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EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1

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 Contents of Chapter 1 (The Problem And Its Background)
Chapter 1 is the start of the main text or body of the manuscript/ research paper. It is
composed of the following subtopics:

1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework
3. Statement of the Problem
4. Hypothesis/Hypotheses
5. Scope and Limitation of the Study
6. Significance of the Study
7. Definition of Terms
Introduction
This is a group of paragraphs which is the start of chapter 1. This must be written
carefully to create impact and general interest and enthusiasm to read on the part of the
reader. A well-written introduction is a good starting point that sets the tone of the entire
paper. Since the research paper is an objective and scientific report it should contain simple
and scientific words as well.
Statements of the researcher’s own ideas or opinions are allowed but these must be
logically presented and supported by facts, records, documents, widely circulated information
and statements from persons of established authority.
The introduction should not be more than three (3) pages long.
This part should contain a discussion of any or all of the following:
1.1. Presentation of the situation or problem (macro-micro-mini-level)
1.2. The existence of an unsatisfactory condition, a felt need/ problem that requires a
solution
1.3. Rationale for conducting the study- (why it is necessary to conduct the study)
1.4. Historical background of the problem (when it started, how and where. It describes
the problematic situation, the extent and gravity of the problem who are affected by it,
its effects, etc. and how it led the researcher to conduct the study and conceptualize
the research problem.
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Sample Introduction of Introduction

CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

Bread, in all its various forms, is the most widely

consumed food in the world. Not only is it an important

source of carbohydrates, it’s also portable and compact,

which helps to explain why it has been an integral part of

one’s diet for thousands of years. Bread is a staple food

prepared from dough of flour, water, leavening agent known

as yeast and usually by baking. Throughout recorded history

it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest

artificial foods in Egypt and used for offering and currency.

In fact, history told that bread is of great importance when

it comes to diet of Greeks. Middle age era also stated that

being a baker and having a bakeshop gives a lot of advantage

to ones’ profession and status in life.

Restaurateurs may have once taken bread for granted,

but no more. They’ve discovered that bread, as humble and

relatively inexpensive as it may be, can be a powerful menu

differentiator. Operators are paying new attention to


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artisan preparations, health issues, and opportunities to

surprise and please consumers with new bread varieties,

flavors and textures. Some of the bread trends are Artisan

Bread, In house baking, Flat bread, Focaccia, Whole grains,

Gluten-free breads, Ciabatta and Seasonal bread.

It is on this light that the researchers decided to

utilize Fern Leaves as flavoring and coloring to basic

universal dough and create a unique kind of savory bread.

Fern leaves are an indigenous plant that grows along streams

bank or riverbank and damp areas. These plants are greenish

by color, edible and have been consumed as salad, which is

classified as appetizer. The fern leaves are to be

incorporated with the dough along with the other fillings

which are stuffed in to the dough when baked. Since ferns

are green leafy leaves, it might be rich in nutrients and

helpful to one’s diet.

There is this one of a kind fern variety

that Filipinos love to eat. This indigenous vegetable is

commonly called “pako”. Aside from its distinctive taste

when used as an ingredient for the Fern, here the Healthy

Nutrients which one can get from fern eating. Calcium is a


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mineral which is responsible for the formation of strong

bones and teeth. Aside from that, calcium is also useful for

the proper functioning of heart, nerves, muscles, and other

body system. Phosphorus serves the same function which is

similar to calcium. Added to its function to our bones and

teeth, this above mentioned mineral also helps in the

utilization of carbohydrates and fats and in the synthesis

of protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells

and tissues. Iron serves as an avenue for the proper

distribution of oxygen in the body. With this regard, the

consumption of carefully selected fruits, vegetables and

herbs (like pako) would help you go back to life and solve

the iron insufficiency problem in your body.

Fern classification generally shows a trend from highly

artificial, based on an interpretation of a few extrinsic

characters, via natural classifications derived from a

multitude of intrinsic characters, towards more evolutionary

circumscriptions of group that do not in general align well

with the distribution of these previously used characters

Thus, the main reason for conducting this research is

to find an adequate use of fern through bread products,


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providing a new taste of savory bread in a healthy and

convenient way.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework clarifies the relationship between among the major
variables of the study and maybe presented through a paradigm such as the Input -
Process – Output (IPO) Model or other illustrative presentation.
If the IPO is utilized, the following must be observed:
a. The columns must be of equal size.
b. Feedback loop must be properly indicated.

Conceptual Framework

The study will use the IPO model as shown in Figure 1

in the next page.

The Input (I) blocks contains books, thesis, websites;

tools and equipment; and ingredients and used in making

Savory Fern Bread; the assessment on the quality

characteristics in terms of color, aroma, flavor/taste,

texture and the level of its acceptability.

The Process (P) block includes the procedure in

preparing Savory Fern Bread, Nutrients Analysis evaluation

of the finish product through the survey questionnaire; in

statistical treatment of the data, analysis and

interpretation of the data.


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The Output (O) reflects the result of the study which

is Savory Fern Bread.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

 Reading  Procedure in
materials: preparation of
 Books “Savory Fern
 Thesis Bread”
 Website  Nutrients
Analysis
 Tools and
Utensils  Evaluation of
the finished Savory Fern
 Ingredients product
Bread
through survey
 Survey result on questionnaires
the quality
 Statistical
characteristics
and treatment of
acceptability of the data
Savory Fern  Analysis and
Bread interpretation
 Color of the
 Aroma gathered data
 Flavor/
Taste
 Texture

Feedback

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study


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Statement of the Problem


The first paragraph includes a statement of the purpose of the study and expressed in
a declarative sentence. The next paragraph contains the sub-problems expressed in
interrogative sentences.
The future tense is used for proposals while the present tense is used in the final copy
of the thesis or dissertation.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims on the practical utilization of fern

leaves in the development and preparation of Savory bread.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following sub-

problems:

1. What are the ingredients, tools, utensils, and

procedures in the development and preparation of Savory Fern

Bread?

2. How do the respondents assess the quality of

Savory Fern Bread in terms of?

2.1 Color;

2.2 Aroma;

2.3 Flavor/Taste and;

2.4 Texture
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3. Is there a significant difference on evaluation of

the respondents as to the quality characteristics of Savory

Fern Bread using the aforementioned variables?

4. What is the level of acceptability of Savory Fern

Bread as evaluated by the two groups of respondents?

5. Is there a significant difference in the level of

acceptability of Savory Fern Bread?

6. What is the nutritional analysis of Savory Fern

Bread?

Hypothesis/Hypotheses
This is stated in the null form (Ho) with an introductory sentence. Use Hypotheses for
more than one hypothesis.

Hypotheses

This study will hypothesize that:

1. There is no significant difference in the assessment

of the respondents on the quality characteristics of Savory

Fern Bread in terms of

2. There is no significant difference in the evaluation

of the respondents as to the level of acceptability.


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Scope and Limitation of the Study


The first paragraph contains the Scope which delineates how the study will be narrowed
or the boundaries in terms of people involved in the study, instrumentation, time, location or
the “who,” “where,” “when,” and “how” of the study.
o Sample Scope and Limitation of the Study

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will cover the development and preparation

of Savory Fern Bread; determine the quality characteristics

and level of acceptability in terms of crust, aroma, color,

flavor/taste and texture.

The setting of the study will be in Robinsons Galleria.

There are two groups of respondents which will be composed

of ten (10) Expert Bakers and forty (40) Consumers of Red

Ribbon, Goldilocks, Tous Les Jours, Boulangerie and Mary

Grace. The product will be developed at CHM laboratory,

EARIST Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila. The nutrient analysis

will be subjected at Sentrotek, P.O. Box 280, Greenhill, San

Juan, Metro Manila.

The duration of the study is from June 2017 to March

2018.
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Significance of the Study


It begins with an introductory statement and must identify who will benefit from the
study.

Significance of the Study

The study will be beneficial to the following:

Expert Baker. They will be able to take this product as

a reference in innovating their original recipe and

incorporate indigenous leaves that are rich in nutritive

value.

Consumers. They will be able to relish a different kind

of savory bread in the market.

Researchers. This study will provide information on how

to develop and prepare Savory Fern Bread.

Bakeshop Owners. This study will give the bakeshop

owners a new idea of bread and how they will develop it.

Other Researchers. This will greatly contribute as a

source of related studies to other researcher of similar

scope and orientation; it will also help them in finding a

source of possible related thesis research.


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Definition of Terms
It defines important terms or variables used in the study. Terms should be identified
conceptually or operationally. Provide an introductory sentence. Terms should be
alphabetically arranged. Acronyms and abbreviations should be spelled out. For two or more
worded terms, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalized, unless otherwise
indicated. Sources of constitutive and technical definitions should be properly acknowledged.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally and conceptually

defined for a clearer understanding of the study;

Aroma is the characteristic that is usually pleasant,

odor given off by certain plants, spices etc. (Block, 2010)

Bread is a staple food prepared from dough of flour and

water, usually by baking. (Presse, 2010)

Fern leave is a leaves of a plant that grows in

riverbanks or streams, it has divided leaves, no flowers

edible for making salad for appetizer. (Karol, 2010)

Fermentation is the process by which yeast converts

sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide; it also refers to the

time that yeast dough is left to rise—that is, the time it

takes for carbon dioxide gas cells to form and become trapped

in the gluten network. (Labensky, Martel and Van Dame, 2012)


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Flavor refers to the quality belonging the food, drink

etc. that is experienced through the combined senses of taste

and smell. (Fleming, 2015)

Leavening Agent hold the gases and form the structure

of the baked item. More details of the leavening process.

(Gisslen, 2011)

Savory is a full of flavor, delicious and tasty —

usually filled with something that someone has

cooked. (Cauvain, 2015)

Taste is the sense which perceives and distinguishes

between salt, bitter, sour and taste buds in the mouth by a

solution of the substance in the saliva. (Hui, 2010)


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 Contents and Sources of Chapter 2 (Review Of Related Literature And Studies)


This part of the paper includes literature and studies, both local and foreign which are
relevant to the research study. Writing the review requires reading a lot of materials
and spending a lot of time in the libraries. General information books such as
dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, reference books, textbooks, theses,
dissertations, research journals, handbooks, magazines, survey reports are some of
the possible sources of related literature and studies.
Note:
Only literature and studies related in purpose or findings to the current study should be
included in the review. For related studies, the discussion should be a brief critical analysis of the
purpose, method of the study, principal findings and conclusions. Point out how and which of the
studies reviewed relates to the problem at hand. The present study should be shown to relate
with or evolved from earlier work.
Presentation of the literature and studies should be done thematically or according to the
variables of the study.
For documentation, the APA author/date style of parenthetical citation is utilized.
The place of publication determines whether the literature or studies cited is foreign or local
utilized.
Reviewed literature except those of historical importance must be copyrighted within the
last ten years while five years for studies. A minimum of ten (10) literature/studies which are
relevant to the present study must be cited.
The place of publication determines whether the literature or studies cited is local foreign.

Note: at least 5 local authors and 5 foreign authors


(2014 and above) year of publication
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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Local Literature

Bayeh (2010) stated that whole grains are containing

complex carbohydrates like starch and fiber protein, vitamin

Band zinc. Good whole grains choices include whole-wheat

bread, brown rice, barley, whole-wheat pasta, wild rice,

oatmeal, barley, whole-kernel corn and popcorn. Thus breads

that are pure white made from rice and white bread may have

lost those important nutrients during processing like

threshing or milling.

Fern and flourish plants are so called higher plants

which differ from the low plants, for example, mosses and

mushroom by construction. They consist of 3 basic organ,

the root, shot or trunk and leaf. Ferns are hardly

herbaceous plants which lost their leaves either in autumn

and are winter-green or ever-green. They grow from rhizomes

which like most ferns are more or less arising erect above

the ground. Some species also form short


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creeping rhizomes, spread out over single location. The

leaves called frond with the fern, consisting of stripe and

lamina. The fern has many different forms and colors which

from redly, light green, dark green to yellowish green.

Reproduction takes place around the spores; it contracts to

the flourished plant which reproduced by seed. The spores

or fern are produced on the underside of the fronds,

combined in groups within a spore case. The spongaria stand

together in group sometimes covered with veil. With some

fern species the spores are produced at separate fronds,

which often differ from the normal fronds, for example with

Royal fern, sensitive fern and ostrich fern. The spores

mature mostly between July and November and are spread by

the wind. With promising conditions, they develop themselves

from the spores then become green thin flat growth, known

“prothallus”, where the male and female genital organs are

fond. With enough humidity the conception takes place on

the protahallus and it develop onto itself a young fern

plant. A regular change finds it between a sexual generation

and an unisexual generation. Ferns are resident in all

climate zones. Particularly rich on ferns are regions in


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damp climate. The biggest species number is resident in the

tropics. Here many species live as an Epiphyt.

According to Llorach (2012),the study points out that

the people who daily consumes bread, white or whole meal,

show a healthier lipid profile –lower levels of LDL

cholesterol and higher levels of HDL cholesterol-than the

people who consume it sporadically or don’t consume it. The

study also reveals that regular bread consumption is

associated with a lower insulin concentration. This is “This

is a really important data, when the body does not answer

in a correct way to the insulin’s action, glucose cannot

reach the inner part of cells and it is accumulated in

blood, explains Andres –Lacueva. This mechanism-insulin

resistance is a key pathological process in the development

of type 2 diabetes mellitus, also associated with a high

risk of cardiovascular disease.

The result of the study coincide with other scientific

works that also talk about a possible prevention effect of

fiber consumption-especially the whole meal ones-against

the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, this study

shows the regular consumption of bread, a good source of


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carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fiber, what

represents an increase in the consumption of carbohydrates

is not related to an increase of body weight.

Orillos and Uy (2012) stated that the existing breads

continue to evolve and make up a delightfully diverse

selection of baked goods from the bonnet shaped Pan de

bonete to the different kinds of ensaymada, from the Torta

of Leyte and Samar to the classic Monay. Panaderia includes

bakeries which have endured in this culinary craft, from

Quezon City’s Kamuning Bakery and Malolos’ Lazaro Bakery to

Guagua’s La Moderna and Silay City’s El Ideal Bakery telling

the story of the people behind the ovens. There’s also a

guide to run one’s bakery and a set of basics for baking

Pinoy bread.

According to Dinaga (2015) the most common food serves

in restaurant today is more on breads with interesting

selection of fresh artisanal breads. Each of bread has common

ingredients such as flour, water, shortening, salt and

leavening agent. Rich dough refers to a kind of dough that

has high contents of fat, sugar and eggs. The basic types of

dough to make are simple sweet roll dough that is soft and
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sticky. This has weak gluten and important consideration for

proofing is needed during proofing and baking sweet dough

products. Another breads which are known all over the country

are rolled-in dough like Danish pastries and croissants are

rich in fat because of the butter in between their layers.

They are known as Veinnoiserie.

Dinaga, (2016) defined Bread as leavened dough that

was fermented and baked to a specific heat in an oven. It

is an essential casing in preparing sandwiches or Hors

d'oeuvre.

Foreign Literature

According to Friberg, (2010) baking of bread dates back

to the Stone Age, when people first learned to grind seeds

probably barley and millet - in mills made from stone. It

was not a huge leap from the first porridge to bread. Early

bread, heavy and unleavened, was cooked on heated stones

(this period was not called the Stone Age for nothing). Over

the centuries, the process of milling grain was improved.

With the aid of wind-powered fans and sieves, people

developed a way to remove parts of the chaff and bran. The

Romans and Greeks further advanced cultivation and milling


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methods and produced different kinds of flour in various

stages of refinement. Baking bread has always had an

important place in the European home. Local regions of

various countries produce breads that differ not only in

flavor, but also in shape. Although today most bread is baked

commercially, home baking is still a favorite hobby of many.

Basically, there are four types of bread products: loaf

breads made with yeast and breakfast items, such as

croissants and Danish pastries, made with laminated dough,

quick breads, which are leavened with baking powder or baking

soda and flat breads, which may or may not be leavened.

Baking with yeast demands that ingredients be in proper

proportion. Yeast needs sugar to grow, but too much sugar

can slow the process to the point where it stops altogether.

As it melts and caramelizes, sugar adds color and flavor to

the bread. Salt is used in yeast dough to add color and

flavor and to retard the action of the yeast just a little.

According to Gisslen, (2011) bread in its simplest form

is nothing more than dough of flour and water, leavened by

yeast and baked. In fact, some hard-crusted French breads

contain only these ingredients, plus salt. Other kinds of


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bread contain additional ingredients, including sugar,

shortening, milk, eggs, and flavorings. But flour, water,

and yeast are still the basic building blocks of all breads.

Yet for something that seems so simple, bread can be one of

the most exacting and complex products to make. Success in

bread making depends largely on one’s understanding of two

basic principles: gluten development and yeast fermentation.

Culinary Institute of America, (2011) Lean dough

contain only relatively small amounts of sugar and fat, if

any. Breads made from lean dough tend to have a chewier

texture, more bite, and a crisp crust. Hard rolls, French

and Italian-style breads, and whole wheat, rye, and

pumpernickel breads are considered lean. Enriched dough is

produced by the addition of ingredients such as sugar or

syrup, butter or oil, whole eggs or egg yolks, and milk or

cream. Included in this category are soft rolls, brioche,

and challah. When fats are introduced, they change the

dough's texture as well as the way in which it behaves during

mixing, kneading, shaping, and baking. Enriched dough is

usually softer, and the finished product has a more tender

bite after baking than items from lean dough. They may be
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golden in color because of the use of eggs and butter, and

the crust is soft rather than crisp.

Wheat flour (all-purpose or bread flour, for instance)

is the basis of yeast-raised dough. Wheat flours contain a

high percentage of protein, which gives a good texture to

lean dough.

Lohman (2012) stated that bread, in all its various

forms, is the most widely consumed food in the world. Not

only is it an important source of carbohydrates, it’s also

portable and compact, which helps to explain why it has been

an integral part of our diet for thousands of years. In

fact, recent scholarship suggests humans started baking

bread at least 30,000 years ago. Prehistoric man had already

been making gruel from water and grains, so it was a small

jump to starting cooking this mixture into a solid by frying

it on stones. A 2010 study by the National Academy of

Sciences discovered traces of starch (likely from the roots

of cattails and ferns) in prehistoric mortar and pestle-

like rocks. The roots would have been peeled and dried

before they were ground into flour and mixed with water.

Finally, the paste would be cooked on heated rocks.


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According to Jensen (2012) bread is embedded in the

Norwegian food culture and therefore a large part of our

daily diet. Despite frequent media debates about the health

benefits of low carb and low glycaemic diets the past decade,

the Norwegian consumption of grain has not decreased, but

instead significantly increased in the same period. The

consumption of whole meal flour however, has not changed

much, and contributes approximately only 20 per cent of the

total meal turnover. The intake of fiber is significantly

lower than the recommendation of 25-35 g fire a day. This is

the trend despite an increase in the intake of fiber during

the period from 1977-2008 (Helsedirektoratet, 2011).

Therefore, the Norwegian government, through their official

dietary advice, urges an increased consumption of whole meal

bread and cereal products (Helsedirektoratet, 2011).

According to a report from Statens Institute for

Forbruksforskning (SIFO), half the Norwegian population buys

their bread in grocery stores. While baking bread from

scratch is a downward trend, more people use readymade bread

mixes. Industrial produced bread often contains large

amounts of salt, additives and e-agents (Monterio, 2010).


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Furthermore, healthy wholegrain bread is often expensive and

frequently has a poor shelf life. Despite more spare time

only half of the Norwegian population reaches the

governments recommendation of being physical activity for at

least 30 minutes a day (Folkehelseinstituttet, 2011). In

line with other populations around the world the Norwegian

one is affected by increased levels of lifestyle related

diseases like diabetes, overweight and cardiovascular

disease (Helsedirektoratet, 2011). The Norwegian population

is also alike to other populations around the world getting

heavier. The proportion of the population who has a weight

problem is increasing. However, lifestyle related diseases,

like overweight are to a large extent preventable through

healthy diet and physical activity (Helsedirektoratet,

2011). Most studies that look at the effects of physical

activity on health measure leisure time physical activity.

However, many people get physical activity from non-leisure

10 activities like activity at work and household chores.

Household chores, e.g. baking bread can be good every day

activity. I.e. bread baking therefore has the potential of

affecting people’s activity level. In addition, according to


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a study conducted among a representative sample of the adult

segment of the U.S. population, non-leisure time physical

activity was connected to a reduction in all-cause

mortality. Moreover, spending time baking bread may also

reduce the time people spend on sedentary activities like

watching TV. To bake your own bread will in addition provide

you with healthier bread, with more whole-grain and less

energy and salt than commercial produced bread. Since the

Norwegian population eats a lot of bread, switching to a

healthier alternative can be of importance.

Labensky, Martel and Van Damme, (2012) Bread making is

an art that dates back to ancient times. Over the centuries,

bakers have learned to manipulate the basic ingredients—

flour, water, salt and leavening—to produce a vast variety

of breads. Thin-crusted baguettes, tender Parker House

rolls, crisp flatbreads and chewy bagels derive from careful

selection and handling of the same key ingredients. A renewed

interest in the traditional craft of baking has seen many

new artisan bread bakeries open in recent years. Customers

are demanding, and more restaurants are serving, exciting

bread assortments to their guests at every meal. Although


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few baked goods intimidate novice bakers as much as yeast

breads, few baked goods are actually as forgiving to prepare.

By mastering a few basic procedures and techniques,

restaurants and bakeshops can offer their customers

delicious, fresh yeast products. Yeast breads can be divided

into two major categories: lean dough and rich dough. Lean

dough, such as those used for crusty French
 and Italian

artisan breads contain little or no sugar or fat. Traditional

sourdough and rye breads are lean dough that requires special

handling to bring out their unique flavor. Rich dough, such

as brioche and challah, contain significantly more sugar and

fat than lean dough. Rich dough bakes into softer products

with a tender crust and interior crumb. Enriched Yeast Breads

is a specific type of rich, flaky dough that is made by

incorporating layers of fat and flour.

Gisslen, (2013) Simple sweet-roll dough is the easiest

of these products to handle. Even these, however, require

care, as they are usually softer and stickier than bread

dough. Because their gluten structure is not as strong as

that of lean dough, more care must be taken in proofing and


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baking sweet dough products. Laminated dough, such as those

for Danish pastries and croissants, are especially rich in

fat because they consist of layers of butter between layers

of dough.

Institute Culinary of America, (2016) stated that the

term enriching indicates that ingredients containing fat or

sugar are added to the dough. Many different ingredients,

such as milk, oil, or beer may be used to enrich dough.

Often, enriched breads also contain a measure of sugar that

has been introduced either through the addition of

ingredients that contain some type of sugar (e.g., lactose,

through the use of milk), or simply by the addition of a

granulated or syrup form of sugar. The addition of fat or

sugar affects the finished product. The additional fat acts

to shorten the gluten strands and increase the elasticity of

the gluten in dough. This will have a tenderizing effect on

the finished product, yielding a tenderer crumb and the

development of a so crust. Additional sugars promote quick

fermentation on and browning of the crust during baking.

According to Americas Test Kitchen (2016) Bread baking

has its own language. Talking about the flavor and the
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texture of a finished loaf of bread in the context of its

two main parts: the crumb (the interior of the loaf) and the

crust (the exterior of the loaf). The crumb constitutes the

bulk of the bread and can be either lean and chewy (the

result of using just flour, water, salt, and yeast) or

enriched so that is has a more luxurious flavor and soft

texture (from the addition of dairy, butter, and/or eggs).

The crumb can be tight or closed, meaning it lacks interior

holes if the dough contains a relatively low amount of

liquid, or it can be open, meaning it features larger and

sometimes irregular holes if the dough contains a relatively

high amount of liquid. The crust—the browned sheath that

encases the crumb—varies across breads as well. It can be

soft, golden, and barely detectable, or it can be dark brown

and satisfyingly crunchy.

This is related studies which

means……the same study nyo with

them….you need to copy the


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result.Again 5 local studies

and 5 foreign studies….maybe

derived from journal,

dissertation, magazines or ebook

(pdf) copy the http from the

source

Local Studies

Joey (2010) to bake the perfect cupcake, one must pay

attention to the chemical reaction involved since any wrong

move can be a letdown Chef. Chef Joey explains ”for

instance.” The main ingredient for bread is always flour,

salt, water and a leavening agent, some also adds some sugar.

The sugar cannot exceed the way of the flour; otherwise you

have to adjust the liquids, the egg, and so on. The leavening
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should be controlled to much will make the cake crumbly, too

little will make it very dense. “He also stresses the

importance of watching for sign of excess liquid in the

batter as this affects the cake texture”. Too little will

make it dry “too make will create air tunnels”. And what

kind of flour is to his liking? Soft wheat flour “it’s

locally made with my specifications unbleached, and with

only 9 – 11% of protein, “he states (baking press magazine,

2010)

Cajal (2012) according to the study, daily bread

consumption, especially whole meal bread, can prevent cardio

vascular disease. The study has been led by the professor

Rafael Llorach, Ramon y Cajal researcher from the Department

of Nutrition and Bromatology at the Faculty of Pharmacy and

the Food and Nutrition Torribera campus of the UB. This new

research identifies the factors which are possibly related

to breads beneficial effects on lipid profile and on the

cardio vascular health of its consumer.

Cristobal (2013) mentioned their product development

research that the renowned nutritionist of Gardenia

Nutrition and Wellness Team, stated that Gardenia Company


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aimed to promote health, nutrition and wellness to their

clients.

According to Agdigos, Cayetano and Villanueva (2014)

who conducted the research of Cherry Tomato Loaf Bread. They

conducting the study in order to develop a new bread product

integrating savory fern bread which add nutrient to the

bread can be develop. Based on their conclusion the quality

characteristic of savory fern bread are very good as to

appearance, volume, texture and taste and for the

acceptability the savory fern bread got an acceptable as

assessed by selected students, experts, and faculty.

According to Agcaoili, Espina, and Santos (2014).

Conducted the research of Fern Chips the researcher use fern

as the main ingredients of bread. Based on their conclusion

the quality characteristics of savory fern bread they got

very good as supported mean value. There is no significant

difference on the quality characteristics of bread with

fern. The resulted computed mean value shows that the

quality characteristics of the savory fern bread acceptable.

According to Dinaga, Fajutnao, Lirazan and Perez

(2014). Conducted the research of kelp savory bread. In


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terms of aroma, taste, texture, appearance and volume. Kelp

savory bread was very acceptable by the groups of

respondents. In terms of appearance, kelp savory bread for

the three groups of respondent assessed as very good .there

is no significant difference in the assessment of the three

groups of respondent on the quality characteristic of savory

bread as to aroma, taste, texture, appearance and volume

therefore the hull hypotheses were all accepted. In the

level of acceptability of savory bread was the three groups

of respondents were rated very good and excellent.

Bueno (2015) Bread comes in a multitude. Traditionally,

white bread is mainly eaten although the white flour use

has a low nutritional value. A range of breads, with the

addition of grains, flours and different flavors, and

additives such as onions, are produced commercially. Bread

forms a major staple food at homes and evened food

establishments. In restaurants, it is often serve before

the entrée. The main ingredient for bread is simple: flour,

water, salt and a raising or leavening agent. The leavening

agent can be sourdough that is produced through natural

fermentation or yeast, or chemical such as baking powder.


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There are two types of dough production: straight method

and two step method. In the straight method, all the flour

is placed into the mixer, and the water, salt and instant

yeast are mixed and added. The dough is mix slowly

incorporates all the ingredients, but it still tends to

stick to the side of the bowl. Once fat or milk is added,

the dough becomes lighter and the crust softer, such as in

bread rolls. Sweeter bread rolls such as hamburger buns also

have sulfur added which softens the product even more and

extends the storage life. This is referred to as enriching

the dough.

Foreign Study

According to Lutz, Allan Svolersted (2010) currently

bread is also one of our most hotly debated foods. While

some claim we are better off without it. Others among them

the health authorities, recommended whole grain bread as an

important of balance and healthy diet (nasjonaltrad for

ensuring, 2011). The grocery stores offer a wide range of

bread and many actors claim they have the recipe for the

“ideal” bread. But who’s right? What is actually “ideal”

bread? Or should we eat bread at all? The main objective of


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the present thesis is to conduct a literature review and

use this to develop a recipe for “ideal” bread.

Additionally, the thesis incorporation an article which will

be sent (to the scientific journal. Public health nutrition

conference in Reykjavik, June 2012). Focusing on the outcome

and process evaluation of a bread baking intervention. The

article and the poster are developing in cooperation with

master student line Jensen both have contributed equally to

this work.

Bread as part of the Norwegian diet-current state and

culture aspiration in a recent survey conducted on behalf

of the Norwegian bread and cereals marketing board (OBK) it

was indicated that 76 and 67 percent still incorporates

bread in their breakfast and lunch meal at a regular basis,

respectively. Only five percent answered that they did not

eat bread at all (Opplysningskontoret for bredogkorn, 2011).

A whole grain bread (50-75 percent wholegrain) represented

the bread most often consumed, followed by extra (25-50

percent whole grain) and savory bread (0-25 percent whole

grain) (opplysningskontoret for bredogkorn, 2011 a). in a

recent survey (n=2009) conducted on behalf of the Norwegian


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bread and cereals marketing board (OBK) it was indicated

that 76 and 67percent still incorporate bread in their

breakfast and lunch meal at a regular basis, respectively.

Only five percent answered that they did not eat bread at

all.

Bread is among the world’s oldest processed foods which

also makes bead baking a handicraft with long tradition. A

lot as however, happened since the first bread was baked in

Egypt approximately 12 000 years ago.

From the Egyptians random experimentation with flour

water and yeast, via the small action bakeries established

in almost every village supplying citizens with their daily

ration of bread, to present were centralization and high

technological industrialization have taken tall on the

production practice. Today bread is produced in a large

scale by a few production units and then distributed and

re-distributed over large distances to wholesalers,

supermarket and in store-bakeries.

According to (Helsedirektoratet, 2010) Bread is

classified as one of the most important sources of whole


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grains in the Norwegian diet, and is together with pasta

and cereals estimated to account for approximately 50

percent of the total intake Still, and as already mentioned,

the Norwegian whole grain consumption is too low and the

health authorities are urging an increased intake of foods

rich in whole grains, e.g. whole grain bread. This

recommendation is based upon a solid knowledge base linking

whole grain consumption with a reduced risk of several

diseases.

According to J. Matinez-Monzó (2012) the basic trends

in bread, bakery, and pastry innovation are related to

health, pleasure, and convenience. This article analyzes

how culinary trends are influencing product innovation in

bread and similar products. New cuisine and leading chefs

consider bread and bakery not solely a complement to the

dishes served in their restaurants but a fundamental aspect

of their innovation offerings. A case study of various

leading small innovation firms in Spain will serve as an

example of the drivers of innovation and critical elements

in this craft. The influence of these innovation trends in

the bread and dessert industry will be analyzed as well.


31
1

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Synthesis
The last start part of Chapter II is the synthesis of the review of related literature and
studies. In other words, the synthesis is not a summary of Chapter II. It is a part puts the
surveyed materials in a logical perspective, vis a vis the researcher’s study. The researcher
will do well if, in his own words, he will synthesize or bring together the surveyed major
findings and conclusions by pointing out the similarities as well as the differences between
his study and those of others.

Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies

The review of related literature and studies were

related to the present study because the different studies

and literature gathered are significant to the development

and production of Savory Fern Bread.

According to Dinaga (2015), Gisslen (2011) and Bueno

(2015) each of the bread has a common or main ingredient

such as flour, water, salt, shortening and a raising or

leavening agent.

Labensky, Martel and Van Damme, (2012) cited that bread

making is an art that dates back to ancient times.

According to Orillos and Uy (2012) they stated the

existing of bread continue to evolve and make up a

delightfully diverse selection of baked goods.


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According to Agcaoili, Espina, and Santos (2014).

Conducted the research of fern chips the researcher use fern

as the main ingredients of bread.

According to Labensky, Martel and Van Damme (2016) over

the centuries, bakers have learned to manipulate the basic

ingredients—flour, water, salt and leavening—to produce a

vast variety of breads.

According to Lutz, Allan Svolersted and

Helsedirektoratet (2010) others among them the health

authorities, recommended whole grain bread as an important

of balance and healthy diet.


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 Contents of Chapter 3 (Methodology)


This part of the paper explains how the study was conducted, it describes the
research design, the population and sampling, the respondents of the study, research
instruments used, data gathering procedures and the statistical treatment of data.
Research Design
Identify and describe the method/s of research utilized in the study. Discuss its
appropriateness to the present study. Acknowledge source of the method/s used.

CHAPTER 3

Methodology

Research Design

This study used the descriptive research describes what

is. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and

interpretation of the present nature, composition or

processes of phenomena. The focus is on prevailing

conditions, or how a person, group, or thing behaves or

functions in the present. It often involves some type of

comparison or contrast. (Joy, 2014)


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Population and Sampling


In a table, indicate the population and sample involved in the research study. Discuss the
specific sampling technique used and justification on its use.
o Sample Population and Sampling

Population and Sampling

The respondents were sampled and described as to the

selected variables to present their profile.

The researchers used a purposive sample that is a non-

probability sample that is selected based on characteristics

of a population and the objective of the study. Purposive

sampling is also known as judgmental, selective, or

subjective sampling. (Crossman, 2017)

Respondents of the Study


Provide description of the demographic profile of the respondents/subjects.
o Sample Respondents of the Study

Respondents of the study

Table 1
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Respondents of the Study

Respondents f %

Experts
Consumers
Total

Table 2

Respondents as to Gender

Gender Experts Consumers Total

f % f % f %

Male
Female
Total

Table 3

Respondents as to Civil Status


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Civil Status Experts Consumers Total

f % f % f %
Single
Married
Separated
Total

Table 4

Respondents as to Age

Age Experts Consumers Total

f % f % f %
51 years’ old and
above
41-50 years’ old
31-40 years’ old
21-30 years’ old
20 years’ old and
below
Total
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Table 5

Respondents as to Educational Attainment

Educational Experts Consumers Total


Attainment
f % f % f %
Master’s Degree
College Graduate
College Level
Undergraduate
High school Graduate
Total

Research Instrument
Describe the construction, validation, and administration of the research instrument/s such
as test, questionnaires, interview guides/schedules, apparatus, device and laboratory equipment,
etc.
Discuss the parts of the instruments (e.g. questionnaire.)

Research Instrument

Survey Questionnaire. This was the primary instrument

used to gather the needed data in the study. It consists of

three parts:
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Part I Profile of the Respondents. This was to gather

information of the demographic profile of the respondents to

age, sex, civil status, and educational attainments.

Part II Assessment of the Quality Characteristics of

Savory Fern Bread. This part generated data on the assessment

of the quality characteristic of the study.

Part III Evaluation on the Level, of Acceptability of

Savory Fern Bread. This part collected data on the evaluation

of the respondents as to the Level of acceptability of Savory

Fern Bread.

Data Gathering Procedures


The step-by-step procedures followed in conducting the study should be enumerated and
explained in complete detail. Identify time frame for the collection of data.
Present procedures chronologically.

Data Gathering Procedure

The following were undertaken in gathering the needed

data.

1. Sought permission from the dean of the college to

conduct the study.

2. After the title was approved, the researchers prepared

the research proposal to be submitted for oral


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examination and noted the important suggestions of the

panel experts.

3. Prepared and developed the product which is Savory fern

bread after gathering the data needed it is subject to

sensory evaluation.

4. The finished product was subjected for sensory

evaluation using the survey questionnaire developed by

the researchers.

5. Retrieved the questionnaire, and tally the data

6. Data were tallied, tabulated and subjected to

statistical analysis, presentation and interpretation

Statistical Treatment of Data


Describe briefly how data collected are to be statistically processed. List sequentially and
provide the formula for the more sophisticated statistical tool used as well as citing the
sources and identifying the sub-problem to which it is used.

NOTE: Please copy this as

is………………….from Statistical Treatment of Data to

n2 = Sample size (2nd group)


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Statistical Treatment of Data

The data gathered were compiled, collate and summarized

separately per group. The responses for each item were

categorized based on the specific problems raise.

The following were utilized in the treatment of data:

Percentage. This was used as descriptive statistics or

something that describes a part of the whole.

Formula: % =f/N x 100

Where: % = Percentage

f = Frequency

N = Total no. of respondents

Frequency. It was the actual response to a specific

item/question in the questionnaire where the respondent

ticks his choice.

Weighted Mean. This was used to measure the

respondent’s assessments. Multiplying each value in the

group by the appropriate weight factor and the product is

summed up and divided by the total number of respondents.

Formula:

(f5x5)+ (f4x4) + (f3x3) + (f2x2) + (f1x1)


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WM =
N
Five Point Likert Scale

The evaluation of the respondents in the quality of

Savory Fern Bread it was computed using the Five Point Likert

Scale method:

OPTIONS VERBAL INTERPRETATION EQUIVALENT POINTS

5 Excellent (E) 4.20-5.00


4 Very Good (VG) 3.40-4.19
3 Good (G) 2.60-3.39
2 Poor (P) 1.80-2.59
1 Very Poor (VP) 1.00-1.79

The assessment of the level of acceptability of Savory

Fern Bread using the Five-Point Likert Scale. Using the

legend below:

Options Verbal Interpretations Equivalent Points


5 Highly Acceptable 4.20 - 5.00
4 Acceptable 3.40 – 4.19
3 Moderately Acceptable 2.60 – 3.39
2 Least Acceptable 1.80 – 2.59
1 Not Acceptable 1.00 – 1.79

3. t–test of Significant Difference between two

Means. This was being used to determine whether or not

significant difference exist between the perceptions of the

Respondents. It solves using the following formula (Garcia

2003).
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The following help to compute the t-test.

a. The Mean

Formula: M=∑X
N

Where: M=arithmetic mean

∑X= sum of the scores

N= number of the scores

b. Standard Deviation Formula:

SD = ∑d²
N

Where: SD = Standard Deviation

∑d² = Sum of the difference

Invariance squared (x-x)

The formula for t-test is:

Where:

𝑥̅ 1 = Mean of the 1st group

𝑥̅ 2 = Mean if the 2nd group

S1 = Standard deviation of the 1st group


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S2 = Standard deviation of the 2nd group

n1 = Sample size (1st group)

n2 = Sample size (2nd group)


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References format
References

A. BOOKS

Dinaga, M. R. (2015) Culinary Arts: A Practical Handabook.


C&E Publishing Inc., West Triangle, Quezon City,
Philippines

Mustacisa, M. M (2016) International Journal of Environment


& Science Education Vol 11, NO. 18, 13111-13146. Samar
State University Paranas Campus, Philippines

The Editors at America’s Test Kitchen (2016) Bread


Illustrated: A Step-By-Step Guide to Achieving Bakery-
Quality Results At Home. 17 Station Street, Brookline,
MA 02445. Published by Penguin Random House Publisher
Services

Labensky, S. R, Martel, P. & Van Damme, E (2016) Third


Edition Update: On Baking. A textbook of Baking and
Pastry Fundamentals. United States of America.

B. THESES

Agdigos, B. C.Cayetano, L. C. & Villanueva, L. M (2014)


Savory Loaf Bread. Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute
of Science and Techology, Nagtahan St. Sampaloc,
Manila.

Madrigal, Aguila & Tibayan (2015) Fern Chips. Eulogio


“Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science and Techology,
Nagtahan St. Sampaloc, Manila.
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 50

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Mendoza, C. J. Pedrajas, C. P &Teoxon, S. C. (2015) Cherry
Tomato Loaf Bread. Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute
of Science and Techology, Nagtahan St. Sampaloc,
Manila.

C. ONLINE SOURCES

Conopio, C. (2014) Pako: The Edible Fern


http://asianjournal.com/lifestyle/pako-the-edible-
fern/

Jensen, L. (Nutrition and Health 2012) Food, Nutrition and


Health.
https://odahioa.archive.knowledgearc.net/bitstream/
handle/10642/1191/maeh_jensen_2012.pdf?sequence=2&isA
llowed=y

Lohman, S. (2012) A Brief History of Bread


http://www.history.com/news/hungry-history/a-brief-
history -of- bread

Lilleberg, Kjersti (2012) A Bread Baking Intervention: An


“Ideal” Bread
file:///C:/Users/gts520/Downloads/Documents
/maeh_lilleberg_2012.pdf

Orillos, J. (2017) the Comprehensive Field Guide to Filipino


Bread.http://www.esquiremag.ph/culture/food-and-
drink/your-basic-guide-to-local-tinapay-a1623-
20170510-lfrm

Review of Literature and Research Methodology


http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/467
92/6/06_chapter%202.pdf
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Sample of Letters

LETTER OF PERMISSION

January 22, 2018

MS. MARIA RHODA D. DINAGA


Dean
College of Hospitality Management
EARIST, Manila

Madam;
The undersigned are 3rd Year students currently
conducting a research entitled “Savory Fern Bread” in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject of
CA 105 (Culinary Research 1) leading to the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Major in
Culinary Arts at Eugolio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute Of
Science And Technology (EARIST), Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila.

In this regard, we would like to request permission


from your good office to conduct the said study to selected
respondents.
Thank you very much.

Very truly yours,


NIÑA L.SUPREMO
JINGKE P.TOLLEDO
IVY JOY J.JULIANO
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Researchers
Noted:

MS. TENIE LIRAZAN

Adviser

LETTER TO RESPONDENTS

January 22, 2018

Dear Respondents,

The undersigned are 3rd Year students currently


conducting a research entitled “SAVORY FERN BREAD” in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject of
CA 105 (Culinary Research 1) leading to the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Major in
Culinary Arts at Eugolio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute Of
Science And Technology (EARIST), Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila.
In this regard, may we solicit you cooperation by
answering the attached questionnaire to generate the data to
achieve the objectives of the study.
Rest assured that any information gather will be
treated with utmost confidentially and utilized for research
purpose only.
Thank you very much.

Very truly yours,

NIÑA L.SUPREMO

JINGKE P.TOLLEDO

IVY JOY J.JULIANO


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Researchers

Noted:

MS. TENIE LIRAZAN


Adviser

Sample of SURVEY QUESTIONARE

SURVEY QUESTIONARE

PART I: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENT

NAME:

_________________________________________________

Direction: Please put a check (/) mark on the

space that corresponds to your answer:

Sex

( ) Male ( ) Female

Civil Status

( ) Single ( ) Married
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 54

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( ) Separated

Age Range

( ) 51 and above ( ) 41-50 years old

( ) 31-40 years old ( ) 21-30 years old

( ) 20 below

Educational Attainment

( ) Master’s Degree ( ) College Level

( ) College Graduate ( ) Undergraduate

( ) High School Graduate

PART II. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF

SAVORY FERN BREAD BY SELECTED RESPONDENTS.

Direction: Kindly put a check (/) mark on the space

that corresponds to your answer using the legend

below:

Options Verbal Interpretation Equivalent Points

5 Excellent (E) 4.20-5.00

4 Very Good (VG) 3.40-4.19

3 Good (G) 2.60-3.39

2 Fair (F) 1.80-2.59

1 Poor (P) 1.00-1.79


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Criteria 5 4 3 2 1

1. Color

2. Aroma

3. Taste

4. Texture

Part III. EVALUATION AS THE ACCEPTABILITY OF SAVORY

FERN BREAD.

Direction: Kindly put a check (/) mark on the space

that corresponds to your answer using the legend

below:

Options Verbal Interpretations Equivalent Points

5 Highly Acceptable 4.20 - 5.00

4 Acceptable 3.40 – 4.19

3 Moderately Acceptable 2.60 – 3.39

2 Least Acceptable 1.80 – 2.59

1 Not Acceptable 1.00 – 1.79


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Criteria 5 4 3 2 1

1. Color

2. Aroma

3. Taste

4. Texture

PART IV. SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATION

1. _______________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________

3. _______________________________________________

N.L.S

J.P.T

I.J.J.J
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Thank You!

Sample of resume

CURRICULUM VITAE

NIÑA L. SUPREMO
669 J MARZAN ST. SAMPALOC MANILA
0923-144-2170
ninsupremo051894@gmail.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary : Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez
2015-Present Institute of Science and Technology
Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila
Bachelor of Science and Hospitality
Management Major in Culinary Arts
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 58

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Secondary : Paaralang Sekundarya Heneral Nakar,


2006-2011 Barangay Anoling Gen. Nakar Quezon

Primary : Paaralang Elementarya ng Heneral


2000-2006 Nakar, Barangay Poblacion Nakar
Quezon
PERSONAL DETAILS:
Nationality : Filipino
Birthday : May 18, 1994
Place of Birth : Makati City
Age : 23 years old
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5’3
Weight : 50 kg
Religion : Bornagain
CURRICULUM VITAE

JINGKE P. TOLLEDO
0461 ROSAL ST. STA MESA MANILA
0912-720-7566
yhentoledo@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary : Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez
2015-Present Institute of Science and Technology
Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila
Bachelor of Science and Hospitality
Management Major in Culinary Arts
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 59

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Secondary : Infanta National High School


2014-2015

Primary : PICAB Elementary School


2006-2011

PERSONAL DETAILS:
Nationality : Filipino
Birthday : April 25, 1995
Place of Birth : Gen Nakar, Quezon
Age : 22 years old
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5’3
Weight : 48 kg
Religion : Roman Catholic
CURRICULUM VITAE

IVY JOY J. JULIANO


1888 DAPDAP ST. STA CRUZ MANILA
0956-659-7417
ivyjoyjuliano0529@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary : Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez
2015-Present Institute of Science and Technology
Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila
Bachelor of Science and Hospitality
Management Major in Culinary Arts
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 60

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Secondary : Ramon Magsaysay Highschool


2010-2014 España, Manila City

Primary : Andres Bonifacio Elementary


2004-2010 School
Ipil St. Tayuman Manila
PERSONAL DETAILS:
Nationality : Filipino
Birthday : May 29, 1998
Place of Birth : Manila
Age : 19 years old
Civil Status : Single
Height : 5’0
Weight : 43 kg
Religion : Roman Catholic
EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 61

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Note: children…….. please see me those who


have behavioral research…ty