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John Locke:

English philosopher and physician John Locke was born on August 29, 1632. He is noted as one
of the most influential philosophers and is known as “Father of Liberalism”. Lock’s ideas viewed human
nature in positive eyes, believing that people could learn from their past to improve themselves. He
favored self-government, and was against absolute monarchy, as humans are able to govern themselves
and do not need a figurehead to stand for them. Locke established the natural rights of life, liberty and
property, as well as the concept of power coming from the consent of the people. To Locke, the sole
purpose of a government is to represent the people and protect their natural rights. John Locke’s thoughts
built the foundation for modern democracy, especially in influence for the Declaration of Independence.

Congress of Vienna:

After the reign of Napoleon, leaders of European nations sought to maintain peace and stability.
Representatives from Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain and France met up in a series of meetings
known as the Congress of Vienna, chaired by Austrian foreign minister Prince Klemens von Metternich