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З. М.

Шенина

Английская интонация.
Правила, упражнения

Практикум
Предисловие

Практикум по фонетике английского языка содержит правила и комплекс упражнений


для студентов I и II курсов очного и заочного отделений факультетов иностранных языков. В
работе представлены утвердительные, восклицательные, побудительные и вопросительные
предложения. В упражнениях акцентируются следующие функции интонации: различение
коммуникативных типов высказывания, выражение конкретных эмоций, вскрытие подтекста
высказывания, характеристика ситуации общения. Сведения по интонации английского языка
изложены с учётом материала учебников “Практический курс английского языка” для 1 и 2
курсов под редакцией В. Д. Аракина, A. C. Gimson “Intermediate English Course”, книг David
Hicks “Meet the Parkers”, J. D. O’Connor “Linguaphone English Course”. Для упражнений
использована лексика соответствующих курсов.
Расположение глав не обязывает к определённой последовательности изучения
содержащегося в них материала. Внутри каждой главы материал расположен по степени
трудности так, как кажется методически целесообразным.

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STATEMENTS
I The Low Fall
II The High Fall
III The Low Rise
IV The High Rise
V The Fall-Rise
VI The Rise-Fall

I
The Low Fall

Statements with the low fall convey a calm, reserved, unsurprised, dull, possibly grim attitude
on the part of the speaker.
When the low fall is preceded by the descending head the speaker may sound considered,
responsible, intense, pressing, and rather emphatic.
E.g. Nora: I’m exˈpecting ˎMother │ – she is ˈcoming ˎover, │ for the ˎday. (Meet the Parkers 12)1

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations with statements. Remember that the low fall is
used in final, calm, reserved, categorical statements.
1. Can you come tomorrow? – ˎYes.
2. Whose book is this? – ˎAnne’s.
3. Where do you come from? – ˎRussia.
4. How old are you? – ˎTwenty.
5. When is he coming? – Toˎmorrow.
6. Where is Ann? – She’s ˎout.

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations with statements. Remember, when the statements
get longer they sound considered and weighty.
1. How much did you pay for it? – It ˈcosts ˈover two ˈhundred ˎpounds.
2. What is the weather like? – I ˈthink it is ˈgoing to ˎrain.
3. When can you come? – As ˈsoon as the ˈweather imˎproves.
4. Why didn’t the guard let you in? – He ˏsaid │ he ˈcouldn’t ˈlet me ˈin without a ˎpass.
5. Have you any news of Malcolm? – We ˈhaven’t ˈheard from him for ˎages.
6. How did you spend the morning? – I ˈstayed in ˈbed until ˈnearly ˎlunch time.
7. David has grown a beard. – ˈSo he ˎhas.
8. What’s the time, please? – ˈTen ˈminutes to ˎnine.
9. I don’t like this film – I enˈtirely aˎgree with you.

II
The High Fall

Statements with the high fall sound insistent, lively and interested, sometimes surprised. They
are very common in conversation.
E.g. Mrs. Howard: Oh, but I’m sure he’ll win a scholarship.

1
SUPPLEMENT, text 3.

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Nora: `Yes, we `hope he ˏwill. (lively) (Meet the Parkers 3)2

Harry: ˈNo, ˎseriously, ˏNora, │I ˈcan’t `bear it. (insistent) (Meet the Parkers 12) 3

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations with statements, use the high fall. Convey your
personal concern, including irritation or interest.
1. Now what have you done to Mary? – `Nothing.
2. Who has been eating my grapes? – `No one.
– `No one has.
– `No one’s been ˌeating your ˌwretched ˌgrapes.
3. Which will you take, Henry? – `This one.
4. How many of his books have you read? – `All of them.
5. When did you see him? – On `Thursday.
6. Would you like to join us? – I’d `love to.
7. Come on. Let’s get going. – We `can’t. It’s `raining.
8. It was your entire fault. – But it `wasn’t. I can `prove it.
9. What was the show like? – `First rate. ˈSimply `splendid.
10. It’s not very valuable, is it? – It ˈcosts `three ˌhundred ˌpounds.
11. We’ll never get there. – It’s `not as ˌfar as you iˌmagine.
12. Which would you like, tea or coffee? – I’d preˈfer `tea.
13. I may be a bit late. – It ˈwouldn’t ˈmatter in the `least.
14. Has he caught up with the group? – `Better than that. He is the `best in the ˌgroup.
15. Why doesn’t she join our trips? – ˈSometimes she `does.
16. I’m an amateur. – I’ll ˈnever beˎlieve it. You are ˈgood at ˈtennis in`deed.
17. Where is my tie? It’s gone again. – You `never reˌmember where you ˌput your ˌthings.
18. Let’s go to the pictures tonight. – I ˈreally ‵can’t. I’ve ˈgot a `lot of ˌwork to ˌdo.
19. I’m going to consult a doctor. – It’s ˈhigh ˈtime you `thought about your ˌhealth.
20. We are leaving tonight. – It’s a `pity. You ˈpromised to ˈstay with us a ˈbit `longer.

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low fall or the high fall in
accordance with the speaker’s attitude given in brackets.
1. I’m going to consult a doctor.
– It’s high time you thought about your health. (weighty)
– It’s high time you thought about your health. (lively)
2. We are leaving tonight.
– It’s a pity. You promised to stay with us a bit longer. (weighty)
– But you promised to stay with us a bit longer. (surprised)
3. Why don’t you go to the doctor?
– Sometimes I do. (weighty)
– Sometimes I do. (surprised)
4. How many students of your group were present?
– All of them. (calm)
– All of them. (lively)
5. I’m an amateur.
– I’ll never believe it. You are very good at tennis indeed. (weighty)
– I’ll never believe it. (surprised) You are very good at tennis indeed. (lively)
6. I may be a bit late.
– It wouldn’t matter in the least. (calm)

2
SUPPLEMENT, text 1.

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– It wouldn’t matter in the least. (lively)
7. I don’t often have time these days.
– Yes, there are so many other things to do. (lively)
– Yes, there are so many other things to do. (weighty)
8. I’ll ring you tomorrow to confirm if we are coming.
– Fine. (lively)
– Fine. (calm)
9. All his friends are just the same.
– All of them are wild. (surprised)
– All of them are wild. (weighty)
10. Do you like to play squash?
– Yes, and I enjoy myself in the process. (calm and weighty)
– Yes, and I enjoy myself in the process. (lively)
11. You haven’t got to go yet, have you?
– There is no need to rush. (lively)
– There is no need to rush. (weighty)
12. The exams were much too hard for me.
– Oh, come on. You’ve probably done better than you think. (lively)
– Oh, come on. You’ve probably done better than you think (weighty)
13. I’m not much of a swimmer.
– Well, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. (lively)
– Well, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. (calm)
14. I don’t think I’ll fly.
– Well, the air-fair is quite expensive, I admit. (surprised)
– Well, the air-fair is quite expensive, I admit. (calm and weighty)

III
The Low Rise

With the descending scale statements with the low rise sound soothing and reassuring.
E.g. Nora: Yes, of course, Mrs. Howard, I mustn’t boast, but it ˈreally is a ˏcomfort │to ˈhave
ˈsuch a ↑hard-working ˈboy as ˏRobert.(Meet the Parkers 3.)3

Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. The statements reserve
judgments and encourage further conversation.
1. Have you heard about Max? – ˏNo.
2. Whose book is this? – ˏMine.
3. How many blouses have you got? – ˏSix.
4. Aren’t they expensive? – ˈSome of them ˏare.
5. Can he come to tea tomorrow? – ˈMaybe he ˏcan.
6. I’m sorry, I’m late again. – That ˈdoesn’t ˏmatter.
7. How about asking Max to join us? – He ˈought to be ˈable to ˈget aˏway.
8. Do you think the proposal is reasonable? – On the ˈwhole it’s ˈquite ˏfair.
9. Can you turn up at nine on Tuesday? – As a ˈrule I ˏcan.

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the statements with the descending scale in the conversational situations. They sound
soothing, reassuring, sometimes surprised.
1. Alice is leaving. – ˎYes, │ she ˈwants to ˈgo to the ˏPark.
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SUPPLEMENT, text 1.

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2. Shall I buy the TV set? – If you ˈdon’t ˈfind it ↑too exˏpensive.
3. The furniture is new but not quite modern.– It ˈdoesn’t ˈmatter ˈall ˏthat much.
4. I’d like to have a bite. – Perˈhaps we’ll ˈgo to a ˈcafé for a ˈcup of ˏcoffee.
5. Tell me, doctor. Is he badly hurt? – ˈNothing at ˈall ˏserious. ˈJust a ˈfew ˏbruises.
6. I don’t think I’ll ever do it. – You ˏwill. It’s ˈjust a ˈmatter of ˏpractice.
7. Shall we write a dictation tomorrow? – I beˏlieve so.
8. I’ll give a talk on Cronin. – ˈSince you are ˏfond of him.
9. When shall we start? – ˈAny ˈtime that ˏsuits you.

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low fall or the low rise in
accordance with the speaker’s attitude given in brackets.
1. Mum, Alice is leaving.
– Yes, she wants to go to the Park. (soothing)
– Yes, she wants to go to the Park (weighty)
2. I thought I was to be given some fish for supper.
– Perhaps we’ll go to a restaurant for supper. (reassuring)
– Perhaps we’ll go to a restaurant for supper. (calm and weighty)
3. Shall I buy this TV set?
– If you don’t find it too expensive. (calm)
– If you don’t find it too expensive. (soothing)
4. I don’t think I’ll ever master the language.
– You will. It’s just a matter of practice. (soothing)
– You will. It’s just a matter of practice. (calm and weighty)
5. How about asking him to come a bit later?
– All right. I’ll have a talk with him. (soothing)
– All right. I’ll have a talk with him. (calm and weighty)

IV
The High Rise

Statements with the high rise have in most cases the effect of questions expressing wonder.
E.g. You ˊlike him? (is equivalent to ˈDo you ˏlike him?)
ˊSugar? (is equivalent to ˈDo you ˈtake ˏsugar?)

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the high rise expressing wonder.
1. We shall have to return. – Imˊmediately?
2. Careful. – ˊCareful?
3. Pity! – ˊPity?
4. I should phone him about it now. – ˊNow?
5. What do you think of my dress? – ˊNew?
6. Could I have another cup of tea? – ˊSugar?
7. I’ve just read that new travel book. – ˊInteresting?
8. I listened to every word he said. – ˊEvery word?
9. Everybody thinks it’s magnificent. – ˊEverybody?
10. He’s going on holiday. – Aˊlone?
11. I’ve given up missing classes. – For ˊgood?
12. What do you think of the car? – Your ˊown?
13. I’ve just met her husband. – You ˊlike him?
14. Have you seen my bag anywhere? – You’ve ˊlost it?

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15. Alan’s not here, I’m afraid. – He’s gone ˊhome?
16. We are going shopping. –Right aˊway?
17. Let’s go to the restaurant. – You’ve got eˊnough money?
18. I believe he is in Syktyvkar now. – In ˊSyktyvkar?
19. We spent the whole day on the beach. – The ˊwhole day?
20. It’s getting warmer. – You ˊthink so?

V
The Fall-Rise

The fall-rise is a combination of the high fall and the low rise.
Statements with the fall-rise are used when the speaker draws a special attention to one
element of the sentence for the purpose of contrast and at the same time shows an intention to
continue the utterance. On the whole the fall-rise in statements conveys several meanings. It may
sound apologetic, appreciative, grateful, regretful, sympathetic, pleading, plaintive, reassuring.
E.g. On ˋweek days I ˏstudy, ∣ but on ˋSaturdays I ˏdon’t. (contrast)
As ˋsoon as I ˌmake it ˏclean∣ the ˌboys make it ˋdirty aˌgain. (regretful)

Exercise 1.
♪ Read the following conversational situations, use the fall-rise.
1. Have you heard about Max? – ˬNo.
2. Whose book is this? – ˬMine.
3. How many blouses have you got? – ˬSix.
4. Aren’t they expensive? – ˈSome of them ˬare.
5. Can he come to tea tomorrow? – ˈMaybe he ˬcan.
6. I’m sorry, I’m late again. – That ˎdoesn’t ˏmatter.
7. How about asking Max to join us? – He ˈought to be ˎable to ˎget aˏway.
8. Do you think the proposal is reasonable? – On the ˈwhole it’s ˎquite ˏfair.
9. Can you turn up at nine on Tuesday? – As a ˎrule I ˏcan.

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the fall-rise. Say what feeling you render.
1. Don’t you like it? – I don’t, frankly.
2. Any news of Tim? – He’s coming home soon.
3. Haven’t you finished it yet? – I’ve only just begun it, as a matter of fact.
4. It looks like rain, I’m afraid. – Perhaps it would be better to stay at home in that case.
5. I have had it six years now. – You’ll be buying a new one soon, I imagine.
6. Why ever bring an umbrella? – It was raining when I left this morning.
7. I thought of going for a walk. – I’ll come too, if I may.
8. It was quite an accident. – But I told you not to touch.
9. He has accepted your offer. – I didn’t dream he would take me seriously.
10. It’s a wonderful photo. – I knew you would like it.
11. Help? Certainly. – I was sure I could count on you.

VI
The Rise-Fall

Statements with the rise-fall imply all the definiteness and finality, associated with the other
falling tones.

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In addition the rise-fall in statements shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According
to the situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration.
So it may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from
being pleasantly impressed to admiration. It is often used in echoing prior remarks.
E.g. Harry: I’m tired of lying here on my back with nothing to do. I hate doing nothing.
Nora: Don’t be silly, Harry. ˈYou’ve ˈgot a ˆtemperature. (reproach) (Meet the Parkers 12)4

A. Sorry, I’m a bit too late.


B. I’m afraid you’ve ˈcome a bit too ˆearly. It’s five o’clock in the morning. (sarcasm)

A. His acting was not bad.


B. His acting was ˆmarvellous. (admiration)
Here the meaning of the word marvellous itself is intensified. It is contrasted with the previous not
bad.

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following sentences. Use the rise-fall.
1. I ˈdon’t ˈwant to ˈspoil ˈeverything before we ˆstart our ˌevening. (emphatic) (Intermediate
English. A Date for the Theatre)5
2. His ˈstudents were ˏadults∣ and he enˈjoyed the ˈwork imˆmensely. (emphatic) (Intermediate
English. Profile: Peter Parker)6
3. She ˈonly ˈgot her ˈsecond diˆvorce in the ˌspring. (reproach) (Intermediate English. A Little
Gossip)7
4. …the way you ˆusually ˌdo. (reproach) (Intermediate English. A Lost Tie)8
5. I suppose it’s ˈstill on the ˈshelf under the ˆdashboard. (emphatic) (Intermediate English. A Lost
Tie)9
6. You enˈjoy yourself in the ˆprocess. (admiration) (Intermediate English. Weight Problem)10
7. I’ve got to ˈdrink ˈtwo or ˈthree ˆpints. (emphatic) (Intermediate English. Weight Problem)11
8. Oh, come on. You’ve ˈprobably ˈdone ˆbetter than you ˌthink. (emphatic) (Intermediate English.
After the Exams)12
9. Well, it’s up to you I suppose. But I’ve had eˆnough of ˌreading. I’m ˈnot ˈgoing to ˈopen aˈnother
ˈbook for ˆmonths. (emphatic) (Intermediate English. After the Exams)13
10. Don’t be silly, Harry. ˈYou’ve ˈgot a ˆtemperature. (reproach) (Meet the Parkers 12)14
11. Well, you beˎgan it by beˆhaving like a ˌnaughty ˌboy. (reproach) (Meet the Parkers 12)15
12. He’s done well in ↑all his exams up to now. But we ˆdaren’t ˌcount on his ˌwinningˏone.
(emphatic) (Meet the Parkers 3)16

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the rise-fall in the answers. Make your
utterance much more emphatic and create contrast with the previous sentence.
4
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
5
SUPPLEMENT, text 7.
6
SUPPLEMENT, text 9.
7
SUPPLEMENT, text 10/
8
SUPPLEMENT, text 8.
9
SUPPLEMENT, text 8.
10
SUPPLEMENT, text 14.
11
SUPPLEMENT, text 14.
12
SUPPLEMENT, text 11.
13
SUPPLEMENT, text 11.
14
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
15
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
16
SUPPLEMENT, text 1.

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1. The poem is good. – The poem is ˆbeautiful.
2. It’s an interesting place. – It’s a beˆwildering place.
3. I doubt if it’s true. – It’s most unbeˆlievable.
4. The coat is bad. – The coat is ˆdreadful.
5. It smells good. – It smells ˆlovely.
6. She looks well. – She looks ˆhappy.
7. It’s very cold today . – It’s ˆbitterly cold today.
8. You are not trying. – I most ˆcertainly am.
9. I like this colour. Do you? – It isn’t eˆxactly the shade I want.
10. The party was nice. And the food wasn’t bad. – The food was ˆterrible.

♪ Exercise 3.
Read the following statements. Sound definite and categorical. Show that you are anxious.
1. I ˈcan’t ˈfind it ˆanywhere.
2. It is ˈso anˆnoying.
3. It ˈcan’t be ˆotherwise.
4. It ˈsimply ˆcan’t be.
5. She ˆthanked me.
8. You ˈdon’t ˈknow how ˆignorant she ˌis.
7. Of ˎcourse│ I ˈknow him ˈvery ˆwell.
8. ˎAnyhow, │ we ˈcan’t ˈget there in ˆtime.

Exercise 4.
Read the following sentences. Create contrast between the two variants using the rise-fall and
the low fall. Comment on the difference.
1. ˈThat would be ˆwonderful! ˈThat would be ˎwonderful
2. I’m aˈfraid it ˆis. I’m aˈfraid it ˎis.
3. I should ˈnever have beˆlieved it. I should ˈnever have beˎlieved it.
4. But she ˈdidn’t ˈsay a ˆword. But she ˈdidn’t ˈsay a ˎword.
5. It ˈlooks as if it’s ˈgoing to ˆrain. It ˈlooks as if it’s ˈgoing to ˎrain.
6. You ˆreally ˌmustn’t ˌmake that ˌnoise! You ˈreally ˈmustn’t ˈmake that ˎnoise.
7. It’s 'perfectly abˆsurd! It’s ˈperfectly abˎsurd.

IMPERATIVES
I The Low Fall
II The High Fall
III The Low Rise + the Low Fall
IV The High Fall + the Low Rise + the Low Fall
V The Fall-Rise

I
The Low Fall

Imperatives with the low fall convey a calm, reserved, unsurprised, dull, possibly grim
attitude on the part of the speaker.
E.g. A – What shall I do with these figures?
B – Reˎmember them.
When the low fall is preceded by the descending head the speaker may sound considered,
responsible, pressing, insistent and rather emphatic.
E.g. Harry: You 'mustn’t 'try to 'keep me in 'bed like a ↑naughty ˎboy. (Meet the Parkers 12)17
17
SUPPLEMENT, text 4

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'Stand 'here 'out of theˎ rain │while I 'get a ˎtaxi.
'Buy the ˎtickets │ and 'ring me ˎup after that.

Polite requests can be expressed in the form of general questions, but unlike general
questions polite requests are used with the low fall.
E.g. 'Will you ˎcome here? (request)
'Will you ˏcome here? (question)

♪ Exercise 1.
Practise reading the following commands, use the low fall.
1. ˎTake it from her.
2. ˎGive it to me.
3. ˎHide it from them.
4. ˎEat some with me.
5. ˎBuy them for them.
6. ˎStand it by me.
7. ˎPin it on him.
8. ˎLay them under it.
9. ˎPlace it over him.
10. ˎShow them to them.
11. 'Take them aˎway from them.
12. 'Put them in my ˎcar for me.
13. 'Show me your ˎticket.
14. 'Turn 'on the ˎlight.
15. 'Wash and 'iron your ˎdress.
16. 'Leave the 'door ˎopen.
17. 'Don’t 'go to the ˎconcert.
18. 'Hang 'up the ˎtime-table.
19. 'Finish this ˎwork.
20. 'Sew the 'button on to your ˎcoat.

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations with imperatives, use the low fall. Express your
calm, unemotional, serious attitude.
1. How can I get in touch with Mike? – ˎPhone him.
1. What shall I do with these figures? – Re ˎmember them.
2. What shall I do now? – ˎStop it.
3. I’m afraid to miss the train. – 'Hurry ˎup then.
4. What shall I do with those naughty boys? – Iˎgnore them.

♪ Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations with imperatives. Use the low fall. Remember,
when the imperatives get longer they sound firm, and pressing.
1. I can’t think what to do. – 'Leave it en'tirely to ˎme, then.
2. I’m afraid I’ve made a mistake. – 'Copy it 'out aˎgain, then.
3. What shall I tell John? – 'Ask him to 'come as 'soon as he is ˎfree.
4. What shall I do after tea? – 'Take the 'cups into the ˏkitchen,│and 'wash them ˎup.
5. Shall I memorize it? – 'Study the ↑whole 'dialogue ˎcarefully ֽfirst.
6. What do you want me to do? – 'Put your 'boots a'way 'tidily in the 'cupboard ‫ ׀‬under
theˎstairs.
7. Here are the magazines. – 'Don’t 'put them 'all on my ˎtable.

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8. How many cookies do you want? – 'Buy me ˎthree, ֽplease.
9. I didn’t quite catch what you said. – 'Pay atˎtention, then.
10. The doctor says it’s not serious. – 'Then 'don’t 'make so 'much ˎfuss about it.

Exercise 4.
a) Practise reading the following polite requests. Use the low fall.
1. Will you come here?
2. Will you give me that book?
3. Would you mind lending me your dictionary?
4. Would you give me some water?
5. Will you fetch me a chair?
6. Would you be good enough to close the window?

b) Practise reading the following sentences. Use the low fall in polite requests and the low rise
in general questions.
1. Will you phone him? (request) Will you phone him? (question)
2. Will you write to him? (request) Will you write to him? (question)
3. Will you let your daughter come here? Will you let your daughter come here?
(request) (question)
4. Will you stay with us? (request) Will you stay with us? (question)
5. Will you go to the Crimea with us next summer? Will you go to the Crimea with us next
(request) summer? (question)
6. Will you see them again? (request) Will you see them again? (question)
7. Will you go to the country on Saturday? Will you go to the country on Saturday?
(request) (question)
8. Will you go there alone? (question) Will you go there alone? (request)
9. Will you stay a little longer? (question) Will you stay a little longer? (request)
10. Will you stay a little longer? (question) Will you stay a little longer? (request)

c) Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low fall or the low rise
according to the meaning.
1. What should I do with the magazines? – Will you put them on my table?
2. I think I must leave. – Oh no, will you stay a little longer?
3. I can’t unlock the door. – Will you try another key?
4. I’m going downtown. Do you want me
to buy something for you? – Will you buy a newspaper for me?
5. Don’t you think it’s stuffy here? – Yes. Will you open the window?
6. Oh, the button is off. Will you sew it on my coat? – Sure.
7. I’m sorry, I can’t hear well. Will you speak louder,
please? – O.K.
8. I like my tea hot and sweet. Will you pass me
the sugar, please? – Here you are.
9. These sandwiches are so tasty. Will you make
some more? – With pleasure.
10. Will you go to the Crimea with us next summer? – Yes, I hope so.
11. Will you phone me? – Yes, I will. I’ll do it in the evening
when you are at home.
12. Will you tell him about it? – Yes, I’ll discuss it with him when we
meet on Tuesday.
13. Will you let your daughter come here? – No, I certainly won’t.
14. Will you give the book to Kitty? – I’m afraid not. I still need it.
15. Will you stay with us this summer? – I’d love to. But my parents are

11
expecting me to come to their place and
stay there in June.
16. Will you see them again? – I don’t think so. I’m leaving soon.
17. Will you go to the country with us on Saturday? – I think I will if it doesn’t rain.

II
The High Fall

Imperatives with the high fall sound lively, interested, surprised and always with some
personal concern. Sometimes the speaker adds to his reaction a note of critical surprise. Very often
imperatives with the high fall suggest a course of action.
They are very common in conversation.
E.g. The tea is too hot. – 'Put some more `milk in it. (suggests a course of action)

What’s the matter? – `Look! It’s raining. (surprise)


Exercise 1.
♪ Read the following conversational situations with imperatives, use the high fall. Express
your personal concern or suggest a course of action.
1. What’s the matter? – `Look. (It’s raining.)
2. Do you think this hat will fit me? – `Try it.
3. He’ll be terribly angry. – `Let him.
4. He doesn’t want to help me. – Then `make him.
5. I’m awfully sorry. – For`get it.
6. Lock the door. – `Wait a ˏminute.
7. I’ll phone her. – `Don’t.
8. What should I tell him? – 'Tell him e`xactly what you ֽthink.
9. Mary’s not here yet. – 'Go a`lone, then.
10. It’s too late to walk. – 'Take a `taxi, then.
11. I doubt if I can do better. – 'Try a`gain.
12. I hate quarrelling with Clara. – Then 'make it `up with her.
13. I shan’t be able to drop in at your place. – `Phone me, then.
14. I’m very much obliged to him. – `Tell him about it, then.

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational units. Say, what attitude of the speaker is implied.
1. – I’ve got ever so much to do tonight. I’m learning the dialogue.
– Then ˎlearn it. Why are you looking through the window?
2. – I haven’t taken the eggs.
– 'Tell me the ˎtruth.
3. – I’m never told everything.
– Then 'come to the ֽmeeting and they’l ֽ tell you.
4. – The teacher wasn’t satisfied with my work.
– Then 'do the 'exercise a`gain.
5. – What’s the matter? Has anything happened?
– ˎYes, 'go to the ˎDean’s office.
6. – The teacher says I must catch up with the group.
– 'Work ˎharder.
7. – They say we are in a spell of sunshine.
– 'Don’t 'trust the 'weather ˎforecasts.
8. – What shall I do to make up with her?
– 'Give her some 'nice `flowers.
12
9. – I’m sick and tired of paying for the house every month.
– Then `sell │and for ֽget it for ֽever.
10. – I can’t memorize spelling of this word.
– 'Write it 'two 'hundred ˎtimes then.
11. – What shall I do to make good progress?
– 'Never study at `night │no matter how many reviews are coming in the morning.
12. – Why is he angry with me?
– 'Don’t 'call him `Bobby,│ he hates this name.
13. – Father, look! Peter is about to draw something on the cover of the text-book.
– ˎPeter,│'mind you 'don’t 'spoil the ˎbook. You’ll be punished.
14. – Will it rain, do you think?
– 'Take your umˎbrella to be on the safe side.
15. – Oh, I haven’t finished it yet.
– 'Don’t 'bother about 'doing itˎ now.
16. – Are we eating out tonight?
– ˎYes, │'try to 'come 'home ˎearlier.

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low fall or the high fall according to the
attitude of the speaker.
1. What’s the matter? – Look! It’s raining! (surprised)
2. Do you think this hat will fit me? – Try it. (considered)
3. What should I tell him? – Tell him exactly what you think. (suggesting a course of
action)
4. He’ll be terribly angry. – Let him. (cold)
5. Mary’s not here yet. – Go alone then. (suggesting a course of action)
6. He doesn’t want to help me. – Then make him. (calm and reserved)
7. It’s too late to walk. – Take a taxi, then. (suggesting a course of action)
8. I’m awfully sorry. – Forget it. (personal concern)
9. I doubt if I can do it better. – Try again. (suggesting a course of action)
10. I hate quarrelling with Clara. – Then make it up with her. (suggesting a course of action)
11. I shan’t be able to drop in – Phone me, then. (pressing and insistent)
at your place.
12. I’m very much obliged to him. – Tell him about it, then. (suggesting a course of action)
13. Lock the door. – Wait a minute. (calm and reserved)
14. I’ll phone her. – Don’t. (calm, serious, reserved)

III
The Low Rise + the Low Fall

Non-insistent, softened commands are less abrupt than the insistent ones. They are usually
expressed by sentences in the imperative mood combined with the question-tags «will you» or
«won’t you».
Non-pressing commands are used as a kind reminder, when we wish to make sure that the
person we address does not forget something.
E.g. 'Phone me toˏnight, │ˎwon’t you? (= Don’t forget to phone me tonight.)

♪ Exercise 1.
Practise reading the following softened commands. Make sure that the person you are
addressing doesn’t forget to do what you want.
1. 'Put the 'flowers into the ˏvase, │ˎwon’t you?
2. 'Put the 'book into my ˏsuitcase, │ˎwon’t you?

13
3. 'Bring the maga'zines into the ˏoffice, │ˎwon’t you?
4. 'Tell her about it in the ˏevening, │ˎwon’t you?
5. 'Wash the ˏwindows, │ˎwon’t you?
6. 'Tell him what you ˏthink about it, │ˎwon’t you?
7. 'Put the 'shoes aˏway ‫ ׀‬under the 'cupboard under the ˏstairs, │ˎwon’t you?
8. 'Give the 'box to your ˏgranny, │ˎwon’t you?
9. 'Lock the 'door in the ˏevening, │ˎwon’t you?
10. 'Buy a 'newspaper on your way ˏhome from ˏwork, │ˎwon’t you?
11. 'Sew the 'button on my ˏcoat, │ˎwon’t you?
12. 'Let me 'know when he ˏcomes, │ˎwon’t you?
13. 'Drop in at my 'place on ˏSaturday, │ˎwon’t you?

IV
The High Fall + the Low Rise + the Low Fall

Negative commands pronounced with the high fall + low rise can be made more polite by
adding the question-tag «will you». The tag always has the falling tone.

E.g. `Don’t start ˏyet, │ˎwill you?


`Don’t make ˏnoise,│ˎwill you?

♪ Exercise 1.
Practise reading the following commands, follow the pattern.
1. `Don’t stay 'up too ˏlate, │ˎwill you?
2. `Don’t forˏget, │ˎwill you?
3. `Don’t take the 'cups to the ˏkitchen, │ˎwill you?
4. `Don’t pack the 'book into your ˏcase, │ˎwill you?
5. `Don’t put the maga'zines on my ˏtable, │ˎwill you?
6. `Don’t let the 'daughter go there aˏlone, │ˎwill you?
7. `Don’t open the ˏwindow, │ˎwill you?
8. `Don’t stay in the 'country all ˏsummer, │ˎwill you?
9. `Don’t try it aˏgain, │ˎwill you?
10. `Don’t carry 'on as ˏusual, │ˎwill you?
11. `Don’t go aˏway, │ˎwill you?
12. `Don’t do it aˏgain, │ˎwill you?
13. `Don’t sit up 'far into the ˏnight, │ˎwill you?
14. Do `nothing of the ˏsort, │ˎwill you?

V
The Fall-Rise
When the speaker uses the fall-rise in imperatives he sounds plaintive, pleading or
reproachful.
E.g. Nora: Now, `just be ˏquiet │ and 'stop pre'venting me from 'doing ↑my `housework. (Meet the
Parkers 12)18
Harry: Now, 'don’t be `bitter aˏbout it. (Meet the Parkers 12)19
Nora: Now, 'don’t 'stand by `that ˏwindow │and 'catch a`nother ˏcold. (Meet the Parkers 12)20

18
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
19
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
20
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.

14
♪ Exercise 1.
Practise reading the following conversational situations, use the fall-rise.
1. It’s all so depressing. – `Cheer ˏup. (It can’t last for ever.)
2. Quickly! – `Wait a ˏminute.
3. What’s all the knocking about? – Oh, `don’t just ˏsit there. `Open the ˏdoor.
4. What’s upsetting you? – `Do shut the ˏdoor. There’s `such a ˏdraught.
5. I really must go. – Please ‫` ׀‬stay a little ˏlonger.
6. I’d willingly fetch some more. – Please ‫`׀‬don’t bother on my acˏcount.
7. Whatever shall I do? – Carry on as `usual, if you ˏcan.
8. I’m going to get up. – Now, `don’t be so ˏsilly. (You’ll catch another cold.)
9. Oh dear, oh dear! What shall I do? – `Stop ˏcrying. What’s the mater?
10. I think I’ll never do it. – `Don’t say ˏthat.
11. He has been away for two hours. – `Don’t ˏworry. It’s `not too ˏlate.

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational units. Comment on the meaning of the fall-rise.
1. A: Don’t I wish Mum would hurry up with her shopping and give it to me?
B: You needn’t worry. You never miss your Saturday lunch.
(Meet the Parkers 8)21
2. A: Where is he?
B: Don’t be silly, you know exactly where he is.
(Meet the Parkers 8)22
3. A: I say, Robert, you do look clean.
B: Now, don’t you be rude, young Peter. You could do with a wash yourself.
(Meet the Parkers 8)23
4. A: Look here, Nora, I’m tired of lying here on my back with nothing to do. I hate doing nothing.
B: Don’t be silly, Harry. Now, just be quiet and stop preventing me from doing my housework.
(Meet the Parkers 12)24
5. A: It’s no use talking, Nora. Being ill doesn’t suit me.
B: No, and trying to nurse you doesn’t suit me.
A: Now, don’t be bitter about it. You know I’m grateful to you for looking after me.
(Meet the Parkers 12)25
6. A: I’m all against this staying in bed for no reason.
B: Harry, being ill is a reason. Now, don’t stand by that window and catch another cold.
(Meet the Parkers 12)26
7. A: Don’t pack that book, Peter, you’ll be wanting it in the train.
B: Oh, yes, so I shall, Dad.
(Meet the Parkers 40)27
8. A: You’ll have to carry this case, Peter.
B: He can’t, because he’ll be carrying my hatbox, besides his own case.
(Meet the Parkers 40)28
9. – Yes, it’s all done. Come along now, off we go. Shut the door behind you, Peter.
(Meet the Parkers 40)29

21
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
22
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
23
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
24
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
25
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
26
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
27
SUPPLEMENT, text 6.
28
SUPPLEMENT, text 6.
29
SUPPLEMENT, text 6.

15
10. A: Oh, I expect we shall be seeing you sooner than that. We’ve decided that we are going to
Brightshore for our holiday, too.
B: Oh, how nice! Do tell me more about it.
C: Come on, Nora. We are going to miss that train.
(Meet the Parkers 40)30
11. – I’ll phone you tomorrow then. Give my regards to Jane. Have a good evening.
(A Date for the Theatre)31

EXCLAMATIONS
I The Low Fall
II The High Fall
III The Low Rise
IV The Fall-Rise
V The Rise-Fall

The Low Fall

The low fall is used in calm, unsurprised, reserved exclamations.


E.g. Would you like an apple? – ˎThank you.
He’s just arrived. – ˎFine!

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations. Use the low fall in the exclamations. Sound calm
and reserved.
1. He’s just arrived. – ˎOh! / ˎRight! / ˎGood! / ˎFine!
2. Would you like an apple? – ˎThank you.
3. Oh, I’m cold. – ˎNonsense! / ˎRubbish!
4. I’ve lost my umbrella. – ˎPity!
5. Did you lock the back door? – ˎSure.
6. I’m afraid I’ve got a cold. – No ˎwonder.
7. All the students are present. – ˎFine!
8. Here’s the book. – ˎThanks.
9. You’ve got many mistakes in pronunciation. – ˎOh!
10. We can go now. – ˎFine!
11. Don’t go so fast. – ˎGood!

In pattern (LOW PREHEAD +) DESCENDING HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL) exclamations


are rather emphatic.
E.g. The exams are over at last. – ˈIsn’t it ˎwonderful!

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low fall. Be emphatic.
1. It’s my birthday today. – ˈMany ˈhappy reˎturns!
2. She refused my help. – What a ˈstrange ˈthing to ˎdo!
3. Hello, Jane! – It’s ˈvery ˈnice to ˎsee you, ˏHarry!
4. So sorry he’s left. – What a ˈpity we ˈdidn’t ˈring ˎsooner!
5. I really wanted so much to see her. – It’s a ˈpity you ˈdidn’t ˈcome a ˈbit ˎearlier.
6. What nasty weather we are having! – ˈFancy such a ˈday in Juˎly!
7. Fine day, isn’t it? – What ˈlovely ˎweather we are having toˌday!
30
SUPPLEMENT, text 6
31
SUPPLEMENT, text 7.

16
8. I’m going on a voyage round Europe. – What an extraˈordinary ˈpiece of ˎluck!
9. He says it’s your fault. – How riˎdiculous!
10. I’ve sprained my ankle. – Too ˎbad!
11. I’ll give you an interesting book to read. – ˈThanks ˎawfully.
12. It’s my birthday. – ˈVery ˈmany ˈhappy reˈturns of the ˎday!
13. Lovely day, isn’t it? – ˈIsn’t it ˎbeautiful!
14. Here’s to you! – Your ˈvery ˈgood ˎhealth!
15. She asked us to tea. – How ˈperfectly ˎcharming of her!
16. Here’s your tea. – What a ˈbig ˈpiece of ˎcake you’ve ˌgiven me!
17. We are going picnicking. – What a ˈpleasant surˎprise!
18. Isn’t it mild today? – What a ˈdifference from the ˎlast week!

Exercise 3.
Reply to the verbal context, use the low fall. Keep the attitude in mind.
1. What do you think of the book? – …
2. I’d like to see you tomorrow. – …
3. How much have you paid for it? – …
4. How long have you been there? – …
5. What have you bought for lunch? – …
6. I’m afraid I can’t do it in time. – …
7. I’m afraid I don’t understand you. – …

II
The High Fall

Pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)


The high fall in the nucleus starts very high and usually reaches the lowest pitch. The syllables
of the tail are pronounced on the low level.
This intonation pattern is used in exclamations which are very emotional and sometimes they
are pronounced with affronted surprise.
E.g. It’s eight o’clock. – `Heavens! I’m late. (affronted surprise)

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the high fall. Sound emotional.
1. Alice is coming as well. – `Really! `Splendid!
2. Will you have a drink? – `Thank you!
3. I’ll give it to you. – How `lovely!
4. I’m most grateful to you. – Don’t `mention it, my ˌdear ˌchap.
5. Isn’t it a lovely view! – En`chanting!
6. Thank you very much. – `Thank you.
7. Would you like to stay up for the television? – In`deed I ֽwould.
8. I’ve been helping Tom, Mummy. – `That’s a ˌgood ˌgirl.
9. How are you getting on? – `Wonderfully.
10. I’ll ring you on Sunday. – `Fine!
11. It all depends on the weather. – E`xactly so!
12. I shall take you to the Opera House. – `Settled.
13. Will you be ready by six? – De`cidedly!
14. I believe he’s finished his job. – I `think so.

♪ Exercise 2.

17
Read the following conversational situations, use the high fall. Pronounce the exclamations
with affronted surprise.
1. He’s over seventy. – `Well!
2. She says you are to blame. – What `nonsense!
3. Hello, Mary! – ̍Oh, ‫` ׀‬there you are, Tom.
4. I’ll ring you up on Sunday. – ̍Oh, ‫`׀‬no! That `won’t do!
5. It all depends on the weather. – `Far from it.
6. Will you be ready by six? – ˌSurely `not!
7. She says she’s twenty nine. – `Nonsense!

Pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) DESCENDING HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)


The high fall starts from a higher pitch than the preceding syllable of the descending head. It
is used in exclamations, conveying mild surprise without the affront.
E.g. Tom has passed his exam. – ˈWell ˈfancy `that! (mild surprise)

Exercise 3.
♪ Read the following conversational situations, use the high fall. Convey mild surprise.
1. I forgot every word about it. – What a ˈfine `mess you’ve ֽmade of ֽthings!
2. We’ll go there on Friday. – The ˈsooner the `better!
3. I’m sorry to have to vote against you. – A ˈfine ˈfriend you ˈturned ˈout to `be!
4. She’s laid up with quinsy again. – ˈPoor `thing!
5. Hallo, Fred! – ˈWell if it ˈisn’t my ˈold ˈfriend `Tom!
6. He’s sending you a copy. – How ˈvery `nice of him!

III
The Low Rise

Intonation pattern (LOW PRE-HEAD +) LOW RISE (+ TAIL)


When the speaker uses the low rise in exclamations he reserves judgment; encourages further
conversation; expresses calm, casual acknowledgment.
E.g. If you like I can book four seats for next Saturday. – All ˏright.(A Date for the Theatre.)32

The low rise is often used in greetings.


E.g. Good morning. – ˏMorning!

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. Reserve judgment and
encourage further conversation by developing it.
1. He just can’t be bothered. – Pity!
2. Is it really yours? – Of course.
3. John says he can’t come. – Oh! (Why not?)
4. Something has gone wrong with my electric iron. Can you put it right? – Of course!
5. I’ve passed this exam. – Wonderful!
6. He is seriously ill. – Pity!
7. Shall we meet at ten? – All right!

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. Express calm, casual
acknowledgment.

32
SUPPLEMENT, text 7.

18
1. The car is here. – Good!
2. Shall I phone him? – Please!
3. Your change, sir. – Thank you!
4. I’ll bring it tomorrow. – Many thanks!
5. Here you are. – Thanks!
6. Your book, Mary. – Thank you!

Intonation pattern (LOW PRE-HEAD +) DESCENDING HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)


In this pattern the speaker sounds encouraging, airy, friendly.
E.g. At last I’ve got it right. – ˈWell ˏdone

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. Sound friendly.
1. I’ll be back later. – Good bye for the present.
2. More tea? – No, thanks.
3. My name’s Lumpkin. – I beg your pardon. (Would you mind saying that again?)
4. I’m just going. – Have a nice time.
5. I’ll take my exam tomorrow. – Good luck, my boy.

IV
The Fall-Rise

The fall-rise is a combination of the high fall and the low rise. The fall and the rise occur on
separate syllables. The fall starts from a high level and ends very low. The syllables between the
high fall and the low rise are said on a very low pitch. The falling part renders the main idea that the
speaker wants to emphasize. In exclamations the fall-rise renders warm, sympathetic, encouraging,
sometimes plaintive, puzzled or surprised attitude.
E.g. `Careˏful! (= it’s dangerous.)

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the fall-rise. Sound warm, sympathetic,
encouraging.
1. But why didn’t you tell me? – ˈSo `sorˏry.
2. Sorry I haven’t returned it yet. – `That’s all ˏright. I’m in no particular hurry for it.
3. I’ve invited him to tea. – `Jolly ˏgood!
4. That’s the second time he’s failed. – `Poor old ˏPeter!
5. Here I am at last. – Hal`lo, ˏStephen! (It is good to see you.)
6. I thought you finished your work at five. – So I `do, ˏusually.
7. Oh, why are you late? – I’m `awfully ˏsorry. It wasn’t my fault.
8. I must go now. – Good `night, ˏJane.
9. Do you really want him to come? – I `wish he ˏwould!
10. How are you, Mrs. Nelson? – ˈVery ˈwell in`deed, ˏthank you.
11. Do you have milk in your tea, Tony? – `Yes, ˏplease.
12. Would you like a cup of tea? – `Yes, ˏplease.
13. Good morning, David . – Hal`lo, ˏthere.
13. Will you buy some bread for me? – `All ˏright.
14. I thought I asked you to go to the dean’s office. – `All ˏright. `Just a ˏminute.
15. He says he’s ill . – ˈThings `do ˏhappen.

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the fall-rise. Sound puzzled or surprised.
19
1. And we’ll have a new carpet. – `Just a ˏsecond! (Where’s the money coming from?)
2. I wonder where the children are. – ˈOh, `there they ˏare.
3. I tell you, I won’t do it. – ˈWhy are you `always so ˏobstinate!
4. I’m going to get up. – ˈNow, `don’t be ˏsilly! (You’ll catch another cold.)
5. She’s failed the second time today. – What a disap`pointment ˏfor her.
6. I can’t come this evening. – `What a disapˏpointment!
7. I haven’t seen Jenny for ages! – `What a ˏpity!
8. Janet seems to be avoiding me. – `Isn’t she a ˏfool!
9. You’ve made the same mistake again. – `Good ˏheavens! I ˈsimply `can’t ˏthink!
10. They won’t help us. – `Beastly, ˏisn’t it! `Oughtn’t they to be aˏshamed of
it!

V
The Rise-Fall

The rise-fall in exclamations shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According to the
situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration. So it
may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from being
pleasantly impressed to admiration.
E.g. ˆOh, what a pity. I thought perhaps you might stay up to see her. (emphatic) (Meet the Parkers
12)33
– Did you have a good game Gerry? – ˆSplendid. (emphatic) (Intermediate English. Weight
Problem)34
– I am coming with you this evening. – ˆWonderful!
– I think it’s good. – It’s ˆlovely!
– Everything is all right, isn’t it? – Yes, I’m so ˆhappy!

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following sentences. Create contrast between the two variants using the rise-fall and
the low fall. Comment on the difference.
1. ˈThat would be ˆwonderful! ˈThat would be ˎwonderful.
2. I’m aˈfraid it ˆis! I’m aˈfraid it ˎis.
3. I should ˈnever have beˆlieved it! I should ˈnever have beˎlieved it.
4. But she ˈdidn’t ˈsay a ˆword! But she ˈdidn’t ˈsay a ˎword.
5. You ˆreally ˌmustn’t ˌmake that ˌnoise! You ˈreally ˈmustn’t ˈmake that ˎnoise.
6. It’s 'perfectly abˆsurd! It’s ˈperfectly abˎsurd.

GENERAL QUESTIONS
I The Low Rise
II The High Rise
III The High Fall + the Low Rise
IV The High Fall
V The Rise-Fall

I
The Low Rise
33
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
34
SUPPLEMENT, text 14.

20
The most common way of asking general questions is the low rise preceded by the descending
scale. The speaker sounds sympathetically interested or puzzled.
E.g. ˈWill he ˈgo to the ˌUniˏversity, do you think? (sympathetically interested) (Meet the
Parkers3)35
ˈIs he ˈstudying ˏscience? (sympathetically interested) (Meet the Parkers 3)36

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following general questions. Express your interest.
1. I think I smell something cooking. ˈIs ˈlunch ˈready ˏyet? (Meet the Parkers 8)37
2. Where is everyone? ˈIs the ˈhouse ˏempty? (Meet the Parkers 8)38
3. ˎHarry, │ ˈcould you ˈturn ˈout your ˏworkroom? (Meet the Parkers 10)39
4. It’s going to be a lovely day. ˈAre we ˈall ˏready? (Meet the Parkers 40)40
5. ˈHave you ˈturned ˈoff the ˈgas and elecˏtricity? (Meet the Parkers 40)
6. ˈAre you ˈsure you’ve ˈgot the ˏrailway ˌtickets? (Meet the Parkers 40)41
7. Alan and I are going for a picnic. ˈDo you ˈwant to ˏcome too? (A Picnic)42
8. ˈDo you ˈoften ˈgo to the ˏtheatre? – Yes, at least once a fortnight. ˈDo ˏyou ever go? (A Date for
the Theatre)43
9. ˈHave you ˈheard that ˈyoung ˈPatrick ˈEllis has had aˈnother ˈaccident in his ˏcar? – Oh! 'Is he
ˈbadly ˏhurt? (A Little Gossip)44
10. ˈHave you ˈheard that ˈEva ˈBrowning is ˈgetting ˈmarried for the ↑third ˈtime on Sepˈtember
the ˏtenth? (A Little Gossip)45
11. ˈHave you ˈseen my ˈnew ˏtie? – `No. But ˈhave you ˈlooked for it ˏproperly? (A Lost Tie)46
12. ˈAre you ˈsure you ˈhaven’t ˈworn that ˈtie since ˏSaturday? (A Lost Tie)47
13. ˈDid you ˈhave a ˈgood ˈgame of ˏsquash?
14. ˈHave they ˈfinished ˈwork on your ˈnew ˏswimming pool? (The New Pool)48
15. ˈHave you ˈhad your ˈholiday for this ˈyear ˏyet?
16. ˈHave you ˈmade ˈup your ˏmind?
17. ˈAre you ˈlooking ˈforward to your ˈtrip to ˏCanada? (Sea or Air)49
18. ˈHave you ↑ever ˈtravelled ˈfar in a ˈrough ˏsea? (Sea or Air)50
19. ˈDo you ˈlike ˈart ˏgalleries? (Sightseeing)51
20. ˈDo you ˈthink I shall have ˈtime for the ˈBritish Muˏseum?
21. ˈIs it ˈmuch of a ˈwalk to ˈRegent’s ˏPark?
22. ˈIs there any ˈgolf to be ˈhad near ˏLondon? (Sports and Games Popular in England)52
23. ˈAre ˈEnglish ˈpeople ˈfond of ˏgardening?
24. ˈDo you ˈknow any ˈplace that is↑ more ˈinteresting than a ˈbig ˏrailway- station?

35
SUPPLEMENT, text 1.
36
SUPPLEMENT, text 1.
37
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
38
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
39
SUPPLEMENT, text 3.
40
SUPPLEMENT, text 6.
41
SUPPLEMENT, text 6.
42
SUPPLEMENT, text 15.
43
SUPPLEMENT, text 7
44
SUPPLEMENT, text 10.
45
SUPPLEMENT, text 10.
46
SUPPLEMENT, text 8.
47
SUPPLEMENT, text 8.
48
SUPPLEMENT, text 13.
49
SUPPLEMENT, text 12.
50
SUPPLEMENT, text 12.
51
SUPPLEMENT, text 16.
52
SUPPLEMENT, text 17.

21
25. ˈDo you ˈknow ↑more exˈciting ˈplace than a ˈbig ˏrailway-station?
26. ˈDid you ˈhave a ̍ ̍ ̍pleasant ˏvoyage?
27. ˈDid you ˈgo aˏshore in Spain?
28. ˈDid you ˈbathe in the Mediterˏranean?

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. Show your interest.
1. I’m going to do some shopping. – ˈCan I ˈcome ˏtoo?
2. Here’s my new hat. – ˈMay I ˈtry it ˏon?
3. I’m going to the stadium. – ˈDo you ˈhave ˈtime to ˈplay ˏsports?
4. Wait a little. I’ll put on my coat. – ˈDo you ˈthink it’s ˏcold today?
5. My friend is a student. – ˈAre you ˏalso a student?
6. I’m going to a dance tonight. – ˈDo you ˈlike ˏdancing?
7. The cake tastes good. – ˈWill you ˈhave some ˏmore?
8. Hope to see you some day. – ˈWill you inˈvite me to your ̗evening party?
9. Something has gone wrong
with your iron, I think. – Yes. ˈCan you ˈput it ˏright?
10. I’m sorry, but I can’t go to
the party with you today. . – ˈAre you ˈvery ˏbusy today?

Note: The speaker sounds disapproving, skeptical, sometimes puzzled with the nuclear tone on the
auxiliary verb.

♪ Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise on the auxiliary verbs, sound
disapproving or skeptical.
1. They are arriving next week. – ˏAre they?
2. It’s very important. – ˏIs it?
3. You were quite wrong about it. – ˏWas I?
4. They weren’t invited. – ˏWeren’t they?
5. I thought she was pretty. – ˏDid you?
6. I can’t go there. – ˏCan’t you?
7. I’m making a new dress. – ˏAre you?
8. We are going to be late, I’m afraid. – ˏAre we?
9. I’ve entered this University. – ˏHave you?
10. I wasn’t lucky at the exams. – ˏWeren’t you?
11. I think my mother has something she wants to talk
to you about. – ˎOh, │ ˏhas she?
Now on your own.
12. They say he’s good enough for the club second team. – ˏIs he?
13. My friend is a student. – ˏIs he?
14. Her cakes always taste good. – ˏDo they?
15. I think I’ll invite them to our party. – ˏWill you?
16. I think I can put the iron right. – ˏCan you?
17. I’m going to the stadium. – ˏDo you have time to play sports?
18. Wait a little. I’ll put on my coat. – ˏDo you think it’s cold today?
19. I’m sorry, but I can’t go to the party with you today – ˏAre you very busy today?
20. I’m going to do some shopping. – ˏMust you do it now?
21. Here’s my new hat. – ˏDid you again spend a lot of money?
22. I’m going to a dance tonight – ˏMust you go dancing before your
exam?

22
Exercise 4.
Read the following conversational situations. Show your disapproval or skepticism.
1. There’s a concert this evening at the club. – Is there?
2. I’m making a new dress. – Are you?
3. We haven’t been to the club for ages. – Haven’t we?
4. I’m sure it’s the plug. – Is it?
5. We’re going to be late, I’m afraid. – Are we?
6. I’ve passed the exam. – Have you?
7. He has already come. – Has he?
8. I’m well now. – Are you?
9. I can come at nine. – Can you?
10. Tom is coming on Saturday. – Is he?
11. She is waiting for you. – Is she?
12. I see him very often. – Do you?

Exercise 5.
Read the following sentences, use the low rise. Show difference in your attitude to the
situation.
1. I’m going to do some shopping.
– Must you do it now? (disapproving)
– Must you do it now? (interested)
2. He has already come.
– Has he brought the money? (interested)
– Has he brought the money? (skeptical)
3. I’m sorry, but I can’t go to the party with you today.
– Are you very busy today? (interested, sympathetic)
– Are you very busy today? (skeptical, disapproving)
4. Wait a little. I’ll put on my coat.
– Do you think it’s cold today? (skeptical, puzzled)
– Do you think it’s cold today? (interested)
5. I’m going to the stadium.
– Do you have time to play sports? (disapproving)
– Do you have time to play sports? (interested)
6. I think I’ll invite them to our party.
– Will you invite them all? (interested)
– Will you invite them all? (disapproving, puzzled)
7. It’s very important.
– Is it really very important? (skeptical, puzzled)
– Is it really very important? (interested)
8. My friend is a student. She is fond of studying.
– Does she attend all the classes? (interested)
– Does she attend all the classes? (skeptical)
9. I think my mother has something she wants to talk to you about.
– Has she got any news? (interested, sympathetic)
– Has she got any news? (skeptical, puzzled)
10. They say he’s good enough for the club second team.
– Is he a good goal keeper? (interested)
– Is he a good goal keeper? (skeptical, puzzled)
11. We are staying in London for two days.
– Shall we have time for the British Museum? (interested)
– Shall we have time for the British Museum? (skeptical)
12. I haven’t seen my new tie since Saturday.

23
– Have you looked for it properly? (interested, sympathetic)
– Have you looked for it properly? (skeptical)

II
The High Rise

General meaning: questioning, unofficial. General questions with the high rise sound casual,
echoed.
Pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH RISE (+ TAIL)

This intonation pattern is used in questions echoing, calling for repetition or additional
information, sometimes shading into disapproval or puzzlement.
If there is no tail the voice in the nucleus rises from a medium to a high pitch.
If there are unstressed syllables following the nucleus the latter is pronounced on a fairly high
level pitch and the syllables of the tail rise gradually.
The syllables of the pre-head rise from a low pitch up to the start of the high rise.

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations. Use the high rise in the echoing questions. Add
some shade of puzzlement or disapproval.
Remember that the low rise in the initial questions shows that the speaker is sympathetically
interested.
1. ˈWould you ˏlike one? – ˈWould I ˊlike one? (It is awful.)
2. ˈIs it ˏraining? – ˈIs it ˊraining? (Don’t you see I’m wet through.)
3. ˈHave you ˈanswered his ˏletter? – ˈHave I ˊanswered it? (Haven’t I told you about it
just now?)
4. ˈHave you ˏfinished it? – ˈHave I ˊfinished it, did you say? (I’ve got so much
to
do tonight and there is nobody to help me.)
5. ˈDid you enˈjoy the ˏconcert? – ˈDid I enˊjoy it? (Didn’t you see that I was dead tired
and slept at it?)
6. ˈDo you ˈlike my ˏsong? – ˈDo I ˊlike your song? (The music leaves much to be
desired.)
7. ˈDid you have a ˈmeeting ˈlast ˏnight? – ˈDid we have a ˊmeeting last night? (I think I’ve
already told you about the meeting, haven’t I?)
8. ˈIs he a ˈtalented ˈyoung ˏman? – ˈIs he a ˊtalented young man? (But you know that he
flunks exams every term.)
9. ˈHave they ˈchanged the ˌdecoˏration? – ˈHave they ˊchanged the decoration? (As far as I
remember they weren’t going to.)
10. Wasn’t it stupid! – ˈWas it ˊstupid, I wonder? (I don’t think it was
stupid.)

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the high-rise. Call for some additional
information and develop the situation.
1. I like Barbara. – ˈDo you really ˈwant to ˈsay that you ˊlike her?
2. We had a meeting last night. – ˊShould I have been there?
3. How do you like my song? – ˈDo you ˊalways sing as flat as that?
4. I think I’ll have some more. – ˈDid you ˈreally ˊlike it?
5. He is a talented young man. – ˈAre you ˊsure?
6. I’m afraid I can’t believe it. – ˈCan’t you beˈlieve it after I have exˊplained everything?

24
7. I can’t force him to go there. – ˈCan’t you ˈmake him underˊstand that it is necessary?
8. They haven’t changed anything here. – ˈHaven’t they ˊtaken the furniture away?
9. I enjoyed every minute of it. – ˈDid you ˊlike the noisy crowd of the guests?

III
The High Fall + the Low Rise

The combination of the high fall with the low rise is used in sentences expressing highly
emotional reaction to the situation. It is often heard in general questions conveying a plaintive,
pleading, sometimes impatient tone. All other words of the head are not stressed.
E.g. He played very badly today. – ˈWill he `ever be any ˏbetter d’you think?

ˈThis ˈbeing ˈSaturday ˈafterˎnoon, │ˈdo you ˈknow what `I thought of ˏdoing first Dad?

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations. Use the high fall with the low rise. Make your
questions plaintive, pleading, or impatient.
1. Perhaps I could help. – ˈDo you `think you ˏcould?
2. Come and have a game, Phil. – ˈWill you `stop ˏbothering me?
3. May I have another bun? – ˈDo you `really think you can ˏeat it?
4. You must follow her advice. – ˈMust I `always do as she ˏsays?
5. You must bring the book at once. – ˈWould you ˈmind `waiting until ˏevening?
6. He said he forgot to ring you up. – ˈWas that the `real ˏreason?
7. Oh, stop bothering me. `Can’t you see I am ˏtired?
8. All right, let’s go to the pictures. – ˈDo you `really ˏwant to?
9. That’s not very convincing. – ˈCan you ˈthink of a `better ˏargument?
10. She’s only working half time now. – ˎYes, │ but `need she go to work at ˏall?
11. I can’t find my book anywhere. – ˈAre you ˈsure you `didn’t leave it at the ˏInstitute?
12. What are you looking for, John? – ˈHave you `seen my new tie ˏanywhere?
13. I had an accident the other day and hurt my right shoulder. – ˈHave you any `pain ˏnow?
14. Come at six on Sunday. – ˈDo you `really ˏwant me to?

Note: In general questions with the low rise preceded by the descending scale the speaker sounds
sympathetically interested or puzzled.

♪ Exercise 2.
Compare the intonation of the general questions in the following conversational situations.
Explain the meaning of the general questions.
1. Perhaps I could help.
– ˈDo you `think you ˏcould?
– ˈDo you ˈthink you ˏcould?
2. Come and have a game, Phil.
– ˈWill you `stop ˏbothering me?
– ˈWill you ˈstop ˏbothering me?
3. May I have another bun?
– ˈDo you ˈreally ˈthink you can ˏeat it?
– ˈDo you `really think you can ˏeat it?
4. You must follow her advice.
– ˈMust I `always do as she ˏsays?
– ˈMust I ˈalways ˈdo as she ˏsays?
5. You must bring the book at once.
25
– ˈWould you ˈmind `waiting until ˏevening?
– ˈWould you ˈmind ˈwaiting until ˏevening?
6. He said he forgot to ring you up.
– ˈWas that the `real ˏreason?
– ˈWas that the ˏreal reason?
7. Oh, stop bothering me. `Can’t you see I am ˏtired?
Oh, stop bothering me. ˈCan’t you ˈsee I am ˏtired?
8. All right, let’s go to the pictures.
– ˈDo you `really ˏwant to?
– ˈDo you ̍really ˏwant to? ̍
9. That’s not very convincing.
– ˈCan you ˈthink of a `better ˏargument?
– ˈCan you ˈthink of a 'better ˏargument?
10. She’s only working half time now. ̍
– ˎYes, │ but `need she go to work at ˏall?
– ˎYes, │ but ˈneed she ˈgo to ˈwork at ˏall? ̍
11. I can’t find my book anywhere.
– ˈAre you ˈsure you `didn’t leave it at the ˏInstitute?
– ˈAre you ˈsure you ˈdidn’t ˈleave it at the ˏInstitute?
12. What are you looking for, John?
– ˈHave you `seen my new tie ˏanywhere?
– ˈHave you ˈseen my ˈnew ˈtie ˏanywhere?
13. I had an accident the other day and hurt my right shoulder.
– ˈHave you any `painˏnow?
– ˈHave you any ˈpainˏnow?
14. Come at six on Sunday.
– ˈDo you `really ˏwant me to?
– ˈDo you ˈreally ˏwant me to?

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low rise or the combination of the
high fall with the low rise according to the speaker’s attitude to the situation.
1. Perhaps I could help.
– Do you think you could? (impatient)
– Do you think you could? (interested)
2. Come and have a game, Phil.
– Will you stop bothering me? (neutral)
– Will you stop bothering me? (plaintive)
3. May I have another bun?
– Do you really think you can eat it? (interested)
– Do you really think you can eat it? (impatient)
4. You must follow her advice.
– Must I always do as she says? (impatient)
– Must I always do as she says? (neutral)
5. You must bring the book at once.
– Would you mind waiting until evening? (pleading)
– Would you mind waiting until evening? (neutral)
6. He said he forgot to ring you up.
– Was that the real reason? (sympathetically interested)
– Was that the real reason? (impatient)
7. Oh, stop bothering me. Can’t you see I am tired? (pleading / impatient)
Oh, stop bothering me. Can’t you see I am tired? (neutral)

26
8. All right, let’s go to the pictures.
– Do you really want to? (sympathetically interested)
– Do you really want to? (impatient)
9. That’s not very convincing.
– Can you think of a better argument? (impatient)
– Can you think of a better argument? (interested)
10. She’s only working half time now.
– Yes, but need she go to work at all? (sympathetically interested)
– Yes, but need she go to work at all? (impatient)
11. I can’t find my book anywhere.
– Are you sure you didn’t leave it at the Institute? (sympathetically interested)
– Are you sure you didn’t leave it a t the Institute? (impatient)
12. What are you looking for, John?
– Have you seen my new tie anywhere? (neutral)
– Have you seen my new tie anywhere? (plaintive)
13. I had an accident the other day and hurt my right shoulder.
– Have you any pain now? (sympathetically interested)
– Have you any pain now? (highly emotional)
14. Come at six on Sunday.
– Do you really want me to? (plaintive)
– Do you really want me to? (interested)

IV
The High Fall

Intonation pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)

The high fall in the nucleus starts very high and reaches the lowest pitch. The syllables of the
tail are pronounced on the low level.
The high fall provides a greater degree of prominence for the word, making it more emphatic.
In general questions this intonation pattern conveys mildly surprised acceptance of the
listener’s premises, sometimes with a shadow of impatience.
E.g. ˈIs it ̍possible toˈsee ˈanything of ˈLondon in ˈone or ̀twoˌdays? (Sightseeing)53
Compare: ˈDid she ˈask you to ˈgo ˏthere? (unemphatic)
ˈDid she ˈask you to ˈgo `there? (= Didn’t she ask you to go to another place?)

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations with general questions, use the high fall. Show
your mildly surprised acceptance of the listener’s premises. Sometimes you show a shadow of
impatience.
1. I like it here. – `Do you?
2. She is thirty-five. – `Is she?
3. They won’t help us. – `Won’t they?
4. I can’t bear cats. – `Can’t you?
5. I must be home by six. – `Must you?
6. I ought to go to the lecture. – But `will you go, do you think?
7. I’m terribly hard up. – ˈAren’t we `all?
8. I’m quite booked up next week. – ˈWill the ˈweek `after suit you better?
9. I can’t meet you this Tuesday. – ˈShall we ˈleave it till `next week?
10. I’m sorry, but I hate cocoa. – ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of `tea, then?
53
SUPPLEMENT, text 16.

27
11. Thank you for all you’ve done. – ˈIs there ˈanything `else I can do to help?
12. He’s promised to stop smoking. – ˈDoes he `really mean what he says?
13. Shall we go for a walk to the forest? – ˈIsn’t it ˈstill `raining?
14. She promised to bring the book. – ˈDoes she `always keep her promises?

The most common way of asking general questions is the low rise preceded by the descending
scale. The speaker sounds sympathetically interested or puzzled.

♪ Exercise 2.
♪ a) Read the following conversational situations. Use the low rise in the general questions.
Show that you are sympathetically interested.
1. I’m quite booked up next week. – ˈWill the ˈnext ˈweek ˈsuit you ˏbetter?
2. I can’t meet you this Tuesday. – ˈShall we ˈleave it till ˈnext ˏweek?
3. I’m sorry, but I hate cocoa. – ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of ˏtea, then?
4. Thank you for all you’ve done. – ˈIs there ˈanything ˈelse I can ˈdo to ˏhelp?
5. He’s promised to stop smoking. – ˈDoes he ˈreally ˈmean what he ˏsays?
6. Shall we go for a walk to the forest? – ˈIsn’t it ˈstill ˏraining?
7. She promised to bring the book. – ˈDoes she ˈalways ˈkeep her ˏpromises?

♪ b) Now show difference in your attitude to the situation. Use either the high fall or the low
rise. Explain your attitude.
1. I’m quite booked up next week.
– ˈWill the ˈweek ˈafter ˈsuit you ˏbetter?
– ˈWill the ˈweek `after suit you better?
2. I can’t meet you this Tuesday.
– ˈShall we ˈleave it till ˈnext ˏweek?
– ˈShall we ˈleave it till `next week?
3. I’m sorry, but I hate cocoa.
– ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of ˏtea, then?
– ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of `tea, then?
4. Thank you for all you’ve done.
– ˈIs there ˈanything ˈelse I can ˈdo to ˏhelp?
– ˈIs there ˈanything `else I can do to help?
5. He’s promised to stop smoking.
– ˈDoes he ˈreally ˈmean what he ˏsays?
– ˈDoes he `really mean what he says?
6. Shall we go for a walk to the forest?
– ˈIsn’t it ˈstill ˏraining?
– ˈIsn’t it ˈstill `raining?
7. She promised to bring the book.
– ˈDoes she ˈalways ˈkeep her ˏpromises?
– ˈDoes she `always keep her promises?

Exercise 3.
Read the following general questions and express your attitude towards the situation. Use
either the low rise or the high fall.
1. I’m quite booked up next week.
– Will the week after suit you better? (sympathetically interested)
– Will the week after suit you better? (mildly surprised)
2. I can’t meet you this Tuesday.
– Shall we leave it till next week? (sympathetically interested)

28
– Shall we leave it till next week? (slightly impatient)
3. I’m sorry, but I hate cocoa.
– Would you like a cup of tea, then? (mildly surprised)
– Would you like a cup of tea, then? (sympathetically interested)
4. Thank you for all you’ve done.
– Is there anything else I can do to help? (slightly impatient)
– Is there anything else I can do to help? (sympathetically interested)
5. He’s promised to stop smoking.
– Does he really mean what he says? (with a shadow of impatience)
– Does he really mean what he says? (sympathetically interested)
6. Shall we go for a walk to the forest?
– Isn’t it still raining? (sympathetically interested)
– Isn’t it still raining? (with a shadow of impatience)
7. She promised to bring the book.
– Does she always keep her promises? (slightly impatient)
– Does she always keep her promises? (sympathetically interested)

V
The Rise-Fall

With the rise-fall the idea of the utterance is intensified.

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following general questions, use the rise-fall and then the rising tone. First intensify
your idea. Then simply express your interest in the second variant.
1. ˈDoes he ˈreally ˆmean what he ˌsays? ˈDoes he ˈreally ˈmean what he ˏsays?
2. ˈIs there ˈanything I can ˆdo for you? ˈIs there ˈanything I can ˏdo for you?
3. ˈCan you ˈget there by any ˆother ˌroute? ˈCan you ˈget there by any ̗other ˌroute?
4. ˈWill you be ˈable to ˈget ˆout of it? ˈWill you be ˈable to ˈget ˏout of it?

SPECIAL QUESTIONS
I The Low Fall
II (DESCENDING HEAD) + the Low Fall
III The High Fall
IV The Low Rise
V The High Rise
VI The Fall-Rise
VII The Rise-Fall

I
The Low Fall

Special questions are commonly used with the falling tones. In special questions with the low
fall only the speaker sounds calm, serious, flat, reserved, very often unsympathetic.
E.g. Mrs. Howard: ˈWhat’s he ˈstudying ˎnow? (Meet the Parkers 3)54
Harry: ˈWhat’s the ˈuse of ˈstaying in ˎbed? (Meet the Parkers 12)55

54
SUPPLEMENT, text 1.
55
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.

29
Harry: ˈWhy do you ˈkeep ˈlooking at the ˎclock? (Meet the Parkers 12)56

♪ Exercise1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low fall. Show that you are calm and
serious.
1. Take one of them. – ˎWhich?
2. Just tell him. – ˎWhat?
3. Make them at once. – ˎHow?
4. I saw a friend of yours today. – ˎWho?
5. Borrow someone’s dictionary. – ˎWhose?
6. Pass me that box, Joan. – ˎWhich ˌbox?
7. He’s away quite often. – ˎHow ֽoften?
8. He’s broken a window. – ˎWhose ˌwindow?
9. Someone’ll have to do it. – But ˎwho?
10. You’ll find it in the drawer. – In ˎwhich ˌdrawer?

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low fall. Sound unsympathetic.
1. You can take only one of them. – ˎWhich? (I want more, I think you are greedy.)
2. Just call him. – ˎWhen? (He is always away and I don’t have time to
wait for him.)
3. Bring everything here! – ˎHow? (I have got only one pair of hands!)
4. I saw your friend with a girl the other day. – ˎWhich ˌgirl? (I hate all his girl friends.)
5. Borrow money then. –ˎWho from? (Is there anybody here who’ll give us
money?)
6. Give me your book. – ˎWhy? (I need it myself. You should have borrowed
the book from the library long ago.)
7. He often misses his classes. – ˎHow ֽoften? (He is awful.)
8. He has stolen the bicycle. – ˎWhose ˌbicycle? (We are going to have some
trouble with that person.)
9. Someone will have to do it. – But ˎwho? (Don’t count on me.)
10. You’ll find it in a box. – In ˎwhich ˌbox? (Do you think I’m going to open all
of the boxes looking for the wretched thing?)

II
(DESCENDING HEAD) + the Low Fall

In special questions with the pattern “(DESCENDING HEAD) + low fall” the speaker sounds
serious, responsible, intense. Besides the speaker may often suggest irritability or impatience.

E.g.
a) the speaker sounds serious and responsible, answerable, trustworthy:
Harry: Oh, yes. I’ll soon get the water to boil. ˎAh, │ ˈ where’s the ˎcoal? (Meet the Parkers 27)57
ˈWhat are the ˎother ˌoutdoor ˌgames? (Sports and Games Popular in England)58
ˈWhat about ˎhorse-racing? (Sports and Games Popular in England)59
ˈWhat about ˎindoor ˌgames? (Sports and Games Popular in England)60
56
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
57
SUPPLEMENT, text 5.
58
SUPPLEMENT, text 17.
59
SUPPLEMENT, text 17.
60
SUPPLEMENT, text 17.

30
ˈWhat about ˈgoing to the ˎZoo? (Sightseeing)61

b) the speaker sounds irritated, impatient:


ˈWhat have you been ˎbusy with ˌall ˌday? ˈWhy ˈisn’t the ˈsupper ˎready?

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations with special questions, use the low fall. Sound
responsible and serious.
1. He’s broken a window. – ˈWhose ˈwindow has he ˈbroken ˎthis time? (Boys do break
windows while playing football.)
2. Will you lend me your pen? – ˈWhat do you ˈwant it ˎfor? (Sure, here it is.)
3. Go and see him tomorrow. – ˈWhat ˈplace does he ˎlive in? (All right, I’ll go there.)
4. I’m terribly tired – ˈWhy ˈdon’t you ˈleave it till toˈmorrow ˎmorning? (Of
course you deserve a rest.)
5. Good morning, madam. – ˈWhen does this ˈtrain for ˎMoscow ֽleave? (I’ve been
watching the train for twenty minutes. I wonder when it will
leave.)
6. I’m afraid I can’t do that. – ˈCan’t ˈdo ˎwhat? (What are you speaking about, dear?)
7. Pass the sugar! – ˈWhy ˈdon’t you ˈsay “ˎplease”? (Darling, you must be
polite.)
8. Can she see you tomorrow? – ˈWhat is the ˈmatter with her ˎnow? (Why can’t I see her
now?)
9. I’ve missed the last bus. – ˈHow are you ˈgoing to ˈget ˎhome? (It’s a pity. It is getting
dark.)
10. I came on Tuesday morning. – At eˈxactly ˈwhat ˎtime? (I want to know everything in
detail.)
11. The weather is horrid. – Then ˈwhy ˈcan’t you ˎstay? (I don’t want you to leave.)

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations with special questions, use the low fall. Sound
irritated or impatient.
1. He’s broken a window. – ˈWhose ˈwindow has he ˈbroken ˎthis ˌtime? (Oh good
gracious! Again!)
2. Will you lend me your pen? – ˈWhat do you ˈwant it ˎfor? (Why can’t you use your own
pen, why are you constantly borrowing things?)
3. Go and see him tomorrow. – ˈWhy should ˎI ˌdo it? (Is there anybody else but me to see
that rascal?)
4. Pass the sugar! – ˈWhy ˈdon’t you ˈsay ˎ“please”? (Don’t I keep telling you
that you must be polite?)
5. The weather is horrid. – Then ˈwhy ˈcan’t you ˎstay? (Why are you complaining?
You can stay at home and that’s all there is to it.)
6. Can she see you tomorrow? – ˈWhat is the ˈmatter with her ˎnow? (I’m sick and tired of
her.)

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low fall. Show your attitude to the
situation by developing it.
1. A: Will you lend me your car?
B: Where are you going? (irritated)
2. A: I’m afraid I can’t do that.

61
SUPPLEMENT, text 16.

31
B: Why can’t you do it? (serious)
3. A: My goodness! I’ve lost the key.
B: Whose key have you lost? (irritated)
4. A: The cat jumped on the table and broke the cup.
B: Why do you let the cat come into the kitchen? (irritated)
5. A: Don’t disturb me. I’m having a wash.
B: Why are you having a wash now? (impatient)
6. A: You know she goes shopping every Saturday afternoon after classes.
B: Why doesn’t she do her shopping on Sundays? (irritated)
7. A: Dad always has a drink on his way home from work on Saturday morning.
B: When will he be back do you think? (serious)
8. A: Nina, could you turn up your room? I’ve been meaning to ask you for days.
B: Why do you ask me to do it now? (impatient)
9. A: Let me see, it’s half past eleven now.
B: Why do you keep looking at the clock? (irritated)
10. A: Tommy Wood next door was taken ill last night and this morning he had to be taken to
hospital.
B: What’s the trouble? (serious)
11. A: I’m told one ought to see the British Museum. Do you think I shall have time for that?
B: It’s much too big to be seen in an hour or so.
A: What about going to the Zoo then? (serious)
12. A: I’m having dinner at a Chinese restaurant tonight.
B: Who are you having dinner with? (serious)
13. A: By the way, have you heard that young Patrick Ellis has had another accident in his car?
B: When did it happen? (responsible)
14. A: Have you heard that Eva Browning is getting married for the third time on September the
tenth?
B: When did she get married for the first time? (irritated)
15. A: I’m dead beat after the game of squash.
B: Who did you play with? (serious)

III
The High Fall

Special questions with the high fall are very common in conversation. They sound lively and
interested.
E.g. Peter: Mum! Dad! ˈWhere is `everyone? Is the house empty? Hallo! (Meet the Parkers 8)62

But sometimes the high fall shows that the speaker is unpleasantly surprised.
E.g. Robert: Peter! ˈWhat are you ˈmaking ˈall that` noise about? (Meet the Parkers 8)63
Nora: The “Rovers” Robert? Why, ˈwhere have you `been? (Meet the Parkers 3)64

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations with special questions, use the high fall. Sound
lively and interested.
1. I shall have to give it to him. . – `Why?
2. I’m going to England. – `When?
3. You’ll never guess who is here. – `Who?
62
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
63
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
64
SUPPLEMENT, text 1.

32
4. You can win easily. – `How?
5. Peter: Hallo, Robert. ˈWhat are you ˈdoing in the `bathroom?
Robert: I’m having a wash. What do you think?
Peter: ˈWhy are you ˈhaving a ˈwash `now? (Meet the Parkers 8)65
6. I mustn’t take them. – `Why ˌmustn’t you ˌtake them?
7. Sorry to be so late. – ˈWhat’s `happened?
8. Give them one of these books. – `Which one, do you think?
9. I must go there. . – But `when?
10. I’ll find him. . – But `how can you ˌfind him?
11. I’ve just seen that new musical. . – ˈWhat’s it `called?

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations with special questions, use the high fall. You are
unpleasantly surprised.
1. Robert: Here, Peter! ˈWhat are you ˈdoing with ˈthat `cake?
Peter: Don’t be silly! You know exactly what I am doing with it. (Meet the Parkers 8)66
2. I don’t know Peter’s address. – ˈWhy ˈdidn’t you ˈask him about it be`fore?
3. You can’t go there. – But ˈwhy `not?
4. I said no such thing. – `What did you ˌsay, then?
5. Today’s out of the question. – `When can you ˌcome, may I ask?
6. Mary is waiting for you. – `Why has she ˌcome?

Exercise 3.
Read the following special questions, use either the low fall or the high fall according to the
state of the speaker.
1. Mum! Dad! Where is everyone? Is the house empty? Hallo! (interested)
2. Hallo, Robert. What are you doing in the bathroom? (lively)
3. I’m having a wash. What do you think? (irritated)
4. Here, Peter! What are you doing with that cake? (unpleasantly surprised)
5. Hallo. Who has been playing with my pipes? One of them is missing. (unpleasantly surprised)
6. Why do you keep looking at the clock? (irritated)
7. Just call him. – When? He is always away and I don’t have time to wait for him (unsympathetic)
8. Can she see you tomorrow? – What is the matter with her now? I’m sick and tired of her.
(unsympathetic)
9. Mary is waiting for you.
– Why has she come? (unpleasantly surprised)
– Why has she come? (irritated)
10. I don’t know Peter’s address.
– Why didn’t you ask him about it before? (unpleasantly surprised)
– Why didn’t you ask him about it before? (flat, reserved)

IV
The Low Rise

The low rise is used in special questions when the speaker:

(a) expresses a friendly interest;


E.g. ˈWhere is ˏMum? I want to ask her something. (Meet the Parkers 8)67
65
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
66
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
67
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.

33
(b) sounds wondering or mildly puzzled, and wants the speaker to repeat the previously made
statement calling for information already given;
E.g. ˈHow ˏold are you? (= I wonder what your age might be; please, tell it to me.)

(c) implies a mild reproach or sounds soothing;


E.g. ˈWhat have you ˏdone? (implying a mild reproach)
And ˈhow ˈoften do you ˈhear of a ˏcrash? ˈOnce or ˈtwice a ˏyear? (soothing) (Sea or Air)68

(a)
♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. Express your sympathy and
interest.
1. I’m leaving tomorrow. – ˈWhy are you ˈleaving so ˏearly?
2. I’ve seen him today. – ˈWhere did you ˏsee him? ˏ
3. Steven is going to retire. – ˈWho ˈdo you ˈthink will ˈtake ˏover from him?
4. I’m afraid they’ve gone out. – ˈWhen will they be ˏback?
5. Alice is on the phone. – ˈWho does she ˈwant to ˏspeak to?
6. My pen won’t write. – ˈWhat’s ˏwrong with it?
7. I am so tired. – ˈWhy ˈdon’t you ˈhave a ˏrest?
8. Oh dear, oh dear! – ˈWhat’s the ˏmatter?
9. Who am I talking to? – ˈWho are you ˏtalking to?
10. What’s our home assignment? – ˈWhat’s your ˈhome asˏsignment?

(b)
In special questions with the low rising nuclear tone on the interrogative word the speaker
sounds wondering or mildly puzzled and wants the speaker to repeat the previously made statement.
E.g. ˏWhat’s the time? (= I’m sorry I didn’t hear / understand, what you said; please, repeat it.)

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise on the interrogative word. Show
that you are wondering or puzzled.
1. How must I do it? – ˏHow?
2. She’s thirty-six . – ˈHow ˏold is she?
3. How old are you? – ˈHow ˏold am I?
4. You must do it this way. – ˏHow?
5. Which is William’s book? – ˏWhich?
6. William’s is the blue book. – ˏWhich?
7. Who’s coming this Friday? – ˏWho?
8. That one is yours . – ˏWhich one?
9. His name was William. – ˏWhat was that?
10. Richard’s due at eleven o’clock . – ˏWhen is he due?
11. What are they doing? – ˏWhat?
12. He is at home after four. – ˏWhen?
13. Lucy is coming to Moscow. – ˏWho?
14. Where shall we meet? – ˏWhere?
15. You should write to her at once. – ˏWho should I write to?
16. Come round at five. – ̍ What ˏtime do you want me to come?
17. I’ll finish it by Sunday. – By ˏwhat day?
18. He is a writer. – He is ˏwhat?

68
SUPPLEMENT, text 12.

34
19. Your train goes from King’s Cross station. – From ˏwhich station?
20. The train leaves at two . – At ˏwhat time?
21. Someone wants you on the phone. – ˏWho is it?

(c)
♪ Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise in special questions. Express
your mild reproach.
1. I wasn’t there in the morning. – ˈWhere were you in the ˏmorning?
2. I want to sell the house. – ˈWhy ˈdon’t you ˈwant to ˈkeep it for the
ˏfamily?
3. He must go there at once. – ˈWhy must he ˈdo it ˏnow?
4. A boy wants you on the phone. – ˈWhy ˈdidn’t you ˈtell him that I ˈcan’t
ˏanswer?
5. I’ll be at home after seven. – ˈWhy ˈcan’t you ˈcome ˏearlier?
6. I’m going for a picnic with Mary tomorrow. – And ˈwhen are you ˈgoing to preˈpare for
your eˏxam?
7. I wanted to prepare fish for supper but I couldn’t. – ˈWhen am I ˈgoing to ˈhave ˏfish?
8. Could you turn out your workroom? – ˈWhy do you ˈwant me to ˈdo it on
ˏSaturday?

♪ Exercise 4.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise in special questions. Sound
soothing.
1. I don’t think I’ll finish it by tomorrow. – ˈWhen will you ˏfinish it then?
2. I’m afraid I won’t see them in the morning. – ˈWhen will you ˏsee them?
3. You know, Harry, I wanted to prepare fish
for supper but I couldn’t . – ˈWhen will you preˏpare fish?
4. I think I’ve lost the purse. – ˈHow have you ˏdone it?
5. I’m so tired . – ˈWhy should you do ˈall your ˈhomework
aˏlone?
6. I’ve been cleaning the house since morning
and am tired. Could you turn out your workroom? – ˈWhy ˈdon’t you ˈwant to ˈwait till the week-
ˏend?
7. I’m tired! – ˈWhy should you ˈdo all your home
assignmentˈlate at ˏnight?

Exercise 5.
Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low rise or the low fall according
to the attitude expressed by the speaker.
1. I wasn’t there in the morning.
– Where were you in the morning? (friendly interested)
– Where were you in the morning? (serious and calm)
2. He must go there at once.
– Why must he do it now? (reserved)
– Why must he do it now? (mild reproach)
3. I don’t think I’ll finish it by tomorrow.
– When will you finish it then? (calm)
– When will you finish it then? (soothing)
4. I think I’ve lost the purse.
– How have you done it? (mild reproach)
– How have you done it? (calm)
35
5. I want to sell the house.
– Why don’t you want to keep it for the family? (flat)
– Why don’t you want to keep it for the family? (mild reproach)

V
The High Rise

The high rise is used in special questions echoing, calling for repetition or additional
information, sometimes shading into disapproval or puzzlement.

E.g.Nora: Oh, what a pity. I thought perhaps you might stay up to see her.
Harry: That’s the very reason I’m getting back into bed.
Nora: ˊWhat did you say? (Meet the Parkers 12)69

What’s that bowl for? – ˊWhat’s it for?

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the high rise. By echoing special questions
you call for repetition.
1. I think this is Joan’s umbrella. – ˊWhose?
2. That big one’s mine. – ˊWhich one?
3. I shall need a dozen, at least. – ˈHow ˊmany?
4. These flowers are for you. – ˊWho are they for?
5. He must be made to obey. – He must be ˈmade ˊwhat?
6. He’ll meet us at three fifteen. – At ˊwhat time?
7. What is it? – ˊWhat is it?
8. Where are you going? – ˊWhere?
9. Why couldn’t you warn me? – ˊWhy couldn’t I?
10. How do you like his new essay? – His ˈnew ˊwhat?
11. I’m exhausted. – You’re ˊwhat?
12. This sad story made the listeners cry. – ˈMade the ˈlisteners ˈdo ˊwhat?
13. I want you to ring me up again. – You ˈwant me to ˈdo ˊwhat?

Exercise 2.
Respond to the following sentences. Call for a repetition of the information already given.
Model: I want you to ring me up again. – Youˈ want me toˈ do ˊwhat?
1. The boy’s behaviour made me think he was ill.
2. The rain made us return home.
3. The cold made us put on our coats.
4. The play made us laugh a lot.
5. The foreigner wants me to tell him something about my country.
6. She wants her son to enter the University.

Exercise 3.
Respond to the following sentences. Call for a repetition of the information already given and
add some shade of puzzlement in your response.
1. She wants you to leave her alone.
2. He wants you to start immediately.
3. His stare made me feel ill at ease.

69
SUPPLEMENT, text 4

36
4. His message made me change my plans.
5. He wants us to go there at once.
6. He wants me to translate this article.

VI
The Fall-Rise

Special questions with the fall-rise sound plaintive, pleading, weary, despairing.
E.g. Sorry, I’m late. – Oh, `why ˌcan’t you ˌcome on ˏtime for once?

Sometimes special questions with the fall-rise sound warm, sympathetic.


E.g. I feel so miserable, mother. – ˈWhat’s the `matter, ˏdearest?

The falling part marks the idea which the speaker wants to emphasize.

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations. Use the fall-rise, sound weary, pleading.
1. How big did you say it was? – Oh, `why ˌdon’t you ˏlisten?
2. Three thousand he paid for it. – ˈWhen will the ˈpoor ˈfool `learn ˏwit?
3. I tell you, I won’t do it. – ˈWhy are you `always so ˏobstinate?
4. Mummy, I’m bored, come and play with me. – ˈWhen are you ˈgoing to `stop ˏbothering me?

♪ Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations. Use the fall-rise, sound warm and sympathetic.
1. It was my treat. – ˈHow `much ˏwas it?
2. I have to go out now. – `When will you be ˏback, d’you think?
3. Did you call, Frank? – ˎYes,│ˈwhat’s the `time, ˏplease?
4. I feel so miserable, mother. – ˈWhat’s the `matter, ˏdearest?

VII
The Rise-Fall

The rise-fall in questions shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According to the
situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration. So it
may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from being
pleasantly impressed to admiration. It is often used in echoing prior remarks.

Exercise 1.
Read the following special questions. Sound categorical and anxious.
1. ˆWhy? 2.ˈ What ˆfor? 3. ˆHow? 4. ˆWhen? 5. ˆWhere?

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations. Express your attitude.
1. What are you doing in the bathroom? – What? (irony) I’m having a wash – what do you
(Meet the Parkers 8)70 think?
2. Why are you having a wash now? – Why? (irony) You know very well I always have a
(Meet the parkers 8)71 wash when I get home on Saturday, after football.
3. Dad will miss his lunch if he
70
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
71
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.

37
doesn’t come home soon. Where is he? – Where? (irony) Don’t be silly, you know exactly
(Meet the Parkers 8)72 where he is.
4. Here, Peter, what are you doing
with that cake?
(Meet the Parkers 8)73 – What? Don’t be silly.(sarcasm)
5. Nora, you look a bit tired.
What have you been doing all day? – What? (reproach) I’ve been cleaning the whole
(Meet the Parkers 10)74 house. I said I was going to.
6. What is it now, Harry? – What? (reproach) I’m tired of lying here on my back
(Meet the Parkers 12)75 with nothing to do. I hate doing nothing.
7. Robert, I want you to do something
for me. – Why? (reproach) I’m busy – I’m doing my
(Meet the Parkers 27) 76 homework.
8. Well, as a matter of fact the doctor
wasn’t called until this morning. – Why not? (reproach)
(Meet the Parkers 33)
9. Oh, I expect we shall be seeing you
sooner than that. – When? (admiration)
(Meet the Parkers 40)77
10. How many beers do you have
after the game of squash? – How many? (challenge)
(Weight Problem)78

ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS

In alternative questions consisting of two sense-groups only the sequence rise + fall is used, as
a rule. The two facts expressed in such a question are mutually exclusive, the choice is limited and
exhausted. For this reason the final sense-group is pronounced with the falling tone.
E.g. ˈIs the ˈmirror ̗round │ or ˎsquare?
Shall ̗I look after the luggage │or will ˎyou?

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following alternative questions. Concentrate your attention on the nuclear tones of
both sense-groups.
1. Are the bedrooms on the ̗ground floor │ or on the ˎfirst floor?
2. Is the furniture in his house modern or old?
3. Is it a large house or a small one?
4. Do you prefer tea or coffee?
5. Shall I go on or stop here?
6. Does the dress fit you or do you want a larger one?

Exercise 2.
Complete the following sentences using the words in brackets. Concentrate your attention on
the nuclear tones of both sense-groups.
1. Do you usually have dinner at home or…? (at the canteen)
2. Do you get up at six …? (at seven)
72
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
73
SUPPLEMENT, text 2.
74
SUPPLEMENT, text 3.
75
SUPPLEMENT, text 4.
76
SUPPLMENT, text 5.
77
SUPPLEMENT, text 6.
78
SUPPLEMENT, text 14.

38
3. Will you have clear soup…? (cabbage soup)
4. How do you like your tea strong…? (week)
5. Does she study French…? (English)
6. Do you usually have breakfast at eight…? (nine)
7. Do you usually sit up late…? (go to bed early)
8. Did it take you half an hour…? (a quarter of an hour to get there)
9. Did you lay the table for six…? (for twelve persons)
10. Did you take your exam in English on the 10th…? (on the 12th of June)
11. Will you have black…? (white coffee)

Exercise 3.
Complete the questions using the words in brackets. Begin each sentence with a special
question and complete it with an alternative one. Concentrate your attention on the
intonation.
Model: The man selling fruit came in the morning. (the postman)
– Who came in the ˎmorning, │ the man selling ˏ fruit │ or the ˎpostman?

1. The dog disappeared while you were buying meat. (took him for a walk)
When…
2. Robert will go to the University. (to a technical college)
Where…
3. Robert is studying science. (history)
What…
4. Robert has gone on to the station. (is packing his suit case in the sitting-room)
Where…
5. The family will go to the dining car. (will be able to buy something to eat at the junction)
Where…
6. The Woods are going to Brightshore. (to Spain)
Where…
7. Harry thinks he had better get back to bed. (might stay up to see his mother-in-law)
What does Harry prefer…
8. Nora wants Robert to make up the stove for her to have a bath. (to go for a walk with Rex)
What…
9. Harry is going to relight the stove. (Robert)
Who…
10. The doctor was sent for last night. (this morning)
When…
11. Jack is going to book four seats for next Saturday. (Mike)
Who…
12. Joyce’s bus arrives at ten past six. (at six)
When…
13. When Peter Parker finished his university studies, he began teaching in a secondary school.
(began teaching adults)
What did Peter Parker begin…
14. Peter Parker found he was more interested in teaching his own language to foreigners. (foreign
languages to schoolboys)
What was Peter interested in…
15. First Peter went to Africa for two years. (Arabia)
Where…
16. Mike is looking for the red tie he bought in London a couple of weeks ago. (the black one he
wore to the college party)
What…

39
17. Malcolm is sitting some examinations this month. (Jack)
Who…
18. James is keen on games. (interested in history)
What…
19. Tennis is James’ favourite sport. (football)
Which…
20. Pete failed in Latin. (mathematics)
What subject…
21. The police arrived to the place of the road accident first. (ambulance)
Who…
22. Young Patrick Ellis drives madly. (carefully)
How…
23. Felix plays golf. (squash)
Which game…
24. Charles had his first swim in his new pool this morning. (yesterday)
When…
25, Charles’ new swimming-pool is 25 feet long. (50 feet long)
How long…
26. Charles is holding a swimming party on Sunday. (on Friday)
When…

TAG QUESTIONS

I Balanced Tag Questions (the Basic Structure):


1. Tags with the Low Rise
2. Tags with the Low Fall
II Unbalanced Tag Questions:
1. Positive-to-Positive Tag Questions
2. Negative-to-Negative Tag Questions
III Other Structures Possible in English

Tag (disjunctive) questions are used to verify or check information that we think is true or to
check information that we aren’t sure is true. English tag questions can have a rising or a falling
intonation pattern.
We show the meaning of the tag question through intonation.

I
Balanced Tag Questions (The Basic Structure)

1. Tags with the Low Rise


A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a statement followed by a mini
question. The whole sentence is a «tag question» and the mini question at the end is called «a
question tag».
As a rule, the English rising pattern is used when some sort of response is required. These tags
make a grammatical statement into a real question. When you want an answer, are asking for
information or want someone to do something you use the low rise.
E.g. You are ˈcoming to the ˎparty, │ ̗aren’t you?

♪ Exercise 1.

40
Read the following conversational situations; use the low rise in the tags. An answer is
expected.
Model: It’s ˎhorrid, │││isn’t it?
1. What’s happened to Mabel? – She wasn’t invited, was she?
2. I’ve just been talking to Mary. – She wasn’t very helpful, was she?
3. No, I didn’t go to the cinema with them. – You’d seen the film already, hadn’t you?
4. Whose turn is it? – Mine, isn’t it?
5. Peggy wants to stay at home. – That doesn’t matter, does it?
6. Oh, all right. I’ll get it for you. – You don’t mind, do you?
7. Why’ve you brought me that spoon? – It’s the one you asked for, isn’t it?
8. Oh, do let’s go out of here. – You’re surely not frightened, are you?
9. I may be late tonight. – But you’ll be home in time for dinner, won’t you?
10. Send that wretched boy to me at once. – You are not going to be hard on him, are you?
11. Hallo, Jean. You are early. – I’m not too early, am I?

Exercise 2.
Go on reading the situations, use the low rise, and pay attention to the special structure of the
tag questions.
1. I’m late, aren’t I? – No, you are the first to come.
2. I’m clever, aren’t I? – Sure, the idea is perfect!
3. I’m not that bad, am I? – Oh my dear chap, you are the best in the
class.
4. You’ve never liked me, have you? – What makes you think so?
5. Nobody asked for me, did they? – They did. There were several calls in the
morning.
6. Nobody knows, do they? – That’s right; you can go on with your
investigation.
7. Nobody is perfect, are they? – That’s the universal truth.
8. Nothing came in the post, did it? – Pity, we’ll have to wait.
9. Nothing bad happened, did it? – I hope not.
10. Everybody is present, aren’t they? – The room is full.
11. He hardly survived, did he? – I should say it was a narrow escape.
12. I’m hardly aiming at getting – Who knows.
into the Olympic team, am I?
13. That is scarcely possible, is it? – Let me think about it.
14. It seldom rains here in winter, does it? – I’ve never been here in winter.
15. You used to dance, didn’t you? – Yes, when I was younger but not very often
now, I’m getting too old.
16. You do like coffee, don’t you? – Oh I enjoy a cup of coffee on a warm moonlit
night.
17. We mustn’t tell her, must we? – Let me think it over.
18. He shouldn’t drive so fast, should he? – He always drives madly. What wild things
young men are these days!
19. You have a Ferrari, don’t you? – Yes, I bought it last month.
20. I think he has the book you need, doesn’t he? – I hope he has it.
21. He is unlikely to come here, is he? – I hear he is abroad now.

Notice that we often use tag questions to ask for information or help, starting with a negative
statement. This is quite a friendly polite way of making a request.

E.g. Instead of saying “Where is the police station?” (not very polite),
or “Do you know where the police station is?” (slightly more polite),

41
we could say: “You wouldn’t know where the police station is, would you?”

Exercise 3.
Read the following tag questions, use the low rise.
1. You don’t know of any good jobs, ˏdo you?
2. You couldn’t help with my homework, ˏcould you?
3. You haven’t got $10 to lend me, ˏhave you?
4. You don’t know where my wallet is, ˏdo you?

Exercise 4.
Transform the following general and special questions into tag questions, be friendly and
polite and use the low rise.
Model: I say, Mike, could you book four seats for next Saturday?
– I say, Mike, you couldn’t book four seats for next Saturday, could you?

1. Will you ring me tomorrow to confirm if you are coming? – You wouldn’t…
2. Have you seen my new tie, Mum? – You haven’t…
3. Have you sent out the invitations to our party yet? – You haven’t…
4. Will you take a day or two off to go to my mother’s place with me? – You wouldn’t…
5. Will you go to Bob’s sister’s party with me tomorrow night? – You wouldn’t…
6. How long have they been playing squash? – You don’t know…
7. Have they finished work on Charles’ new swimming pool yet? – You don’t know…
8. Will you be able to go to Mexico this summer? – You wouldn’t…
9. Where is Mum? – You don’t…
10. Can you help me? – You couldn’t…
11. Do you know which doctor visited them? – You don’t know…
12. Will you send your son to technical college? – You wouldn’t…

English question tags normally have the stress on the verb; but the stress is on the pronoun if
there is a change of person.
E.g. I don’t like peas, do ˏyou? (= Мне не нравится горох, а вам?)
I like peas, don’t ˏyou? (= Мне нравится горох, а вам разве нет?)
I adore Beethoven, don’t ˏyou?

This is often a rising tag, especially when the tag contains no negation, or the intonation
pattern may be the typically English fall-rise.
E.g. I haven’t been to China, have ˏyou? (low rise)
I’m looking forward to going to Mexico this year, ˎaren’t ˏyou? (fall-rise)

Exercise 5.
Read the following tag questions, mind the change of person and read the pronouns of the
tags either with the low rise or fall-rise.
1. Your friend has read this book, haven’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
2. I am French, aren’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
3. He was the best in the class, weren’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
4. I remember that event, don’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
5. I am coming to the party, aren’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
6. I have finished the work, haven’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
7. They have never been to England, have you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗
8. I enjoy summer, don’t you? a) ˏ b) ˎ ̗

Exercise 6.

42
Write down five facts about yourself and then say things to your partner like this: (a change
of person) I got an excellent mark for the test, didn’t you?

Exercise 7.
Translate into English, use the proper intonation.
1. Я из России, а вы разве нет?
2. Вы из России, не так ли? (a response is required)
3. Я никогда не был в Англии, а вы тоже?
4. Вы никогда не были в Англии, не так ли? (the speaker isn’t sure)
5. Я собираюсь на вечеринку, а ты тоже?
6. Ты собираешься на вечеринку, не так ли? (a response is required)
7. Я не умею играть на скрипке, а вы тоже?
8. Я обожаю танцевать, а вы разве нет?
9. Он обожает танцевать, не так ли? (the speaker isn’t sure)

2) Tags with the Low Fall


Most English tag questions have the falling intonation. The falling tone is used to underline a
statement. The statement itself ends with a falling tone, and the tag sounds like an echo,
strengthening it. The falling tone is used when you don’t really need an answer.
E.g. He ˈdoesn’t ˈknow what he is ˎdoing, │ˎdoes he?
ˈThis is ˈreally ˎboring, │ˎ isn’t it?
It ˈthreatens to ˎrain, │ˎdoesn’t it?
ˈThat will be ˎnice, │ˎwon’t it?

♪ Exercise 1.
Practise reading the following conversational situations with tag questions, use the low fall in
the tags. You don’t really need any answer.
Model: It’s ˎhorrid, │ˎisn’t it?

1. If only the day had been warmer. – Very cold, wasn’t it?
2. The work will never be ready in time. – Never, will it?
3. Where could we get the book? – It’s very difficult, isn’t it?
4. Mary’s broken the ski jumping record. – Marvellous ski jumper, isn’t she?
5. It looks like rain. – It does, doesn’t it?
6. What a delightful family the Smiths are! – They are so friendly, aren’t they?
7. Where did you meet him then? – In High Street, didn’t we, John?
8. They thought we’d missed our chance. – They were quite mistaken, weren’t they?
9. What a boring evening! – Jack’s no sense of humour, has he?
10. None of us wants to go. – Someone will have to go, won’t they?
11. He rarely goes to the club these days. – He used to enjoy it so, didn’t he?
12. You can’t do it like that. – Then I must try some other way, mustn’t I?
13. The parcel hasn’t come. – We’d better enquire at the station, hadn’t we?
14. So you’ve finished. – Now it’s your turn, isn’t it?
15. It wasn’t his fault this time. – But he should drive more slowly anyway, shouldn’t
he?

Exercise2.
Complete the following sentences making them tag questions. The speaker is not certain of the
fact expressed in the first part of the sentence. An answer is expected. Concentrate your
attention on the intonation of the tag.
1. You aren’t reading this book now, …?

43
2. She doesn’t like tomatoes, …?
3. He lives in London, …?
4. They usually have dinner at seven o’clock,…?
5. You like both apples and pears,…?
6. He never uses pepper,…?
7. It’s high time we had a bite,…?
8. Going out in such weather is out of the question,…?
9. You’ve passed your exams,…?

Exercise 3.
Complete the same sentences. You are certain of the fact expressed in the first part of the
sentence. No answer is expected. Observe the difference in the intonation of the tag.

Exercise 4.
Write down five facts about your partner that you think you are sure of, and five facts that
you are not really sure of and need to check. Then say things to your partner like this:
(sure) You are twenty, ˎ aren’t you?
(not quite sure) You were in London last year, ˏweren’t you?

Exercise 5.
Read the tags of the questions with the intonation suggested by the conversational situation.
1. The exams are over at last. – It was difficult, wasn’t it?
2. Lovely party, wasn’t it? – It was very nice to see them all again.
3. They have bought three copies. – We don’t want so many, do we?
4. This text is very difficult to understand, isn’t it? – Not at all, it’s very easy.
5. What about another sandwich? – No, thank you. I’ve had enough, haven’t I?
6. You see no mistakes in this paper, do you? – Yes, I do, but not many.
7. It’s so fine to see them again, isn’t it? – Oh, yes. It is.
8. She’s better today, isn’t she? – I’m afraid not. The temperature is still high.
9. You are not very well, are you? – Yes, I am. I am much better now.
10. You were in England, weren’t you? – No, I wasn’t.
11. The play was wonderful. – You like it, don’t you?
12. You like those books, don’t you? – Shall we ask how much they are?
13. You are thirsty, aren’t you? – I’d rather have a glass of water.
Exercise 6.
Read the following tag questions. Use either the low fall or the low rise according to the
attitude of the speaker.
1. You don’t remember my name, do you? (a response is expected)
2. She doesn’t really want these apples, does she? (you strengthen the statement)
3. He’s read this book, hasn’t he? (you want an answer)
4. You were in England, weren’t you? (you want an answer)
5. This text is very difficult to understand, isn’t it? (you strengthen the statement)
6. Lovely party, wasn’t it? (you strengthen the statement)
7. Marvellous ski jumper, isn’t she? (you strengthen the statement)
8. I’m not too early, am I? (a response is expected)

Exercise 7.
Listen to the dialogue; concentrate your attention on the intonation of the tag questions. Say
about the speaker’s attitude.

The New Pool

44
Andy Have they finished work on your new swimming-pool yet, Charles? When I passed by
yesterday, it was being filled with water, wasn’t it?
Charles That’s right. We had our first swim in it this morning. The concrete path around it is going
to be widened, but everything will have been completed before the end of the week.
Andy You must be pleased. How long is it?
Charles It’s only 25 feet long and 15 feet wide, but that’s big enough to cool down in, isn’t it?
Andy And to get a spot of exercise in. If you normally swim twenty lengths in a big pool, you can
get the same benefit if you swim up and down forty or fifty times in a small one, can’t you?
Charles Yes, but I’m hardly aiming at getting into the Olympic team, am I?
Andy How deep is it? You can’t dive into it, can you?
Charles Oh yes you can! It’s eight feet in depth at one end. The diving board will be installed
tomorrow. By the way we are holding a swimming party on Sunday, if it’s not too cold. You
will come, won’t you?
Andy I’d love to come, but I’m not much of a swimmer, and I can barely dive at all. I’ll probably
drown.
Charles Well, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. Anyway there’ll be plenty to drink.
Andy Good. I’d rather drown in beer than in water.

Intermediate English Course recorded by Professor A.C.Gimson., Professor of Phonetics,


University College London. Recorded in Great Britain.

II
Unbalanced Tag Questions

When there is special emphasis the rule applies that a positive sentence has a positive tag and
a negative sentence has a negative tag.
The low rise of the tag usually creates a confrontational effect. It is mainly used when we are
trying to be sarcastic or to make a strong point, to show anger, disbelief, shock, concern…
Besides positive-to-positive tag questions express a reaction as surprise or interest.
E.g. Jack: I refuse to spend Sunday at your mother’s house!
Jill: Oh you do, ˏdo you? We’ll see about that! (surprised)

He was the best in his class, ˏwas he? (disbelief / surprise)


You think you are funny, ˏdo you? (anger)
Negative-to-negative tag questions sound rather hostile.
E.g. Jack: I just won’t go back.
Jill: Oh you won’t, ˏwon’t you? (hostile)

1. Positive-to- Positive Tag Questions

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following positive-to-positive tag questions, use the low rise.
1. So you thought it would be a good idea to reprogram the computer, did you? (anger)
2. Oh I must, must I? (shock)
3. You are moving to Brazil, are you? (concern)
4. So you are having a baby, are you? That’s wonderful. (surprise)
5. You went to the movies alone last night, did you? (disbelief)

Exercise 2.
Read the following positive-to-positive tag questions, use the low rise and comment on the
attitude of the speaker to the situation.

45
1. Fancy that! He sings in the bathroom, does he?
2. Oh you’ve cleaned your bike, have you? Don’t try to take me in again.
3. Your boyfriend Kevin will come to us tonight, will he? Why didn’t you tell us about the visit
before?
4. Your neighbour went on vacation, did she? I see some light in the windows.
5. So you are my best friend, are you? Don’t tell me stories. I see you are trying to get round me.
6. (at the police station) This is your jacket, is it? – Yes, sir. I was wearing it last night.

Exercise 3.
Read the following positive-to-positive tag questions, use the low rise and say what attitude of
the speaker might be expressed.
1. She wants to marry him, does she? Some chance.
2. Your great grandmother on your father’s side is still alive, is she?
3. Your grandfather enjoys watching TV programs that you hate, does he?
4. You will be able to eat all that quantity of food, will you?
5. To his mind he is writing a composition at the moment, is he?
6. Oh he sometimes reads newspapers, does he?
7. Sue was listening, was she?
8. The cat likes sweets, does it?
9. I am late, am I?
10. He collects wedding candles of his own weddings, does he?
11. His favourite handball team won yesterday, did they?
12. Susan can prepare supper, can she?
13. I am early, am I?
14. She thinks she plays the piano well, does she?
15. Good idea, is it?
16. Dave is your cousin, is he?

2. Negative-to-Negative Tag Questions

♪ Exercise 4.
Read the following negative-to-negative tag questions, use the low rise. This time you sound
rather hostile. Develop the situations.
1. So you don’t like my books, don’t you?
2. So you aren’t ready to help your mother, aren’t you?
3. You won’t leave before finishing your work, won’t you?
4. You haven’t broken the window, haven’t you?
5. She didn’t answer back, didn’t she?
6. You don’t watch TV in the office in the afternoon, don’t you?
7. You are not going home from school, aren’t you?
8. Mary again didn’t do her homework last Monday, didn’t she?
9. You couldn’t find the dog, couldn’t you?
10. Oh it won’t be anything expensive, won’t it?
11. Well, you couldn’t help me, couldn’t you?
12. You didn’t do anything wrong, didn’t you?
13. He doesn’t know what he is doing, doesn’t he?

Exercise 5.
a) Read the following tag questions; use either the low rise or the low fall according to the
meaning.
1. He was the best in the class, ˏwas he? (the speaker is surprised, doesn’t believe)
2. He was the best in the class, ˏwasn’t he? (a response is expected)

46
3. He was the best in the class, ˎwasn’t he? (the speaker is sure)
4. He wasn’t the best in the class, ˏwasn’t he? (the speaker sounds rather hostile)

b) Read the following tag questions; use either the low rise or the low fall according to the
meaning.
1. You aren’t going home after school, are you? (a response is expected)
2. You aren’t going home after school, are you? (the speaker is sure)
3. You aren’t going home after school, aren’t you? (the speaker sounds rather hostile)
4. You are going home after school, aren’t you? (a response is expected)
5. You are going home after school, are you? (the speaker is surprised, doesn’t believe)

c) Read the following tag questions; use either the low rise or the low fall, comment on the
attitude of the speaker to the situation.
1. He is the best football player in his team, isn’t he?
2. He is the best football player in his team, isn’t he?
3. He is the best football player in his team, is he?
4. He isn’t the best football player in his team, is he?
5. He isn’t the best football player in his team, isn’t he?

III
Other Structures Possible in English

♪ Here are some more examples that show the wide variety of structure possible in English:
1. Easier is said than done, ̗ eh? (can be heard much across Scotland, New Zealand, Canada and the
North Eastern US)
2. I’m coming with you, all ̗ right?
3. You’ve been here, ̗ right? (the most common one)
4. He isn’t here, cor │ rect? (considerably more formal than “right”)
5. It’s rather a nice place, don’t you a ̗ gree? (rather formal)
6. You were there, ̗ no?
7. He is a nice person, ̗OK? (= I know you don’t believe it, but…)
8. You come here often, ̗huh? (= right?) (also may be used in a sarcastic or challenging way)

These tag questions are generally invariant, regardless of verb, person or negativity. The
adverbial tags are almost always found with the low rise.

Exercise 1.
You remember when «OK?» is used as a tag it means «I know you don’t believe it but…».
Transform the following statements into tag questions by adding «OK?», use the low rise and
comment on your attitude to the situation.
Model: – He is a nice person.
– He is a nice person, OK? (I know you don’t believe it, but I think he is a nice person.)

1. She doesn’t like me.


2. We remembered everything.
3. He did a good job when he fixed my car.
4. She was prevented from going out.
5. He has gone on to the station with some of the luggage.
6. There is a good comedy on at the theatre today.
7. The doctor wasn’t called until this morning.

47
8. The Woods are rather careless.
9. It was a bad sore throat.
10. She hates waiting around.
11. He was always good at languages at school.
12. He enjoyed the work immensely.

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversational situations and use the low rise in the tags.
1. The exams were dead easy, OK? – May be they were easy enough for you but they were
much too hard for me.
2. First he went to Arabia for two years, OK? – Well, he went to Africa first.
3. He intends to go to Canada next, OK? – He intends to go to South America first, I’m sure.
4. Your tie is in the wardrobe, OK? – I’ve looked for it everywhere. And it isn’t in the
wardrobe.
5. James is sitting some examinations
this month, OK? – No, Malcolm, his elder brother, is determined to win
a scholarship to study at the University of Oxford. He
is sitting the examinations.

Exercise 3.
Read the tag questions, use the low rise in the tags. Develop the situation by translating the
given Russian variant in brackets.
1. Young Patrick Ellis always drives carefully, OK?
– (Наоборот, он ездит как сумасшедший, а на днях попал в очередную аварию. И все его
друзья такие как он.)
2. Eva Browning is getting married for the second time, OK?
– (Она выходит замуж уже в третий раз десятого сентября. Какая это ужасная женщина!)
3. You must be losing weight, OK?
– (Нет, моя талия никак не меняется. Просто я себя обманываю.)
4. You can stay with us, OK?
– (Нет, Герти ужасно разозлится, если я опоздаю. А впрочем, мне не обязательно торопиться.
Я ещё выпью пива с тобой.)
5. There are more road casualties per day than air deaths per year, OK?
– (Ну нет, самолёты меня нервируют.)
6. Air transport is really safe compared with road transport, OK?
– (И всё же я предпочитаю морское путешествие. Лайнеры плывут не так уж быстро, но в
конце концов я могу расслабиться.)

Exercise 4.
Develop the conversational situations.
1. Malcolm is bored with school and studying, OK? – …
2. Malcolm has already won several tennis tournaments, OK? – …
3. James intends to become a lawyer, OK? – …
4. Felix spends a lot of time practicing squash, OK? – …
5. Nora has prepared some fish for supper, OK? – …
6. Robert is packing his suit cases in the sitting-room, OK? – …
7. The fire was out. So Harry is making the stove again, OK? – …

ECHO QUESTIONS
I Basic Echo Questions
II Echo Questions for Repeating Parts of a Sentence

48
III Shorter Echo Questions

Echo questions are very useful and can make you sound like a native speaker.

I
Basic Echo Questions

We can use echo questions to check something that has just been said expressing surprise or
disbelief. To do this we repeat the same utterance back to the speaker. In this case an echo question
is a question that directly takes up (or “echoes”) the declarative sentence made before. It copies an
utterance and it is spoken with a rising tone.
♪ E.g. A: I’m quitting my ˎjob.
B: You are quitting your ˏ job? (surprised)

A: Your house is on ˎfire!


B: My house is on ˏ fire? (B doesn’t believe what A said, so he repeats it back as a question)

A: The dog ate the ˎbook!


B: The dog ate the ˏbook? (B doesn’t believe A)

Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the rising tone in echo questions, express
your surprise. Develop the situations.
1. John bought a ˎhorse. – John bought a ˏhorse?
2. My son reads comics. – Your son reads comics?
3. I’m writing in Chinese. – You’re writing in Chinese?
4. It’s Saturday. He is having a beer in the pub. – He is having a beer in the pub?
5. I’m expecting mother. – You are expecting mother?
6. I’ll soon get the water to boil. – You’ll soon get the water to boil?
7. I was prevented from going out. – You were prevented from going out?
8. Tommy Wood next door was taken ill last night. – Tommy was taken ill last night?
9. He had to be taken to hospital. – He had to be taken to hospital?
10. I know he went out with Janet. – He went out with Janet?

Exercise2.
Read the following conversational situations, use the rising tone in echo questions, express
your disbelief. Develop the situations.
1. I am very keen on ˎsquash. – You are keen on ˏsquash?
2. He spends all his time and money on books. – He spends all his time and money on
books?
3. He wants to go to Oxford University next year. – He wants to go to Oxford University
next year?
4. John is too idle. – John is too idle?
5. My wife wants James to give up tennis and study law. – She wants your son to give up sports?
6. I can’t stand that woman. – You can’t stand that woman?
7. I recon the exams were dead easy. – The exams were dead easy?
8. I’m dead certain I’ve failed in Latin. – You’ve failed in Latin?
9. She’s going to divorce. – She’s going to divorce?
10. I’m going too Latin America next month. – You are going to Latin America next
month?

Exercise 3.

49
Express your surprise or disbelief to what your partner has just said; use the rising tone in
echo questions.
1. A: I bought a large leather suit a couple of weeks ago. B: …
2. A: I’m travelling to Great Britain this summer. B: …
3. A: I’m looking forward to having a cruise on a luxury liner. B: …
4. A: I’m going to London. B: …
5. A: I’m going to visit the Tower of London. B: …
6. A: I’m going to sail down the River Thames on a sightseeing tour. B: …
7. A: I think I’ll take part in Eisteddfod. B: …
8. A: I’m keen on learning Welsh. B: …
9. A: Peter was always good at languages at school. B: …
10. A: He has made up his mind to study foreign languages at University. B: …
11. A: He will teach in a secondary school. B: …

II
Echo Questions for Repeating Parts of a Sentence

As echo question of this type is a question that takes up (or «echoes») part of a declarative
sentence made before. It copies an utterance and contains a question word in the end.
There are two cases in which this type of echo questions is used.

1
You use an echo question if you missed a part of the sentence. This is useful when the
speaker is talking too fast or there is too much loud noise around. You replace an unclear or
doubtful portion of the sentence with a stressed interrogative word.
♪ E.g. A: I went to (unintelligible) last week.
B: You went ˏwhere?
A: Paris.

Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise in the echo questions in situ.
1. A: The Empire State Building is (inaudible) feet tall.
B: The Empire State Building is ˏhow tall?
2. A: We are meeting at (inaudible).
B: We are meeting at when?
A: At six.
3. A: I’m on my way to meet (inaudible) at the station.
B: You are on your way to meet whom at the station?
A: Joyce.
4. A: Joyce’s bus arrives at (inaudible).
B: Joyce’s bus arrives at what time?
A: At ten past six.
5. A: He was always good at (inaudible) at school.
B: He was always good at what at school?
A: At languages.
6. A: I ended up visiting my (unintelligible)/
B: You ended up visiting who?
A: My aunt.
7. A: My son reads (unintelligible).
B: Your son reads what?
A: Comics.

50
8. A: First he went to (unintelligible) for two years.
B: First he went to where?
A: Africa.
9. A: I bought (unintelligible) in London a couple of weeks ago.
B: You bought what in London a couple of weeks ago?
A: A red tie.
10. A: A tie is still on (unintelligible) under the dash board.
B: The tie is still where?
A: On the shelf.

Exercise 2.
You are B. Ask echo questions with the rising tone; you want to make the situation clear.
1. A: I’ve looked for (unintelligible) everywhere.
B:
A: For the keys.
2. A: He is determined to win (unintelligible).
B:
A: A scholarship.
3. A: He is very keen on (unintelligible).
B:
A: On games.
4. A: Pat told me he would be leaving for (unintelligible).
B:
A: For Ireland.
5. A: I’ll send the invitation out (unintelligible).
B:
A: Tomorrow.
6. A: On Monday morning I went to (unintelligible) to inquire about the man.
B:
A: To the hospital.
7. A: I always have a wash when I get home on Saturday after (unintelligible).
B:
A: After football.
8. A: She goes shopping every Saturday morning and doesn’t come in till (unintelligible).
B:
A: Till lunch time.

Exercise 3.
You are speaking over the telephone in the street, there’s much noise around and you can’t
hear your partner well. You have to ask echo questions.
A: Listen, I’ve lost my (inaudible).
You:
A: Camera!
You: Where did you lose it?
A: I lost it in (inaudible).
You:
A: In a bus.
You: Did you get to the bus station and ask?
A: Yes, I went there (inaudible).
You:
A: In the afternoon.
You: Did you get it?

51
A: No. And I left my bag there.
You: Good gracious!

2
You can also use an echo question if you can’t believe the information or are surprised or
express your disapproval, outrage, etc.
♪ E.g. A: I used to play checkers with her all the time.
B: You used to play ˏwhat with her all the time? (surprise)
A: Checkers.
(Holden Cautfield and Stradlater in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D.Salinger, 1951)

Telemachus: We’re waiting for Odysseus to come home.


Antinuous: You’re waiting for ˏwhom to do what? (surprise)
(Albert Ramsdell Gurney, The Comeback, 1993)

A: I met Bill Gates.


B: You met ˏwho? (disbelief)
A: Bill Gates.

In this case «what» corresponds to «something»; «who(m)» – «someone»; «whose» –


«someone’s»; «where» – «somewhere»; «when» – «sometime»; «why» – «for some reason»; «how»
– «somehow»; «which» – «one or the other»; «how often» – «sometimes».
Sometimes the question word “what” tries to behave itself grammatically and pays attention
to grammatical categories.
♪ E.g. A: Hanako is homesick.
B: Hanako is home-ˏwhat?

A: Astronomers have discovered some more black holes.


B: They’ve discovered some more ˏwhats?

A: She sat there and ratiocinated.


B: She sat there and ˏwhatted?

Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise in the echo questions in situ.
1. A: I ate 30 chicken wings.
B: You ate how many chicken wings? (shocked)
A: 30.

2. A: The dog ate the book.


B: The dog ate what? (unbelieving)
A: The book.

3. A: John bought a horse.


B: John bought what? (disapproving)
A: A horse.

4. A: Her father burnt all of her clothes.


B: Her father did what? (outraged)
A: Burnt her clothes.

5. A: He intends to go to Latin America.


52
B: He intends to go where? (unbelieving)
A: To Latin America.

6. A: He painted a picture with cheeseburgers.


B: He did what with cheeseburgers? (surprised)
A: Painted a picture.

Exercise 2.
Read the following conversation; use the proper intonation.

Mr. Maru: We’re going to New York City, Sparky!


Sparky: We’re going to what?
Mr. Maru: New York City. It’s going to be great!
Sparky: I don’t like big cities.
Mr. Maru: But we are going to see the Empire State Building. It was built in 411 days!
Sparky: It was built in how long?
Mr. Maru: 411 days! That was really fast.
Sparky: I just hope they have a beacon there.

You can also use echo questions to question a question. If you feel like somebody shouldn’t
be asking you a question.
E.g. A: Why did you take my shirt?
B: Why did I take your ˏshirt? It’s not your shirt. It’s my shirt.

We usually use these types of echo questions when we are a little angry at the other speaker.
E.g. A: Where are you going?
B: Where am I ˏgoing? I’m going home. It’s 5:00, the day is over. (B can’t believe that A
doesn’t know it’s time to go home).

Mary: What do you want?


George Bailey: What do I ˏwant? Why, I’m just here to get warm, that’s all! (It’s Wonderful
Life, 1946)

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise in echo questions in situ.
1. A: Where is Mum? I want to ask her something.
B: Where is Mum? She is shopping. You know very well she goes shopping every Saturday
morning and doesn’t come in till lunch time.
2. A: Dad will miss his lunch if he doesn’t come home soon. Where is he?
B: Where is he? He is having a beer in the pub. You know he always has a drink on his way home
from work on Saturday morning.
3. A: What is James keen on?
B: What is he keen on? On tennis! He does his homework in 10 minutes every evening and then
rushes out to play tennis.
4. A: What has James been doing after classes?
B: What has he been doing? He has been playing tennis with his friends.
5. A: Were the exams dead easy do you think?
B: Were the exams dead easy? I’m dead certain I’ve failed in Latin and most likely in French and
History too.
6. A: What have you been doing all day?
B: What have I been doing? I’ve been cleaning the whole flat. I said I was going to.

53
Exercise 4.
Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise in echo questions. Then show
your attitude by developing the situations.
1. A: What are you looking for?
B: What am I looking for? ……………………………….
2. A: What will he do when he is old enough I wonder?
B: What will he do? ……………………………………...
3. A: What does she spend her time on?
B: What does she spend her time on? ……………………
4. A: What have you been doing since Monday?
B: What have I been doing? ……………………………..
5. A: What do you usually do on Saturday?
B: What do I usually do on Saturday? …………………...
6. A: Well, what’s the news?
B: What’s the news?...........................................................
7. A: Well, what are you doing here I wonder?
B: What am I doing? ……………………………………..
8. A: Who are you waiting for?
B: Who am I waiting for? ……………………………..

III
Shorter Echo Questions

Echo questions can be short when the hearer wants to get sure what the speaker says. They
are used to show interest or surprise and pronounced with the rising tone.
E.g. A: Barbara is punished.
B: ˏIs she?

♪ Exercise 1.
Read the following conversational units, use the low rise in the echo questions, show either
your interest or surprise.
1. My father writes one book a year. – ˏDoes he?
2. Charlie broke the glass. – ˏDid he?
3. My brother is a pilot. – ˏIs he?
4. They’ve got a lot of money. – ˏHave they?
5. I don’t like horror films. – ˏDon’t you?
6. He loves his parents. – ˏDoes he?
7. I can’t use a computer. – ˏCan’t you?
8. I wouldn’t like to be famous. – ˏWouldn’t you?
9. They got married last week. – ˏDid they?
10. I’ll help you. – ˏWill you?
11. Hanna smokes. – ˏDoes she?
12. I didn’t enjoy it. – ˏDidn’t you?

Exercise 2.
Ask echo questions; use the low rise showing your surprise or interest.
1. A: I bought a red tie in London a couple of weeks ago. B: …
2. A: On Tuesday he went out with Janet. B: …
3. A: I adore history books. B: …
4. A: I’m not keen on squash. B: …
5. A: Tennis is his favourite sport. B: …

54
6. A: He hopes to become a professional football player. B: …
7. A: James is too idle. B: …
8. A: You can make more money from sport than from an old-fashioned
profession these days. B: …
9. A: I’ll send the invitations tomorrow. B: …
10. A: On Monday I went to the hospital to inquire about the man. B: …

Go on asking questions; show your interest or surprise. Develop the situations.


11. A: I can’t speak Chinese. B: …
12. A: I bought a horse. B: …
13. A: I always have a wash when I get home on Saturday after football. B: …
14. A: I always have to wait for my lunch. B: …
15. A: I was prevented from going out. B: …
16. A: He had to be taken to hospital. B: …
17. A: I’ve got ever so much to do tonight. B: …

Exercise 3.
Read the following conversational situations; use the given variants of echo questions one by
one and choose the proper intonation for the questions.
1. A: What does your son read?
B: He reads comics.
a) A: He reads comics? (checking the information)
b) A: He reads what? (trying to restore the missing information)
c) A: He reads what? (surprised)
d) A: What does he read? (wondering and mildly puzzled)
e) A: Does he? (surprised, interested)
f) A: What does he read? (a little angry)
2. A: What does she say?
B: She says she’s going to divorce.
a) A: She’s going to divorce? (checking the information)
b) A: She’s going to do what? (trying to restore the missing information)
c) A: She’s going to do what? (surprised)
d) A: What is she going to do? (wondering and mildly puzzled)
e) A: Is she? (surprised, interested)
f) A: What does she say? (angry and exasperated)
3. A: Well, what’s the news?
B: I bought a horse.
a) A: You bought a horse? (checking the information)
b) A: You bought what? (trying to restore the missing information)
c) A: You bought what? (surprised)
d) A: What did you buy? (wondering and mildly puzzled)
e) A: Did you? (surprised and interested)
f) A: What’s the news? (a little angry and exasperated)
4. A: What are you doing?
B: I’m writing in Chinese.
a) A: You are writing in Chinese? (checking the information)
b) A: You are writing in what? (trying to restore the missing information)
c) A: You are writing in what? (surprised)
d) A: What are you writing in? (wondering and mildly puzzled)
e) A: Are you? (surprised or interested)
f) A: What am I doing? (a little exasperated)

55
Exercise 4.
Complete the conversational situations. Ask echo questions according to the feelings indicated
in brackets. Develop the situations.
1. A: You’ve thrown out my oldest and best pipes.
B: (surprised)
2. A: I’m tied of lying here on my back with nothing to do.
B: (trying to restore the missing information)
3. A: I hate doing nothing.
B: (checking the information)
4. A: Here, Peter, what are you doing in the pantry?
B: (exasperated and a little angry)
5. A: You mustn’t try to keep me in bed like a naughty boy.
B: (surprised)
6. A: I’m all against this staying in bed.
B: (wondering)
7. A: What have you been doing all day?
B: (a little angry)
8. A: I’m expecting mother, she’s coming over for the day.
B: (checking the information)
9. A: I always come home and have to wait for my lunch.
B: (surprised)
10. A: Who did he go out with on Tuesday?
B: (angry and disapproving)
11. A: I eat whatever I can find in the pantry.
B: (wondering and mildly puzzled)
12. A: You leave your things about everywhere.
B: (surprised)
13. A: I’ve got ever so much to do tonight.
B: (surprised and interested)

SUPPLEMENT
Texts used for examples.

I. From “Meet the Parkers” by David Hicks (for audio see: Internet sources,
http://www.twirpx.com/file/371126/ )

Text 1. Lesson 3

Nora: Yes, of course, Mrs. Howard, I mustn’t boast, but it really is a comfort to have such a
hard-working boy as Robert.
Mrs. Howard: You needn’t apologize, Mrs. Parker. It’s very natural for you to feel proud. Will he
go to the University, do you think?
Nora: Well, he may or he may not. You see we can’t really tell until he takes his
scholarship examinations.
Mrs. Howard: Oh, but I’m sure he’ll win a scholarship.
Nora: Yes, we hope he will. He’s done well in all his exams up to now. But we daren’t
count on his winning one. If he doesn’t win a scholarship he may go to a technical college.
Mrs. Howard: Would he like to do that? What’s he studying now? Is he studying science?
Nora: Yes, and I think he’s getting on quite well at it. He’s certainly working very hard.
Why, this very afternoon, although it’s such a fine day, he’s been down at the library working all the
time.

56
Robert: Hello, Mum. Good afternoon, Mrs. Howard. It’s a lovely day, isn’t it? Well, the
“Rovers” won, Mum!
Nora: The “Rovers”, Robert? Why, where have you been?
Robert: At the football match, of course.
Nora: Haven’t you been at the library?
Robert: No.
Nora: But I thought…
Mrs. Howard: Don’t worry, Mrs. Parker. A library is quite the wrong place for a boy on such a fine
afternoon.

Text 2. Lesson 8

Peter: (shouting in the hall downstairs) Mum! Dad! Where is everyone?* Is the house empty?
Hello!
Robert: (from the bathroom) Peter! What are you making all that noise about?*
Peter: (to himself) Ah! That sounds like Robert’s voice. (opening the bathroom door)
Hello, Robert! What are you doing in the bathroom?*
Robert: I’m having a wash – what do you think?*
Peter: Well, you sound as if you’ve got soap in your mouth! Why are you having a wash now?*
Robert: You know very well I always have a wash when I get home on Saturday, after football.
Peter: Where’s Mum? I want to ask her something.
Robert: Well, you’ll have to wait till she comes in – she’s shopping. You know very well she goes
shopping every Saturday morning and doesn’t come in till lunch time.
Peter: I think I smell something cooking. Is lunch ready yet?
Robert: Of course not. It’s still in the oven.
Peter: It smells good. Don’t I wish Mum would hurry up with her shopping and give it to me. I’m
hungry!
Robert: You needn’t worry – you never miss your Saturday lunch, young Peter.
Peter: Dad will miss it if he doesn’t come home soon. Where is he?
Robert Don’t be silly, you know exactly where he is – having a beer in the pub. You know he always
has a drink on his way home from work on Saturday morning.
Peter: (on mock admiration) I say Robert, you do look clean. You’ve even washed behind your
ears!
Robert: Now, don’t you be rude, young Peter. You could do with a wash yourself…Here, Peter, what
are you doing with that cake?
Peter: (imitating Robert) Don’t be silly! You know exactly what I’m doing with it. You know
very well I always come home on Saturday and have to wait for my lunch so I eat whatever I can find in the
pantry – and that’s what I’m doing now.

Text 3. Lesson 10

Harry: Nora, you look a bit tired – what have you been doing all day?
Nora: I’ve been cleaning the whole house. I said I was going to.
Harry: But I wanted you to wait until the weekend so that I could help.
Nora: Oh, well, I thought I might as well get on with it. It was about time: the furniture has
been looking shabby for months, so this morning I took all the loose covers off the armchairs, and I
washed them. That bit of sun early this afternoon helped to dry them.
Harry: Well, I hope you had a rest this afternoon.
Nora: No, since lunchtime I’ve been turning out the rooms upstairs. I haven’t quite finished
them yet. I’ve done our room and Robert’s.
Harry: My goodness, you have been working hard.
Nora: You know, Harry, you do make it hard for me to keep the place looking nice when
you leave your things about everywhere. For years I’ve been asking you not to keep your books in
the kitchen and not to leave gardening tools inside the house.

57
Harry: And for years I’ve been telling you that you are perfectly free to throw out anything
that I leave about if it gets in your way.
Nora: Harry, could you turn out your workroom? I’ve been meaning to ask you for days.
Harry: Yes, I will … hello, who has been playing with my pipes? Three of them are missing!
Nora: Yes, I gave three dirty old pipes to an old man at the door. You haven’t been smoking
them lately.
Harry: But Nora, you’ve thrown out my oldest and best pipes.

Text 4. Lesson 12

Harry: Nora! Nora!


Nora: Yes, what is it now, Harry?
Harry: Oh, there you are! Look here, Nora, I’m tired of lying here on my back with nothing
to do. I hate doing nothing.
Nora: Don’t be silly, Harry. You’ve got a temperature, and staying in bed is the only
sensible thing to do. Now, just be quiet and stop preventing me from doing my housework.
Harry: No, seriously, Nora, I can’t bear it lying flat on my back.
Nora: Well, then try lying on your stomach for a change.
Harry: Stop being funny. I’m going to get up. There! Look! I am standing up! I am quite all
right. What’s the use of staying in bed?
Nora: I think you are being very silly. You’ll only make your temperature go up again.
Harry: It’s no use talking, Nora. Being ill doesn’t suit me.
Nora: No, and trying to nurse you doesn’t suit me.
Harry: Now, don’t be bitter about it. You know I’m grateful to you for looking after me. But
you mustn’t try to keep me in bed like a naughty boy.
Nora: Well, you began it by behaving like a naughty boy.
Harry: I’m all against this staying in bed for no reason.
Nora: Harry, being ill is a reason. Now, don’t stand by that window and catch another cold.
Let me see. Half past eleven.
Harry: Why do you keep looking at the clock?
Nora: I’m expecting Mother. She is coming over for the day.
Harry: Good Heavens! I didn’t know that.
Nora: Yes, I think she has something she wants to talk to you about.
Harry: Oh, Heavens! Has she? Oh … you know, Nora, I do feel a bit ill. Perhaps I had better
get back to bed.
Nora: Oh, what a pity. I thought perhaps you might stay up to see her.
Harry: That’s the very reason I’m getting back into bed.
Nora: What did you say?
Harry: Oh, err… nothing.

Text 5. Lesson 27

Nora: Robert, I’d like you to do something for me.


Robert: Oh, what is it, Mom?
Nora: I want you to make up the stove for my bath.
Robert: But I am busy – I’m doing my homework.
Nora: Do you think I haven’t got any work to do? Look at all these clothes I’ve got to iron.
Robert: Yes, but do you expect me to stop in the middle of what I am writing?
Nora: I can’t make you help me if you don’t want to. But I’ve seldom known you take so
much interest in your homework.
Robert: I’ve got ever so much to do tonight.
Nora: I only asked you to help me for a minute. I don’t like my boys to be disagreeable.

58
Harry: Robert, do I understand you to say you refuse to help your mother? You oughtn’t
even to wait for her to ask you. I’ve been watching you do your work as you call it, looking out of
the window half the time. Let me tell you, young man, you need some real work to do. Never mind,
Nora, let me help you.
Nora: Thank you, Harry! I’d just like the stove to be made up for me to have a bath. I
haven’t got used to this kind of stove yet, you understand it better.
Harry: Oh, yes. I’ll soon get the water to boil. Ah, where’s the coal? There my boy, that
didn’t take me long to do, did it?
Robert: No, Dad, but I advise you to have another look inside the stove before you sit down
again. I think the fire was out.
Harry: Good Heavens, so it was. Well, you’re jolly well going to relight it, Robert. I refuse
to.

Text 6. Lesson 40

Harry: We shall have to hurry if we’re going to catch that train. What’s Robert doing?
Nora: Robert’s gone on to the station with some of the luggage. He’s meeting us on the
platform.
Harry: Don’t pack that book, Peter, you’ll be wanting it in the train.
Peter: Oh, yes, so I shall, Dad.
Nora: I wonder whether I ought to have cut some sandwiches.
Harry: No, we shall be stopping ten minutes at the junction, so we shall be able to buy
something to eat there… You’ll have to carry this case, Peter.
Nora: He can’t, because he’ll be carrying my hatbox, besides his own case.
Harry: Look here, we must get away or we shall be late.
Nora: It’s going to be a lovely day. Are we all ready?
Peter: I’m ready. I’m waiting for you.
Nora: Have you turned off the gas and electricity, Harry?
Harry: I’ll just make sure, dear.
Nora: Otherwise they’ll be sending us bills for the time we are away.
Harry: Yes, it’s all done. Come along now, off we go. Shut the door behind you, Peter.
Nora: Are you sure you’ve got the railway tickets, Harry?
Harry: Good heavens! I think I’ve left them on the piano.
Peter: I’ll go in and get them, Dad.
Harry: No, it’s all right; here they are in my waistcoat pocket.
Nora: Good morning, Mrs. Wood.
Mrs. Wood: Good morning! So you are off then? Good-bye, have a nice time.
Harry: Thank you.
Nora: Good-bye, Mrs. Wood. We’ll see you when we come back in three weeks’ time.
Mrs. Wood: Oh, I expect we shall be seeing you sooner than that. We’ve decided that we are
going to Brightshore for our holiday, too.
Nora: Oh, how nice! Do tell me more about it.
Harry: Come on, Nora. We are going to miss that train.

II. From “Intermediate English Course” by A. C. Gimson (for audio see: Internet sources,
http://www.twirpx.com/file/438873/)

Text 7. A Date for the Theatre. Program I, text 2

Mike: Hello, Jack. Why the rush? Where are you going?

59
Jack: Hello, Mike. I’m on my way to meet Joyce at the station. We are having dinner at a
Chinese restaurant and then we are off to the theatre.
Mike: Do you often go to the theatre?
Jack: Yes, Joyce and I usually go at least once a fortnight, sometimes more. Do you ever
go?
Mike: Yes, but I don’t often have time these days. There are so many other things to do.
Jack: True, true.
Mike: Listen, perhaps Janet and I can arrange to meet you and Joyce one Saturday evening.
We can have dinner together and go on to a theatre.
Jack: That’s a good idea. Look, I forget the name of the play, but there is a good comedy
on at the Theatre Royal next week. If you like I can book four seats for next Saturday.
Mike: All right. I’m meeting Janet later this evening so I can make sure that she is free next
Saturday. I’ll ring you tomorrow to conform if we are coming.
Jack: Fine. I must fly now. It’s six o’clock already and Joyce’s bus arrives at ten past. She
hates waiting around and I don’t want to spoil everything by upsetting her before we start our
evening.
Mike: I’ll phone you tomorrow then. Give my regards to Joyce. Have a good evening.

Text 8. A Lost Tie. Program II, text 3

Mike: Have you seen my new tie, Mum?


Mother: Which new tie?
Mike: The red one I bought in London a couple of weeks ago. I wore it to the dinner party
at the Dawsons’ place on Saturday and I haven’t worn it or seen it since.
Mother: No, I don’t think I’ve seen it this week, but have you looked for it properly? I expect
you threw it carelessly into the back of the wardrobe after the party – they way you usually do.
Mike: I’ve looked for it everywhere. And it’s not in the wardrobe. Have you tidied up my
bedroom again and put all my things away in new places where I’ll never find them?
Mother: I always put your ties in the wardrobe where they belong, so don’t blame me. Are
you sure you haven’t worn that tie since Saturday?
Mike: No, I don’t think so.
Mother: On Tuesday you went out with Janet and I think you put it on then. You didn’t come
in until one o’clock in the morning and I was already in bed. Perhaps you took it off in Janet’s
house and left it there.
Mike: Ah! I remember now. It was a bit hot and I took my tie off in the car on the way
home on Tuesday. I suppose it’s still on the shelf under the dashboard.
Mother: As usual you’ve only got yourself to blame. It’s a good job your head is firmly fixed
to your shoulders – otherwise I’m sure you’d lose that too.

Text 9. Peter Parker. Program II, text 1

Interviewer: With us in the studio this morning is Peter Parker. Good morning, Peter.
Peter: Good morning.
Interviewer: Peter Parker is an English Language teacher. He was always good at languages at
school, so he decided to take his degree in French and German. When he finished his university
studies, he began teaching in a secondary school in England. Two years later, however, he met
someone by chance who offered him a job teaching English to foreign students during the long
summer holidays. His students were adults and he enjoyed the work immensely. He soon found he
was more interested in teaching his own language to foreigners than foreign languages to English
schoolboys.
Since then he has specialized in this work. He has found that one of the advantages
of the job is that enables him to find work almost anywhere in the world. First he went to Africa for

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two years and then he spent a year in Arabia. After this he went to Greece where he has worked for
the last three years. He hasn’t been to South America yet but he intends to go there next. He has
taught men and women of all ages and of various nationalities. He has also learnt to get on with all
kinds of people and to adjust to different ways of life. So far he has not regretted his decision to
follow this career.
Now then, Peter, tell me …

Text 10. A Little Gossip. Program III, text 2

Mrs. Jones: Good morning, Mrs. Smith. What beautiful weather again!
Mrs. Smith: Yes, lovely! What a splendid summer we’ve had so far this year!
Mrs. Jones; Yes, but some people are complaining about the heat and grumbling because we
haven’t had much rain for the gardens.
Mrs. Smith: Some people are never satisfied.
Mrs. Jones: By the way, have you heard that young Patrick Ellis has had another accident in hi
car?
Mrs. Smith: How awful! Is he badly hurt?
Mrs. Jones: Well, they took him to hospital but I don’t think it was serious because he is coming
home again today.
Mrs. Smith: I suppose he was driving flat out again. Only yesterday I was telling Mrs. Tailor how
madly he drives. And all his friends are just the same.
Mrs. Jones: I know. What wild things young men are these days!
Mrs. Smith: Mm …. I’ve got some news for you, too. Have you heard that Eva Browning is
getting married for the third time on September the tenth?
Mrs. Jones: Fancy that! She only got her second divorce in the spring. What a dreadful woman
she is!
Mrs. Smith: Her first marriage only lasted six months – and that was only in1972, wasn’t it?
Mrs. Jones: Yes, that’s right. At this rate she’ll lose count of her husbands before she is forty.
Mrs. Smith: She may lose count, Mrs. Jones but we certainly won’t.

Text 11. After the Exams. Program IV, text 3

Malcolm: What did you think of the exams, Pete? I recon they were dead easy.
Pete: Maybe they were easy enough for you but they were much too hard for me.
Malcolm: Oh, come on. You’ve probably done better than you think.
Pete: No, I’m dead certain I’ve failed in Latin, and most likely in French and History, too.
Thank goodness it’s all over though. We can forget about it now, at least until the results come out.
Malcolm: Yes. Now I can get on with reading all the books I’ve been wanting to read for
months, but haven’t had time for.
Pete: What! … Well, it’s up to you I suppose, but I’ve had enough of reading; I am not
going to open another book for months. Don’t you think we all deserve a break?
Malcolm: Well, yes … I’ll take a day or two off perhaps. And I think I’ll come to Bob’s sister’s
party tomorrow night. But if I am going to university in October, I’ll have to get down to some
serious work again pretty soon.
Pete: I’ve got to get through the A level exams first. I’ll worry about university if and when
I ever get there.
Malcolm: That’s the trouble with you. You always try to do everything at the last minute.
Pete: And you are too serious: that’s your trouble. You never stop swotting.
Malcolm: Well, I like reading.
Pete: And I can’t stand it. I don’t know why I decided to try to go to university in the first
place. I think I’ll run away and join the army or something.

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Text 12. Sea or Air. Program VII, text 3

Susan: Are you looking forward to your trip to Canada, Julie?


Julie: I can’t wait to see Canada, Susan, but I’m scared stiff of the journey. My husband
insists on flying, but I want to sail. Planes make me nervous.
Susan: There’s nothing to be frightened of. How many planes fly across the Atlantic every
day?
Julie: I’ve no idea. Hundreds, I suppose.
Susan: And how often do you hear of a crash? Once or twice a year?
Julie: Yes, but aeroplanes fly so high and fast that once is enough.
Susan: Look, there are more road casualties per day than air deaths per year. Air transport is
really safe compared with road transport.
Julie: I’d still prefer to go by sea. Ships may not travel fast but at least you can relax. I’d
love a trip on a luxury liner like the Queen Elizabeth II.
Susan: It’s fine if you’re a good sailor, but have you ever travelled far in a rough sea?
Julie: No. I’ve only been in a boat once. I sailed down the River Thames on a sightseeing
tour… But in any case I’d rather be sea-sick than dead.

Text 13. The New Pool. Program XIV, text 2

Andy: Have they finished work on your new swimming-pool yet, Charles? When I passed
by yesterday, it was being filled with water, wasn’t it?
Charles: That’s right. We had our first swim in it this morning. The concrete path around it is
going to be widened, but everything will have been completed before the end of the week.
Andy: You must be pleased. How long is it?
Charles: It’s only 25 feet long and 15 feet wide, but that’s big enough to cool down in, isn’t it?
Andy: And to get a spot of exercise in. If you normally swim twenty lengths in a big pool,
you can get the same benefit if you swim up and down forty or fifty times in a small one, can’t you?
Charles: Yes, but I’m hardly aiming at getting into the Olympic team, am I?
Andy: How deep is it? You can’t dive into it, can you?
Charles Oh yes you can! It’s eight feet in depth at one end. The diving board will be installed
tomorrow. By the way we are holding a swimming party on Sunday, if it’s not too cold/ you will
come, won’t you?
Andy: I’d love to come, but I’m not much of a swimmer, and I can barely dive at all. I’ll
probably drown.
Charles: Well, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. Anyway there’ll be plenty to
drink.
Andy: Good. I’d rather drown in beer than in water.

Text 14. Weight Problem. Program XVI, text 2

Felix: Did you have a good game, Gerry?


Gerry: Splendid, but I’m dead beat now. I’ve got to sit down and have a rest, a cigarette and
a drink.
Felix: How long have you been playing?
Gerry: Only about 40 minutes, but I’m all in.
Felix: That’s what I like about squash. You get more exercise in half an hour than you get
in two hours from any other sport, and you enjoy yourself in the process. Of course I don’t play
myself now …
Gerry: I must be losing weight. I’ve played three times this week and I recon I’ve sweated
off a couple of pounds each time.

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Felix: Yes, but how many beers do you have after the game? I always find I’m so thirsty
after playing golf that I’ve got to drink two or three pints – and then I put on all the weight I lost
during the round.
Gerry: I suppose you are right. My waistline isn’t getting any better. I’m only kidding
myself really.
Felix: Who did you play with?
Gerry: That chap Ted Sykes. And I managed to beat him for the first time.
Felix: Did you? You must be improving. They say he’s good enough for the club second
team.
Gerry: Do they? Perhaps there’s a chance for me then. Have another beer on me. You
haven’t got to go yet, have you?
Felix: Well, I can’t stay long. We are having dinner with some friends tonight, and Gertie
will be wild if I’m late. Still, there’s no need to rush: I’ll have one more.
Gerry: Good!

Text 15. A Picnic. Program I, text 3

Tim: Exter 78563.


Mary: Tim? This is Mary. I hope I haven’t woken you up.
Tim: Actually I got up ten minutes ago, but it’s only a quarter to nine. Why are you calling
on me so early on a Sunday morning?
Mary: Because the sun’s shining and there isn’t a cloud in the sky, and Alan and I are going
for a picnic. Do you want to come?
Tim: It’s true we haven’t seen the sun lately; but I expect it’ll rain again soon.
Mary: No, it won’t.
Tim: Well I’ve got some work to do, but I suppose I could put it off till tomorrow. Where
are you thinking of going?
Mary: Well, there’s lovely spot by the river on the road to Tiverton. There’s a big bend in
the road just you get before to Stoke. You leave your car and walk across a field to the left. There
are some tall elm trees by the river, and that’s where we’ll be. It’s very easy to find the place.
Tim: Yes, I think I know where you mean. I’ll come and I might even go for a swim. Are
you taking any food or drink? It’s a pity you didn’t mention it yesterday; I don’t think there’s any
beer in the house.
Mary: Don’t worry. We’ve got some bottles of beer and lemonade and there’s half a chicken
in the fridge.
Tim: Right then. See you there in about an hour.

III. From “Linguaphone English Course” by J. D. O’Connor (for audio see: Internet sources,
http://www.gramatica-limbii-engleze.ro/linguaphone_24_32.htm)

Text 16. Sightseeing. Lesson 32

A: Is it possible to see anything of London in one or two days?


B: Well, yes, but of course, not half enough.
A: What do you think I ought to see first?
B: Well, if you are interested in churches and historical places you should go to Westminster
Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, St. Paul’s and the Tower. Do you like art galleries?
A: Rather.
B: Then why not go to the National Gallery and the Tate?
A: I’m told one ought to see the British Museum. Do you think I shall have time for that?

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A: Well, you might, but if I were you, I should leave that for some other day. You could spend a
whole day there. It’s much too big to be seen in an hour or so.
A: I suppose it is. What about going to the Zoo?
B: That’s not a bad idea. You could spend a couple of hours there comfortably, or even a whole
afternoon, watching the wild animals, birds and reptiles. You could have tea there too.
A: I’ll do that then. How do I get there?
B: Let me see. Ah, there’s the BBC. I think your best way from here is to walk across Regent’s
Park.
A: Is it much of a walk?
B Oh, no, a quarter of an hour or so, but, if you are in a hurry, why not take a taxi?
A: I think I will. Ah, here’s one coming. Taxi! The Zoo, please.

Text 17. Sports and Games Popular in England. Lesson 42

A: What would you say are the most popular games in England today?
B: Well, I suppose football, that is soccer, or rugger, and cricket.
A: What are the other outdoor games?
B: Oh, there’s tennis, hockey, golf, and so on. Tennis is played all the year round – on hard
courts or grass courts in summer, and on hard or covered courts in winter.
A: What about horse-racing?
B: I should say that is one of the most popular sports in Great Britain. Then there are, of course,
walking-races, running, swimming and boxing.
A: I’ve been told that there are no winter sports in England.
B: Well, you see the English winter isn’t very severe as a rule, and we don’t often have the
chance of skiing, skating or tobogganing, but winter is the great time for hunting, provided the
ground is not too hard.
A: Is there any golf to be had near London?
B: Oh, yes, any amount. There are dozens of good golf-links within an hour or so of London.
You ought to join a golf club if you’re keen on the game.
A: I think I shall if I get the chance. What about indoor games?
B: Well, there’s chess, billiards, cards, table tennis … By the way, do you play billiards?
A: Well, I do, but of course, I’m not a professional or a champion, just an ordinary amateur, and
not a very good one at that.

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CONTENTS
Предисловие........................................................................................................................................
STATEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………
IMPERATIVES………………………………………………………………………………………
EXCLAMATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………
GENERAL QUESTIONS……………………………………………………………………………..
SPECIAL QUESTIONS.........................................................................................................................
ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS.............................................................................................................
TAG QUESTIONS.................................................................................................................................
ECHO QUESTIONS..............................................................................................................................
SUPPLEMENT......................................................................................................................................

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