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Philosophy serves as framework for educators, teachers, and curriculum makers for planning,

implementing and evaluating curriculum in schools.


It answers the following questions:
1. What are school for?
2. What subjects are important?
3. How students should learn?
4. What materials and methods should be used?

It provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making.

PERENNIALISM
Philosophy  Derived from the word perennial which means everlastig. The
ideas that lasted over the centuries are relevant today and those
ideas should be the focus of education.

 The roots are the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Thomas


Aquinas

Goals  To help students discover those ideas most insightful and


timeless in understanding the human condition; To develop all
students’ intellectual powers and moral qualities

Methods  Socratic dalogue/ question and answer method; students should


learn diretly from reading and analyzing the Great Books

Role of Teachers  Student centered/ facilitator

 Schools for perennialists exist primarily to reveal reason for


Role of School teaching eternal truths.
ESSENTIALISM
Philosophy  There are certain essentials that all men ought to know;
Individuaals should be able to distinguish between the essentia;s
and non-essentials in one’s existence.

Goals  To promote the intellectual growth of the individual learners

Methods  Deductive method/ recitation

Role of Teachers  Disciplinarian; provide stimulating activities for learning

 Schools inculcate into the minds and hearts of the students the
Role of School values that bare hailed and are considered important by society.

PROGRESSIVISM
Philosophy  Adheres to the ideas that thinking and reasoning should be
emphasized, and that good and and successful teaching utilizes
the principle of self-activity, and stimulates thinking and
reasoning; advocates were John Dewey and after his death,
William Kilpatrick

Goals  To promote educational concerns must be on the learner’s


interests, desires and freedom as an individual rather than the
subject matter area

Methods  Child-centered

Role of Teachers  Teacher is a facilitator, group leader and consultant


Role of School  Schools are institutions to develop abilities of the child.

RECONSTRUCTIONISM
Philosophy  Believes that man to a significant degree, plans and controls his
society; than in a democratic society, this should be done in the
public interests

Goals  Quest for better society, conscious of student’s role in nation-


building

Methods  Focus/conference; problem solving method


Role of Teachers  Teachers serve as an agent of change and reform in order to help
the students become aware of problems confronting mankind

Role of School  School adapts approaches that seek a variety of methods to make
education more responsive to human/social needs