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AIM: To study different types of carburetors.

1. Solex Carburetor
The solex carburetor is famous for its ease of cold starting, good performance and reliability. It is
made in various models and is used in many automobile engines. The solex carburetor shown in
figure 1 is a downdraught carburetor and it has provision to supply richer mixture required for
starting and lean mixture to cruise the vehicle. It has various fuel circuits such as starting, idling
or low speed operation, normal running, acceleration etc.

Normal Running: A float (1) with a tapered needle valve at the top face of the float is fixed in the
float chamber. This tapered valve takes care of the level of fuel in the float chamber. The main
metering jet (2) supplies fuel and air comes through the venture (3). The fuel from the main jet
goes into the well of the air-bleed emulsion system. The emulsion tube has lateral holes (4) as
shown in the figure. Air correction jet (5), calibrates the air entering through it and ensures
automatically the correct balance of air and fuel. The metered emulsion of fuel and air is
supplied through the spraying orifice or nozzles (6).
Cold Starting and Warming: This carburetor incorporates the unique Bi-starter or a progressive
starter. The starter valve is in the form of a flat disc (8) with holes of different sizes. These holes
connect the starter gasoline jet (9) and starter air jet sides, to the passage which opens into a hole
just below the passage depending upon the position of the throttle valve at (10). Smaller or
bigger size holes come opposite the passage depending upon the position of the starter lever (11).
In the start position bigger holes are in operation. The throttle valve being in the closed position,
whole of the engine suction is applied to the starting passage (12), inducting gasoline from jet (9)
and air from jet (10). The jets and passages are so shaped that the mixture provided to the
carburetor is rich enough for starting.
Idling and Slow Running: From the well of the emulsion system a hole leads to the pilot jet (13);
during idling, the throttle is practically closed and therefore the suction created by the engine on
suction stroke gets communicated to the pilot jet (13). Fuel is inducted from there and mixed
with little quantity of air coming from the small pilot air-bleed orifice (14). It forms an emulsion
which is sent down the venture tube to below the throttle valve, but through the idling control
screw (15). The idle running adjustment is done by the idle adjustment screw (15). The idling
speed can be thus varied and set to a desired value.
Acceleration: In order to avoid flat spot during acceleration a diaphragm type acceleration pump
is used. This pump supplies extra fuel need for the acceleration through pump injector (18).
Pump lever (19) is connected to the accelerator. When the pedal is pressed by foot the lever
moves towards left and presses the pump diaphragm towards left. This forces the gasoline
through pump jet (20) and injector (18). On releasing the pressure on the pedal, the lever moves
the diaphragm back towards right and in doing so creates vacuum towards left. The vacuum so
created opens the pump inlet valve (21) and gasoline from the float chamber enters the pump.
2. Carter Carburetor
This carburetor is normally used in jeeps. It is a multiple jet, plain tube type of carburetor with
only one adjustment which is for idling or low speed operation. As more and more throttle is
opened, more jets become operational. At wide open throttle (WOT) all jets are working and
engine is getting maximum supply of mixture.

Low speed jet assembly supplies gasoline to the engine at idle engine speed and up to approx. 20
km/h, gasoline flowing through a drilled passage connecting low speed jet chamber with
carburetor well. At idling gasoline is drawn through low speed jet and idling port at the edge of
the throttle valve. With the idling screw, the mixture for idle running can be enriched or made
leaner as required.
The figure shows the down draught carter carburetor. The gasoline enters the float chamber (1) .
The air enters the choke tube of the carburetor from the top. A choke valve (2) in the air passage
is always fully open during normal operation. This carburetor comprises three venture diffusing
type of choke tube. The smallest of these venturi (3) is above the fuel level in the float chamber
and the remaining two venturi (6) and (5) are below the fuel level in the float chamber one below
the other.
At low speed the suction in the venturi (3) is sufficient to induct the fuel. Nozzle (4) enters the
venturi (3) and throws the fuel up against the air stream evenly, thereby providing finely
atomized fuel. The mixture from venturi (3) flows centrally through the second venturi (5) ,
where it is surrounded by air steam and finally goes to the third main venturi (5). The multiple
venturi gives more homogeneous and better mixture at very low speeds resulting in steady and
smooth operation at low speeds. This arrangement also ensures required quantity formed mixture
at high speeds.
The metering system employed is mechanical. In the fuel circuit, a metering rod (7), stepped rod
is provided and is actuated by a linkage mechanism connected to the main throttle valve. The
metering rod being stepped provides the varying area for gasoline supply to the jet. Thus
metering rod governs the quantity of gasoline inducted into the engine.
Starting Circuit: To start the engine choke is used. When engine is choked, the whole suction
created by the piston on the intake stroke is exerted at the main nozzle which then provides fuel
and rich mixture is obtained.
Idle and low speed: Idling requires rich mixtures. The throttle valve (8) is almost closed and
entire suction created by piston in the engine on suction stroke is exerted at the idle port (9). As a
result the gasoline is inducted through the idle feed jet (9) and the air is inducted through first-
by-pass (11) and a rich mixture is provided. This air fuel ratio can be varied to get optimum
idling speed by the idle screw adjustment. For low speed operation, the throttle valve is opened
further and the main nozzle also begins to supply the fuel. For some duration, during the low
speed operation, fuel is supplied by both main venturi and low speed port (12) through the idle
Accelerating pump circuit: The purpose of accelerating pump is to avoid flat spot in acceleration.
The pump comprise of a plunger (13), operating inside a cylinder consisting non-return of inlet
check valve (14) and the outlet check valve(15). The plunger of the pump is connected to the
acceleration pedal by throttle control rod (16). On rapidly opening the throttle by pressing the
acceleration peddle, the pump is actuated and a small amount of gasoline comes into the choke
tube by jet (17). Releasing the accelerator pedal takes the plunger back by spring force and in the
process sucks gasoline from the float chamber for the next operation via the non-return valve
(14). The gasoline is delivered through jet (17) via checkout valve (15). This pump doesn’t
supply any fuel during other situation of idling, cruising and over loads.
3. S.U. Carburetor
This is a constant vacuum or constant depression type with automatic variable choke. It
has a sliding piston. The lower end of the piston is provided with a taper needle which is
inserted into the main jet. When the piston is moved up and down the needle also moves
up and down with the main jet. The upper end of the piston is given a flat form known as
suction disc. The up and down movement of the piston and the suction disc is guided by
means of piston rod and piston rod as shown in figure 3.

The piston always remain loaded by a helical spring. The movement of the piston
controls the air passage. The portion above the disc is called suction chamber which
connects the air passage by means of a slot provided in the piston. The main jet of the
carburetor can be moved up and down along the taper needle by operating a lever from
the dash board. This movement is required to adjust the mixture strength throughout the
operating range of the carburetor. The carburetor consists of an ordinary butterfly type
throttle valve. The lower portion of the suction disc is connected to the atmosphere by
mean of an air rectifier hole and upper portion to the throttle air passage. The system does
not have any separate idling slow running and accelerating system.

The weight of the piston is constant and always acts down. The vacuum in the suction
chamber always tends to move the piston upwards. Therefore at a particular instant the
position of the piston is balanced by the weight and constant vacuum produced above the
piston. In starting a rich mixture is needed by the engine can be obtained by pulling the
jet downwards with the help of the lever attached to it. Therefore as throttle is opened
more air is allowed to pass through the inlet due to upward movement of the piston. The
upward movement of the taper needle also ensures more flow of fuel from the main jet.
Thus the air and fuel passage are varied with different engine speeds and velocities of the
fuel and velocities of the fuel and air remains constant in this system.