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1.1 Background of the Study
The role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the 21st century

education system has been described as vital to keeping abreast with rapidly changing

technologies. The development of information and communication technology into the

Nigerian educational system has come to stay; its importance has been translated into

huge potentials in terms of positive outcomes, although investments in ICTs in Nigerian’s

education system have not yielded much when compared to similar investments made in

communication (Atureta, 2011).

The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT

worldwide. ICT has made impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning and

research in the institutions using it (Kwacha, 2007). According to Ololube, Ubogu and

Ossai (2007), the introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated a new

age in educational methodologies, thus has radically changed traditional method of

information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering contemporary

learning experience for both instructors and learners. ICT has the potential to accelerate,

enrich and deepen skills, motivate and engage students in learning; helps to relate school

experiences to work places, helps to create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers,

contribute to radical changes in school, strengthens teaching, and provides opportunities

for connection between the school and the world (Davis & Tearle, 1999; Lemke &

Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005). Adomi & Kpangban (2010) described

Information and communication technology (ICT) as electronic technologies used for

information storage and retrieval. According to the Online Oxford Dictionary,

Information and communications technology or information and communication

technology, usually abbreviated as ICT, is often used as an extended synonym for

information technology (IT), but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of

unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and

wireless signals), computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage- and

audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and

manipulate information. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telecommunication,

broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network

based control and monitoring functions. ICT as described by Scott (2002) encompasses a

range of applications, communications and technologies which aid information retrieval

and research communication and administration. These include online databases, library

services and online services and fax machine. It has become a global phenomenon of

great importance and concerns in all aspects of human endeavor, spanning across

education, governance, business, labour, market, shares, productivity, trade, agriculture,

commerce and others. The expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis

Stevenson to the UK government and promoted by the new National Curriculum

documents for the UK in 2000.

The poor electricity supply in Nigeria is proving a major impediment to the operation and

performance of information and communication technologies in the nation's tertiary

institution. Only a trickle of daily electricity production dribbles erratically into the

country's 93 institutions, rendering ICT systems dysfunctional. Universities resort to

diesel-propelled generators, but they are expensive and environmentally unfriendly. So

now there are attempts to find alternative energy sources such as solar energy to

accelerate ICT provision.

The irregular supply of electrical power has crippled the Nigerian economy and hindered

the progress of research carried out by institutes, groups and individuals in the country. It

is maddening for any establishment to start off new projects without addressing the

almighty power supply problem. It is even worse to embark on extensive ICT project

within an educational institution, without solving power problems first. The Federal

government is however, working towards improving the generation of enough megawatts

of power in the country. Nigeria produces 2,500 megawatts a day of electricity out of a

total maximum daily production capacity of 3,000 megawatts. The potential need of the

country is 10 times that, 30,000 megawatts daily. The solution to the ongoing energy

crisis lies in the proper harnessing of Nigeria's abundant natural gas - the country is

Africa's leading producer at some 2.5 billion cubic metres a day.

But the growth of ICTs on campuses has been stalled by insufficient electricity supplied

by Power Holding Company of Nigeria, a state monopoly. Universities and Polytechnic

have resorted to diesel-driven generators, which are polluting and expensive to maintain,

for institutions with limited resources, forcing them to look for alternative sources of

energy to fuel ICT infrastructures. The foregoing background calls for a paper of this

nature, to assess the state of inadequate power supply in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa

(FPN) and the effects of this on student performance of Information Communication

Technology .

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Information and Communication Technology is a new innovation within information

circle. Organizations of all types around the globe are utilizing ICT facilities for not only

cutting the cost but for efficiency and effectiveness of the system.

Many researches conducted by scholars revealed that, a lot of obstacles have appeared to

impede the efforts of information users to satisfy their information needs from

Information and Communication Technologies facilities. Ogbomo (2011) identified

challenges associated with the use of ICT facilities to include infrastructure related

challenges. These, according to him, would involve a deliberate effort by policy makers

and planners to consider the building, electrical wiring, heating cooling and ventilation,

etc. to provide conductive environment for ICT facilities operations. Against this, the

present study seek to investigate effect of inadequate power supply on the student

performance of information and communication Technology from getting access to

required information they need using ICT facilities in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of inadequate power

supply on the student performance of information and communication Technology in

Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

The specific objectives are as follows:

i. To examine the level of accessibility to Information Communication Technology

facilities by students of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

ii. To determine whether the students of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa use Information

Communication Technology facilities to access information for their academic


iii. To examine the effects of inadequate power supply on students to performance in

information communication technology.

iv. To highlight the problems associated with utilization of ICT facilities..

1.4 Research Questions

In order achieve the objective of this study, the following research questions are put

together as a guide to the study.

i. What is the level of accessibility attained by the students of Federal Polytechnic

Nasarawa of Information Communication Technology facilities?

ii. Do the students of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa use ICT facilities to access their

information need?

iii. What effect does inadequate power supply have on performance of students in

information communication technology?

iv. What are the problems associated with utilization of ICT facilities?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study will

point out and properly discuss the factors that hinder effective use of ICT by the student

and how it affect their academic performance negatively. Thus, readers (individuals or

groups) and scholars with interest in ICT will find this work useful to increase their

practice and teaching knowledge. The findings will be a frame work for social workers,

office technology and Management who may intend to carry out further study on this

topic and even related topics.

Practically, by reading this project, the findings will enable teachers, students,

practitioners, social scientists, and other related research scholars as a whole to know the

factors that hinder effective use of ICT in practice, and hence take necessary measures.

1.7 Scope of the Study

Geographically, this study was restricted mainly to Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa,

Nasarawa State and it will focus on the students under the school of Information
Communication Technology. In content, it covered inadequate power supply on the
performance of students in ICT in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms


technologies that provide access to information through

telecommunications which are Internet, wireless networks, cell

phones, and other communication mediums.

POWER SUPPLY: Is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical

load. The source power may come from the electric power grid,

such as an electrical outlet, energy storage devices such as batteries

or fuel cells, generators or alternators, solar power converters, or

another power supply.

STUDENT: Is a person primarily enrolled in a school or other educational institution

who attends classes in a course of study to attain the appropriate level of

mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor.

This chapter attempted to look into the views of different authors as they relate to the
topic, “effects of inadequate power supply on the performance of students in Information
Communication technology”. Areas, ideas and views of authors sought include the

 Concept of Information and Communication Technology

 Accessibility of information and communication Technology facilities in tertiary
 Use of information and communication facilities to access information for academic

 Benefit of information and communication technology

 Benefits of information and communication technology to the (students).

 ICT Benefits for academic Staff s, non−Academic staff

 Inadequate power supply and information and communication technology student
 Problem associated with utilization of ICT facilities.
Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extended term for information

technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of

telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as

necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which

enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. Joshi, and Chugh,

(2009).The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and

telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.

There are large economic incentives

(huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone

network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling,

signal distribution and management (Pradhan, 2004).

However, ICT has no universal definition, as "the concepts, methods and applications

involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis." The broadness of ICT

covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information

electronically in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, digital television, email, robots.

For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierarchy "contain

some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the

transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications".

Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and

managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century (Nasiruddin and

Roknuzzaman, 2002)

ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term

that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television,

cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so

on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as

videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context,

such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries (Gambari,. & Okoli, 2007)

Information Technology (IT) encompasses all of the technology that we use to collect,

process, protect and store information. It refers to hardware, software (computer

programs), and computer networks. ICT (Information and Communication Technology)

Distance is no longer an issue when it comes to accessing information; for example,

working-from-home, distance learning, e-banking, and e-government are now possible

from any place with an Internet connection and a computing device.



The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is gaining momentum in

tertiary institution especially now that most universities/polytechnics/college of education

in Nigeria are adopting ICT in the development and improvement of their services

(Gbenga, 2006)

Therefore, availability of ICT in tertiary institution will increase accessibility; if proper

awareness is adequately created for its use. Thus, ICT usage will facilitate development

since there will be free flow of information between lecturers and students and also the

librarians and the academic community. The current shift from the age-long conventional

means of providing library services to technological approaches necessitated by

advancements in computer technology, telecommunication system and the integration of

both have given rise to a new digital paradigm known as information and communication

technology (Onyeneke,2007).

According to the American Library Association (1983) information technology (IT) is the

application of computers and other technologies to the acquisition, organization, storage,

retrieval, and dissemination of information. Grant (1995) defined information technology

as the nervous system of contemporary society, transmitting and distributing sensory,

control information and interconnecting a myriad of independent units. He argued that the

convergence of telecommunications and computing or informatics has resulted to what is

known as “New information and Communication Technology (NICT).” Thus,

Information and communication technology (ICT) encompasses the effective use of

equipment and programs to access, retrieve, convert, store, organize, manipulate and

present data and information (Gay and Blades, 2005). Therefore, information and

communication technology is the application of technologies in the handling of

information, in order to achieve efficient management, access to, use and delivery of


The radical influence of information and communication technology is evident in all

spheres of human endeavour through the following ICT tools: digital telephone,

computers, and printers, photocopying machine, fax machines, cable networks, printer,

Internet, projectors, CD-ROMs, etc. It is important to note that ICT use in teaching,

learning and research has become the norm across tertiary institutions where students

have been identified as stakeholders in its development and implementation (Ling et al.,

2001; Petrova and Sinclair, 2005; Lee and Nguyen, 2005). The use of information and

communication technology in information handling and processing has arisen because of

information explosion. In order to keep track of the increasing number of information

carriers, computers are utilized to handle information processing with greater speed and

accuracy than manual processing (Aina, 2004).

However, the availability of information and communication technology is the presence

of ICT facilities in the provision of information resources in the libraries. Etebu (2010)

observed that the state of ICT availability for library services in the Niger Delta

University libraries is not totally encouraging. Almost half the number of available

computers in the libraries does not function. Also, Afolabi (2009) also observed that the

prospects of ICT and the ideal situation of educational research in our ICT driven campus

is still a mirage. This is why university libraries should endeavour to make ICT facilities

available and accessible to their users.

More so, accessibility of ICT is the ability of a person to perceive, use, navigate,

communicate and interact with the ICT facilities. Meanwhile, increasing the availability

of accessible ICTs is considered a positive step in removing barriers that limit students to

effective use of ICT facilities in the university libraries in Nigeria.



The availability of an information source does not necessarily imply its accessibility

because the source may be available but access to it, is prevented for one reason or the

other. Therefore, information and communication technology room is an integral part of

the educational system whose primary function is to serve users. Today, the Internet is the

apex of information and communication technology, offering limitless access to all kinds

of information and records, facilitating information generation and sharing across the

globe. Internet has reduced the world to a global village, linking cultures and people and

creating new vistas of knowledge. Through the Internet one can record, access, share and

retrieve information anywhere in the world in minutes (Unagha, 2006; Mwatawala, 2005

and Awake!, 1997).

Ultimate power of technology is the information and the communication. ICT is vital for

social life, business and economy, to meet the demands of modern information society,

and for the progress of education (Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu, 2005). Use of ICT in

education improves the quality and the quantity of education (Balasubramanian et al.,

2009) and causes better innovative, creative and cognitive thinking, higher productivity,

efficiency, and educational outcomes (Adeosun, 2010). ICT facilitates both instructional

and learning process (Jung, 2005) and has a great influence on teaching and learning at

higher education. It provides opportunity for personalized, flexible and asynchronous

learning and shifts the learning from teacher centered to student centered and hence is a

catalyst for reforms about classroom, educational institute, community and system

(Youssef & Dahmani, 2008). It enhances the learning of the students, helps the students

to learn new skills set, promotes social mobility, helps the citizens to compete in a

worldwide economy, and thus has a multiplier effect across the education system

(UNESCO, 2014).

The present study found out that, students of information and communication Technology

Federal polytechnic Nasarawa usually utilized computer for word processing, publisher,

searching the Internet and for using email, while teachers used computers for research

purpose and teaching in the classroom. (Odigili,2019).

Frizzier (1995) argued that computers may never replace teachers, and that computers

could make excellent and fairly inexpensive supplementary materials available to

improve classroom teaching.


Bransford (1999) stated that research has shown that the appropriate use of ICTs can

catalyze the paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy that is at the heart of

education reform in the 21st century. If designed and implemented properly, ICT-

supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will

empower students for lifelong learning.

The following are the benefits derived from the use of ICT in education:

i. Active learning: ICT-enhanced learning mobilizes tools for examination, calculation and

analysis of information, thus providing a platform for student inquiry, analysis and

construction of new information.

Learners therefore learn as they do and, whenever appropriate, work on real-life problems

in-depth, making learning less abstract and more relevant to the learner’s life situation. In

this way, and in contrast to memorization-based or rote learning, ICT enhanced learning

promotes increased learner engagement. ICT enhanced learning is also “just-in-time”

learning in which learners can choose what to learn when they need to learn it.

ii. Collaborative learning: ICT-supported learning encourages interaction and cooperation

among students, teachers, and experts regardless of where they are. Apart from modeling

real-world interactions, ICT supported learning provides learners the opportunity to work

with people from different cultures, thereby helping to enhance learners’ teaming and

communicative skills as well as their global awareness. It models learning done

throughout the learner’s lifetime by expanding the learning space to include not just peers

but also mentors and experts from different fields.

Creative Learning: ICT-supported learning promotes the manipulation of existing

information and the creation of real-world products rather than the regurgitation of

received information.

Integrative learning: ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative approach

to teaching and learning. This approach eliminates the artificial separation between the

different disciplines and between theory and practice that characterizes the traditional

classroom approach.

Evaluative learning: ICT-enhanced learning is student-directed and diagnostic. Unlike

static, text- or print based educational technologies, ICT-enhanced learning recognizes

that there are many different learning pathways and many different articulations of

knowledge. ICTs allow learners to explore and discover rather than merely listen and


According to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005) and

Gbenga (2006) information and communication technology can work in a number of

general ways;

 It can be used to help in school administration.

 It can be used to train students in skills which they will need in further education and as

an ongoing learning process throughout the rest of heir lives and for their future jobs,

e.g. word processing, email communications etc.

 It can provide access to information and communication outside the classroom e.g.. via

the Internet.

 It can be used to support teacher development via external networks.

 It can support and potentially transform the learning and teaching process.

 Ict has a number of features which it particularly suitable for tertiary education:

 It combines and integrates a full range of media essential for effective learning. The

ICTY uses sounds, vision, text and numeric data.

 It provides lecturers with new opportunities and in particular, distance learning and

involvement in the real-world.

 There is an opportunity to increase the interest and involvement of students by the one

to one relationship provided by the student and computer.

 It provides students with op-opportunity with an opportunity to work and learn on their




Accorlding to Patil, (2012). The following are ICT benefits to the students

i. Computers can improve independent access for students to education ·

ii. Students with special educational needs are able to accomplish tasks working at their


iii. Create greater enthusiasm for learning amongst students,

iv. Visually impaired students using the internet can access information alongside their

sighted peers.

v. Give greater exposure to vocational and workforce skills for students,

vi. Students with profound and multiple learning difficulties can communicate more easily.

vii. Students using voice communication aids gain confidence and social credibility at school

and in their communities.

viii. Increased ICT confidence amongst students motivates them to use the Internet at home

for schoolwork and leisure interests.

ix. Provide distance learners country-wide with online educational materials.

x. Provide learners with additional resources to assist resource-based learning.



i. Reduces isolation for teachers working in special educational needs by enabling them to

communicate electronically.

ii. Provide opportunities for multiple technologies delivered by lecturers,

iii. Offer the opportunity for more student centred teaching,

iv. Improved skills for staff and a greater understanding of access technology used by


v. Enhances professional development and the effectiveness of the use of ICTs With

students through collaboration with peers

vi. Materials already in electronic form (for example, from the Internet) are more easily

adapted into accessible resources such as large print



For the last several decades, the Nigerian power supply has been an ongoing issue. Over

this time, excessive amounts of time, effort, and most notably, money have been spent to

secure an adequate power supply to Nigeria. However, unsuccessful governmental

policies, among other failures, have fallen in the way of installing effective energy

sources and power supply to the area needed particularly educational sector


To date, there have been several major barriers to achieving an adequate power supply in

Nigeria. A significant hindrance has been the amount of capital (money) needed to

produce a constant power supply in the country. More specifically, Nigeria has endured a

great deal of trouble securing enough funding to develop any sort of new energy sources,

or maintain old ones. Thus, making it extremely difficult to find steady power throughout

the country(Gambari,2007).

According to the Executive Vice President Worldwide power product;(Mark Lum,2019)

realized that not only the importance of viable energy sources, but also the difficulty in

achieving such a steady supply. In addition to the struggle to secure funding for adequate

power sources in Nigeria, the fight for proper power generation is also an issue. In

contrast to countries, similar in size, or even larger, Nigeria and its more than 142 tertiary

institutions operate with an entirely insufficient power generation supply (Okoli, 2007)

However, the inadequate power supply in Nigeria is proving a major impediment to the

operation and growth of information and communication technologies in the nation's

tertiary institutions. Only a trickle of daily electricity production dribbles erratically into

the country's 93 institutions, rendering ICT systems dysfunctional. Most Universities and

Polytechnic resort to diesel-propelled generators, but they are expensive and

environmentally unfriendly. So now there are attempts to find alternative energy sources

Nigeria produces 2,500 megawatts a day of electricity out of a total maximum daily

production capacity of 3,000 megawatts. The potential need of the country is 10 times

that, 30,000 megawatts daily. The solution to the ongoing energy crisis lies in the proper

harnessing of Nigeria's abundant natural gas - the country is Africa's leading producer at

some 2.5 billion cubic metres a day.

Information and Communication technology ICT provision in polytechnics are relatively

recent, with most infrastructure created in the last five years. Since then, polytechnic

authorities have been encouraged by donor agencies and ICT-propelled banking

institutions to fast-track information technology as an indispensable tool of

communication for student especially information and communication technology

students. With the gradual death of analogue telecommunications and its replacement by
digital technologies, the institution also realized they could no longer rely on obsolete

fax, telephone and internet systems.

Nigeria being a developing nation cannot boast of twenty four hours electricity supply to

its citizens. The institutions are directly connected to Power Holdings Company of

Nigeria, yet no electricity of power is supplied to the institutions. It is on a sad note that

some of the faculties and departments of the institutions cannot afford a generating set

such that can power the entire computer for teaching and learning. "It became imperative

for Nigerian institutions quickly to emulate polytechnics in advanced countries if they

were to remain relevant," (Umar, 2019) ICT consultant at Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

In confronting this challenge, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa first established ICT centres

with computer and internet facilities. Their strategic purpose was to serve, among other

things, as nerve centres for collating and preserving student and staff databases, hosting

polytechnic websites and for satellite dishes that spread internet services to academic and

administrative units on campuses.

The second stage of ICT development and growth was the creation of mini-ICT centres in

departments and faculties to support teaching, research and administration. "As the new

mode of communications, ICT is all-embracing, declared (Akpan, 2019) a computer

science lecturer at the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. Soon after establishing an ICT

centre, internet and intranet facilities, the pressure is on to extend ICT provision to all

sections of the Polytechnic.

But the growth of ICTs on campuses has been stalled by inadequate electricity supplied

by Power Holding Company of Nigeria, a state monopoly. Polytechnic have resorted to

diesel-driven generators, which are polluting and expensive to maintain, for institutions

with limited resources, forcing them to look for alternative sources of energy to fuel ICT


Rosaline Okon,(2016) of the computer science department at the University of Calabar,

pointed out that providing uninterrupted power supplies to ICT centres alone would not

work if other units in universities had no power. "The best option is to develop an energy

road map where all the units will gradually have uninterrupted electricity supply for the

use of ICT," Okon said. Nigeria, she argued, loses millions of cubic metres of natural gas

into the atmosphere with an annual financial loss of US$2.5 billion: "If there is political

will, honesty and transparency, these abundant sources of gas can provide enough energy

to accelerate the deployment of ICT in all tertiary institutions . We must not forget that

President Sheu Musa Yar'adua and his Vice-President Jonathan Goodluck were former

university lecturers. While in office, it is their historic responsibility to tackle the energy

problem confronting their principal constituency - Nigeria's tertiary institutions."



According to (World Bank, 2000 as cited by Ololube, Ubogu & Ossai, 2007) empirical

studies have indicated that even teachers who have competence in the use of ICT do not

integrate them in their teaching. Problems of quality and lack of resources are

compounded by the new realities faced by higher education institutions battle to cope

with every increasing student’s numbers. Not only have higher education systems

expanded worldwide, the nature of the institution within these systems has also been

shifting, through a process of differentiation. Pelgrum (2001) opined that obstacles for

ICT implementation include the following: Insufficient number of computers, teachers’

lack of ICT knowledge/skills, difficult to integrate ICT to instruction, scheduling

computer time, insufficient peripherals, not enough copies of software, insufficient

teacher time, not enough simultaneous access, not enough supervision staff and lack of

technical assistance. Similarly,

Lewis and Smith (2002) summarized these barriers as limited equipment inadequate

skills, minimal support, time constraints and the teacher’s own lack of interest or

knowledge about computer. Kwacha (2007) also noted that the most common problems

associated with the effective implementation of ICT are lack of qualified ICT personnel,

cost of equipment, management attitudes, inconsistent electric power supply, inadequate

telephone lines, particularly in rural areas and non inclusion of ICT programmes in

teacher’s training curricula and at the basic levels of education.


3.0 Research Design

In designing the study, the researcher used the survey method and adopted the use of
questionnaires for the collection of the necessary data for the study, because it allowed the
respondents to air their views appropriately.

3.1 Area of Study

The research work was earned out in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. The study was focus
on School of Information and Communication Technology precisely.

3.2 Population of the Study

The population of the study consist the students of Office Technology and Management;
and Computer Science in the school of Information and Communication Technology
Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. Data obtained from the departments show that population
of OTM students is 759, while students of Computer science is 675. However, the total
population for this study is 1434. This set of individuals have been selected because, they
used ICT facilities most often and will give best view on the study based on their

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique

In order arrive at the sample size. The study employed Taro Yamane formula;
s= N
1+ N(e)2
N= population
1 = constant
e= Error margin

N= 1434
1- Constant
e=5%= 0.05

s= 1434

s= 1434
1+ 1434 (0.0025)
s= 1434

s= 1434

s= 312

Therefore, the sample for the study is 312 which were administered to the respondents
(students). In order to have a more accurate result, the study employed stratified random
sampling techniques. The technique gives every student of the department an equal
chance of being selected in the sample.
3.4 Instrument/ Method for Data Collection

The instrument used in this study was a well structured questionnaire. This is because;
questionnaire is the best method for data collection. The researcher, then visited the
department under study personally to administered and collect the questionnaires, so as to
ensure a good return of them. A total number of 156 questionnaires were distributed to
each department. 145 were filled and returned from OTM department while 136 were
also filled and returned from computer science. Therefore, 281 questionnaires were used
in analyzing data.

3.5 Method of Data Analysis

The researcher used simple mean statistical method to analyze the data collected for the
study. The analysis of the data was based on the value of the four (4) point scale known
as modified Likert scale. The questionnaires were assigned values from 4-1 as shown
below: SD = Strongly Agreed

A = Agreed

SD = Strongly Disagreed

D = Disagreed

Values are:
SA =4
SD =2
Considering the Likert type of rating scale of 4, 3, 2 and 1 to obtained the cut off
point for the decision, the following was used. 4+3+2+ 1 = 10 divided by four (4)
is equaled to 2.5. That is, the number of the point which is = x1


X= ∑fx: n= 4+3+2+1 =10=2.5

F 4 4
x = mean
F = frequency
£= summation
X = Nominal value of points
N = Number of respondents
To calculate the mean value for the data, the frequencies for each of the variable were
determined and multiplied by the value of each of the point to obtain (FX). The FX
was further summed up to get FX for each variable. The sum was divided by the total
frequencies resulting as the mean score.

The mean score for the data collection was calculated by multiplying the frequency of
the variable by the value of the scale to get FX. The FX was then summed up to
obtained £FX, which was later divide by the sum of the frequency £f.


Any response from 2.5 and above is accepted while response below 2.5 is rejected.


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