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-Pilipinas kong mahal

Radical?
or
 The influx of liberal ideas (from
abroad)
 The Spanish Revolution (1868)
 The opening of the Suez Canal (1869)
 THE MARTYRDOM OF FATHERS
GOMEZ, BURGOS AND ZAMORA
-peaceful crusade or campaign for
reforms.

 It was organized and participated by


the illustrados.
 Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar
and Graciano Lopez Jaena are the
leaders of the said movement.
 It began in 1872, when Fathers Mariano
Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora
were executed at the Luneta.
 The Filipino exiles of 1872 and many
patriotic students abroad met in Hong
Kong, Singapore, Barcelona, Madrid, Paris,
London and other foreign cities.
 Work of promoting the welfare and
happiness of the fatherland.

Aggressively but peacefully, by means


of writing and speeches, they crusaded
for reforms to rectify the evils of the
Spanish colonial system.
1) Equality of the Filipinos and
Spaniards before the laws.
2) Assimilation of the
Philippines as a regular
province of Spain.
3) Restoration of the Philippine
representation in the Spanish
Cortes.
4) Filipinization of the
Philippine parishes and
expulsion of the friars.
5) Human rights for Filipinos,
such as freedom of speech,
freedom of the press, and
freedom to meet and petition
for redress of grievances.
 They were scions of good
families, highly
intelligent, educated, patriotic, and
courageous, who symbolized the flower
of Filipino manhood.
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Jose Rizal
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Mariano Ponce
Other Propagandists…
Juan Luna
and The masters of brush.
Felix Hidalgo

Pedro Paterno
A lawyer and man of letters

Antonio Luna Pharmacist and essayist


Teacher-tutor of Prince
Alfonso de Bourbon (later
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
King Alfonso XIII of
Spain)
Linguist and essasyist
Jose Ma. Panganiban

Fernando Canon Engineer and musician

Jose Alejandrino An engineer and a political


writer

Isabelo delos Reyes Folklorist, newspaperman


and a scholar

Dominador Gomez Physician, orator


Foreigners who were lovers of
freedom and justice.
supported the Filipinos’ campaign
for reforms
 Austrian professor,
scholar
 Dr.Rizal’s bestfriend
Ferdinand Blumentritt  Praised Noli and Fili and
wrote a “Prologue” to
Rizal’s annotated edition of
Morga’s Sucesos de las
Islas Filipinas (Paris, 1890)
 One of the liberal
Don Juan Atayde
Spaniards who aided
Filipino propagandis
Founded the Circulo Hispano-
Filipino in September 1882 (a
civic association of Spaniards and Filipinos
… in Madrid)
 Published the newspaper
Revisa del Circulo Hispano-
Filipino
 Statesman, historian and
journalist
Miguel Morayta  Rizal’s professor at the
Central University of Madrid
Former president of the
Francisco Pi y Margall
First Spanish Republic

A journalist
Emilio Junoy
Member of the Cortes

 Parliamentarian
Manuel Ruiz Zorilla  Leader of the Spanish
Republican Party
 “Ninay,” the first Filipino
novel (Madrid, 1885)
Dr. Pedro A. Paterno  a volume of melodious
• doctor of laws poems, “Sampaguitas”
• man of letters (Madrid, 1880)
 “La Antigua Civilizacion
Tagalog,” a historical book
(Madrid, 1887)

Gregorio Sanciangco
• economist “El Progreso de Filipinas,”
• also a doctor of laws authored a book (Madri, 1881)
 And a treatise on colonial
... economics and politics in the
Philippines.

Marcelo H. del Pilar  “Dasalan at Tuksohan”


• lawyer and journalist  “La Soberania Monacal en
• excelled as a political Filipinas”
pamphleteer
 “La Frailocracia”
 “Fray Botod”-(Fat Friar- he
ridiculed the friars who became
very fat for eating too much and
living in luxury at the expense of
poor Filipinos, whom they
abuse.)
Graciano Lopez Jaena
 “En Tinielas”-(In Utter
Darkness, his article in La
Solidaridad; he lambasted the
biased Spanish writersfor their
absurdities.
 “Impressiones” -(a collection
Antonio Luna of essays describing the customs of the
Spaniards in Madrid)

 “La Universidad de
Filipinas: Plan de Estudios,”
Jose Ma. Panganiban -a critical essay in La Solidaridad
which exposed the defects of the
church-dominated education in the
Philippines.

Isabelo delos Reyes  “El Folk-Lore Filipino” (1887)


• folklorist & historian  “Historia de Ilocos (2 volumes;
on 1890)
Mariano Ponce  “Celebres Filipinos”
• biographer

 “Noli Me Tangere”
 “El Filibusterismo”
Dr. Rizal  “La Vision del Frey
• greatest writer of the Rodriguez” (1889) –exposed the
Propaganda Movement stupidities of Fr. Rodriguez
 “Por Telefono” (1891) –about
Fr. Salavador Font
 Many Filipino patriots became
masons (del Pilar, Jaena, Rizal, Ponce)
because they needed the help of the
masons in Spain and in other foreign
countries for their fight for reforms.
1st Filipino Masonic lodge
founded by Jaena in Barcelona
- recognized on April 1889 by
Grande Oriental Español headed by Don
Miguel Morayta
- died out on Nov. 29, 1890
after Lopez Jaena resigned as worshipful
master.
organized by M.H. del
Pilar and Julio Llorante in Madrid
- recognized on May 1890 by
Grande Oriental Español
- Llorante (Worshipful Master)
- prospered so it was joined in
by other Filipinos (Rizal, Pedro Serrano
Baldomero Roxas, Galicano Apacible, etc.)
1st Filipino Masonic lodge
- founded by Serrano Laktaw in
Manila on January 6, 1892.

☻Filipino Masonic lodges in Spain and in


Philippines raised the needed funds to
finance the campaign for reforms in Spain.
(Hispano-Philippine Association)
• Purpose: secure reforms for the
Philippines
• President: Don Miguel Morayta
• V-president: Gen. Felipe dela Corte
• Secretary: Dominador Gomez
• Members: all Filipinos in
Europe, prominent scholars, statesmen
of other nationalities.
(Hispano-Philippine Association)

3 Sections:
1.) Political Section (M.H. del Pilar)
2.) Literary Section (M. Ponce)
3.) Recreation Section (Tomas Arejola)
(Hispano-Philippine Association)

☻ The members met once a month to


discuss Philippine-Spanish questions.
☻ They drew up petitions and passed
resolutions.
(Philippine League)
- a Filipino civic association
 founded by Jose Rizal on July 3, 1892 in
a house at Ilaya St., Tondo

 its constitution was written by Jose


Rizal, helped by Jose Ma. Basa
(Philippine League)

“Unus Instar Omnium”

“One Like All”

* motto *
(Philippine League)
Aims:
1. Union of the Archipelago into a
compact, vigorous, and homogeneous
body.
2. Mutual protection in all cases of
pressing necessity.
. . .
(Philippine League)
. . .
3. Defense against all violence and
injustice.
4. Encouragement of education,
agriculture, and commerce.
5. Study and application of reforms.
(Philippine League)
☻ President: Ambrosio Salvador
☻ Fiscal: Agustin dela Rosa
☻ Treasurer: Bonifacio Arevalo
☻ Secretary: Deodato Arellano
(Philippine League)
Members:
☺ Andress Bonifacio
☺ Apolinario Mabini
☺ Mamerto Natividad
☺ Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
☺ Moises Salvador
. . .
(Philippine League)
. . .
☺ Jose A. Dizon
☺ Domingo Franco
☺ Timoteo Paez
☺ Arcadio del Rosario
☺ Numeriano Andriano
☺ Timoteo Lanuza
(Philippine League)
 However, three days after the founding
of Liga Filipina, Rizal was arrested by
order of Governor General Despujol
 On July 6, 1892, Rizal was exiled to
Dapitan-known to be the Liga Filipina’s
collapse.
 Rizal’s arrest to Dapitan marks the
end of the Propaganda movement.
 Radical members like Andres Bonifacio
separated from the movement, believing
that it was useless to expect reforms from
the Spaniards.
Los Compromisarios
- a group organized in purpose of
prolonging the movement
* Each member promised to
contribute financially to aid the Propaganda
movement in Spain.
(…Los Compromisarios)
-among the active members were:
• Apolinario Mabini
• Domingo Franco
• Numeriano Andriano
• Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
• Timoteo Paez (..etc...)
(…Los Compromisarios)
- For some months, the
Compromisarios sent funds to M.H. del
Pilar in Madrid for the continued printing
of La Solidaridad.
- Later, many members stopped
paying their contributions so that the flow
of funds to Spain ceased.
(…Los Compromisarios)
- For some months, the
Compromisarios sent funds to M.H. del
Pilar in Madrid for the continued printing
of La Solidaridad.
- Later, many members stopped
paying their contributions so that the flow
of funds to Spain ceased.
 For lack of funds, La Solidaridad died
out after its last issue on November 15,
1895.

 With the demise of the La


Solidaridad, the Propaganda
Movement consequently ended.
 The Propaganda Movement failed,but
the ideas of freedom and justice which it
sowed paved the ground for the
Philippine Revolution that the
Katipunan and Andres Bonifacio began
in the hills of Balintawak in August 1896.
Mr. Armando Delfino
-Instructor
(SSC102C-SE
Philippine History)

Prepared by:
Rebecca B. Borromeo
BSE-2 Eng

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