter.
In a mobile phone, they're made by a transmitter chip and an antenna,
in a microwave oven they're made by a "magnetron".

Their wavelength is usually a couple of centimetres. Stars also give off



They are generated by electric charges undergoing acceleration, such as

time varying electric currents.[2] Naturally occurring radio waves are
emitted by lightning and astronomical objects.

Radio waves are generated artificially by transmitters and received by

radio receivers, using antennas.

Electromagnetic spectrum is a band of all electromagnetic waves which

exists in nature. It helps in comparative study of wave length and
frequency of all elecromagnetic waves. After studying the
electromagnetic spectrum we conclude that there are following types
of electromagnetic waves:

 Radio wave
 Microwave
 Infrared wave
 Visible waves
 Ultraviolet wave
 X rays
 Gamma rays
Something interesting about light, and electromagnetic waves in
general, is that no medium is required for the wave to travel
through. Other waves, such as sound waves, can not travel
through a vacuum. An electromagnetic wave is perfectly happy to
do that.
An electromagnetic wave, although it carries no mass, does carry
energy. It also has momentum, and can exert pressure (known as
radiation pressure). The reason tails of comets point away from
the Sun is the radiation pressure exerted on the tail by the light
(and other forms of radiation) from the Sun.
The energy carried by an electromagnetic wave is proportional to
the frequency of the wave. The wavelength and frequency of the
wave are connected via the speed of light. There are many other
properties also such as:
 Their velocity is always equal i.e. speed of light (which is

3,00,000 kmps)
 They contain high quantity of energy.
 The electric and magnetic component moves perpendicular to
each other.

The frequency, wavelength and the speed of light follow a
relationship of:
Wavelength × frequency= speed of light

 EM waves accomplish the transmission of energy through a
vacuum or using no medium.
 Since electromagnetic waves transmit energy, it plays an
important role in our daily lives including the communication
 Electromagnetic radiation is the foundation for working of radar
which in turn is used for guiding and remote sensing the study of
our planet Earth.
 Ultraviolet rays are germicidal in nature and destroy bacteria,
viruses and moulds from various surfaces, air or water.
 UV rays are also used to detect the forged bank notes. Real bank
notes don’t turn fluorescent under the UV light.
 UV rays have also sanitary and therapeutic properties.
 X-rays detect the bone breaks by passing through the flesh and
capturing the image.
 Gamma rays can cause and also treat cancers. High doses of
gamma rays kill the normal cells causing cancer while proper
amount can kill mutated cells.
 Infrared radiation is used for night vision and comes handy for
security cameras.
 Infrared radiation is visible at all times thus is used by officials to
capture enemy.
 Radio wave
1. TV and FM radio (short wavelength)
2. Direct line of sight with transmitter (do not diffract)
3. Medium wavelength – travel further because they reflect
from layers in the atmosphere
4. It can travel to long distances.
 Microwave
1.Frequency of microwaves pass easily through atmosphere
and clouds
2. It can penetrate in our food and heat it up.
 Infra-red waves

1. Any object that radiates heat radiates Infrared Radiation

2. Infrared Radiation is absorbed by all materials and causes


3. It is used for night vision and security cameras as Infrared

Radiation is visible in daytime or night-time
4. Police use it to catch criminals, army use it to detect enemy

5. It help pilots and drivers to navigate in night.

 Visible waves
1. It is visible to human eye so we can detect things.
 Ultraviolet wave
1. sanitary and therapeutic properties have a marked effect on
architecture, engineering and public health and have done so
throughout history.
2. UVC is germicidal, destroying bacteria, viruses and moulds in
the air, in water and on surfaces.
3. UV synthesises vitamin D in skin, controls the endocrine
system and is a painkiller.
4. Used in state of the art air-handling units, personal air
purifiers and swimming pool technology.
5. Used to detect forged bank notes: they fluoresce in UV light;
real bank notes don’t. Used to identify items outside visible
spectrum areas, known as 'black lighting.
6. Help our body to produce vitamin D.
 X rays
1. X-rays detect bone breaks
2. It helps engineers to detect cracks in aluminium or other
metal which human eye cant see.
 Gamma rays
1. Used to kill cancer cells.
2.In high doses, gamma can kill normal cells and cause cancers
3.Gamma can be used to kill mutated cells though too.

 Radio wave
1. It can take long time to transfer back information.
 Microwave
2. microwaves are absorbed by living tissue Internal heating will
damage or kill cells
3. It can cause cancer.
 Infra-red waves
1.damage to cells (burns)
 Visible waves
1. If there is too much exposure to visible light then it may cause

 Ultraviolet rays
1. They can cause sun burn or even skin cancer.
 X rays
1.X-rays damage cells and cause cancers. Radiographer
precautions include wearing lead aprons and standing behind a
lead screen to minimise exposure
 Gamma rays
1. Causes cancer.