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Computer Networks

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Introduction
• A computer network is a collection of two or more connected
computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people
can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape
backup drives, or CD-ROM drives.
• When networks at multiple locations are connected using services
available from phone companies, people can send e-mail, share links
to the global Internet, or conduct video conferences in real time with
other remote users.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• Every network includes:
üAt least two computers Server or Client workstation.
ü Networking Interface Card's (NIC)
ü A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless
communication between networked computers and peripherals is also
possible.
üNetwork Operating system software, such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000,
Novell NetWare, Unix and Linux.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Types of Networks
• LANs (Local Area Networks)
LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building
or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but
often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development
of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide
proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• WANs (Wide Area Networks)
Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically
separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using
services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines
(both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links.
• Internet It is a network of interconnected networks.
The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope
and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file
transfer, electronic mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups.
• Intranet An intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools,
but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an
intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for
employees.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Cloud Computing
• Cloud Computing can be defined as delivering computing power
( CPU, RAM, Network Speeds, Storage OS software) a service over a network
(usually on the internet) rather than physically having the computing resources at
the customer location.
• Example: AWS, Azure, Google Cloud
Let’s learn Cloud computing with an example -
Whenever you travel through a bus or train, you take a ticket for your destination
and hold back to your seat till you reach your destination. Likewise other
passengers also takes ticket and travel in the same bus with you and it hardly
bothers you where they go. When your stop comes you get off the bus thanking
the driver. Cloud computing is just like that bus, carrying data and information for
different users and allows to use its service with minimal cost.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Why the Name Cloud?

The term “Cloud” came


from a network design
that was used by network
engineers to represent
the location of various
network devices and
there inter-
connection. The shape of
this network design was
like a cloud.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Why Cloud Computing?
•Cloud computing decreases the hardware and software demand from
the user’s side. The only thing that user must be able to run is the
cloud computing systems interface software, which can be as simple as
Web browser, and the Cloud network takes care of the rest.
•With increase in computer and Mobile user’s, data storage has
become a priority in all fields. Large and small scale businesses today
thrive on their data & they spent a huge amount of money to maintain
this data. For them Cloud Computing is a cheaper solution. Perhaps
its efficiency in storing data, computation and less maintenance cost
has succeeded to attract even bigger businesses as well.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Benefits of Cloud Computing
Following are the benefits of cloud computing:
•Lower IT infrastructure and computer costs for users
•Improved performance
•Fewer Maintenance issues
•Instant software updates
•Improved compatibility between Operating systems
•Backup and recovery
•Increased storage capacity
•Increase data safety

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Types of Clouds
•Private Cloud: Here, computing resources are deployed for one particular
organization. This method is more used for intra-business
interactions. Where the computing resources can be governed, owned and
operated by the same organization.
•Community Cloud: Here, computing resources are provided for a
community and organizations.
•Public Cloud: This type of cloud is used usually for B2C (Business to
Consumer) type interactions. Here the computing resource is owned,
governed and operated by government, an academic or business
organization.
•Hybrid Cloud: This type of cloud can be used for both type of interactions -
B2B (Business to Business) or B2C ( Business to Consumer). This
deployment method is called hybrid cloud as the computing resources are
bound together by different clouds.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Cloud Computing Services
The three major Cloud Computing Offerings are
•Software as a Service (SaaS)
•Platform as a Service (PaaS)
•Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Cloud Computing Architecture

Cloud computing
comprises of two
components front end
and back end. Front
end consist client part
of cloud computing
system. It comprise of
interfaces and
applications that are
required to access the
cloud computing
platform.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
IoT(Internet of Things)
• The phrase Internet of Things (IoT) refers to connecting
various physical devices and objects throughout the world
via internet. The term IoT was firstly proposed by Kevin
Ashton in 1999.
• For example, when the household devices of our daily life
connect with the internet the system can be called a Smart-
Home in IoT environment
• The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical
objects—devices, instruments, vehicles, buildings and other
items embedded with electronics, circuits ,software, sensors
and network connectivity that enables these objects to
collect and exchange data.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Looking at the evolution of the Internet we can classify it into five eras:

1. The Internet of Documents -- e-libraries, document based webpages.


2. The Internet of Commerce -- e-commerce, e-banking and stock trading
websites.
3. The Internet of Applications -- Web 2.0
4. The Internet of People -- Social networks.
5. The Internet of Things -- Connected devices and machines.

In the past few years, IoT has been developed rapidly and a large number of enabling
technologies have been proposed.
The IoT has been the trend of the next Internet. Every available thing is getting smart. There
is a wide scope for re-search in IoT. Many new technologies will emerge in the upcoming
years taking a us to a whole new level of a smart world. . The future of IoT is very bright.
From our bills to vehicles everything would be connected providing a better lifestyle.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Wired Networks
• As we know "wired" is the term refers to any physical medium consisting of
cables. The cables can be copper wire, twisted pair or fiber optic. Wired
network is used to carry different forms of electrical signals from one end to t
other.
The following classes of wired technologies are used in computer networking.
• Coaxial Cable
It has a single copper conductor in the middle. A plastic layer
provides insulation between the braided metal shield and
center conductor. The metal shield blocks outer interference
from motors, fluorescent lights, and other computers.
Coaxial cabling is extremely resistant to signal obstruction though it is comple
to install. It can handle great cable lengths between network devices than the
twisted pair cable. The two types of coaxial cables are thin coaxial and thick
coaxial.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
• Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core
surrounded by many layers of protective materials.
It removes the problem of electrical obstruction by
transmitting light rather than electronic signals. This makes them
perfect for certain atmospheres which contain huge amount of
electrical interference. It has become the standard for connecting
networks between buildings because of its resistance to lighting and
moisture.
• Twisted pair Cable
Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many
business computers to the telephone company. To reduce crosstalk
or electromagnetic induction between pairs of wires, two
insulated copper wires are twisted around each other.
Each connection on twistedAmitpair requires both wires.
Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Wireless Network

• As we know "Wireless" is the term refers to medium made of


electromagnetic waves (i.e. EM Waves) or infrared waves. All the wireless
devices will have antenna or sensors. Typical wireless devices include
cellular mobile, wireless sensors, TV remote, satellite disc receiver, laptops
with WLAN card etc. Wireless network does not use wires for data or voice
communication; it uses radio frequency waves as mentioned above. The
other examples are fiber optic communication link and broadband ADSL
etc.
• EXAMPLES of wireless network:
1. Outdoor cellular technologies such as GSM, CDMA, WiMAX, LTE,
Satellite etc.
2. Indoor wireless technologies such as Wireless LAN(or WiFi), Bluetooth,
IrDA, Zigbee, Zwave etc.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Most commonly used transmission media in wireless networks are:
•Microwave: Microwaves are high frequency waves that can be used to
transmit data wirelessly over long distances. The microwave
transmission consists of a transmitter, receiver and atmosphere.
Microwave radiation can be used to transmit signals such as mobile
calls.

•Radio Wave: Radio waves are used to transmit television and radio
programmes. All radios today, use continuous sine waves to transmit
information(audio,video,data). WiFi that has become a common word
today also used radio wave to transmit data among connected devices.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• Satellite: Satellite communication is a special case of microwave relay
system. Satellite communication use the synchronous satellite to
relay the radio signal transmitted from ground station. A number of
communication satellites , owned by both government and private
organizations, have been placed in stationary orbits about 22,300
miles above the earth’s surface.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Computers: Clients and Servers
• In a client/server network
arrangement, network services
are located in a dedicated
computer whose only function is
to respond to the requests of
clients.

• The server contains the file,


print, application, security, and
other services in a central
computer that is continuously
available to respond to client
requests.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV AliganjAmit Kumar


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Concept of Client and Server
• A client and server networking model is a model in which computers
such as servers provide the network services to the other computers
such as clients to perform a user based tasks. This model is known as
client-server networking model.
• The application programs using the client-server model should follow
the given below strategies:

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• An application program is known
as a client program, running on the
local machine that requests for a
service from an application
program known as a server
program, running on the remote
machine.
• A client program runs only when it
requests for a service from the
server while the server program
runs all time as it does not know
when its service is required.
• A server provides a service for
many clients not just for a single
client. Therefore, we can say that
client-server follows the many-to-
one relationship. Many clients can
use the service of one server.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• Client
A client is a program that runs on the local machine requesting service
from the server. A client program is a finite program means that the
service started by the user and terminates when the service is
completed.
• Server
A server is a program that runs on the remote machine providing
services to the clients. When the client requests for a service, then
the server opens the door for the incoming requests, but it never
initiates the service.
A server program is an infinite program means that when it starts, it
runs infinitely unless the problem arises. The server waits for the
incoming requests from the clients. When the request arrives at the
server, then it responds to the request.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Advantages of Client-server networks
•Centralized: Centralized back-up is possible in client-server networks, i.e., all the data is
stored in a server.
•Security: These networks are more secure as all the shared resources are centrally
administered.
•Performance: The use of the dedicated server increases the speed of sharing resources.
This increases the performance of the overall system.
•Scalability: We can increase the number of clients and servers separately, i.e., the new
element can be added, or we can add a new node in a network at any time.
Disadvantages of Client-Server network:
•Traffic Congestion is a big problem in Client/Server networks. When a large number of
clients send requests to the same server may cause the problem of Traffic congestion.
•It does not have a robustness of a network, i.e., when the server is down, then the client
requests cannot be met.
•A client/server network is very decisive. Sometimes, regular computer hardware does not
serve a certain number of clients. In such situations, specific hardware is required at the
server side to complete the work.
•Sometimes the resources exist in the server but may not exist in the client. For example, If
the application is web, then we cannot take the print out directly on printers without
taking out the print view window on the web.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Network Devices
NIC
• A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network
interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network
interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component
that connects a computer to a computer network.
•Early network interface controllers were commonly implemented
on expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus. The low cost and
ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means
that most newer computers have a network
interface built into the motherboard.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Switch: A network switch is a computer networking device that
connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to
receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.

Switch is also used to connect multiple computers together in a LAN


workgroup, just like hub. Switches are available with 4,8,12,24,48,64
ports. Switch makes their switching decisions by using application
specific integrated circuits (ASICs).Due to switching decision capability,
switch sends signal to recipient only and that’s why switches are called
as intelligent hub. In below diagram leftmost node sending signal to
rightmost node.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


With a switch, multiple stations
may transmit simultaneously:
no congestion as traffic grows. Switch

Station
Station
Connection 1 C
A
A-C

Connection 1
A-C Station
Station Connection 2 D
B B-D

Connection 2
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj B-D
Hub: – It is used to connect multiple computers in a single LAN network of
one workgroup. Generally HUBs are available with 4,8,12,24,48 ports. When
a hub receives signal on its port, it repeats the signal and forwards that
signal from all ports except the port on which the signal arrived.
There are two types of HUB
Passive HUB:- It only forwards the signal on all ports without amplifying the
signal.
Active HUB:- it forwards the signal with improvement in the quality of data
signal by amplifying it. That why such hubs need additional power supply.
Based on port type, there are two types of HUB:-
Ethernet HUB :- All ports have RJ-45 connectors.
Combo HUB :- Several different types of connectors such RJ-45, BNC, and
AUI available as ports in such HUB.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Router: Router is a networking device which chooses the best optimal
path from available paths to send the signals. It interconnects different
networks. The simplest function of a router is to received packets from
one connected network and pass them to second connected network.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Access Point:
An access point(AP), also called wireless access point(WAP), is a
hardware device that establishes connection(s) of computing devices
on wireless LAN with a fixed wire network.
The AP is connected to a fixed wire network and it than broadcast
wireless signals that computing devices having Wi-Fi cards can detect;
using these wireless signals, the computing devices get connected to
fixed wire network.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Modulation:
•In radio communication, a radio signal is ‘modulated’ so that it can be
transmitted over long distances. In the simplest terms, this means that
the radio signal (or input signal), i.e. the signal carrying audio
information, is added with a carrier signal.
•Unlike a radio signal (which usually has a very low frequency), a carrier
signal has a constant amplitude and frequency, i.e. a constant
waveform, which helps to carry the radio signal over long distances.
The process of ‘mounting’ the original signal to a carrier wave is called
modulation.
•The main function of carrier wave is to carry the audio or video signal
from the transmitter to the receiver. The superimposition of message
signal and carrier wave results into a new wave called modulated
wave.
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Major Types of Modulation
Amplitude Modulation(AM):
Amplitude Modulation, commonly abbreviated as AM, is a common
method of broadcasting radio signals.
In AM, the amplitude of the carrier wave is modified in order to
transmit the input signal (the one that carries information).
In AM, the amplitude of the carrier wave is modified proportionally
according to the amplitude of the input signal
AM involves the alteration of the amplitude of the carrier wave
The typical frequency range in which AM works is 535 to 1705 Kilohertz

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Frequency Modulation(FM):
Frequency Modulation, often referred to as FM, is another, relatively
newer method of modulation where the carrier wave is modified
proportionally according to the input signal. In FM, the instantaneous
frequency of the carrier wave is altered according to the amplitude of
the input signal.
In FM, the frequency of the carrier wave is modified proportionally
according to the amplitude of the input signal
FM involves changes in the frequency of the carrier wave.
The frequency range is around 88-108 Megahertz for FM.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


AM

FM

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Collision in Wireless Network
•In a computer network, collision is a specific condition that occurs
when two or more nodes on a network transmit data at the same time.
•But in wireless networks, if collision occurs, the transmitting nodes
cannot detect it. This is because the nodes in a wireless network
cannot listen while transmitting(such type of communication is called
HALF-DUPLEX).
•Thus for wireless networks strategies are adopted that avoid collission
rather than detecting it.
•Wireless networks implement it using a special protocol called
CSMA/CA(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) as wired
networks are FULL DUPLEX hence collision detection method used is
CSMA/CD(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) .

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


How CSMA/CA works?
The basic working principle of CSMA/CA is described in following lines:
1. Node ready to transmit/talk.
2. Listen for other nodes, if any transmission is taking place. One of the two
possibilities are:
2.1 Busy. A transmission is taking plave. Now do the following
2.1.1 Increase back off or wait time
2.1.2 Sleep as per wait time
2.1.3 Wake up and go to step 1.
2.2 Free. No transmission is taking place. Now do the following:
2.2.1 Send message
2.2.2 Verify if proper transmission has taken place using one of the
following method
(a) ACK(Acknowledgement) Method
(b) Request to Send/Clear to Send(RTS/CTS) Method
Thus there are two versions of CSMA/CA:
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
1. CSMA/CA with ACK(Acknowledgement) Method
In this method, as soon as a node transmits data to another node, the
receiving node must send an acknowledgement signal called ACK,
once it has received the data. The ACK signal must reach to the
sender node with in a specific time-frame.
If the sender node does not receive ACK in specific time, it considers it
as a failed transmission and retransmits the data.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


2. CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS(Ready to Send/Clear to Send)
In this method, the sender node first sends an RTS signal to receiver.
Receiver confirms its readiness to receive by sending a CTS signal to
the sender as well as all other nodes.
• Other nodes upon receiving a CTS will now not transmit(will wait) as
they now know that some transmission taking place and
communicate channel as BUSY.
• The sender node upon receiving a CTS goes ahead with transmission.
Once the transmission ends, the receiver node sends ACK signal to all
nodes:
• The sender nodes take it(ACK) as confirmation of successful
transmission.
• Other nodes take ACK signal as end of transmission. Now they can
transmit, if they need to as now channel if FREE.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Error Checking (Error Detection)
Error
A condition when the receiver’s information does not matches with
the sender’s information. During transmission, digital signals suffer
from noise that can introduce errors in the binary bits travelling from
sender to receiver. That means a 0 bit may change to 1 or a 1 bit may
change to 0.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• Error Detecting Codes Whenever a message is transmitted, it may
get scrambled by noise or data may get corrupted. To avoid this, we
use error-detecting codes which are additional data added to a given
digital message to help us detect if any error has occurred during
transmission of the message.

• Basic approach used for error detection is the use of redundancy bits,
where additional bits are added to facilitate detection of errors.
Some popular techniques for error detection are:
1. Simple Parity check
2. Two-dimensional Parity check
3. Checksum
4. Cyclic redundancy check

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


1. Simple Parity check
Blocks of data from the source are subjected to a check bit or parity
bit generator form, where a parity of :
• 1 is added to the block if it contains odd number of 1’s, and
• 0 is added if it contains even number of 1’s
This scheme makes the total number of 1’s even, that is why it is called
even parity checking.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


2. Two-dimensional Parity check
Parity check bits are calculated for each row, which is equivalent to a
simple parity check bit. Parity check bits are also calculated for all
columns, then both are sent along with the data. At the receiving end
these are compared with the parity bits calculated on the received
data

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• 3. Checksum
• In checksum error detection scheme, the data is divided into k
segments each of m bits.
• In the sender’s end the segments are added using 1’s complement
arithmetic to get the sum. The sum is complemented to get the
checksum.
• The checksum segment is sent along with the data segments.
• At the receiver’s end, all received segments are added using 1’s
complement arithmetic to get the sum. The sum is complemented.
• If the result is zero, the received data is accepted; otherwise
discarded.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Idea of Routing
• routing is the process of moving data packets between different
networks. By default two different IP networks cannot communicate
with each other. They need a mediator device that can switch packet
between them. Router takes this responsibility. Routers interfaces
are associated with different networks. This association is kept in
routing table. Routers use it to take switching decision.
Following figure illustrates a simple routing example.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• 10.0.0.0/8 Network is connected on router’s F0/1
interface.
• 20.0.0.0/8 Network is connected with router’s
F0/2 interface.
• Laptop sends a packet to PC.
• Router receives this packet in F0/1 interface.
• Router checks destination address field in packet.
• Packet has 20.0.0.2/8 address in destination
address field.
• IP address 20.0.0.2/8 belongs to 20.0.0.0/8
network.
• Router checks routing table for matching network.
• Routing table has an entry for 20.0.0.0/8 network.
• 20.0.0.0/8 Network is associated with F0/2
interface of router.
• Based on this information router moves this packet
from F0/1 to F0/2.
• F0/2 interface sends this packet to its destination.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Addresses on a Network
On a network, various types of addresses play roles. Different addresses used on a
etwork are:
a)Web Address(URL) (b) IP Address
Web Address(URL): A Location on a net server is called a URL(Uniform Resource
ocator). Each website has a unique address called URL. Ex. The website address or
URL for Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is https://www.kvsangathan.nic.in.
Overview of URL:
https://www.kvsangathan.nic.in/academic/admission-guidelines

rotocol Subdomain address of server Directory web-page

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• http:// or https://
The "http" stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol and is what enables
the browser to know what protocol it is going to use to access the information
specified in the domain. An "https" protocol is short for "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol Secure" and indicates that information transmitted over HTTP is
encrypted and secure. After the http or https is the colon ( : ) and two forward
slashes ( // ) that separate the protocol from the remainder of the URL.
• www.
Next, "www" stands for World Wide Web and is used to distinguish the content.
This portion of the URL is not required and many times can be left out.
• kvsangathan.nic.in
Next, "kvsangathan.nic.in" is the domain name for the website. The last portion of
the domain is known as the domain suffix and is used to identify the type or
location of the website.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• academic
Next, the “academic" portion of the above URL is the directory of
where on the server the web page is located.
• admission-guidelines
It is web page stored in academic directory that will be displayed in
browser.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


IP Address
• IP address is a unique numerical label as a string of numbers
separated by dots, used to identify a device on the internet.
• IP address is short for Internet Protocol (IP) address. Each network
device on a TCP/IP network needs to have a unique address on the
network. Yhis unique address on a TCP/IP network is IP address.
• IP address are needed so that different networks can communicate
with each other.
• Ip addresses can be thought of as a unique series of numbers,
uniquely identifying a computer on a network. Each IP address is
actually a series containing four numbers separated by dots or periods
ex. 192.168.1.1 and 20.123.61.124 are IP addresses
• IP addresses are normally written in dotted decimal form but
computers internally convert them into binary form
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Internal Protocol Versions
There are currently two versions of IP.
1. IPv4: It is most widely deployed Internet protocol used to connect devices to
the Internet. IPv4 uses a 32-bit address scheme allowing for a total of 232
addresses. With the growth of the internet it is expected that the number of
unused IPv4 addresses will eventually run out because every device including
computers, smart phones and game consoles-that connects to internet
requires an address.
An IPv4 address has following format: x.x.x.x, where x is calles an octet and must
be a decimal value between 0 and 255.An IPv4 address must contain three
periods and four octets.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


2. IPv6 Address: A new Internet addressing system Internet Protocol version6 is
being deployed to fulfill the need for more internet addresses. IPv6 utilizes 128-
bit Internet Addresses.
The IPv6 address can have either of the following two formats:
(i) Normal IPv6 Address: This has following format:
y:y:y:y:y:y:y:y, where y is called a segment and can be
any hexadecimal value between 0 and FFFF. The segments are separated by
colons- not periods. An IPv6 normal address must have eight segment.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


(ii) IPv6(Dual) Address. An IPv6(Dual) address combines an IPv6 and
IPv4 address and has the IPv6 portion of the address(indicated with
y’s) is always at the beginning, followed by the IPv4
portion(indicated with x’s).
y: y: y: y: y: y:x.x.x.x
Ex.
i. 1001:ab4:2222:4444:1111:4567:2.3.4.5
ii. ::12.13.14.15 (implies all six IPv6 segment are zero)
iii. ::1234:5678:192.168.1.1 (first four IPv6 segment are zero)
iv. 1001:ab4::192.188.2.2 (first four IPv6 segment are zero)
v. 2001:ab4::1234:5678:1.2.3.4( middle two IPv6 segment are zero)

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Routing Table
• A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is
used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet
Protocol (IP) network will be directed. All IP-enabled devices,
including routers and switches, use routing tables.
• A routing table contains the information necessary to forward a
packet along the best path toward its destination. Each packet
contains information about its origin and destination. When a packet
is received, a network device examines the packet and matches it to
the routing table entry providing the best match for its destination.
The table then provides the device with instructions for sending the
packet to the next hop on its route across the network.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


A basic routing table includes the following information:
• Destination: The IP address of the packet's final destination
• Next hop: The IP address to which the packet is forwarded
• Interface: The outgoing network interface the device should use
when forwarding the packet to the next hop or final destination
• Metric: Assigns a cost to each available route so that the most cost-
effective path can be chosen
• Routes: Includes directly-attached subnets, indirect subnets that are
not attached to the device but can be accessed through one or more
hops, and default routes to use for certain types of traffic or when
information is lacking. Routing tables can be maintained manually or
dynamically.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• In the example below we have a network of two computers and a
router. Host A wants to communicate with Host B. Because hosts are
on different subnets, Host A sends its packet to the default gateway
(the router). The router receives the packet, examines the destination
IP address, and looks up into its routing table to figure out which
interface the packet will be sent out.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


To Display the route table in Windows
Type netstat –rn from command

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


DNS
• The Domain Name Systems (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet.
Humans access information online through domain names, like
yahoo.com or espn.com. Web browsers interact through Internet
Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP
addresses so browsers can load Internet resources.

• Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address which


other machines use to find the device. DNS servers eliminate the
need for humans to memorize IP addresses such as 192.168.1.1 (in
IPv4), or more complex newer alphanumeric IP addresses such as
2400:cb00:2048:1::c629:d7a2 (in IPv6).

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• How Domain Name Resolution Works?
The domain name resolution takes place behind the scene and the user would not
be able to notice it. Lets see what all happens behind the scenes in DNS.
(i). You enter the domain name in a browser in order to reach there.
(ii). Browser now issue a command to Operating system asking to provide
corresponding IP address of given domain.
(iii). Operating system try to resolve the domain name as depicted below:
(a) Refers to its HOSTS file to obtain corresponding address.Every O.S
maintains HOSTS file that stores IP addresses of some domains.
(b) If previous method fails connects to DNS Server on Internet. The DNS
Server on internet maintains directory of all domain names registered on
Internet.
Command to view IP address of a website is: tracert websitename
Ex: c:\> tracert google.com

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


TCP: basic idea of retransmission
• The TCP retransmission mechanism ensures that data is reliably sent from end to
end. If retransmissions are detected in a TCP connection, it is logical to assume
that packet loss has occurred on the network somewhere between client and
server.
• Retransmission is a very simple concept. Whenever one party sends something to
the other party, it retains a copy of the data it sent until the recipient has
acknowledged that it received it. In a variety of circumstances the
sender automatically retransmits the data using the retained copy. Reasons for
resending include:
• if no such acknowledgment is forthcoming within a reasonable time, the time-out
• the sender discovers that the transmission was unsuccessful
• if the receiver knows that expected data has not arrived, and so notifies the
sender
• if the receiver knows that the data has arrived, but in a damaged condition, and
indicates that to the sender
Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
rate modulation when there is congestion
• Rate modulation –Symbol rate /baud rate/modulation rate is the
number of symbol / signalling changes during transmission per time
unit .it is measured in baud(Bd)/symbol per second
• Rate modulation in congestion: Congestion occurs when the number
of packets being transmitted through the network approaches the
packet handling capacity of the network. Whenever there is a
timeout, TCP assumes congestion in the network and starts to reduce
its sending rate.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Protocols: 2G, 3G, 4G, WiFi.
• Protocols –
Cellular technology refers to having many small interconnected transmitters as
opposed to a single big one, and uses multiplexing(multiple access) to send
information. Various multiplexing options available to communication channel
are:
1.Frequency Division Multiple Access(FDMA): Available bandwidth is divided into
frequency bands. Each user is assigned a different frequency from the complete
spectrum.
2.Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA): The station share the bandwidth of the
channel in time. A single radio frequency is divided into multiple slots and each
slot is assigned to a different user. So multiple users can be supported
simultaneously.
3.Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA): Here several users share the same
frequency spectrum simultaneously. They are differentiated by assigning unique
codes to them.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Simply, the "G" stands for "GENERATION" . While you connected to
internet, the speed of your internet is depends upon the signal
strength that has been shown in alphabets like 2G, 3G, 4G etc. right
next to the signal bar on your home screen.
1G: Voice Only
•Remember analog phones back in the day? Cell phones began with
1G technology in the 1980s. 1G is the first generation of wireless
cellular technology. 1G supports voice only calls.
•1G is analog technology, and the phones using it had poor battery
life and voice quality, little security, and were prone to dropped calls.
•The maximum speed of 1G technology is 2.4 Kbps.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• 2G: SMS and MMS
• Cell phones received their first major upgrade when their technology
went from 1G to 2G. This leap took place in Finland in 1991
on GSM networks and effectively took cell phones from analog to
digital communications.
• The 2G telephone technology introduced call and text encryption,
along with data services such as SMS, picture messages, and MMS.
• Although 2G replaced 1G and is superseded by later technology
versions, it's still used around the world.
• The maximum speed of 2G with General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
is 50 Kbps. The speed is 1 Mbps with Enhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution (EDGE).

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• 3G: More Data, Video Calling, and Mobile Internet
• The introduction of 3G networks in 1998 ushered in faster data-
transmission speeds, so you could use your cell phone in more data-
demanding ways such as for video calling and mobile internet access.
The term "mobile broadband" was first applied to 3G cellular
technology.
• Like 2G, 3G evolved into the much faster 3.5G and 3.75G as more
features were introduced to bring about 4G.
• The maximum speed of 3G is estimated to be around 2 Mbps for non-
moving devices and 384 Kbps in moving vehicles.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• 4G: The Current Standard
• The fourth generation of networking, which was released in 2008, is
4G. It supports mobile web access like 3G does and also gaming
services, HD mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D TV, and other
features that demand high speeds.
• The max speed of a 4G network when the device is moving is 100
Mbps. The speed is 1 Gbps for low-mobility communication such as
when the caller is stationary or walking.
• Most current cell phone models support both 4G and 3G
technologies.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Wi-Fi
WiFi is a technology for wireless local area networking with devices
based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Devices that can use Wi-Fi
Technology include PC, smart phones and tablets etc. Wifi compatible
devices can connect to the internet via a WLAN and a wireless access
point.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
What makes a protocol have a higher bandwidth
A number of factors are responsible for a protocol to have a higher
bandwidth:
1.With the digitization of the signal over generations of mobile
communications, data traffic already exceeds voice traffic and is
growing exponentially.
2.The telephone, computer and entertainment industries have all gone
digital and have almost converged into one. Smartphones nowadays
act as a telephone, music and video player, gaming etc and more, with
all worldwide wireless connectivity to the internet at high band.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Basic Network Tools
The network tools/commands are primarily used:
a.For network configuration
b.For network troubleshooting
c.To identify network status
d.To identify users
e.Following are the commonly used network tools:
1.Traceroute: It is a network diagnostic tool to track the pathway taken by a packet
on an IP network from source to destination.
Ex> c:\>tracert google.com
2. Ping: Ping command is a command prompt command used to test the ability of
the source computer to reach a specified destination computer.
Ex c:\>ping 192.168.1.1 -t

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


3. ipconfig: It is an extensively used networking troubleshooting
command. It is often used to display the basic networking
information(addresses etc.) on a given computer but can do much
more than that. It can release and renew IP addresses for any adapter,
it can refresh DHCP leases for dynamic adapters it can also flush the
DNS cache, and much more.
If you type ipconfig/? At command prompt you will see a list of the
ipconfig parameters and their use.
4. nslookup: (name server lookup) is a network utility program used to
obtain information about internet servers. It finds name server
information for domains by querying the Domain Name System.
Type nslookup IP address

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


5. Whois: It is a query and response protocol that is widely used for
querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an
internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address block, or an
autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other
information.
•Running Whois on Windows
•Download and install whois software. Windows does not come with
whois by default.
6.Speed Test:

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


OSI Model
• OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model for how
applications communicate over a network.
• OSI Model is:
• i) logical models.
• ii) define standards for networking.
• iii)divide the network communication process in Seven layers.
• In this architecture, each layer serves the layer above it and, in turn,
is served by the layer below it. So, in a given message between users,
there will be a flow of data down through the layers in the source
computer, across the network, and then up through the layers in the
receiving computer. Only the application layer, at the top of the
stack, doesn’t provide services to a higher-level layer.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Function of Layers of OSI Model

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Application Layer
• Application Layer is the top most layer of OSI(Open System
Interconnection) which is responsible for generating and receiving
data that can be transported on the network.
• Manipulation of data in various ways is done in this layer which
enables a user to get access to the network.
• Some service provided by this layer include e-mail, transferring files,
directory services, network resources etc.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


HTTP
• HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. Communication
between client computers and web servers is done by sending HTTP
Requests and receiving HTTP Responses.
• HTTP is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web and
this protocol defines how messages are formatted and transmitted,
and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response
to various commands.
• For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually
sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and
transmit the requested Web page. The other main standard that
controls how the World Wide Web works is HTML, which covers how
Web pages are formatted and displayed.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


E-mail System
E-mail system comprises of the following three components:
i) Mailer
ii) Mail Server
iii) Mailbox
• Mailer
It is also called mail program, mail application or mail client. It allows us to
manage, read and compose e-mail.
• Mail Server
The function of mail server is to receive, store and deliver the email. It is must for
mail servers to be Running all the time because if it crashes or is down, email can
be lost.
• Mailboxes
Mailbox is generally a folder that contains emails and information about them.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Following example will take you through the basic steps involved in sending and receiving emails :
Suppose person A wants to send an email message to person B.
• Person A composes the messages using a mailer program i.e. mail client and then select Send option.
• The message is routed to Simple Mail Transfer Protocol to person B’s mail server.
• The mail server stores the email message on disk in an area designated for person B.
• Now, suppose person B is running a POP client and knows how to communicate with B’s mail server.
• It will periodically poll the POP server to check if any new email has arrived for B.As in this case, person B
has sent an email for person B, so email is forwarded over the network to B’s PC. This is message is now
stored on person B’s PC.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


HTTPS
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is used for secure communication over a computer
network, and is widely used on the Internet. In HTTPS, the communication
protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS).
• The principal motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the accessed website and
protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit. It
protects against man-in-the-middle attacks. The bidirectional encryption of
communications between a client and server protects
against eavesdropping and tampering of the communication
• Historically, HTTPS connections were primarily used for payment transactions on
the World Wide Web, e-mail and for sensitive transactions in corporate
information systems. Since 2018, HTTPS is used more often by web users than
the original non-secure HTTP, primarily to protect page authenticity on all types
of websites; secure accounts; and keep user communications, identity, and web
browsing private.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Network Applications
• Remote Desktop:Remote desktop is a program or an operating
system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in
another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as
if it were local.
People use remote desktop access capabilities to do a variety of things,
including the following:
• Access a workplace computer from home or when travelling.
• Access a home computer from other locations.
• Fix a computer problem.
• Perform administrative tasks.
• Demonstrate something, such as a process or a software application

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• Remote desktop protocols
A remote desktop connection relies upon any of a number of protocols, including
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), virtual network computing (VNC), NX technology
and Independent Computing Architecture (ICA).
• Remote desktop access software
• Remote desktop access software exists for most operating systems and
platforms, including hand-held computing devices. Microsoft and Apple each
have a product called "Remote Desktop." Other remote desktop products
include Citrix XenApp, CrossLoop, Jaadu (for the iPhone and iPod Touch),
GoToMyPC, pcAnywhere and Chicken of the VNC.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for
transmitting files between computers on the Internet
over TCP/IP connections. FTP is a client-server protocol where a client
will ask for a file, and a local or remote server will provide it.
How FTP works
• FTP is a client-server protocol that relies on two communications
channels between client and server: a command channel for
controlling the conversation and a data channel for transmitting file
content. Clients initiate conversations with servers by requesting to
download a file.
• Using FTP, a client can upload, download, delete, rename, move and
copy files on a server. A user typically needs to log on to the FTP
server, although some servers make some or all of their content
available without login, known as anonymous FTP.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Session Control Protocol (SCP)
• Several heavily used Internet applications such as FTP, GOPHER, and
HTTP use a protocol model in which every transaction requires a
separate TCP connection. Since clients normally issue multiple
requests to the same server, this model is quite inefficient, as it
incurs all the connection start up costs for every single request.
• SCP is a simple protocol which lets a server and client have multiple
conversations over a single TCP connection. The protocol is designed
to be simple to implement, and is modelled after TCP.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Secure Shell (SSH)
• Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network
services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include
remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network
service can be secured with SSH.
• SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–
server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server. The
protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as
SSH-1 and SSH-2. The standard TCP port for SSH is 22. SSH is generally used to
access Unix-like operating systems, but it can also be used on Microsoft
Windows. Windows 10 uses OpenSSH as its default SSH client.
• SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and
for unsecured remote shell protocols. The encryption used by SSH is intended to
provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as
the Internet.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
POP (Post Office Protocol )
• POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is the most recent version of a standard
protocol for receiving e-mail. POP3 is a client/server protocol in
which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server.
• POP3 is designed to delete mail on the server as soon as the user has
downloaded it. However, some implementations allow users or an
administrator to specify that mail be saved for some period of time.
POP can be thought of as a "store-and-forward" service.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
• MAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard
email protocol that stores email messages on a mail server, but
allows the end user to view and manipulate the messages as though
they were stored locally on the end user's computing device(s). This
allows users to organize messages into folders, have multiple client
applications know which messages have been read, flag messages for
urgency or follow-up and save draft messages on the server.
• IMAP can be contrasted with another client/server email protocol,
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3). With POP3, mail is saved for the end
user in a single mailbox on the server and moved to the end user's
device when the mail client opens. While POP3 can be thought of as a
"store-and-forward" service, IMAP can be thought of as a remote file
server.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
• SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and
receiving e-mail. However, since it is limited in its ability to queue messages at
the receiving end, it is usually used with one of two other protocols, POP3 (Post
Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol), that let the user
save messages in a server mailbox and download them periodically from the
server.
• In other words, users typically use a program that uses SMTP for sending e-mail
and either POP3 or IMAP for receiving e-mail.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
• Stands for "Voice Over Internet Protocol," and is often pronounced
"voip." VoIP is basically a telephone connection over the Internet. The
data is sent digitally, using the Internet Protocol (IP) instead of analog
telephone lines. This allows people to talk to one another long-
distance and around the world without having to pay long distance or
international phone charges.
• Because VoIP information is packetized and individual packets may
take different paths over the internet, VoIP technology makes use of
compression and encoding technology to make sure that packets are
correctly ordered when they reach the recipient; otherwise, the
transmission would be garbled.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj
Near-field communication (NFC)
• Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication
protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a
portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by
bringing them within 4 cm (11⁄2 in) of each other.
• NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to
those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smart cards and
allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems. This
is sometimes referred to as NFC/CTLS (contactless) or CTLS NFC.
• NFC is used for social networking, for sharing contacts, photos, videos
or files.NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity
documents and keycards.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


• Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-
range wireless connectivity standard that uses magnetic
field induction to enable communication between devices when
they're touched together, or brought within a few centimeters of
each other. Jointly developed by Philips and Sony, the standard
specifies a way for the devices to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P)
network to exchange data. Here are some examples of how NFC can
be used:
• You could take pictures with a cell phone with a built in camera, and
touch an enabled computer or television set to transmit the images
for display;
• In conjunction with another wireless technology, you could transfer
large files between two devices, such as a laptop and a desktop,
simply by touching the two together.

Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj


Amit Kumar Pandey, PGT-CS, KV Aliganj