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Characterizing the Relative Magma Viscosity of Raung Volcano Using Crystal


Size and Shape Analysis: Implication to Lava Travel Distance and Interval of
Eruption

Conference Paper · July 2019

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Firman Sauqi Mirzam Abdurrachman


Universitas Jember Bandung Institute of Technology
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Characterizing the Relative Magma Viscosity of Raung Volcano Using
Crystal Size and Shape Analysis: Implication to Lava Travel Distance and
Interval of Eruption

Firman Sauqi Nur Sabila 1, Mirzam Abdurrachman 2, Idham Andri Kurniawan 3


1,2,3
Department of Geological Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Corresponding author: firman.sauqi001@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Raung Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. The volcanic activity was
very intense in the past decade with the last eruption in 2015. Magma viscosity is believed as
one of the physical characters of magma that play a key role in the activity of Raung Volcano.
However, there has never been any study on the magma viscosity and its implication to the
eruption of this volcano. Textural analysis using petrography of the lava samples will determine
the crystal size distribution and shape characteristic. Samples were taken from four lava flow
succession of Raung pre-caldera deposit with known travel distance (10.7-18.4 km from the
eruption center). Petrographic analysis, from the oldest to the youngest lava, shows that crystal
and vesicle volume fraction are increases, but the glass volume fraction decreases. The crystal
size and shape will reveal the relative viscosity of magma on each erupted lava. Crystal size
distribution analysis gives the size of the crystal in the range of 0.05-4.2 mm. Calculation on
the crystal size elucidates the magma residence time in the range of 1.2-2 years, with an
increase to the youngest lava. The magma residence time shows the interval of an eruption.
The polydispersity that represents the aspect ratio of crystal has a negative correlation with the
maximum packing fraction. The calculation on crystal size and shape elucidate the relative
magma viscosity has a positive correlation with crystal volume fraction and is increasing to the
youngest lava. This is consistent with the increasing residence time and decreasing lava travel
distance. So, based on these relationships, the magma viscosity most likely plays an important
role in the travel distance of lava flow and its eruption interval.

Keywords: Raung Volcano, Magma Viscosity, Crystal Size, Crystal Shape, Lava.

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